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Sample records for repetitive neuronal firing

  1. Inducing repetitive action potential firing in neurons via synthesized photoresponsive nanoscale cellular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2013-02-01

    Recently we reported an analysis that examined the potential of synthesized photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons. Here we extend the analysis to delineate the requirements on the electronic energy levels and the attendant photophysical properties of the PVFANs to induce repetitive action potential under continuous light, a capability essential for the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses to compensate for loss of photoreceptors. We find that repetitive action potential firing demands two basic characteristics in the electronic response of the PVFANs: an exponential dependence of the PVFAN excited state decay rate on the membrane potential and a three-state system such that, following photon absorption, the electron decay from the excited state to the ground state is via intermediate state(s) whose lifetime is comparable to the refractory time following an action potential. In this study, the potential of synthetic photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) is examined under continuous light to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons with the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the juvenile rat contains transient- and repetitive-firing neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Rekling, J C

    2006-01-01

    Classically, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is described as containing neurons controlling accommodation and pupillary constriction via projections to the ciliary ganglion. However, in several species including rat, some Edinger-Westphal neurons have ascending or descending CNS projections suggesting...... an immunohistochemical procedure directed at the peptide Urocortin, which is expressed in Edinger-Westphal neurons. Passive and active membrane responses were investigated and two different neuron types were identified. One type had a transient firing response to 400 ms depolarizing current pulses and one type had...... threshold Ca(2+) spikes were seen and these were blocked by nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, suggesting that they are mediated via low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Some biocytin-labeled neurons had axons or axonal collaterals projecting laterally or dorsally, suggesting possible non-ocular targets...

  3. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

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    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical behaviour of the firing in coupled neuronal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wang; Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1993-03-01

    The time interval sequences and the spatio-temporal patterns of the firings of a coupled neuronal network are investigated in this paper. For a single neuron stimulated by an external stimulus I, the time interval sequences show a low frequency firing of bursts of spikes, and reversed period-doubling cascade to a high frequency repetitive firing state as the stimulus I is increased. For two neurons coupled to each other through the firing of the spikes, the complexity of the time interval sequences becomes simple as the coupling strength increases. A network with large numbers of neurons shows a complex spatio-temporal pattern structure. As the coupling strength increases, the numbers of phase locked neurons increase and the time interval diagram shows temporal chaos and a bifurcation in the space. The dynamical behaviour is also verified by the Lyapunov exponent. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs

  5. Firing dynamics of an autaptic neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Heng-Tong; Chen Yong

    2015-01-01

    Autapses are synapses that connect a neuron to itself in the nervous system. Previously, both experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that autaptic connections in the nervous system have a significant physiological function. Autapses in nature provide self-delayed feedback, thus introducing an additional timescale to neuronal activities and causing many dynamic behaviors in neurons. Recently, theoretical studies have revealed that an autapse provides a control option for adjusting the response of a neuron: e.g., an autaptic connection can cause the electrical activities of the Hindmarsh–Rose neuron to switch between quiescent, periodic, and chaotic firing patterns; an autapse can enhance or suppress the mode-locking status of a neuron injected with sinusoidal current; and the firing frequency and interspike interval distributions of the response spike train can also be modified by the autapse. In this paper, we review recent studies that showed how an autapse affects the response of a single neuron. (topical review)

  6. Shal/K(v4 channels are required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing and normal locomotion in Drosophila.

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    Yong Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic behaviors, such as walking and breathing, involve the coordinated activity of central pattern generators in the CNS, sensory feedback from the PNS, to motoneuron output to muscles. Unraveling the intrinsic electrical properties of these cellular components is essential to understanding this coordinated activity. Here, we examine the significance of the transient A-type K(+ current (I(A, encoded by the highly conserved Shal/K(v4 gene, in neuronal firing patterns and repetitive behaviors. While I(A is present in nearly all neurons across species, elimination of I(A has been complicated in mammals because of multiple genes underlying I(A, and/or electrical remodeling that occurs in response to affecting one gene.In Drosophila, the single Shal/K(v4 gene encodes the predominant I(A current in many neuronal cell bodies. Using a transgenically expressed dominant-negative subunit (DNK(v4, we show that I(A is completely eliminated from cell bodies, with no effect on other currents. Most notably, DNK(v4 neurons display multiple defects during prolonged stimuli. DNK(v4 neurons display shortened latency to firing, a lower threshold for repetitive firing, and a progressive decrement in AP amplitude to an adapted state. We record from identified motoneurons and show that Shal/K(v4 channels are similarly required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing. We then examine larval crawling, and adult climbing and grooming, all behaviors that rely on repetitive firing. We show that all are defective in the absence of Shal/K(v4 function. Further, knock-out of Shal/K(v4 function specifically in motoneurons significantly affects the locomotion behaviors tested.Based on our results, Shal/K(v4 channels regulate the initiation of firing, enable neurons to continuously fire throughout a prolonged stimulus, and also influence firing frequency. This study shows that Shal/K(v4 channels play a key role in repetitively firing neurons during prolonged

  7. Weak noise in neurons may powerfully inhibit the generation of repetitive spiking but not its propagation.

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    Henry C Tuckwell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurons have epochs in which they fire action potentials in an approximately periodic fashion. To see what effects noise of relatively small amplitude has on such repetitive activity we recently examined the response of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH space-clamped system to such noise as the mean and variance of the applied current vary, near the bifurcation to periodic firing. This article is concerned with a more realistic neuron model which includes spatial extent. Employing the Hodgkin-Huxley partial differential equation system, the deterministic component of the input current is restricted to a small segment whereas the stochastic component extends over a region which may or may not overlap the deterministic component. For mean values below, near and above the critical values for repetitive spiking, the effects of weak noise of increasing strength is ascertained by simulation. As in the point model, small amplitude noise near the critical value dampens the spiking activity and leads to a minimum as noise level increases. This was the case for both additive noise and conductance-based noise. Uniform noise along the whole neuron is only marginally more effective in silencing the cell than noise which occurs near the region of excitation. In fact it is found that if signal and noise overlap in spatial extent, then weak noise may inhibit spiking. If, however, signal and noise are applied on disjoint intervals, then the noise has no effect on the spiking activity, no matter how large its region of application, though the trajectories are naturally altered slightly by noise. Such effects could not be discerned in a point model and are important for real neuron behavior. Interference with the spike train does nevertheless occur when the noise amplitude is larger, even when noise and signal do not overlap, being due to the instigation of secondary noise-induced wave phenomena rather than switching the system from one attractor (firing regularly to

  8. Firing probability and mean firing rates of human muscle vasoconstrictor neurones are elevated during chronic asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Cynthia; Burton, Danielle; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B

    2010-01-01

    in the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an increase in firing probability and mean firing rate, and an increase in multiple within-burst firing. Here we characterize the firing properties of muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who...... are chronically asphyxic. We tested the hypothesis that this elevated chemical drive would shift the firing pattern from that seen in healthy subjects to that seen in OSAS. The mean firing probability (52%) and mean firing rate (0.92 Hz) of 17 muscle vasoconstrictor neurones recorded in COPD were comparable...

  9. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  10. Pattern formation and firing synchronization in networks of map neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyun; Duan Zhisheng; Huang Lin; Chen Guanrong; Lu Qishao

    2007-01-01

    Patterns and collective phenomena such as firing synchronization are studied in networks of nonhomogeneous oscillatory neurons and mixtures of oscillatory and excitable neurons, with dynamics of each neuron described by a two-dimensional (2D) Rulkov map neuron. It is shown that as the coupling strength is increased, typical patterns emerge spatially, which propagate through the networks in the form of beautiful target waves or parallel ones depending on the size of networks. Furthermore, we investigate the transitions of firing synchronization characterized by the rate of firing when the coupling strength is increased. It is found that there exists an intermediate coupling strength; firing synchronization is minimal simultaneously irrespective of the size of networks. For further increasing the coupling strength, synchronization is enhanced. Since noise is inevitable in real neurons, we also investigate the effects of white noise on firing synchronization for different networks. For the networks of oscillatory neurons, it is shown that firing synchronization decreases when the noise level increases. For the missed networks, firing synchronization is robust under the noise conditions considered in this paper. Results presented in this paper should prove to be valuable for understanding the properties of collective dynamics in real neuronal networks

  11. Noise adaptation in integrate-and fire neurons.

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    Rudd, M E; Brown, L G

    1997-07-01

    The statistical spiking response of an ensemble of identically prepared stochastic integrate-and-fire neurons to a rectangular input current plus gaussian white noise is analyzed. It is shown that, on average, integrate-and-fire neurons adapt to the root-mean-square noise level of their input. This phenomenon is referred to as noise adaptation. Noise adaptation is characterized by a decrease in the average neural firing rate and an accompanying decrease in the average value of the generator potential, both of which can be attributed to noise-induced resets of the generator potential mediated by the integrate-and-fire mechanism. A quantitative theory of noise adaptation in stochastic integrate-and-fire neurons is developed. It is shown that integrate-and-fire neurons, on average, produce transient spiking activity whenever there is an increase in the level of their input noise. This transient noise response is either reduced or eliminated over time, depending on the parameters of the model neuron. Analytical methods are used to prove that nonleaky integrate-and-fire neurons totally adapt to any constant input noise level, in the sense that their asymptotic spiking rates are independent of the magnitude of their input noise. For leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, the long-run noise adaptation is not total, but the response to noise is partially eliminated. Expressions for the probability density function of the generator potential and the first two moments of the potential distribution are derived for the particular case of a nonleaky neuron driven by gaussian white noise of mean zero and constant variance. The functional significance of noise adaptation for the performance of networks comprising integrate-and-fire neurons is discussed.

  12. TETRAMETHRIN AND DDT INHIBIT SPONTANEOUS FIRING IN CORTICAL NEURONAL NETWORKS

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    The insecticidal and neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids result from prolonged sodium channel inactivation, which causes alterations in neuronal firing and communication. Previously, we determined the relative potencies of 11 type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides using microel...

  13. Connectivities and synchronous firing in cortical neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, L.C.; Sano, M.; Lai, P.-Y.; Chan, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    Network connectivities (k-bar) of cortical neural cultures are studied by synchronized firing and determined from measured correlations between fluorescence intensities of firing neurons. The bursting frequency (f) during synchronized firing of the networks is found to be an increasing function of k-bar. With f taken to be proportional to k-bar, a simple random model with a k-bar dependent connection probability p(k-bar) has been constructed to explain our experimental findings successfully

  14. Contribution of synchronized GABAergic neurons to dopaminergic neuron firing and bursting.

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    Morozova, Ekaterina O; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Zakharov, Denis; di Volo, Matteo; Gutkin, Boris; Lapish, Christopher C; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), interactions between dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are critical for regulating DA neuron activity and thus DA efflux. To provide a mechanistic explanation of how GABA neurons influence DA neuron firing, we developed a circuit model of the VTA. The model is based on feed-forward inhibition and recreates canonical features of the VTA neurons. Simulations revealed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAR) stimulation can differentially influence the firing pattern of the DA neuron, depending on the level of synchronization among GABA neurons. Asynchronous activity of GABA neurons provides a constant level of inhibition to the DA neuron and, when removed, produces a classical disinhibition burst. In contrast, when GABA neurons are synchronized by common synaptic input, their influence evokes additional spikes in the DA neuron, resulting in increased measures of firing and bursting. Distinct from previous mechanisms, the increases were not based on lowered firing rate of the GABA neurons or weaker hyperpolarization by the GABAR synaptic current. This phenomenon was induced by GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the DA neuron that leads to decreases in intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration, thus reducing the Ca 2+ -dependent potassium (K + ) current. In this way, the GABA-mediated hyperpolarization replaces Ca 2+ -dependent K + current; however, this inhibition is pulsatile, which allows the DA neuron to fire during the rhythmic pauses in inhibition. Our results emphasize the importance of inhibition in the VTA, which has been discussed in many studies, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby computations can occur locally. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Kv2 Channel Regulation of Action Potential Repolarization and Firing Patterns in Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons and Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

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    Liu, Pin W.

    2014-01-01

    Kv2 family “delayed-rectifier” potassium channels are widely expressed in mammalian neurons. Kv2 channels activate relatively slowly and their contribution to action potential repolarization under physiological conditions has been unclear. We explored the function of Kv2 channels using a Kv2-selective blocker, Guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX-1E). Using acutely isolated neurons, mixed voltage-clamp and current-clamp experiments were done at 37°C to study the physiological kinetics of channel gating and action potentials. In both rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E produced near-saturating block of a component of current typically constituting ∼60–80% of the total delayed-rectifier current. GxTX-1E also reduced A-type potassium current (IA), but much more weakly. In SCG neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes and voltage clamp experiments using action potential waveforms showed that Kv2 channels carry ∼55% of the total outward current during action potential repolarization despite activating relatively late in the spike. In CA1 neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes evoked from −70 mV, but not −80 mV, likely reflecting a greater role of Kv2 when other potassium channels were partially inactivated at −70 mV. In both CA1 and SCG neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels produced dramatic depolarization of interspike voltages during repetitive firing. In CA1 neurons and some SCG neurons, this was associated with increased initial firing frequency. In all neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels depressed maintained firing because neurons entered depolarization block more readily. Therefore, Kv2 channels can either decrease or increase neuronal excitability depending on the time scale of excitation. PMID:24695716

  16. A hidden Markov model approach to neuron firing patterns.

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    Camproux, A C; Saunier, F; Chouvet, G; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1996-11-01

    Analysis and characterization of neuronal discharge patterns are of interest to neurophysiologists and neuropharmacologists. In this paper we present a hidden Markov model approach to modeling single neuron electrical activity. Basically the model assumes that each interspike interval corresponds to one of several possible states of the neuron. Fitting the model to experimental series of interspike intervals by maximum likelihood allows estimation of the number of possible underlying neuron states, the probability density functions of interspike intervals corresponding to each state, and the transition probabilities between states. We present an application to the analysis of recordings of a locus coeruleus neuron under three pharmacological conditions. The model distinguishes two states during halothane anesthesia and during recovery from halothane anesthesia, and four states after administration of clonidine. The transition probabilities yield additional insights into the mechanisms of neuron firing.

  17. Integrate-and-fire neurons driven by asymmetric dichotomous noise.

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    Droste, Felix; Lindner, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    We consider a general integrate-and-fire (IF) neuron driven by asymmetric dichotomous noise. In contrast to the Gaussian white noise usually used in the so-called diffusion approximation, this noise is colored, i.e., it exhibits temporal correlations. We give an analytical expression for the stationary voltage distribution of a neuron receiving such noise and derive recursive relations for the moments of the first passage time density, which allow us to calculate the firing rate and the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals. We study how correlations in the input affect the rate and regularity of firing under variation of the model's parameters for leaky and quadratic IF neurons. Further, we consider the limit of small correlation times and find lowest order corrections to the first passage time moments to be proportional to the square root of the correlation time. We show analytically that to this lowest order, correlations always lead to a decrease in firing rate for a leaky IF neuron. All theoretical expressions are compared to simulations of leaky and quadratic IF neurons.

  18. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials

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    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl− and KATP K+ ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450–1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above −20 mV. PMID:25128573

  19. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

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    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  20. Three-dimensional rail cooling analysis for a repetitively fired railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3-D) rail cooling analysis for fabrication and demonstration of a stand-alone repetitive fire compulsator driven 9 MJ gun system which has been performed to assure the entire rail can be maintained below its thermal limit for multiple shots. The 3-D rail thermal model can predict the temperature, pressure, and convective heat transfer coefficient variations of the coolant along the 10 m long copper rail. The 9-MJ projectiles will be fired every 20 s for 3 min. Water cooling was used in the model for its high cooling capacity. Single liquid phase heat transfer was assumed in the cooling analysis. For multiple shots, the temperature difference between the rail and the water was enhanced due to accumulated heat in the rail. As a result, the heat removal by water increased from shot-to-shot. The rail temperature initially increased and finally stabilized after a number of shots

  1. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

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    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. GABAB-receptor activation alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

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    Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H

    1993-11-01

    Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.

  3. A memristive spiking neuron with firing rate coding

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    Marina eIgnatov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perception, decisions, and sensations are all encoded into trains of action potentials in the brain. The relation between stimulus strength and all-or-nothing spiking of neurons is widely believed to be the basis of this coding. This initiated the development of spiking neuron models; one of today's most powerful conceptual tool for the analysis and emulation of neural dynamics. The success of electronic circuit models and their physical realization within silicon field-effect transistor circuits lead to elegant technical approaches. Recently, the spectrum of electronic devices for neural computing has been extended by memristive devices, mainly used to emulate static synaptic functionality. Their capabilities for emulations of neural activity were recently demonstrated using a memristive neuristor circuit, while a memristive neuron circuit has so far been elusive. Here, a spiking neuron model is experimentally realized in a compact circuit comprising memristive and memcapacitive devices based on the strongly correlated electron material vanadium dioxide (VO2 and on the chemical electromigration cell Ag/TiO2-x/Al. The circuit can emulate dynamical spiking patterns in response to an external stimulus including adaptation, which is at the heart of firing rate coding as first observed by E.D. Adrian in 1926.

  4. Neurons the decision makers, Part I: The firing function of a single neuron.

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    Saaty, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with understanding synthesis of electric signals in the neural system based on making pairwise comparisons. Fundamentally, every person and every animal are born with the talent to compare stimuli from things that share properties in space or over time. Comparisons always need experience to distinguish among things. Pairwise comparisons are numerically reciprocal. If a value is assigned to the larger of two elements that have a given property when compared with the smaller one, then the smaller has the reciprocal of that value when compared with the larger. Because making comparisons requires the reciprocal property, we need mathematics that can cope with division. There are four division algebras that would allow us to use our reciprocals arising from comparisons: The real numbers, the complex numbers, the non-commutative quaternions and the non-associative octonions. Rather than inferring function as from electric flow in a network, in this paper we infer the flow from function. Neurons fire in response to stimuli and their firings vary relative to the intensities of the stimuli. We believe neurons use some kind of pairwise comparison mechanism to determine when to fire based on the stimuli they receive. The ideas we develop here about flows are used to deduce how a system based on this kind of firing determination works and can be described. Furthermore the firing of neurons requires continuous comparisons. To develop a formula describing the output of these pairwise comparisons requires solving Fredholm's equation of the second kind which is satisfied if and only if a simple functional equation has solutions. The Fourier transform of the real solution of this equation leads to inverse square laws like those that are common in physics. The Fourier transform applied to a complex valued solution leads to Dirac type of firings. Such firings are dense in the very general fields of functions known as Sobolev spaces and thus can be used to

  5. [Patterns of action potential firing in cortical neurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological property].

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    Furong, Liu; Shengtian, L I

    2016-05-25

    To investigate patterns of action potential firing in cortical heurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological properties. The passive and active membrane properties of cortical neurons from 3-d neonatal mice were observed by whole-cell patch clamp with different voltage and current mode. Three patterns of action potential firing were identified in response to depolarized current injection. The effects of action potential firing patterns on voltage-dependent inward and outward current were found. Neurons with three different firing patterns had different thresholds of depolarized current. In the morphology analysis of action potential, the three type neurons were different in rise time, duration, amplitude and threshold of the first action potential evoked by 80 pA current injection. The passive properties were similar in three patterns of action potential firing. These results indicate that newborn cortical neurons exhibit different patterns of action potential firing with different action potential parameters such as shape and threshold.

  6. Firing Patterns and Transitions in Coupled Neurons Controlled by a Pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Sheng, Li; Qi-Shao, Lu; Li-Xia, Duan; Qing-Yun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    To reveal the dynamics of neuronal networks with pacemakers, the firing patterns and their transitions are investigated in a ring HR neuronal network with gap junctions under the control of a pacemaker. Compared with the situation without pacemaker, the neurons in the network can exhibit various firing patterns as the external current is applied or the coupling strength of pacemaker varies. The results are beneficial for understanding the complex cooperative behaviour of large neural assemblies with pacemaker control

  7. Codimension-two bifurcation analysis on firing activities in Chay neuron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lixia; Lu Qishao

    2006-01-01

    Using codimension-two bifurcation analysis in the Chay neuron model, the relationship between the electric activities and the parameters of neurons is revealed. The whole parameter space is divided into two parts, that is, the firing and silence regions of neurons. It is found that the transition sets between firing and silence regions are composed of the Hopf bifurcation curves of equilibrium states and the saddle-node bifurcation curves of limit cycles, with some codimension-two bifurcation points. The transitions from silence to firing in neurons are due to the Hopf bifurcation or the fold limit cycle bifurcation, but the codimension-two singularities lead to complexity in dynamical behaviour of neuronal firing

  8. Effects of channel noise on firing coherence of small-world Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X. J.; Lei, J. Z.; Perc, M.; Lu, Q. S.; Lv, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of channel noise on firing coherence of Watts-Strogatz small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic HH neurons having a fraction of blocked voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels embedded in their neuronal membranes. The intensity of channel noise is determined by the number of non-blocked ion channels, which depends on the fraction of working ion channels and the membrane patch size with the assumption of homogeneous ion channel density. We find that firing coherence of the neuronal network can be either enhanced or reduced depending on the source of channel noise. As shown in this paper, sodium channel noise reduces firing coherence of neuronal networks; in contrast, potassium channel noise enhances it. Furthermore, compared with potassium channel noise, sodium channel noise plays a dominant role in affecting firing coherence of the neuronal network. Moreover, we declare that the observed phenomena are independent of the rewiring probability.

  9. Codimension-two bifurcation analysis on firing activities in Chay neuron model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Lixia [School of Science, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu Qishao [School of Science, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: qishaolu@hotmail.com

    2006-12-15

    Using codimension-two bifurcation analysis in the Chay neuron model, the relationship between the electric activities and the parameters of neurons is revealed. The whole parameter space is divided into two parts, that is, the firing and silence regions of neurons. It is found that the transition sets between firing and silence regions are composed of the Hopf bifurcation curves of equilibrium states and the saddle-node bifurcation curves of limit cycles, with some codimension-two bifurcation points. The transitions from silence to firing in neurons are due to the Hopf bifurcation or the fold limit cycle bifurcation, but the codimension-two singularities lead to complexity in dynamical behaviour of neuronal firing.

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  11. The Morris-Lecar neuron model embeds a leaky integrate-and-fire model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Greenwood, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    We showthat the stochastic Morris–Lecar neuron, in a neighborhood of its stable point, can be approximated by a two-dimensional Ornstein Uhlenbeck (OU) modulation of a constant circular motion. The associated radial OU process is an example of a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model prior to firing...

  12. Effects of dendritic load on the firing frequency of oscillating neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Michael A; Lewis, Timothy J

    2011-03-01

    We study the effects of passive dendritic properties on the dynamics of neuronal oscillators. We find that the addition of a passive dendrite can sometimes have counterintuitive effects on firing frequency. Specifically, the addition of a hyperpolarized passive dendritic load can either increase, decrease, or have negligible effects on firing frequency. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase equations for "ball-and-stick" model neurons and two-compartment model neurons. We then develop a framework for understanding how the addition of passive dendrites modulates the frequency of neuronal oscillators. We show that the average value of the neuronal oscillator's phase response curves measures the sensitivity of the neuron's firing rate to the dendritic load, including whether the addition of the dendrite causes an increase or decrease in firing frequency. We interpret this finding in terms of to the slope of the neuronal oscillator's frequency-applied current curve. We also show that equivalent results exist for constant and noisy point-source input to the dendrite. We note that the results are not specific to neurons but are applicable to any oscillator subject to a passive load.

  13. The chronotron: a neuron that learns to fire temporally precise spike patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan V Florian

    Full Text Available In many cases, neurons process information carried by the precise timings of spikes. Here we show how neurons can learn to generate specific temporally precise output spikes in response to input patterns of spikes having precise timings, thus processing and memorizing information that is entirely temporally coded, both as input and as output. We introduce two new supervised learning rules for spiking neurons with temporal coding of information (chronotrons, one that provides high memory capacity (E-learning, and one that has a higher biological plausibility (I-learning. With I-learning, the neuron learns to fire the target spike trains through synaptic changes that are proportional to the synaptic currents at the timings of real and target output spikes. We study these learning rules in computer simulations where we train integrate-and-fire neurons. Both learning rules allow neurons to fire at the desired timings, with sub-millisecond precision. We show how chronotrons can learn to classify their inputs, by firing identical, temporally precise spike trains for different inputs belonging to the same class. When the input is noisy, the classification also leads to noise reduction. We compute lower bounds for the memory capacity of chronotrons and explore the influence of various parameters on chronotrons' performance. The chronotrons can model neurons that encode information in the time of the first spike relative to the onset of salient stimuli or neurons in oscillatory networks that encode information in the phases of spikes relative to the background oscillation. Our results show that firing one spike per cycle optimizes memory capacity in neurons encoding information in the phase of firing relative to a background rhythm.

  14. Intrinsic modulation of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, S.; Lord, G. J.

    1997-11-01

    Intrinsic neuromodulation is observed in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in biological central pattern generators. We model a simple neuronal circuit with a system of two pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons and explore the parameter regimes for periodic firing behavior. The inclusion of biologically realistic features shows that the speed and onset of neuronal response plays a crucial role in determining the firing phase for periodic rhythms. We explore the neurophysiological function of distributed delays arising from both the synaptic transmission process and dendritic structure as well as discrete delays associated with axonal communication delays. Bifurcation and stability diagrams are constructed with a mixture of simple analysis, numerical continuation and the Kuramoto phase-reduction technique. Moreover, we show that, for asynchronous behavior, the strength of electrical synapses can control the firing rate of the system.

  15. Increasing inhibitory input increases neuronal firing rate: why and when? Diffusion process cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jf218@cam.ac.uk; Wei Gang [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail gwei@math.hkbu.edu.hk

    2001-09-21

    Increasing inhibitory input to single neuronal models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model and the Hodgkin-Huxley model, can sometimes increase their firing rates, a phenomenon which we term inhibition-boosted firing (IBF). Here we consider neuronal models with diffusion approximation inputs, i.e. they share the identical first- and second-order statistics of the corresponding Poisson process inputs. Using the integrate-and-fire model and the IF-FHN model, we explore theoretically how and when IBF can happen. For both models, it is shown that there is a critical input frequency at which the efferent firing rate is identical when the neuron receives purely excitatory inputs or exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory inputs. When the input frequency is lower than the critical frequency, IBF occurs. (author)

  16. Rhythmic Firing of Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys during Eye Movement Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Okada

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN has been thought to be involved in the control of behavioral state. Projections to the entire thalamus and reciprocal connections with the basal ganglia nuclei suggest a potential role for the PPTN in the control of various rhythmic behaviors, including waking/sleeping and locomotion. Recently, rhythmic activity in the local field potentials was recorded from the PPTN of patients with Parkinson's disease who were treated with levodopa, suggesting that rhythmic firing is a feature of the functioning PPTN and might change with the behaving conditions even within waking. However, it remains unclear whether and how single PPTN neurons exhibit rhythmic firing patterns during various behaving conditions, including executing conditioned eye movement behaviors, seeking reward, or during resting. We previously recorded from PPTN neurons in healthy monkeys during visually guided saccade tasks and reported task-related changes in firing rate, and in this paper, we reanalyzed these data and focused on their firing patterns. A population of PPTN neurons demonstrated a regular firing pattern in that the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals was lower than what would be expected of theoretical random and irregular spike trains. Furthermore, a group of PPTN neurons exhibited a clear periodic single spike firing that changed with the context of the behavioral task. Many of these neurons exhibited a periodic firing pattern during highly active conditions, either the fixation condition during the saccade task or the free-viewing condition during the intertrial interval. We speculate that these task context-related changes in rhythmic firing of PPTN neurons might regulate the monkey's attentional and vigilance state to perform the task.

  17. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  18. Repetitive low-frequency stimulation reduces epileptiform synchronization in limbic neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, G; Panuccio, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2005-01-01

    Deep-brain electrical or transcranial magnetic stimulation may represent a therapeutic tool for controlling seizures in patients presenting with epileptic disorders resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In keeping with this clinical evidence, we have reported that repetitive electrical stimuli delivered at approximately 1 Hz in mouse hippocampus-entorhinal cortex (EC) slices depress the EC ability to generate ictal activity induced by the application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or Mg(2+)-free medium (Barbarosie, M., Avoli, M., 1997. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J. Neurosci. 17, 9308-9314.). Here, we confirmed a similar control mechanism in rat brain slices analyzed with field potential recordings during 4AP (50 microM) treatment. In addition, we used intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recordings to quantify the intensity and spatial characteristics of this inhibitory influence. IOSs reflect the changes in light transmittance throughout the entire extent of the slice, and are thus reliable markers of limbic network epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that in the presence of 4AP, the IOS increases, induced by a train of electrical stimuli (10 Hz for 1 s) or by recurrent, single-shock stimulation delivered at 0.05 Hz in the deep EC layers, are reduced in intensity and area size by low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive stimulation of the subiculum; these effects were observed in all limbic areas contained in the slice. Second, by testing the effects induced by repetitive subicular stimulation at 0.2-10 Hz, we identified maximal efficacy when repetitive stimuli are delivered at 1 Hz. Finally, we discovered that similar, but slightly less pronounced, inhibitory effects occur when repetitive stimuli at 1 Hz are delivered in the EC, suggesting that the reduction of IOSs seen during repetitive stimulation is pathway dependent as well as activity dependent. Thus, the activation of limbic networks at low frequency

  19. Multifaceted effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neurons: impact on neuronal firing rate, signal transduction and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Kuo, Wen Ping; Frühbeis, Carsten; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J; Pinto, Sheena; Toedling, Joern; Trotter, Jacqueline; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2014-09-26

    Exosomes are small membranous vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by almost every cell type. They exert versatile functions in intercellular communication important for many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, exosomes attracted interest with regard to their role in cell-cell communication in the nervous system. We have shown that exosomes released from oligodendrocytes upon stimulation with the neurotransmitter glutamate are internalized by neurons and enhance the neuronal stress tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that oligodendroglial exosomes also promote neuronal survival during oxygen-glucose deprivation, a model of cerebral ischaemia. We show the transfer from oligodendrocytes to neurons of superoxide dismutase and catalase, enzymes which are known to help cells to resist oxidative stress. Additionally, we identify various effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neuronal physiology. Electrophysiological analysis using in vitro multi-electrode arrays revealed an increased firing rate of neurons exposed to oligodendroglial exosomes. Moreover, gene expression analysis and phosphorylation arrays uncovered differentially expressed genes and altered signal transduction pathways in neurons after exosome treatment. Our study thus provides new insight into the broad spectrum of action of oligodendroglial exosomes and their effects on neuronal physiology. The exchange of extracellular vesicles between neural cells may exhibit remarkable potential to impact brain performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Ketogenic diet metabolites reduce firing in central neurons by opening K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyuan; Berg, Jim; Yellen, Gary

    2007-04-04

    A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet remains one of the most effective (but mysterious) treatments for severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We have tested for an acute effect of physiological ketone bodies on neuronal firing rates and excitability, to discover possible therapeutic mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Physiological concentrations of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate) reduced the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in slices from rat or mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata. This region is thought to act as a "seizure gate," controlling seizure generalization. Consistent with an anticonvulsant role, the ketone body effect is larger for cells that fire more rapidly. The effect of ketone bodies was abolished by eliminating the metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels pharmacologically or by gene knock-out. We propose that ketone bodies or glycolytic restriction treat epilepsy by augmenting a natural activity-limiting function served by K(ATP) channels in neurons.

  1. Dissociable effects of dopamine on neuronal firing rate and synchrony in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Burkhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that dopamine depletion leads to both changes in firing rate and in neuronal synchrony in the basal ganglia. Since dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons, respectively, we investigated the relative contribution of lack of D1 and/or D2-type receptor activation to the changes in striatal firing rate and synchrony observed after dopamine depletion. Similar to what was observed after dopamine depletion, co-administration of D1 and D2 antagonists to mice chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays in the striatum caused significant changes in firing rate, power of the local field potential (LFP oscillations, and synchrony measured by the entrainment of neurons to striatal local field potentials. However, although blockade of either D1 or D2 type receptors produced similarly severe akinesia, the effects on neural activity differed. Blockade of D2 receptors affected the firing rate of medium spiny neurons and the power of the LFP oscillations substantially, but it did not affect synchrony to the same extent. In contrast, D1 blockade affected synchrony dramatically, but had less substantial effects on firing rate and LFP power. Furthermore, there was no consistent relation between neurons changing firing rate and changing LFP entrainment after dopamine blockade. Our results suggest that the changes in rate and entrainment to the LFP observed in medium spiny neurons after dopamine depletion are somewhat dissociable, and that lack of D1- or D2-type receptor activation can exert independent yet interactive pathological effects during the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Symmetry breaking in two interacting populations of quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the dynamics of two coupled identical populations of quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons, which represent the canonical model for class I neurons near the spiking threshold. The populations are heterogeneous; they include both inherently spiking and excitable neurons. The coupling within and between the populations is global via synapses that take into account the finite width of synaptic pulses. Using a recently developed reduction method based on the Lorentzian ansatz, we derive a closed system of equations for the neuron's firing rates and the mean membrane potentials in both populations. The reduced equations are exact in the infinite-size limit. The bifurcation analysis of the equations reveals a rich variety of nonsymmetric patterns, including a splay state, antiphase periodic oscillations, chimera-like states, and chaotic oscillations as well as bistabilities between various states. The validity of the reduced equations is confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the finite-size networks.

  3. Neuronal firing in the globus pallidus internus and the ventrolateral thalamus related to parkinsonian motor symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai; ZHUANG Ping; ZHANG Yu-qing; LI Jian-yu; LI Yong-jie

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that parkinsonian motor signs result from hyperactivity in the output nucleus of the basal ganglia, which suppress the motor thalamus and cortical areas. This study aimed to explore the neuronal activity in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the ventrolateral thalamic nuclear group (ventral oral posterior/ventral intermediate, Vop/Vim) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Methods Twenty patients with PD who underwent neurosurgery were studied. Microelectrode recording was performed in the GPi (n=10) and the Vop/Vim (n=10) intraoperatively. Electromyography (EMG) contralateral to the surgery was simultaneously performed. Single unit analysis was carried out. The interspike intervals (ISI) and coefficient of variation (CV) of ISI were calculated. Histograms of ISI were constructed. A unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) was used to assess the clinical outcome of surgery.Results Three hundred and sixty-three neurons were obtained from 20 trajectories. Of 175 GPi neurons, there were 15.4% with tremor frequency, 69.2% with tonic firing, and 15.4% with irregular discharge. Of 188 thalamic neurons, there were 46.8% with tremor frequency, 22.9% with tonic firing, and 30.3% with irregular discharge. The numbers of three patterns of neuron in GPi and Vop/Vim were significantly different (P <0.001). ISI analysis revealed that mean firing rate of the three patterns of GPi neurons was (80.9±63.9) Hz (n=78), which was higher than similar neurons with 62.9 Hz in a normal primate. For the Vop/Vim group, ISI revealed that mean firing rate of the three patterns of neurons (n=95) was (23.2±17.1) Hz which was lower than similar neurons with 30 Hz in the motor thalamus of normal primates. UPDRS indicated that the clinical outcome of pallidotomy was (64.3±9.5)%, (83.4±19.1)% and (63.4±36.3)%, and clinical outcome of thalamotomy was (92.2±12.9)%, (68.0±25.2)% and (44.3±27.2)% for tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, respectively

  4. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Hori, Etsuro; Tran, Anh Hai; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  6. Optimal Detection of a Localized Perturbation in Random Networks of Integrate-and-Fire Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Davide; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cortical networks are chaotic and coding relies on averages over large populations. However, there is evidence that rats can respond to the short stimulation of a single cortical cell, a theoretically unexplained fact. We study effects of single-cell stimulation on a large recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons and propose a simple way to detect the perturbation. Detection rates obtained from simulations and analytical estimates are similar to experimental response rates if the readout is slightly biased towards specific neurons. Near-optimal detection is attained for a broad range of intermediate values of the mean coupling between neurons.

  7. Asymmetry in electrical coupling between neurons alters multistable firing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; García-Vellisca, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The role of asymmetry in electrical synaptic connection between two neuronal oscillators is studied in the Hindmarsh-Rose model. We demonstrate that the asymmetry induces multistability in spiking dynamics of the coupled neuronal oscillators. The coexistence of at least three attractors, one chaotic and two periodic orbits, for certain coupling strengths is demonstrated with time series, phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, basins of attraction of the coexisting states, Lyapunov exponents, and standard deviations of peak amplitudes and interspike intervals. The experimental results with analog electronic circuits are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  8. Bayesian nonparametric modeling for comparison of single-neuron firing intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottas, Athanasios; Behseta, Sam

    2010-03-01

    We propose a fully inferential model-based approach to the problem of comparing the firing patterns of a neuron recorded under two distinct experimental conditions. The methodology is based on nonhomogeneous Poisson process models for the firing times of each condition with flexible nonparametric mixture prior models for the corresponding intensity functions. We demonstrate posterior inferences from a global analysis, which may be used to compare the two conditions over the entire experimental time window, as well as from a pointwise analysis at selected time points to detect local deviations of firing patterns from one condition to another. We apply our method on two neurons recorded from the primary motor cortex area of a monkey's brain while performing a sequence of reaching tasks.

  9. Memory effects on a resonate-and-fire neuron model subjected to Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paekivi, S.; Mankin, R.; Rekker, A.

    2017-10-01

    We consider a generalized Langevin equation with an exponentially decaying memory kernel as a model for the firing process of a resonate-and-fire neuron. The effect of temporally correlated random neuronal input is modeled as Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise. In the noise-induced spiking regime of the neuron, we derive exact analytical formulas for the dependence of some statistical characteristics of the output spike train, such as the probability distribution of the interspike intervals (ISIs) and the survival probability, on the parameters of the input stimulus. Particularly, on the basis of these exact expressions, we have established sufficient conditions for the occurrence of memory-time-induced transitions between unimodal and multimodal structures of the ISI density and a critical damping coefficient which marks a dynamical transition in the behavior of the system.

  10. Mechanisms of Gain Control by Voltage-Gated Channels in Intrinsically-Firing Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ameera X.; Burdakov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Gain modulation is a key feature of neural information processing, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In single neurons, gain can be measured as the slope of the current-frequency (input-output) relationship over any given range of inputs. While much work has focused on the control of basal firing rates and spike rate adaptation, gain control has been relatively unstudied. Of the limited studies on gain control, some have examined the roles of synaptic noise and passive somatic currents, but the roles of voltage-gated channels present ubiquitously in neurons have been less explored. Here, we systematically examined the relationship between gain and voltage-gated ion channels in a conductance-based, tonically-active, model neuron. Changes in expression (conductance density) of voltage-gated channels increased (Ca2+ channel), reduced (K+ channels), or produced little effect (h-type channel) on gain. We found that the gain-controlling ability of channels increased exponentially with the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window (voltage range associated with firing). For depolarization-activated channels, this produced a greater channel current per action potential at higher firing rates. This allowed these channels to modulate gain by contributing to firing preferentially at states of higher excitation. A finer analysis of the current-voltage relationship during tonic firing identified narrow voltage windows at which the gain-modulating channels exerted their effects. As a proof of concept, we show that h-type channels can be tuned to modulate gain by changing the steepness of their activation within the dynamic voltage window. These results show how the impact of an ion channel on gain can be predicted from the relationship between channel kinetics and the membrane potential during firing. This is potentially relevant to understanding input-output scaling in a wide class of neurons found throughout the brain and other nervous systems

  11. Bursting as a source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaeseung; Shi, Wei-Xing; Hoffman, Ralph; Oh, Jihoon; Gore, John C; Bunney, Benjamin S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2012-11-01

    Nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in vivo exhibit complex firing patterns consisting of tonic single-spikes and phasic bursts that encode information for certain types of reward-related learning and behavior. Non-linear dynamical analysis has previously demonstrated the presence of a non-linear deterministic structure in complex firing patterns of DA neurons, yet the origin of this non-linear determinism remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that bursting activity is the primary source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the dimension complexity of inter-spike interval data recorded in vivo from bursting and non-bursting DA neurons in the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat substantia nigra. We found that bursting DA neurons exhibited non-linear determinism in their firing patterns, whereas non-bursting DA neurons showed truly stochastic firing patterns. Determinism was also detected in the isolated burst and inter-burst interval data extracted from firing patterns of bursting neurons. Moreover, less bursting DA neurons in halothane-anesthetized rats exhibited higher dimensional spiking dynamics than do more bursting DA neurons in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. These results strongly indicate that bursting activity is the main source of low-dimensional, non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. This finding furthermore suggests that bursts are the likely carriers of meaningful information in the firing activities of DA neurons. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Phase-locking of bursting neuronal firing to dominant LFP frequency components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria; Elijah, Daniel H; Squirrell, Daniel; Gigg, John; Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal firing in the hippocampal formation relative to the phase of local field potentials (LFP) has a key role in memory processing and spatial navigation. Firing can be in either tonic or burst mode. Although bursting neurons are common in the hippocampal formation, the characteristics of their locking to LFP phase are not completely understood. We investigated phase-locking properties of bursting neurons using simulations generated by a dual compartmental model of a pyramidal neuron adapted to match the bursting activity in the subiculum of a rat. The model was driven with stochastic input signals containing a power spectral profile consistent with physiologically relevant frequencies observed in LFP. The single spikes and spike bursts fired by the model were locked to a preferred phase of the predominant frequency band where there was a peak in the power of the driving signal. Moreover, the preferred phase of locking shifted with increasing burst size, providing evidence that LFP phase can be encoded by burst size. We also provide initial support for the model results by analysing example data of spontaneous LFP and spiking activity recorded from the subiculum of a single urethane-anaesthetised rat. Subicular neurons fired single spikes, two-spike bursts and larger bursts that locked to a preferred phase of either dominant slow oscillations or theta rhythms within the LFP, according to the model prediction. Both power-modulated phase-locking and gradual shift in the preferred phase of locking as a function of burst size suggest that neurons can use bursts to encode timing information contained in LFP phase into a spike-count code. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

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    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  14. Unmasking of spiral ganglion neuron firing dynamics by membrane potential and neurotrophin-3.

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    Crozier, Robert A; Davis, Robin L

    2014-07-16

    Type I spiral ganglion neurons have a unique role relative to other sensory afferents because, as a single population, they must convey the richness, complexity, and precision of auditory information as they shape signals transmitted to the brain. To understand better the sophistication of spiral ganglion response properties, we compared somatic whole-cell current-clamp recordings from basal and apical neurons obtained during the first 2 postnatal weeks from CBA/CaJ mice. We found that during this developmental time period neuron response properties changed from uniformly excitable to differentially plastic. Low-frequency, apical and high-frequency basal neurons at postnatal day 1 (P1)-P3 were predominantly slowly accommodating (SA), firing at low thresholds with little alteration in accommodation response mode induced by changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) or added neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). In contrast, P10-P14 apical and basal neurons were predominately rapidly accommodating (RA), had higher firing thresholds, and responded to elevation of RMP and added NT-3 by transitioning to the SA category without affecting the instantaneous firing rate. Therefore, older neurons appeared to be uniformly less excitable under baseline conditions yet displayed a previously unrecognized capacity to change response modes dynamically within a remarkably stable accommodation framework. Because the soma is interposed in the signal conduction pathway, these specializations can potentially lead to shaping and filtering of the transmitted signal. These results suggest that spiral ganglion neurons possess electrophysiological mechanisms that enable them to adapt their response properties to the characteristics of incoming stimuli and thus have the capacity to encode a wide spectrum of auditory information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349688-15$15.00/0.

  15. Equilibrium and response properties of the integrate-and-fire neuron in discrete time

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    Moritz Helias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrate-and-fire neuron with exponential postsynaptic potentials is a frequently employed model to study neural networks. Simulations in discrete time still have highest performance at moderate numerical errors, which makes them first choice for long-term simulations of plastic networks. Here we extend the population density approach to investigate how the equilibrium and response properties of the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron are affected by time discretization. We present a novel analytical treatment of the boundary condition at threshold, taking both discretization of time and finite synaptic weights into account. We uncover an increased membrane potential density just below threshold as the decisive property that explains the deviations found between simulations and the classical diffusion approximation. Temporal discretization and finite synaptic weights both contribute to this effect. Our treatment improves the standard formula to calculate the neuron’s equilibrium firing rate. Direct solution of the Markov process describing the evolution of the membrane potential density confirms our analysis and yields a method to calculate the firing rate exactly. Knowing the shape of the membrane potential distribution near threshold enables us to devise the transient response properties of the neuron model to synaptic input. We find a pronounced non-linear fast response component that has not been described by the prevailing continuous time theory for Gaussian white noise input.

  16. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

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    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  17. Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Circuit Based on Floating-Gate Integrator

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    Kornijcuk, Vladimir; Lim, Hyungkwang; Seok, Jun Yeong; Kim, Guhyun; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Inho; Choi, Byung Joon; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2016-01-01

    The artificial spiking neural network (SNN) is promising and has been brought to the notice of the theoretical neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering research communities. In this light, we propose a new type of artificial spiking neuron based on leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) behavior. A distinctive feature of the proposed FG-LIF neuron is the use of a floating-gate (FG) integrator rather than a capacitor-based one. The relaxation time of the charge on the FG relies mainly on the tunnel barrier profile, e.g., barrier height and thickness (rather than the area). This opens up the possibility of large-scale integration of neurons. The circuit simulation results offered biologically plausible spiking activity (circuit was subject to possible types of noise, e.g., thermal noise and burst noise. The simulation results indicated remarkable distributional features of interspike intervals that are fitted to Gamma distribution functions, similar to biological neurons in the neocortex. PMID:27242416

  18. Sequentially firing neurons confer flexible timing in neural pattern generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Alexander; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal networks exhibit a variety of complex spatiotemporal patterns that include sequential activity, synchrony, and wavelike dynamics. Inhibition is the primary means through which such patterns are implemented. This behavior is dependent on both the intrinsic dynamics of the individual neurons as well as the connectivity patterns. Many neural circuits consist of networks of smaller subcircuits (motifs) that are coupled together to form the larger system. In this paper, we consider a particularly simple motif, comprising purely inhibitory interactions, which generates sequential periodic dynamics. We first describe the dynamics of the single motif both for general balanced coupling (all cells receive the same number and strength of inputs) and then for a specific class of balanced networks: circulant systems. We couple these motifs together to form larger networks. We use the theory of weak coupling to derive phase models which, themselves, have a certain structure and symmetry. We show that this structure endows the coupled system with the ability to produce arbitrary timing relationships between symmetrically coupled motifs and that the phase relationships are robust over a wide range of frequencies. The theory is applicable to many other systems in biology and physics.

  19. Auto- and Crosscorrelograms for the Spike Response of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neurons with Slow Synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Bote, Ruben; Parga, Nestor

    2006-01-01

    An analytical description of the response properties of simple but realistic neuron models in the presence of noise is still lacking. We determine completely up to the second order the firing statistics of a single and a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons receiving some common slowly filtered white noise. In particular, the auto- and cross-correlation functions of the output spike trains of pairs of cells are obtained from an improvement of the adiabatic approximation introduced previously by Moreno-Bote and Parga [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 028102 (2004)]. These two functions define the firing variability and firing synchronization between neurons, and are of much importance for understanding neuron communication

  20. Orexin-A increases the firing activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons through orexin-1 receptors.

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    Chen, Xin-Yi; Chen, Lei; Du, Yi-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Orexins including two peptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, are produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Much evidence has indicated that central orexinergic systems play numerous functions including energy metabolism, feeding behavior, sleep/wakefulness, and neuroendocrine and sympathetic activation. Morphological studies have shown that the hippocampal CA1 regions receive orexinergic innervation originating from the hypothalamus. Positive orexin-1 (OX 1 ) receptors are detected in the CA1 regions. Previous behavioral studies have shown that microinjection of OX 1 receptor antagonist into the hippocampus impairs acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory. However, up to now, little has been known about the direct electrophysiological effects of orexin-A on hippocampal CA1 neurons. Employing multibarrel single-unit extracellular recordings, the present study showed that micropressure administration of orexin-A significantly increased the spontaneous firing rate from 2.96 ± 0.85 to 8.45 ± 1.86 Hz (P neurons in male rats. Furthermore, application of the specific OX 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 alone significantly decreased the firing rate from 4.02 ± 1.08 to 2.11 ± 0.58 Hz in 7 out of the 17 neurons (P neurons. Coapplication of SB-334867 completely blocked orexin-A-induced excitation of hippocampal CA1 neurons. The PLC pathway may be involved in activation of OX 1 receptor-induced excitation of CA1 neurons. Taken together, the present study's results suggest that orexin-A produces excitatory effects on hippocampal neurons via OX 1 receptors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Complex Behavior in an Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    Based on our previously pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neuron model in small world networks, we investigate the complex behavior of electroencephalographic (EEG)-like activities produced by such a model. We find EEG-like activities have obvious chaotic characteristics. We also analyze the complex behaviors of EEG-like signals, such as spectral analysis, reconstruction of the phase space, the correlation dimension, and so on.

  2. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Nav1.1 Alterations: Involvement of Neuronal Firing Dynamics and Oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C Bender

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations play a critical role in information processing and may, therefore, be essential to uncovering the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in neurological disease. In Dravet syndrome (DS, a mutation in SCN1A, coding for the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1, is associated with severe cognitive impairment and seizures. While seizure frequency and severity do not correlate with the extent of impairment, the slowing of brain rhythms may be involved. Here we investigate the role of Nav1.1 on brain rhythms and cognition using RNA interference. We demonstrate that knockdown of Nav1.1 impairs fast- and burst-firing properties of neurons in the medial septum in vivo. The proportion of neurons that fired phase-locked to hippocampal theta oscillations was reduced, and medial septal regulation of theta rhythm was disrupted. During a working memory task, this deficit was characterized by a decrease in theta frequency and was negatively correlated with performance. These findings suggest a fundamental role for Nav1.1 in facilitating fast-firing properties in neurons, highlight the importance of precise temporal control of theta frequency for working memory, and imply that Nav1.1 deficits may disrupt information processing in DS via a dysregulation of brain rhythms.

  3. Short and Long-Term Attentional Firing Rates Can Be Explained by ST-Neuron Dynamics

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    Oscar J. Avella Gonzalez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks. Furthermore, using the model we show that the interaction between stimulus-selectivity of a neuron and attention shapes the profile of the firing rate, and is enough to explain its fast modulation and other discontinuities observed, when the neuron responds to a sudden switch of stimulus, or when one stimulus is added to another during a visual task.

  4. Population density models of integrate-and-fire neurons with jumps: well-posedness.

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    Dumont, Grégory; Henry, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we study the well-posedness of different models of population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with a population density approach. The synaptic interaction between neurons is modeled by a potential jump at the reception of a spike. We study populations that are self excitatory or self inhibitory. We distinguish the cases where this interaction is instantaneous from the one where there is a repartition of conduction delays. In the case of a bounded density of delays both excitatory and inhibitory population models are shown to be well-posed. But without conduction delay the solution of the model of self excitatory neurons may blow up. We analyze the different behaviours of the model with jumps compared to its diffusion approximation.

  5. Impact of adaptation currents on synchronization of coupled exponential integrate-and-fire neurons.

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    Josef Ladenbauer

    Full Text Available The ability of spiking neurons to synchronize their activity in a network depends on the response behavior of these neurons as quantified by the phase response curve (PRC and on coupling properties. The PRC characterizes the effects of transient inputs on spike timing and can be measured experimentally. Here we use the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (aEIF neuron model to determine how subthreshold and spike-triggered slow adaptation currents shape the PRC. Based on that, we predict how synchrony and phase locked states of coupled neurons change in presence of synaptic delays and unequal coupling strengths. We find that increased subthreshold adaptation currents cause a transition of the PRC from only phase advances to phase advances and delays in response to excitatory perturbations. Increased spike-triggered adaptation currents on the other hand predominantly skew the PRC to the right. Both adaptation induced changes of the PRC are modulated by spike frequency, being more prominent at lower frequencies. Applying phase reduction theory, we show that subthreshold adaptation stabilizes synchrony for pairs of coupled excitatory neurons, while spike-triggered adaptation causes locking with a small phase difference, as long as synaptic heterogeneities are negligible. For inhibitory pairs synchrony is stable and robust against conduction delays, and adaptation can mediate bistability of in-phase and anti-phase locking. We further demonstrate that stable synchrony and bistable in/anti-phase locking of pairs carry over to synchronization and clustering of larger networks. The effects of adaptation in aEIF neurons on PRCs and network dynamics qualitatively reflect those of biophysical adaptation currents in detailed Hodgkin-Huxley-based neurons, which underscores the utility of the aEIF model for investigating the dynamical behavior of networks. Our results suggest neuronal spike frequency adaptation as a mechanism synchronizing low frequency

  6. Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate of Solitary Complex (SC) Neurons from Control and Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Powell, Frank L.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus) neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx) adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats. PMID:24516602

  7. Substance P differentially modulates firing rate of solitary complex (SC neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Nichols

    Full Text Available NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H(+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats.

  8. Reduction in spontaneous firing of mouse excitatory layer 4 cortical neurons following visual classical conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekisz, Marek; Shendye, Ninad; Raciborska, Ida; Wróbel, Andrzej; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.

    2017-08-01

    The process of learning induces plastic changes in neuronal network of the brain. Our earlier studies on mice showed that classical conditioning in which monocular visual stimulation was paired with an electric shock to the tail enhanced GABA immunoreactivity within layer 4 of the monocular part of the primary visual cortex (V1), contralaterally to the stimulated eye. In the present experiment we investigated whether the same classical conditioning paradigm induces changes of neuronal excitability in this cortical area. Two experimental groups were used: mice that underwent 7-day visual classical conditioning and controls. Patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were performed from ex vivo slices of mouse V1. The slices were perfused with the modified artificial cerebrospinal fluid, the composition of which better mimics the brain interstitial fluid in situ and induces spontaneous activity. The neuronal excitability was characterized by measuring the frequency of spontaneous action potentials. We found that layer 4 star pyramidal cells located in the monocular representation of the "trained" eye in V1 had lower frequency of spontaneous activity in comparison with neurons from the same cortical region of control animals. Weaker spontaneous firing indicates decreased general excitability of star pyramidal neurons within layer 4 of the monocular representation of the "trained" eye in V1. Such effect could result from enhanced inhibitory processes accompanying learning in this cortical area.

  9. Cutaneous TRPM8-expressing sensory afferents are a small population of neurons with unique firing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Michael P; Rau, Kristofer K; Koerber, H Richard

    2017-04-01

    It has been well documented that the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptor is involved in environmental cold detection. The role that this receptor plays in nociception however, has been somewhat controversial since conflicting reports have shown different neurochemical identities and responsiveness of TRPM8 neurons. In order to functionally characterize cutaneous TRMP8 fibers, we used two ex vivo somatosensory recording preparations to functionally characterize TRPM8 neurons that innervate the hairy skin in mice genetically engineered to express GFP from the TRPM8 locus. We found several types of cold-sensitive neurons that innervate the hairy skin of the mouse but the TRPM8-expressing neurons were found to be of two specific populations that responded with rapid firing to cool temperatures. The first group was mechanically insensitive but the other did respond to high threshold mechanical deformation of the skin. None of these fibers were found to contain calcitonin gene-related peptide, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or bind isolectin B4. These results taken together with other reports suggest that TRPM8 containing sensory neurons are environmental cooling detectors that may be nociceptive or non-nociceptive depending on the sensitivity of individual fibers to different combinations of stimulus modalities. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Presynaptic learning and memory with a persistent firing neuron and a habituating synapse: a model of short term persistent habituation.

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    Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Dhanasekar, Dhiviya; Li, Guoqi; Shi, Luping; Vadakkepat, Prahlad

    2012-08-01

    Our paper explores the interaction of persistent firing axonal and presynaptic processes in the generation of short term memory for habituation. We first propose a model of a sensory neuron whose axon is able to switch between passive conduction and persistent firing states, thereby triggering short term retention to the stimulus. Then we propose a model of a habituating synapse and explore all nine of the behavioral characteristics of short term habituation in a two neuron circuit. We couple the persistent firing neuron to the habituation synapse and investigate the behavior of short term retention of habituating response. Simulations show that, depending on the amount of synaptic resources, persistent firing either results in continued habituation or maintains the response, both leading to longer recovery times. The effectiveness of the model as an element in a bio-inspired memory system is discussed.

  11. Adaptation in the visual cortex: influence of membrane trajectory and neuronal firing pattern on slow afterpotentials.

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    Vanessa F Descalzo

    Full Text Available The input/output relationship in primary visual cortex neurons is influenced by the history of the preceding activity. To understand the impact that membrane potential trajectory and firing pattern has on the activation of slow conductances in cortical neurons we compared the afterpotentials that followed responses to different stimuli evoking similar numbers of action potentials. In particular, we compared afterpotentials following the intracellular injection of either square or sinusoidal currents lasting 20 seconds. Both stimuli were intracellular surrogates of different neuronal responses to prolonged visual stimulation. Recordings from 99 neurons in slices of visual cortex revealed that for stimuli evoking an equivalent number of spikes, sinusoidal current injection activated a slow afterhyperpolarization of significantly larger amplitude (8.5 ± 3.3 mV and duration (33 ± 17 s than that evoked by a square pulse (6.4 ± 3.7 mV, 28 ± 17 s; p<0.05. Spike frequency adaptation had a faster time course and was larger during plateau (square pulse than during intermittent (sinusoidal depolarizations. Similar results were obtained in 17 neurons intracellularly recorded from the visual cortex in vivo. The differences in the afterpotentials evoked with both protocols were abolished by removing calcium from the extracellular medium or by application of the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine, suggesting that the activation of a calcium-dependent current is at the base of this afterpotential difference. These findings suggest that not only the spikes, but the membrane potential values and firing patterns evoked by a particular stimulation protocol determine the responses to any subsequent incoming input in a time window that spans for tens of seconds to even minutes.

  12. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

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    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  13. Does spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity couple or decouple neurons firing in synchrony?

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    Andreas eKnoblauch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spike synchronization is thought to have a constructive role for feature integration, attention, associativelearning, and the formation of bidirectionally connected Hebbian cell assemblies. By contrast, theoreticalstudies on spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP report an inherently decoupling influence of spikesynchronization on synaptic connections of coactivated neurons. For example, bidirectional synapticconnections as found in cortical areas could be reproduced only by assuming realistic models of STDP andrate coding. We resolve this conflict by theoretical analysis and simulation of various simple and realisticSTDP models that provide a more complete characterization of conditions when STDP leads to eithercoupling or decoupling of neurons firing in synchrony. In particular, we show that STDP consistentlycouples synchronized neurons if key model parameters are matched to physiological data: First, synapticpotentiation must be significantly stronger than synaptic depression for small (positive or negative timelags between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Second, spike synchronization must be sufficientlyimprecise, for example, within a time window of 5-10msec instead of 1msec. Third, axonal propagationdelays should not be much larger than dendritic delays. Under these assumptions synchronized neuronswill be strongly coupled leading to a dominance of bidirectional synaptic connections even for simpleSTDP models and low mean firing rates at the level of spontaneous activity.

  14. Analytical approximations of the firing rate of an adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron in the presence of synaptic noise

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    Loreen eHertäg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models offer a unique tool for understanding the network-dynamical mechanisms which mediate between physiological and biophysical properties, and behavioral function. A traditional challenge in computational neuroscience is, however, that simple neuronal models which can be studied analytically fail to reproduce the diversity of electrophysiological behaviors seen in real neurons, while detailed neuronal models which do reproduce such diversity are intractable analytically and computationally expensive. A number of intermediate models have been proposed whose aim is to capture the diversity of firing behaviors and spike times of real neurons while entailing a mathematical description as simple as possible. One such model is the exponential integrate-and-fire neuron with spike rate adaptation (aEIF which consists of two differential equations for the membrane potential (V and an adaptation current (w. Despite its simplicity, it can reproduce a wide variety of physiologically observed spiking patterns, can be fit to physiological recordings quantitatively, and, once done so, is able to predict spike times on traces not used for model fitting. Here we compute the steady-state firing rate of aEIF in the presence of Gaussian synaptic noise, using two approaches. The first approach is based on the 2-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation that describes the (V,w-probability distribution, which is solved using an expansion in the ratio between the time constants of the two variables. The second is based on the firing rate of the EIF model, which is averaged over the distribution of the $w$ variable. These analytically derived closed-form expressions were tested on simulations from a large variety of model cells quantitatively fitted to in vitro electrophysiological recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons. Theoretical predictions closely agreed with the firing rate of the simulated cells fed with in-vivo-like synaptic noise.

  15. Analytical approximations of the firing rate of an adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron in the presence of synaptic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel; Brunel, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Computational models offer a unique tool for understanding the network-dynamical mechanisms which mediate between physiological and biophysical properties, and behavioral function. A traditional challenge in computational neuroscience is, however, that simple neuronal models which can be studied analytically fail to reproduce the diversity of electrophysiological behaviors seen in real neurons, while detailed neuronal models which do reproduce such diversity are intractable analytically and computationally expensive. A number of intermediate models have been proposed whose aim is to capture the diversity of firing behaviors and spike times of real neurons while entailing the simplest possible mathematical description. One such model is the exponential integrate-and-fire neuron with spike rate adaptation (aEIF) which consists of two differential equations for the membrane potential (V) and an adaptation current (w). Despite its simplicity, it can reproduce a wide variety of physiologically observed spiking patterns, can be fit to physiological recordings quantitatively, and, once done so, is able to predict spike times on traces not used for model fitting. Here we compute the steady-state firing rate of aEIF in the presence of Gaussian synaptic noise, using two approaches. The first approach is based on the 2-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation that describes the (V,w)-probability distribution, which is solved using an expansion in the ratio between the time constants of the two variables. The second is based on the firing rate of the EIF model, which is averaged over the distribution of the w variable. These analytically derived closed-form expressions were tested on simulations from a large variety of model cells quantitatively fitted to in vitro electrophysiological recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons. Theoretical predictions closely agreed with the firing rate of the simulated cells fed with in-vivo-like synaptic noise.

  16. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Urethane anesthesia depresses activities of thalamocortical neurons and alters its response to nociception in terms of dual firing modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeowool eHuh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are often used to characterize the activity of single neurons in-vivo for its advantages such as reduced noise level and convenience in noxious stimulations. Of the anesthetics, urethane had been widely used in some thalamic studies under the assumption that sensory signals are still relayed to the thalamus under urethane anesthesia and that thalamic response would therefore reflect the response of the awake state. We tested whether this assumption stands by comparing thalamic activity in terms of tonic and burst firing modes during ‘the awake state’ or under ‘urethane anesthesia’ utilizing the extracellular single unit recording technique. First we have tested how thalamic relay neurons respond to the introduction of urethane and then tested how urethane influences thalamic discharges under formalin-induced nociception. Urethane significantly depressed overall firing rates of thalamic relay neurons, which was sustained despite the delayed increase of burst activity over the 4 hour recording period. Thalamic response to nociception under anesthesia was also similar overall except for the slight and transient increase of burst activity. Overall, results demonstrated that urethane suppresses the activity of thalamic relay neurons and that, despite the slight fluctuation of burst firing, formalin-induced nociception cannot significantly change the firing pattern of thalamic relay neurons that was caused by urethane.

  18. Sustained Firing of Model Central Auditory Neurons Yields a Discriminative Spectro-temporal Representation for Natural Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Michael A.; Elhilali, Mounya

    2013-01-01

    The processing characteristics of neurons in the central auditory system are directly shaped by and reflect the statistics of natural acoustic environments, but the principles that govern the relationship between natural sound ensembles and observed responses in neurophysiological studies remain unclear. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the presence of a code based on sustained neural firing rates, where central auditory neurons exhibit strong, persistent responses to their prefe...

  19. Self-organized Criticality and Synchronization in a Pulse-coupled Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    A lattice model for a set of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons with small world structure is introduced. We find that our model displays the power-law behavior accompanied with the large-scale synchronized activities among the units. And the different connectivity topologies lead to different behaviors in models of integrate-and-fire neurons.

  20. The effects of prostaglandin E2 on the firing rate activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranels, Heather J; Griffin, John D

    2003-02-21

    In response to an immune system challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recent work has shown that Fos immunoreactivity is displayed by neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (VMPO). In addition, neurons in this region show distinct axonal projections to the anterior perifornical area (APFx) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been hypothesized that neurons within the VMPO integrate their local responses to temperature with changes in firing activity that result from LPS induced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). This may be an important mechanism by which the set-point regulation of thermoeffector neurons in the APFx and PVN is altered, resulting in hyperthermia. To characterize the firing rate activity of VMPO neurons, single-unit recordings were made of neuronal extracellular activity in rat hypothalamic tissue slices. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of tissue temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. Neurons were then treated with PGE(2) (200 nM) while tissue temperature was held at a constant level ( approximately 36 degrees C). The majority of temperature insensitive neurons responded to PGE(2) with an increase in firing rate activity, while warm sensitive neurons showed a reduction in firing rate. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the VMPO may play critical and contrasting roles in the production of a fever during an acute phase response to infection.

  1. NK3 Receptors mediate an increase in firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons of the rat and the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, T.R.; McCreary, A.C.; Kruse, C.G.; Wadman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study investigates and compares the effects of NK3 receptor ligands on the firing rate of rat and guinea pig midbrain dopamine neurons. The findings are discussed in the light of choosing suitable animal models for investigating pharmacological properties of NK3 receptor antagonists,

  2. The Gamma renewal process as an output of the diffusion leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lánský, Petr; Sacerdote, L.; Zucca, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, 2-3 (2016), s. 193-200 ISSN 0340-1200 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : first-passage-time problem * leaky integrate-and-fire * Stein's neuronal model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.716, year: 2016

  3. KV7 Channels Regulate Firing during Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Striatal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Pérez-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projection neurons (SPNs process motor and cognitive information. Their activity is affected by Parkinson’s disease, in which dopamine concentration is decreased and acetylcholine concentration is increased. Acetylcholine activates muscarinic receptors in SPNs. Its main source is the cholinergic interneuron that responds with a briefer latency than SPNs during a cortical command. Therefore, an important question is whether muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors and their signaling cascades are fast enough to intervene during synaptic responses to regulate synaptic integration and firing. One of the most known voltage dependent channels regulated by muscarinic receptors is the KV7/KCNQ channel. It is not known whether these channels regulate the integration of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses. Here, we study the impact of cholinergic muscarinic modulation on the synaptic response of SPNs by regulating KV7 channels. We found that KV7 channels regulate corticostriatal synaptic integration and that this modulation occurs in the dendritic/spines compartment. In contrast, it is negligible in the somatic compartment. This modulation occurs on sub- and suprathreshold responses and lasts during the whole duration of the responses, hundreds of milliseconds, greatly altering SPNs firing properties. This modulation affected the behavior of the striatal microcircuit.

  4. Reconstructing stimuli from the spike-times of leaky integrate and fire neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eGerwinn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructing stimuli from the spike-trains of neurons is an important approach for understanding the neural code. One of the difficulties associated with this task is that signals which are varying continuously in time are encoded into sequences of discrete events or spikes. An important problem is to determine how much information about the continuously varying stimulus can be extracted from the time-points at which spikes were observed, especially if these time-points are subject to some sort of randomness. For the special case of spike trains generated by leaky integrate and fire neurons, noise can be introduced by allowing variations in the threshold every time a spike is released. A simple decoding algorithm previously derived for the noiseless case can be extended to the stochastic case, but turns out to be biased. Here, we review a solution to this problem, by presenting a simple yet efficient algorithm which greatly reduces the bias, and therefore leads to better decoding performance in the stochastic case.

  5. Memory-induced resonancelike suppression of spike generation in a resonate-and-fire neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Romi; Paekivi, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of a stochastic resonate-and-fire neuron model based on a reduction of a fractional noise-driven generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with a power-law memory kernel is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random activity of synaptic inputs, which arise from other neurons forming local and distant networks, is modeled as an additive fractional Gaussian noise in the GLE. Using a first-passage-time formulation, in certain system parameter domains exact expressions for the output interspike interval (ISI) density and for the survival probability (the probability that a spike is not generated) are derived and their dependence on input parameters, especially on the memory exponent, is analyzed. In the case of external white noise, it is shown that at intermediate values of the memory exponent the survival probability is significantly enhanced in comparison with the cases of strong and weak memory, which causes a resonancelike suppression of the probability of spike generation as a function of the memory exponent. Moreover, an examination of the dependence of multimodality in the ISI distribution on input parameters shows that there exists a critical memory exponent αc≈0.402 , which marks a dynamical transition in the behavior of the system. That phenomenon is illustrated by a phase diagram describing the emergence of three qualitatively different structures of the ISI distribution. Similarities and differences between the behavior of the model at internal and external noises are also discussed.

  6. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-02-07

    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  7. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin modulates the firing 1 properties of the reticular thalamic nucleus bursting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albéri, Lavinia; Lintas, Alessandra; Kretz, Robert; Schwaller, Beat; Villa, Alessandro E P

    2013-06-01

    The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) of the mouse is characterized by an overwhelming majority of GABAergic neurons receiving afferences from both the thalamus and the cerebral cortex and sending projections mainly on thalamocortical neurons. The RTN neurons express high levels of the "slow Ca(2+) buffer" parvalbumin (PV) and are characterized by low-threshold Ca(2+) currents, I(T). We performed extracellular recordings in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice in the rostromedial portion of the RTN. In the RTN of wild-type and PV knockout (PVKO) mice we distinguished four types of neurons characterized on the basis of their firing pattern: irregular firing (type I), medium bursting (type II), long bursting (type III), and tonically firing (type IV). Compared with wild-type mice, we observed in the PVKOs the medium bursting (type II) more frequently than the long bursting type and longer interspike intervals within the burst without affecting the number of spikes. This suggests that PV may affect the firing properties of RTN neurons via a mechanism associated with the kinetics of burst discharges. Ca(v)3.2 channels, which mediate the I(T) currents, were more localized to the somatic plasma membrane of RTN neurons in PVKO mice, whereas Ca(v)3.3 expression was similar in both genotypes. The immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed that Ca(v)3.2 channels were localized at active axosomatic synapses, thus suggesting that the differential localization of Ca(v)3.2 in the PVKOs may affect bursting dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded neurons from the same electrode tip showed that about one-third of the cell pairs tended to fire synchronously in both genotypes, independent of PV expression. In summary, PV deficiency does not affect the functional connectivity between RTN neurons but affects the distribution of Ca(v)3.2 channels and the dynamics of burst discharges of RTN cells, which in turn regulate the activity in the thalamocortical circuit.

  8. Human Nav1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.

    2015-01-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Nav1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Nav1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Nav1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Nav1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Nav1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons. PMID:25787950

  9. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH. Targeted extracellular recordings were used to record firing activity from green fluorescent protein-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices before and during CRH treatment; recordings were done in the afternoon when estradiol has a positive feedback effect to increase GnRH neuron firing. In OVX mice, CRH did not affect the firing rate of GnRH neurons. In contrast, CRH exhibited dose-dependent stimulatory (30 nM) or inhibitory (100 nM) effects on GnRH neuron firing activity in OVX+E mice; both effects were reversible. The dose-dependent effects of CRH appear to result from activation of different receptor populations; a CRH receptor type-1 agonist increased firing activity in GnRH neurons, whereas a CRH receptor type-2 agonist decreased firing activity. CRH and specific agonists also differentially regulated short-term burst frequency and burst properties, including burst duration, spikes/burst, and/or intraburst interval. These results indicate that CRH alters GnRH neuron activity and that estradiol is required for CRH to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  10. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steimer

    Full Text Available Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing

  11. An approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron model allows fast and predictive fitting to physiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreen eHertäg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale network simulations, it is often desirable to have computationally tractable, yet in a defined sense still physiologically valid neuron models. In particular, these models should be able to reproduce physiological measurements, ideally in a predictive sense, and under different input regimes in which neurons may operate in vivo. Here we present an approach to parameter estimation for a simple spiking neuron model mainly based on standard f-I curves obtained from in vitro recordings. Such recordings are routinely obtained in standard protocols and assess a neuron's response under a wide range of mean input currents. Our fitting procedure makes use of closed-form expressions for the firing rate derived from an approximation to the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx model. The resulting fitting process is simple and about two orders of magnitude faster compared to methods based on numerical integration of the differential equations. We probe this method on different cell types recorded from rodent prefrontal cortex. After fitting to the f-I current-clamp data, the model cells are tested on completely different sets of recordings obtained by fluctuating ('in-vivo-like' input currents. For a wide range of different input regimes, cell types, and cortical layers, the model could predict spike times on these test traces quite accurately within the bounds of physiological reliability, although no information from these distinct test sets was used for model fitting. Further analyses delineated some of the empirical factors constraining model fitting and the model's generalization performance. An even simpler adaptive LIF neuron was also examined in this context. Hence, we have developed a 'high-throughput' model fitting procedure which is simple and fast, with good prediction performance, and which relies only on firing rate information and standard physiological data widely and easily available.

  12. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational

  13. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Application of unfolding transformation in the random matrix theory to analyze in vivo neuronal spike firing during awake and anesthetized conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Kato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available General anesthetics decrease the frequency and density of spike firing. This effect makes it difficult to detect spike regularity. To overcome this problem, we developed a method utilizing the unfolding transformation which analyzes the energy level statistics in the random matrix theory. We regarded the energy axis as time axis of neuron spike and analyzed the time series of cortical neural firing in vivo. Unfolding transformation detected regularities of neural firing while changes in firing densities were associated with pentobarbital. We found that unfolding transformation enables us to compare firing regularity between awake and anesthetic conditions on a universal scale. Keywords: Unfolding transformation, Spike-timing, Regularity

  15. The effect of correlated neuronal firing and neuronal heterogeneity on population coding accuracy in guinea pig inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Zohar

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the considerable noise in single-cell responses to a stimulus can be overcome by pooling information from a large population. Theoretical studies indicated that correlations in trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of different neurons may limit the improvement due to pooling. Subsequent theoretical studies have suggested that inherent neuronal diversity, i.e., the heterogeneity of tuning curves and other response properties of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, can provide a means to overcome this limit. Here we study the effect of spike-count correlations and the inherent neuronal heterogeneity on the ability to extract information from large neural populations. We use electrophysiological data from the guinea pig Inferior-Colliculus to capture inherent neuronal heterogeneity and single cell statistics, and introduce response correlations artificially. To this end, we generate pseudo-population responses, based on single-cell recording of neurons responding to auditory stimuli with varying binaural correlations. Typically, when pseudo-populations are generated from single cell data, the responses within the population are statistically independent. As a result, the information content of the population will increase indefinitely with its size. In contrast, here we apply a simple algorithm that enables us to generate pseudo-population responses with variable spike-count correlations. This enables us to study the effect of neuronal correlations on the accuracy of conventional rate codes. We show that in a homogenous population, in the presence of even low-level correlations, information content is bounded. In contrast, utilizing a simple linear readout, that takes into account the natural heterogeneity, even of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, within the neural population, one can overcome the correlated noise and obtain a readout whose accuracy grows linearly with the size of

  16. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  17. Single K ATP channel opening in response to action potential firing in mouse dentate granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Yellen, Gary

    2011-06-08

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) are important sensors of cellular metabolic state that link metabolism and excitability in neuroendocrine cells, but their role in nonglucosensing central neurons is less well understood. To examine a possible role for K(ATP) channels in modulating excitability in hippocampal circuits, we recorded the activity of single K(ATP) channels in cell-attached patches of granule cells in the mouse dentate gyrus during bursts of action potentials generated by antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers. Ensemble averages of the open probability (p(open)) of single K(ATP) channels over repeated trials of stimulated spike activity showed a transient increase in p(open) in response to action potential firing. Channel currents were identified as K(ATP) channels through blockade with glibenclamide and by comparison with recordings from Kir6.2 knock-out mice. The transient elevation in K(ATP) p(open) may arise from submembrane ATP depletion by the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, as the pump blocker strophanthidin reduced the magnitude of the elevation. Both the steady-state and stimulus-elevated p(open) of the recorded channels were higher in the presence of the ketone body R-β-hydroxybutyrate, consistent with earlier findings that ketone bodies can affect K(ATP) activity. Using perforated-patch recording, we also found that K(ATP) channels contribute to the slow afterhyperpolarization following an evoked burst of action potentials. We propose that activity-dependent opening of K(ATP) channels may help granule cells act as a seizure gate in the hippocampus and that ketone-body-mediated augmentation of the activity-dependent opening could in part explain the effect of the ketogenic diet in reducing epileptic seizures.

  18. Differential Activation of Fast-Spiking and Regular-Firing Neuron Populations During Movement and Reward in the Dorsal Medial Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is thought to be important for guiding behavior according to an animal's expectations. Efforts to decode the region have focused not only on the question of what information it computes, but also how distinct circuit components become engaged during behavior. We find that the activity of regular-firing, putative projection neurons contains rich information about behavioral context and firing fields cluster around reward sites, while activity among putative inhibitory and fast-spiking neurons is most associated with movement and accompanying sensory stimulation. These dissociations were observed even between adjacent neurons with apparently reciprocal, inhibitory–excitatory connections. A smaller population of projection neurons with burst-firing patterns did not show clustered firing fields around rewards; these neurons, although heterogeneous, were generally less selective for behavioral context than regular-firing cells. The data suggest a network that tracks an animal's behavioral situation while, at the same time, regulating excitation levels to emphasize high valued positions. In this scenario, the function of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons is to constrain network output relative to incoming sensory flow. This scheme could serve as a bridge between abstract sensorimotor information and single-dimensional codes for value, providing a neural framework to generate expectations from behavioral state. PMID:24700585

  19. Nicotinic α4β2 Cholinergic Receptor Influences on Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Neuronal Firing during a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongan; Yang, Yang; Galvin, Veronica C; Yang, Shengtao; Arnsten, Amy F; Wang, Min

    2017-05-24

    The primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) subserves top-down regulation of attention and working memory abilities. Depletion studies show that the neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is essential to dlPFC working memory functions, but the receptor and cellular bases for cholinergic actions are just beginning to be understood. The current study found that nicotinic receptors comprised of α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2-nAChR) enhance the task-related firing of delay and fixation cells in the dlPFC of monkeys performing a working memory task. Iontophoresis of α4β2-nAChR agonists increased the neuronal firing and enhanced the spatial tuning of delay cells, neurons that represent visual space in the absence of sensory stimulation. These enhancing effects were reversed by coapplication of a α4β2-nAChR antagonist, consistent with actions at α4β2-nAChR. Delay cell firing was reduced when distractors were presented during the delay epoch, whereas stimulation of α4β2-nAChR protected delay cells from these deleterious effects. Iontophoresis of α4β2-nAChR agonists also enhanced the firing of fixation cells, neurons that increase firing when the monkey initiates a trial, and maintain firing until the trial is completed. These neurons are thought to contribute to sustained attention and top-down motor control and have never before been the subject of pharmacological inquiry. These findings begin to build a picture of the cellular actions underlying the beneficial effects of ACh on attention and working memory. The data may also help to explain why genetic insults to α4 subunits are associated with working memory and attentional deficits and why α4β2-nAChR agonists may have therapeutic potential. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The acetylcholine (ACh) arousal system in the brain is needed for robust attention and working memory functions, but the receptor and cellular bases for its beneficial effects are poorly understood in the newly evolved primate brain. The current

  20. Importance of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase for spontaneous firing and pharmacological responses of midbrain dopamine neurons: Relevance for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufvesson-Alm, Maximilian; Schwieler, Lilly; Schwarcz, Robert; Goiny, Michel; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2018-06-05

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an essential enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, converting kynurenine into 3-hydroxykynurenine. Inhibition of KMO increases kynurenine, resulting in elevated levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate and α*7-nicotinic receptor antagonist. The concentration of KYNA is elevated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia, possibly as a result of a reduced KMO activity. In the present study, using in vivo single cell recording techniques, we investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of ventral tegmental area dopamine (VTA DA) neurons and their response to antipsychotic drugs in a KMO knock-out (K/O) mouse model. KMO K/O mice exhibited a marked increase in spontaneous VTA DA neuron activity as compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, VTA DA neurons showed clear-cut, yet qualitatively opposite, responses to the antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and clozapine in the two genotypes. The anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib successfully lowered the firing activity of VTA DA neurons in KMO K/O, but not in WT mice. Minocycline, an antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug, produced no effect in this regard. Taken together, the present data further support the usefulness of KMO K/O mice for studying distinct aspects of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Prenatal androgenization of female mice programs an increase in firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that is reversed by metformin treatment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Prenatal androgenization (PNA) of female mice with dihydrotestosterone programs reproductive dysfunction in adulthood, characterized by elevated luteinizing hormone levels, irregular estrous cycles, and central abnormalities. Here, we evaluated activity of GnRH neurons from PNA mice and the effects of in vivo treatment with metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is commonly used to treat the fertility disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Estrous cycles were monitored in PNA and control mice before and after metformin administration. Before metformin, cycles were longer in PNA mice and percent time in estrus lower; metformin normalized cycles in PNA mice. Extracellular recordings were used to monitor GnRH neuron firing activity in brain slices from diestrous mice. Firing rate was higher and quiescence lower in GnRH neurons from PNA mice, demonstrating increased GnRH neuron activity. Metformin treatment of PNA mice restored firing activity and LH to control levels. To assess whether AMPK activation contributed to the metformin-induced reduction in GnRH neuron activity, the AMPK antagonist compound C was acutely applied to cells. Compound C stimulated cells from metformin-treated, but not untreated, mice, suggesting that AMPK was activated in GnRH neurons, or afferent neurons, in the former group. GnRH neurons from metformin-treated mice also showed a reduced inhibitory response to low glucose. These studies indicate that PNA causes enhanced firing activity of GnRH neurons and elevated LH that are reversible by metformin, raising the possibility that central AMPK activation by metformin may play a role in its restoration of reproductive cycles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Effects of self-coupling and asymmetric output on metastable dynamical transient firing patterns in arrays of neurons with bidirectional inhibitory coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yo

    2016-04-01

    Metastable dynamical transient patterns in arrays of bidirectionally coupled neurons with self-coupling and asymmetric output were studied. First, an array of asymmetric sigmoidal neurons with symmetric inhibitory bidirectional coupling and self-coupling was considered and the bifurcations of its steady solutions were shown. Metastable dynamical transient spatially nonuniform states existed in the presence of a pair of spatially symmetric stable solutions as well as unstable spatially nonuniform solutions in a restricted range of the output gain of a neuron. The duration of the transients increased exponentially with the number of neurons up to the maximum number at which the spatially nonuniform steady solutions were stabilized. The range of the output gain for which they existed reduced as asymmetry in a sigmoidal output function of a neuron increased, while the existence range expanded as the strength of inhibitory self-coupling increased. Next, arrays of spiking neuron models with slow synaptic inhibitory bidirectional coupling and self-coupling were considered with computer simulation. In an array of Class 1 Hindmarsh-Rose type models, in which each neuron showed a graded firing rate, metastable dynamical transient firing patterns were observed in the presence of inhibitory self-coupling. This agreed with the condition for the existence of metastable dynamical transients in an array of sigmoidal neurons. In an array of Class 2 Bonhoeffer-van der Pol models, in which each neuron had a clear threshold between firing and resting, long-lasting transient firing patterns with bursting and irregular motion were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ghrelin decreases firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in an estrous cycle and endocannabinoid signaling dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin is known to influence function of GnRH neurons, however, the direct effects of the hormone upon these neurons have not been explored, yet. The present study was undertaken to reveal expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R in GnRH neurons and elucidate the mechanisms of ghrelin actions upon them. Ca(2+-imaging revealed a ghrelin-triggered increase of the Ca(2+-content in GT1-7 neurons kept in a steroid-free medium, which was abolished by GHS-R-antagonist JMV2959 (10 µM suggesting direct action of ghrelin. Estradiol (1nM eliminated the ghrelin-evoked rise of Ca(2+-content, indicating the estradiol dependency of the process. Expression of GHS-R mRNA was then confirmed in GnRH-GFP neurons of transgenic mice by single cell RT-PCR. Firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH-GFP neurons were lower in metestrous than proestrous mice. Ghrelin (40 nM-4 μM administration resulted in a decreased firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH neurons in metestrous, but not in proestrous mice. Ghrelin also decreased the firing rate of GnRH neurons in males. The ghrelin-evoked alterations of the firing parameters were prevented by JMV2959, supporting the receptor-specific actions of ghrelin on GnRH neurons. In metestrous mice, ghrelin decreased the frequency of GABAergic mPSCs in GnRH neurons. Effects of ghrelin were abolished by the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 antagonist AM251 (1µM and the intracellularly applied DAG-lipase inhibitor THL (10 µM, indicating the involvement of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin exerts direct regulatory effects on GnRH neurons via GHS-R, and modulates the firing of GnRH neurons in an ovarian-cycle and endocannabinoid dependent manner.

  4. The Sodium-Potassium Pump Controls the Intrinsic Firing of the Cerebellar Purkinje Neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Michael D.; Wall, Mark J.; Press, Daniel A.; Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    In vitro, cerebellar Purkinje cells can intrinsically fire action potentials in a repeating trimodal or bimodal pattern. The trimodal pattern consists of tonic spiking, bursting, and quiescence. The bimodal pattern consists of tonic spiking and quiescence. It is unclear how these firing patterns are generated and what determines which firing pattern is selected. We have constructed a realistic biophysical Purkinje cell model that can replicate these patterns. In this model, Na+/K+ pump activity sets the Purkinje cell's operating mode. From rat cerebellar slices we present Purkinje whole cell recordings in the presence of ouabain, which irreversibly blocks the Na+/K+ pump. The model can replicate these recordings. We propose that Na+/K+ pump activity controls the intrinsic firing mode of cerbellar Purkinje cells. PMID:23284664

  5. Long-Term Plasticity of Astrocytic Metabotropic Neurotransmitter Receptors Driven by Changes in Neuronal Activity in Hippocampal Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiaoqiao

    2011-01-01

    In addition to synaptic communication between neurons, there is now strong evidence for neuron-to-astrocyte receptor signaling in the brain. During trains of action potentials or repetitive stimulation, neurotransmitter spills out of the synapse to activate astrocytic Gq protein-coupled receptors (Gq GPCRs). To date, very little is known about the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity as a result of long-term changes in neuronal firing rates. Here we describe for the first tim...

  6. Lead intoxication induces noradrenaline depletion, motor nonmotor disabilities, and changes in the firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbar, M; Delaville, C; De Deurwaerdère, P; Benazzouz, A; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N

    2012-05-17

    Lead intoxication has been suggested as a high risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease. However, its impact on motor and nonmotor functions and the mechanism by which it can be involved in the disease are still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of lead intoxication on the following: (1) locomotor activity using an open field actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod test, (2) anxiety behavior using the elevated plus maze, (3) "depression-like" behavior using sucrose preference test, and (4) subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity using extracellular single unit recordings. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a day with lead acetate or sodium acetate (20 mg/kg/d i.p.) during 3 weeks. The tissue content of monoamines was used to determine alteration of these systems at the end of experiments. Results show that lead significantly reduced exploratory activity, locomotor activity and the time spent on the rotarod bar. Furthermore, lead induced anxiety but not "depressive-like" behavior. The electrophysiological results show that lead altered the discharge pattern of STN neurons with an increase in the number of bursting and irregular cells without affecting the firing rate. Moreover, lead intoxication resulted in a decrease of tissue noradrenaline content without any change in the levels of dopamine and serotonin. Together, these results show for the first time that lead intoxication resulted in motor and nonmotor behavioral changes paralleled by noradrenaline depletion and changes in the firing activity of STN neurons, providing evidence consistent with the induction of atypical parkinsonian-like deficits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation of ventral septal area on firing rates of pyrogen-treated thermosensitive neurons in preoptic anterior hypothalamus from rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Xie, Xin-Hua; Lu, Da-Xiang; Fu, Yong-Mei

    2007-01-09

    Although there is considerable evidence supporting that fever evolved as a host defense response, it is important that the rise in body temperature would not be too high. Many endogenous cryogens or antipyretics that limit the rise in body temperature have been identified. Endogenous antipyretics attenuate fever by influencing the thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) and in adjacent septal areas including ventral septal area (VSA). Our previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) affected electrophysiological activities of thermosensitive neurons in VSA regions, and electrical stimulation of POAH reversed the effect of IL-1beta. To further investigate the functional electrophysiological connection between POAH and VSA and its mechanisms in thermoregulation, the firing rates of thermosensitive neurons in POAH of forty-seven unit discharge were recorded by using extracellular microelectrode technique in New Zealand white rabbits. Our results show that the firing rates of the warm-sensitive neurons decreased significantly and those of the cold-sensitive neurons increased in POAH when the pyrogen (IL-1beta) was injected I.C.V. The effects of IL-1beta on firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH were reversed by electrical stimulation of VSA. An arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1 antagonist abolished the regulatory effects of VSA on the firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH evoked by IL-1beta. However, an AVP V2 antagonist had no effects. These data indicated that VSA regulates the activities of the thermosensitive neurons of POAH through AVP V1 but not AVP V2 receptor.

  8. MCH and apomorphine in combination enhance action potential firing of nucleus accumbens shell neurons in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Woodward Hopf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MCH and dopamine receptor systems have been shown to modulate a number of behaviors related to reward processing, addiction, and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. In addition, MCH and dopamine receptors can interact in a positive manner, for example in the expression of cocaine self-administration. A recent report (Chung et al., 2011a showed that the DA1/DA2 dopamine receptor activator apomorphine suppresses pre-pulse inhibition, a preclinical model for some aspects of schizophrenia. Importantly, MCH can enhance the effects of lower doses of apomorphine, suggesting that co-modulation of dopamine and MCH receptors might alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia with a lower dose of dopamine receptor modulator and thus fewer potential side effects. Here, we investigated whether MCH and apomorphine could enhance action potential firing in vitro in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell, a region which has previously been shown to mediate some behavioral effects of MCH. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that MCH, which has no effect on firing on its own, was able to increase NAshell firing when combined with a subthreshold dose of apomorphine. Further, this MCH/apomorphine increase in firing was prevented by an antagonist of either a DA1 or a DA2 receptor, suggesting that apomorphine acts through both receptor types to enhance NAshell firing. The MCH/apomorphine-mediated firing increase was also prevented by an MCH receptor antagonist or a PKA inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that MCH can interact with lower doses of apomorphine to enhance NAshell firing, and thus that MCH and apomorphine might interact in vivo within the NAshell to suppress pre-pulse inhibition.

  9. The Impact of Stimulation Induced Short Term Synaptic Plasticity on Firing Patterns in the Globus Pallidus of the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia eBugaysen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation in the globus pallidus (GP leads to complex modulations of neuronal activity in the stimulated nucleus. Multiple in-vivo studies have demonstrated the modulation of both firing rates and patterns during and immediately following the GP stimulation. Previous in-vitro studies, together with computational studies, have suggested the involvement of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP during the stimulation. The aim of the current study was to explore in-vitro the effects of STP on neuronal activity of GP neurons during local repetitive stimulation. We recorded synaptic potentials and assessed the modulations of spontaneous firing in a postsynaptic neuron in acute brain slices via a whole-cell pipette. Low-frequency repetitive stimulation locked the firing of the neuron to the stimulus. However, high-frequency repetitive stimulation in the GP generated a biphasic modulation of the firing frequency consisting of inhibitory and excitatory phases. Using blockers of synaptic transmission, we show that GABAergic synapses mediated the inhibitory and glutamatergic synapses the excitatory part of the response. Furthermore, we report that at high stimulation frequencies both types of synapses undergo short-term depression leading to a time dependent modulation of the neuronal firing. These findings indicate that STP modulates the dynamic responses of pallidal activity during electrical stimulation, and may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying deep brain stimulation (DBS like protocols.

  10. Dentate network activity is necessary for spatial working memory by supporting CA3 sharp-wave ripple generation and prospective firing of CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takuya; Piatti, Verónica C; Hwaun, Ernie; Ahmadi, Siavash; Lisman, John E; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2018-02-01

    Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons. Furthermore, CA3 cells with place fields in not-yet-visited arms preferentially fired during SWRs at reward locations, and these prospective CA3 firing patterns were more pronounced for correct trials and were dentate-dependent. These results indicate that coordination of CA3 neuronal activity patterns by DG is necessary for the generation of neuronal firing patterns that support goal-directed behavior and memory.

  11. Firing pattern of fasciculations in ALS: evidence for axonal and neuronal origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, B.U.; Stegeman, D.F.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the origin of fasciculations is disputed. We hypothesized that the discharge pattern of fasciculation potentials (FPs) would be different for FPs arising in the motor axon or in the spinal motor neuron. METHOD: FPs were recorded by high-density

  12. Leaky Integrate and Fire Neuron by Charge-Discharge Dynamics in Floating-Body MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangya; Kumar, Vinay; Shukla, Aditya; Mohapatra, Nihar R; Ganguly, Udayan

    2017-08-15

    Neuro-biology inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) enables efficient learning and recognition tasks. To achieve a large scale network akin to biology, a power and area efficient electronic neuron is essential. Earlier, we had demonstrated an LIF neuron by a novel 4-terminal impact ionization based n+/p/n+ with an extended gate (gated-INPN) device by physics simulation. Excellent improvement in area and power compared to conventional analog circuit implementations was observed. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact conventional 3-terminal partially depleted (PD) SOI- MOSFET (100 nm gate length) to replace the 4-terminal gated-INPN device. Impact ionization (II) induced floating body effect in SOI-MOSFET is used to capture LIF neuron behavior to demonstrate spiking frequency dependence on input. MHz operation enables attractive hardware acceleration compared to biology. Overall, conventional PD-SOI-CMOS technology enables very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) which is essential for biology scale (~10 11 neuron based) large neural networks.

  13. A VLSI recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons connected by plastic synapses with long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicca, E; Badoni, D; Dante, V; D'Andreagiovanni, M; Salina, G; Carota, L; Fusi, S; Del Giudice, P

    2003-01-01

    Electronic neuromorphic devices with on-chip, on-line learning should be able to modify quickly the synaptic couplings to acquire information about new patterns to be stored (synaptic plasticity) and, at the same time, preserve this information on very long time scales (synaptic stability). Here, we illustrate the electronic implementation of a simple solution to this stability-plasticity problem, recently proposed and studied in various contexts. It is based on the observation that reducing the analog depth of the synapses to the extreme (bistable synapses) does not necessarily disrupt the performance of the device as an associative memory, provided that 1) the number of neurons is large enough; 2) the transitions between stable synaptic states are stochastic; and 3) learning is slow. The drastic reduction of the analog depth of the synaptic variable also makes this solution appealing from the point of view of electronic implementation and offers a simple methodological alternative to the technological solution based on floating gates. We describe the full custom analog very large-scale integration (VLSI) realization of a small network of integrate-and-fire neurons connected by bistable deterministic plastic synapses which can implement the idea of stochastic learning. In the absence of stimuli, the memory is preserved indefinitely. During the stimulation the synapse undergoes quick temporary changes through the activities of the pre- and postsynaptic neurons; those changes stochastically result in a long-term modification of the synaptic efficacy. The intentionally disordered pattern of connectivity allows the system to generate a randomness suited to drive the stochastic selection mechanism. We check by a suitable stimulation protocol that the stochastic synaptic plasticity produces the expected pattern of potentiation and depression in the electronic network.

  14. The Effect of Single Pyramidal Neuron Firing Within Layer 2/3 and Layer 4 in Mouse V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jochen F; Golshani, Peyman; Smirnakis, Stelios M

    2018-01-01

    The influence of cortical cell spiking activity on nearby cells has been studied extensively in vitro . Less is known, however, about the impact of single cell firing on local cortical networks in vivo . In a pioneering study, Kwan and Dan (Kwan and Dan, 2012) reported that in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3), under anesthesia , stimulating a single pyramidal cell recruits ~2.1% of neighboring units. Here we employ two-photon calcium imaging in layer 2/3 of mouse V1, in conjunction with single-cell patch clamp stimulation in layer 2/3 or layer 4, to probe, in both the awake and lightly anesthetized states , how (i) activating single L2/3 pyramidal neurons recruits neighboring units within L2/3 and from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3, and whether (ii) activating single pyramidal neurons changes population activity in local circuit. To do this, it was essential to develop an algorithm capable of quantifying how sensitive the calcium signal is at detecting effectively recruited units ("followers"). This algorithm allowed us to estimate the chance of detecting a follower as a function of the probability that an epoch of stimulation elicits one extra action potential (AP) in the follower cell. Using this approach, we found only a small fraction (layer-2/3 or layer-4 pyramidal neurons produces few (<1% of local units) reliable single-cell followers in L2/3 of mouse area V1, either under light anesthesia or in quiet wakefulness: instead, single cell stimulation was found to elevate aggregate population activity in a weak but highly distributed fashion.

  15. Expectancy-related changes in firing of dopamine neurons depend on orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuji K; Roesch, Matthew R; Wilson, Robert C; Toreson, Kathy; O'Donnell, Patricio; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2011-10-30

    The orbitofrontal cortex has been hypothesized to carry information regarding the value of expected rewards. Such information is essential for associative learning, which relies on comparisons between expected and obtained reward for generating instructive error signals. These error signals are thought to be conveyed by dopamine neurons. To test whether orbitofrontal cortex contributes to these error signals, we recorded from dopamine neurons in orbitofrontal-lesioned rats performing a reward learning task. Lesions caused marked changes in dopaminergic error signaling. However, the effect of lesions was not consistent with a simple loss of information regarding expected value. Instead, without orbitofrontal input, dopaminergic error signals failed to reflect internal information about the impending response that distinguished externally similar states leading to differently valued future rewards. These results are consistent with current conceptualizations of orbitofrontal cortex as supporting model-based behavior and suggest an unexpected role for this information in dopaminergic error signaling.

  16. Stalling for Time: It's Not the Magnitude, but the Way Neurons Fire that Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen H

    2017-07-05

    In this issue of Neuron, Stavisky et al. (2017) demonstrate that visual feedback in M1 during reaching initially reflects a specific pattern of neural activity that does not generate motor output and then is altered to a pattern that does generate motor output. This switch likely provides time for the motor system to consider various behavioral factors when specifying the appropriate motor response during voluntary motor actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Errors in estimation of the input signal for integrate-and-fire neuronal models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bibbona, E.; Lánský, Petr; Sacerdote, L.; Sirovich, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-10 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110401 Grant - others:EC(XE) MIUR PRIN 2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : parameter estimation * stochastic neuronal model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2008 http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v78/e011918

  18. Spike timing rigidity is maintained in bursting neurons under pentobarbital-induced anesthetic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Kato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT, which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale. Neurons with high spontaneous firing frequency (> 5 Hz and bursting were classified as HFB neurons (n = 10, and those with low spontaneous firing frequency (< 10 Hz and without bursting were classified as non-HFB neurons (n = 48. Pentobarbital injection (30 mg/kg reduced firing frequency in all HFB neurons and in 78% of non-HFB neurons. RMT analysis demonstrated that pentobarbital increased in the number of neurons with repulsion in both HFB and non-HFB neurons, suggesting that there is a correlation between spikes within a short interspike interval. Under awake conditions, in 50% of HFB and 40% of non-HFB neurons, the decay phase of normalized histograms of spontaneous firing were fitted to an exponential function, which indicated that the first spike had no correlation with subsequent spikes. In contrast, under pentobarbital-induced anesthesia conditions, the number of non-HFB neurons that were fitted to an exponential function increased to 80%, but almost no change in HFB neurons was observed. These results suggest that under both awake and pentobarbital-induced anesthetized conditions, spike firing in HFB neurons is more robustly regulated by preceding spikes than by non-HFB neurons, which may reflect the GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of cortical activities. Whole-cell patch

  19. Altered neuronal firing pattern of the basal ganglia nucleus plays a role in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Levodopa therapy alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but long-term treatment often leads to motor complications such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Aim: To explore the neuronal activity in the basal ganglia nuclei in patients with PD and LID. Methods: Thirty patients with idiopathic PD (age, 55.1±11.0 years; disease duration, 8.7±5.6 years were enrolled between August 2006 and August 2013 at the Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Their Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 2 to 4 and their UPDRS III scores were 28.5±5.2. Fifteen of them had severe LID (UPDRS IV scores of 6.7±1.6. Microelectrode recording was performed in the globus pallidus internus (GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN during pallidotomy (n=12 or STN deep brain stimulation (DBS; bilateral, n=12; unilateral, n=6. The firing patterns and frequencies of various cell types were analyzed by assessing single cell interspike intervals (ISIs and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV. Results: A total of 295 neurons were identified from the GPi (n=12 and STN (n=18. These included 26 (8.8% highly grouped discharge, 30 (10.2% low frequency firing, 78 (26.4% rapid tonic discharge, 103 (34.9% irregular activity, and 58 (19.7% tremor-related activity. There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05 for neurons with irregular firing, highly irregular cluster-like firing, and low-frequency firing. Conclusion: Altered neuronal activity was observed in the basal ganglia nucleus of GPi and STN, and may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and LID.

  20. The vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons of a ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rat exhibit heterogeneous firing properties and the expression of various neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar function is regulated by cholinergic mossy fiber inputs that are primarily derived from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN). In contrast to the growing evidence surrounding cholinergic transmission and its functional significance in the cerebellum, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cholinergic projection neurons (ChPNs) have not been clarified. In this study, we generated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-tdTomato transgenic rats, which specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato in cholinergic neurons, and used them to investigate the response properties of ChPNs identified via retrograde labeling using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices. In response to current pulses, ChPNs exhibited two afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) profiles and three firing patterns; the predominant AHP and firing properties differed between the MVN and PHN. Morphologically, the ChPNs were separated into two types based on their soma size and dendritic extensions. Analyses of the firing responses to time-varying sinusoidal current stimuli revealed that ChPNs exhibited different firing modes depending on the input frequencies. The maximum frequencies in which each firing mode was observed were different between the neurons that exhibited distinct firing patterns. Analyses of the current responses to the application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists revealed that the ChPNs expressed (i) AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, (ii) GABAA and glycine receptors, and (iii) muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The current responses mediated by these receptors of MVN ChPNs were not different from those of PHN ChPNs. These findings suggest that ChPNs receive various synaptic inputs and encode those inputs appropriately across different frequencies. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Variable Action Potential Backpropagation during Tonic Firing and Low-Threshold Spike Bursts in Thalamocortical But Not Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, William M; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Errington, Adam C

    2017-05-24

    Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are indispensable in dendritic signaling. Conflicting Ca 2+ -imaging data and an absence of dendritic recording data means that the extent of backpropagation in thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons remains unknown. Because TRN neurons signal electrically through dendrodendritic gap junctions and possibly via chemical dendritic GABAergic synapses, as well as classical axonal GABA release, this lack of knowledge is problematic. To address this issue, we made two-photon targeted patch-clamp recordings from rat TC and TRN neuron dendrites to measure bAPs directly. These recordings reveal that "tonic"' and low-threshold-spike (LTS) "burst" APs in both cell types are always recorded first at the soma before backpropagating into the dendrites while undergoing substantial distance-dependent dendritic amplitude attenuation. In TC neurons, bAP attenuation strength varies according to firing mode. During LTS bursts, somatic AP half-width increases progressively with increasing spike number, allowing late-burst spikes to propagate more efficiently into the dendritic tree compared with spikes occurring at burst onset. Tonic spikes have similar somatic half-widths to late burst spikes and undergo similar dendritic attenuation. In contrast, in TRN neurons, AP properties are unchanged between LTS bursts and tonic firing and, as a result, distance-dependent dendritic attenuation remains consistent across different firing modes. Therefore, unlike LTS-associated global electrical and calcium signals, the spatial influence of bAP signaling in TC and TRN neurons is more restricted, with potentially important behavioral-state-dependent consequences for synaptic integration and plasticity in thalamic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In most neurons, action potentials (APs) initiate in the axosomatic region and propagate into the dendritic tree to provide a retrograde signal that conveys information about the level of

  2. Human Na(v)1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Na(v)1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Na(v)1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Na(v)1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Na(v)1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Na(v)1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons.

  3. Deep Learning Predicts Correlation between a Functional Signature of Higher Visual Areas and Sparse Firing of Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxu Zhuang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual information in the visual cortex is processed in a hierarchical manner. Recent studies show that higher visual areas, such as V2, V3, and V4, respond more vigorously to images with naturalistic higher-order statistics than to images lacking them. This property is a functional signature of higher areas, as it is much weaker or even absent in the primary visual cortex (V1. However, the mechanism underlying this signature remains elusive. We studied this problem using computational models. In several typical hierarchical visual models including the AlexNet, VggNet, and SHMAX, this signature was found to be prominent in higher layers but much weaker in lower layers. By changing both the model structure and experimental settings, we found that the signature strongly correlated with sparse firing of units in higher layers but not with any other factors, including model structure, training algorithm (supervised or unsupervised, receptive field size, and property of training stimuli. The results suggest an important role of sparse neuronal activity underlying this special feature of higher visual areas.

  4. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  5. Underlying mechanism of regulatory actions of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, on neuronal potassium channels and firing: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Hung, T Y; Liao, Y K; Hsu, M C; Wu, S N

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DIC), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to exert anti-nociceptive and anti-convulsant actions; however, its effects on ion currents, in neurons remain debatable. We aimed to investigate (1) potential effects of diclofenac on membrane potential and potassium currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with whole-cell patch-clamp technology, and (2) firing of action potentials (APs), using a simulation model from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons based on diclofenac's effects on potassium currents. In the NSC-34 cells, diclofenac exerted an inhibitory effect on delayed-rectifier K⁺ current (I(KDR)) with an IC₅₀ value of 73 μM. Diclofenac not merely inhibited the I(KDR) amplitude in response to membrane depolarization, but also accelerated the process of current inactivation. The inhibition by diclofenac of IK(DR) was not reversed by subsequent application of either naloxone. Importantly, diclofenac (300 μM) increased the amplitude of M-type K⁺ current (I)(KM)), while flupirtine (10 μM) or meclofenamic acid (10 μM) enhanced it effectively. Consistently, diclofenac (100 μM) increased the amplitude of I(KM) and diminished the I(KDR) amplitude, with a shortening of inactivation time constant in DRG neurons. Furthermore, by using the simulation modeling, we demonstrated the potential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying changes in AP firing caused by diclofenac. During the exposure to diclofenac, the actions on both I(KM) and I(KDR) could be potential mechanism through which it influences the excitability of fast-spiking neurons. Caution needs to be made in attributing the effects of diclofenac primarily to those produced by the activation of I(KM).

  6. High glucose increases action potential firing of catecholamine neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract by increasing spontaneous glutamate inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brandon L; Zhu, Mingyan; Zhao, Huan; Dillon, Crystal; Appleyard, Suzanne M

    2017-09-01

    Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brain stem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal, and stress. However, it is not known if they respond to changes in glucose. Here we determined whether NTS-CA neurons respond to changes in glucose concentration and the mechanism involved. We found that decreasing glucose concentrations from 5 mM to 2 mM to 1 mM, significantly decreased action potential firing in a cell-attached preparation, whereas increasing it back to 5 mM increased the firing rate. This effect was dependent on glutamate release from afferent terminals and required presynaptic 5-HT 3 Rs. Decreasing the glucose concentration also decreased both basal and 5-HT 3 R agonist-induced increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate inputs onto NTS-CA neurons. Low glucose also blunted 5-HT-induced inward currents in nodose ganglia neurons, which are the cell bodies of vagal afferents. The effect of low glucose in both nodose ganglia cells and in NTS slices was mimicked by the glucokinase inhibitor glucosamine. This study suggests that NTS-CA neurons are glucosensing through a presynaptic mechanism that is dependent on vagal glutamate release, 5-HT 3 R activity, and glucokinase. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Adrenergic receptor-mediated modulation of striatal firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Yu; Arake, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Yukawa, Suguru; Sato, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Yuji; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Yawo, Hiromu

    2016-11-01

    Although noradrenaline and adrenaline are some of the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, the effects of noradrenergic/adrenergic modulation on the striatum have not been determined. In order to explore the effects of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists on the striatal firing patterns, we used optogenetic methods which can induce continuous firings. We employed transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons. The medium spiny neuron showed a slow rising depolarization during the 1-s long optogenetic striatal photostimulation and a residual potential with 8.6-s half-life decay after the photostimulation. As a result of the residual potential, five repetitive 1-sec long photostimulations with 20-s onset intervals cumulatively increased the number of spikes. This 'firing increment', possibly relating to the timing control function of the striatum, was used to evaluate the AR modulation. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased the firing increment between the 1st and 5th stimulation cycles, while the α 1 -AR agonist phenylephrine enhanced the firing increment. Isoproterenol and adrenaline increased the early phase (0-0.5s of the photostimulation) firing response. This adrenergic modulation was inhibited by the β-antagonist propranolol. Conversely, phenylephrine and noradrenaline reduced the early phase response. β-ARs and α 1 -ARs work in opposition controlling the striatal firing initiation and the firing increment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Regulation of Action Potential Shape and Burst-Frequency Firing by BK and Kv2 Channels in Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Tilia; Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the voltage-dependent potassium currents underlying spike repolarization in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studying mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons both in brain slice and after acute dissociation, we found that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 channels both make major contributions to the depolarization-activated potassium current. Inhibiting Kv2 or BK channels had very different effects on spike shape and evoked firing. Inhibiting Kv2 channels increased spike width and decreased the afterhyperpolarization, as expected for loss of an action potential-activated potassium conductance. BK inhibition also increased spike width but paradoxically increased the afterhyperpolarization. Kv2 channel inhibition steeply increased the slope of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship, whereas BK channel inhibition had little effect on the f-I slope or decreased it, sometimes resulting in slowed firing. Action potential clamp experiments showed that both BK and Kv2 current flow during spike repolarization but with very different kinetics, with Kv2 current activating later and deactivating more slowly. Further experiments revealed that inhibiting either BK or Kv2 alone leads to recruitment of additional current through the other channel type during the action potential as a consequence of changes in spike shape. Enhancement of slowly deactivating Kv2 current can account for the increased afterhyperpolarization produced by BK inhibition and likely underlies the very different effects on the f-I relationship. The cross-regulation of BK and Kv2 activation illustrates that the functional role of a channel cannot be defined in isolation but depends critically on the context of the other conductances in the cell. This work shows that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 voltage-activated potassium channels both regulate action potentials in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although both

  9. Firing properties of dopamine neurons in freely moving dopamine-deficient mice: Effects of dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Siobhan; Smith, David M.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons, recordings were obtained from single neurons of freely moving, genetically engineered dopamine-deficient (DD) mice. DD mice were tested without dopamine signaling (basal state) and with endogenous dopamine signaling (after L-dopa administration). In the basal state, when dopamine concentration in DD mice is

  10. Modulation of firing and synaptic transmission of serotonergic neurons by intrinsic G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMaejima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons project to virtually all regions of the CNS and are consequently involved in many critical physiological functions such as mood, sexual behavior, feeding, sleep/wake cycle, memory, cognition, blood pressure regulation, breathing and reproductive success. Therefore serotonin release and serotonergic neuronal activity have to be precisely controlled and modulated by interacting brain circuits to adapt to specific emotional and environmental states. We will review the current knowledge about G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels involved in the regulation of serotonergic system, how their regulation is modulating the intrinsic activity of serotonergic neurons and its transmitter release and will discuss the latest methods for controlling the modulation of serotonin release and intracellular signaling in serotonergic neurons in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Repetition and the Concept of Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Grøn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description of the meaning of the category of repetition. Firstly, it is pointed out that Constantin uses repetition as a concept that means the creation of epochs; the passing from Greece to Modernity is accomplished distinguishing between recollection, a concept that looks back to the past, and repetition, a concept that looks forward to future. Secondly, it is showed that the category of repetition, as a religious category, relates with what Climacus calls “ethic despair” and with what Vigilius calls “second ethics”; it is through repetition that it can be understood that sin finds its place in ethics and these shows the tension between it and dogmatics. And thirdly, it is showed that the descovery of the new category of repetition is a rediscovery of what Kierkegaard calls category of spirit; repetition has for its object the individuality, and coming to be oneself is what Kierkegaard undertands as liberty. At the end of the paper it is questioned if the category of repetition is inconsistent with the book Repetition.

  12. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  13. Inward rectifier potassium current IKir promotes intrinsic pacemaker activity of thalamocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo, Yimy; Tissone, Angela I; Mato, Germán; Nadal, Marcela S

    2018-06-01

    Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (rectifier potassium current I Kir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands. We demonstrate this in mouse TC neurons in brain slices by manipulating the Kir maximum conductance with dynamic clamp. We also performed a thorough theoretical analysis that explains how the unique properties of I Kir enable this current to induce slow periodic bursting in TC neurons. We describe a new ionic mechanism based on the voltage- and time-dependent interaction of I Kir and hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h that endows TC neurons with the ability to oscillate spontaneously at very low frequencies, even below 0.5 Hz. Bifurcation analysis of conductance-based models of increasing complexity demonstrates that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential at the same time that it induces sustained oscillations in combination with I h and increases the robustness of low threshold-activated calcium current I T -mediated oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The strong inwardly rectifying potassium current I Kir of thalamocortical neurons displays a region of negative slope conductance in the current-voltage relationship that generates potassium currents activated by hyperpolarization. Bifurcation analysis shows that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential; generates sustained subthreshold oscillations by interacting with the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h ; and increases the robustness of oscillations mediated by the low threshold-activated calcium current I T . Upregulation of I Kir in thalamocortical neurons induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands (<4 Hz).

  14. Atypical dopamine transporter inhibitors R-modafinil and JHW 007 differentially affect D2 autoreceptor neurotransmission and the firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Alicia J; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Beckstead, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular DA levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function. Here we used patch clamp electrophysiology in mouse brain slices to explore the effects of two atypical DAT inhibitors (R-modafinil and JHW 007) on the physiology of single DA neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Despite their commonalities of being DAT inhibitors that lack cocaine-like behavioral profiles, these compounds exhibited surprisingly divergent cellular effects. Similar to cocaine, R-modafinil slowed DA neuron firing in a D2 receptor-dependent manner and rapidly enhanced the amplitude and duration of D2 receptor-mediated currents in the midbrain. In contrast, JHW 007 exhibited little effect on firing, slow DAT blockade, and an unexpected inhibition of D2 receptor-mediated currents that may be due to direct D2 receptor antagonism. Furthermore, pretreatment with JHW 007 blunted the cellular effects of cocaine, suggesting that it may be valuable to investigate similar DAT inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Further exploration of these and other atypical DAT inhibitors may reveal important cellular effects of compounds that will have potential as pharmacotherapies for treating cocaine use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of the methods for signal estimation in stochastic diffusion leaky integrate-and-fire neuronal models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lánský, Petr; Ditlevsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, 4-5 (2008), s. 253-262 ISSN 0340-1200 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : parameter estimation * stochastic diffusion neuronal model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.935, year: 2008

  16. Effects of sustained serotonin reuptake inhibition on the firing of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    Background: Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in depression because of their ability to increase 5-HT neurotransmission. However, owing to a purported inhibitory effect of 5- HT on dopamine (DA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this increase

  17. Multilayer perceptron classification of unknown volatile chemicals from the firing rates of insect olfactory sensory neurons and its application to biosensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we use the firing rates from an array of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to distinguish different chemical classes of volatile odorants. Bootstrapping is implemented for the optimized networks, providing an accurate estimate of a network's predicted values. Initially a simple linear predictor was used to assess the complexity of the data and was found to provide low prediction performance. A nonlinear ANN in the form of a single multilayer perceptron (MLP) was also used, providing a significant increase in prediction performance. The effect of the number of hidden layers and hidden neurons of the MLP was investigated and found to be effective in enhancing network performance with both a single and a double hidden layer investigated separately. A hybrid array of MLPs was investigated and compared against the single MLP architecture. The hybrid MLPs were found to classify all vectors of the validation set, presenting the highest degree of prediction accuracy. Adjustment of the number of hidden neurons was investigated, providing further performance gain. In addition, noise injection was investigated, proving successful for certain network designs. It was found that the best-performing MLP was that of the double-hidden-layer hybrid MLP network without the use of noise injection. Furthermore, the level of performance was examined when different numbers of OSNs used were varied from the maximum of 24 to only 5 OSNs. Finally, the ideal OSNs were identified that optimized network performance. The results obtained from this study provide strong evidence of the usefulness of ANNs in the field of olfaction for the future realization of a signal processing back end for an artificial olfactory biosensor.

  18. Coherence of neuronal firing of the entopeduncular nucleus with motor cortex oscillatory activity in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xingxing; Schwabe, Kerstin; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-04-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease (PD) after long-term treatment with levodopa remain unclear. This study investigates the neuronal firing characteristics of the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the rat equivalent of the human globus pallidus internus and output nucleus of the basal ganglia, and its coherence with the motor cortex (MCx) field potentials in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat model of PD with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) rats, 6-OHDA-lesioned HP rats with LID (HP-LID) rats, and naïve controls were used for recording of single-unit activity under urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p) anesthesia in the EPN "on" and "off" levodopa. Over the MCx, the electrocorticogram output was recorded. Analysis of single-unit activity in the EPN showed enhanced firing rates, burst activity, and irregularity compared to naïve controls, which did not differ between drug-naïve HP and HP-LID rats. Analysis of EPN spike coherence and phase-locked ratio with MCx field potentials showed a shift of low (12-19 Hz) and high (19-30 Hz) beta oscillatory activity between HP and HP-LID groups. EPN theta phase-locked ratio was only enhanced in HP-LID compared to HP rats. Overall, levodopa injection had no stronger effect in HP-LID rats than in HP rats. Altered coherence and changes in the phase lock ratio of spike and local field potentials in the beta range may play a role for the development of LID.

  19. Collective firing regularity of a scale-free Hodgkin–Huxley neuronal network in response to a subthreshold signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ergin, E-mail: erginyilmaz@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ozer, Mahmut [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-08-01

    We consider a scale-free network of stochastic HH neurons driven by a subthreshold periodic stimulus and investigate how the collective spiking regularity or the collective temporal coherence changes with the stimulus frequency, the intrinsic noise (or the cell size), the network average degree and the coupling strength. We show that the best temporal coherence is obtained for a certain level of the intrinsic noise when the frequencies of the external stimulus and the subthreshold oscillations of the network elements match. We also find that the collective regularity exhibits a resonance-like behavior depending on both the coupling strength and the network average degree at the optimal values of the stimulus frequency and the cell size, indicating that the best temporal coherence also requires an optimal coupling strength and an optimal average degree of the connectivity.

  20. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA...

  1. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  2. Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C.; Gunning, Simon J.; Lewis, Richard J.; Nicholson, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na v channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons, P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na v currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na v channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning

  3. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  4. Analysis of the role of the low threshold currents IT and Ih in intrinsic delta oscillations of thalamocortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimy eAmarillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of brain rhythms associated with global functional states. The repetitive burst firing of TC neurons at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz has been linked to the oscillations recorded during deep sleep and during episodes of absence seizures. To get insight into the biophysical properties that are the basis for intrinsic delta oscillations in these neurons, we performed a bifurcation analysis of a minimal conductance-based thalamocortical neuron model including only the IT channel and the sodium and potassium leak channels. This analysis unveils the dynamics of repetitive burst firing of TC neurons, and describes how the interplay between the amplifying variable mT and the recovering variable hT of the calcium channel IT is sufficient to generate low threshold oscillations in the delta band. We also explored the role of the hyperpolarization activated cationic current Ih in this reduced model and determine that, albeit not required, Ih amplifies and stabilizes the oscillation.

  5. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  6. Effect of different glucose supply conditions on neuronal energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hongwen; Wang, Rubin; Qu, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    The glucose-excited neurons in brain can sense blood glucose levels and reflect different firing states, which are mainly associated with regulation of blood glucose and energy demand in the brain. In this paper, a new model of glucose-excited neuron in hypothalamus is proposed. The firing properties and energy consumption of this type of neuron under conditions of different glucose levels are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the firing rate and firing duration of the neuron both...

  7. Enhancement of synchronized activity between hippocampal CA1 neurons during initial storage of associative fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Zhang; Wang, Yao; Shen, Weida; Wang, Zhiru

    2017-08-01

    Learning and memory storage requires neuronal plasticity induced in the hippocampus and other related brain areas, and this process is thought to rely on synchronized activity in neural networks. We used paired whole-cell recording in vivo to examine the synchronized activity that was induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by associative fear learning. We found that both membrane potential synchronization and spike synchronization of CA1 neurons could be transiently enhanced after task learning, as observed on day 1 but not day 5. On day 1 after learning, CA1 neurons showed a decrease in firing threshold and rise times of suprathreshold membrane potential changes as well as an increase in spontaneous firing rates, possibly contributing to the enhancement of spike synchronization. The transient enhancement of CA1 neuronal synchronization may play important roles in the induction of neuronal plasticity for initial storage and consolidation of associative memory. The hippocampus is critical for memory acquisition and consolidation. This function requires activity- and experience-induced neuronal plasticity. It is known that neuronal plasticity is largely dependent on synchronized activity. As has been well characterized, repetitive correlated activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons can lead to long-term modifications at their synapses. Studies on network activity have also suggested that memory processing in the hippocampus may involve learning-induced changes of neuronal synchronization, as observed in vivo between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 networks as well as between the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus. However, further investigation of learning-induced synchronized activity in the hippocampus is needed for a full understanding of hippocampal memory processing. In this study, by performing paired whole-cell recording in vivo on CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) in anaesthetized adult rats, we examined CA1 neuronal synchronization before and after associative fear

  8. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  9. Theoretical analysis of transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation with Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation (TMAS is a novel stimulation technology in which an ultrasonic wave within a magnetostatic field generates an electric current in an area of interest in the brain to modulate neuronal activities. As a key part of the neural network, neurons transmit information in the nervous system. However, the effect of TMAS on the neuronal firing rhythm remains unknown. To address this problem, we investigated the stimulatory mechanism of TMAS on neurons with a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The simulation results indicate that the magnetostatic field intensity and ultrasonic power can affect the amplitude and interspike interval of neuronal action potential under continuous wave ultrasound. The simulation results also show that the ultrasonic power, duty cycle and repetition frequency can alter the firing rhythm of neural action potential under pulsed ultrasound. This study can help to reveal and explain the biological mechanism of TMAS and to provide a theoretical basis for TMAS in the treatment or rehabilitation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Plasticity of Neuron-Glial Transmission: Equipping Glia for Long-Term Integration of Network Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information processing in the brain. While the concept of bidirectional communication between neurons and glia and the mechanisms by which gliotransmission can modulate neuronal function are well established, less attention has been focussed on the computational potential of neuron-glial transmission itself. In particular, whether neuron-glial transmission is itself subject to activity-dependent plasticity and what the computational properties of such plasticity might be has not been explored in detail. In this review, we summarize current examples of plasticity in neuron-glial transmission, in many brain regions and neurotransmitter pathways. We argue that induction of glial plasticity typically requires repetitive neuronal firing over long time periods (minutes-hours rather than the short-lived, stereotyped trigger typical of canonical long-term potentiation. We speculate that this equips glia with a mechanism for monitoring average firing rates in the synaptic network, which is suited to the longer term roles proposed for astrocytes in neurophysiology.

  11. Review of methods for modelling forest fire risk and hazard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    -Leal et al., 2006). Stolle and Lambin (2003) noted that flammable fuel depends on ... advantages over conventional fire detection and fire monitoring methods because ofits repetitive andconsistent coverage over large areas of land (Martin et ...

  12. Cholinergic neuromodulation changes phase response curve shape and type in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    Full Text Available Spike generation in cortical neurons depends on the interplay between diverse intrinsic conductances. The phase response curve (PRC is a measure of the spike time shift caused by perturbations of the membrane potential as a function of the phase of the spike cycle of a neuron. Near the rheobase, purely positive (type I phase-response curves are associated with an onset of repetitive firing through a saddle-node bifurcation, whereas biphasic (type II phase-response curves point towards a transition based on a Hopf-Andronov bifurcation. In recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, cholinergic action, consistent with down-regulation of slow voltage-dependent potassium currents such as the M-current, switched the PRC from type II to type I. This is the first report showing that cholinergic neuromodulation may cause a qualitative switch in the PRCs type implying a change in the fundamental dynamical mechanism of spike generation.

  13. A Simulation Study on the Effects of Dendritic Morphology on Layer V Prefontal Pyramidal Cell Firing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ePsarrou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyramidal cells, the most abundant neurons in neocortex, exhibit significant structural variability across different brain areas and layers in different species. Moreover, in response to a somatic step current, these cells display a range of firing behaviors, the most common being (1 repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking - RS, and (2 an initial cluster of 2-5 action potentials with short ISIs followed by single spikes (Intrinsic Bursting - IB. A correlation between firing behavior and dendritic morphology has recently been reported. In this work we use computational modeling to investigate quantitatively the effects of the basal dendritic tree morphology on the firing behavior of 112 three-dimensional reconstructions of layer V PFC rat pyramidal cells. Particularly, we focus on how different morphological (diameter, total length, volume and branch number and passive (Mean Electrotonic Path length features of basal dendritic trees shape somatic firing when the spatial distribution of ionic mechanisms in the basal dendritic trees is uniform or non-uniform. Our results suggest that total length, volume and branch number are the best morphological parameters to discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of the distribution of ionic mechanisms in basal trees. The discriminatory power of total length, volume and branch number remains high in the presence of different apical dendrites. These results suggest that morphological variations in the basal dendritic trees of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC influence their firing patterns in a predictive manner and may in turn influence the information processing capabilities of these neurons.

  14. Antinociceptive action of oxytocin involves inhibition of potassium channel currents in lamina II neurons of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbon Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence in the literature shows that oxytocin (OT has a strong spinal anti-nociceptive action. Oxytocinergic axons originating from a subpopulation of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons establish synaptic contacts with lamina II interneurons but little is known about the functional role of OT with respect to neuronal firing and excitability. Results Using the patch-clamp technique, we have recorded lamina II interneurons in acute transverse lumbar spinal cord slices of rats (15 to 30 days old and analyzed the OT effects on action potential firing ability. In the current clamp mode, we found that bath application of a selective OT-receptor agonist (TGOT reduced firing in the majority of lamina II interneurons exhibiting a bursting firing profile, but never in those exhibiting a single spike discharge upon depolarization. Interestingly, OT-induced reduction in spike frequency and increase of firing threshold were often observed, leading to a conversion of the firing profile from repetitive and delayed profiles into phasic ones and sometimes further into single spike profile. The observed effects following OT-receptor activation were completely abolished when the OT-receptor agonist was co-applied with a selective OT-receptor antagonist. In current and voltage clamp modes, we show that these changes in firing are strongly controlled by voltage-gated potassium currents. More precisely, transient IA currents and delayed-rectifier currents were reduced in amplitude and transient IA current was predominantly inactivated after OT bath application. Conclusion This effect of OT on the firing profile of lamina II neurons is in good agreement with the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of OT described in vivo.

  15. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  16. CAMKII activation is not required for maintenance of learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Liraz

    Full Text Available Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is due to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sI(AHP. We have previously shown that learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by persistent protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying this long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the CaMKII, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. KN93, that selectively blocks CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr286, reduced the AHP in neurons from trained and control rat to the same extent. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls remained. Accordingly, the level of activated CaMKII was similar in pirifrom cortex samples taken form trained and control rats. Our data show that although CaMKII modulates the amplitude of AHP of pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, its activation is not required for maintaining learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

  17. Persistent Neuronal Firing in Primary Somatosensory Cortex in the Absence of Working Memory of Trial-Specific Features of the Sample Stimuli in a Haptic Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xianchun; Hsiao, Steven S.; Bodner, Mark; Lenz, Fred; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that primary somatosensory (SI) neurons in well-trained monkeys participated in the haptic-haptic unimodal delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. In this study, 585 SI neurons were recorded in monkeys performing a task that was identical to that in the previous studies but without requiring discrimination and active…

  18. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  19. Repetitive Series Interrupter II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    nated by other authorized documents. The citation of trade names and names of manufacturers is this report is not to be construed as official... intergrating inductor Magnet circuit load resistance Pulse-forming network load resistance Fault network load resistance Time delay between TUT fire and

  20. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  1. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  2. Depolarized inactivation overcomes impaired activation to produce DRG neuron hyperexcitability in a Nav1.7 mutation in a patient with distal limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; van Es, Michael; Zhao, Peng; Salomon, Jody; Drenth, Joost P H; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-09-10

    Sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, is expressed in DRG neurons and regulates their excitability. Genetic and functional studies have established a critical contribution of Nav1.7 to human pain disorders. We have now characterized a novel Nav1.7 mutation (R1279P) from a female human subject with distal limb pain, in which depolarized fast inactivation overrides impaired activation to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing in DRG neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells demonstrated that R1279P significantly depolarizes steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation. It accelerates deactivation, decelerates inactivation, and facilitates repriming. The mutation increases ramp currents in response to slow depolarizations. Our voltage-clamp analysis showed that R1279P depolarizes channel activation, a change that was supported by our multistate structural modeling. Because this mutation confers both gain-of-function and loss-of-function attributes on the Nav1.7 channel, we tested the impact of R1279P expression on DRG neuron excitability. Current-clamp studies reveal that R1279P depolarizes resting membrane potential, decreases current threshold, and increases firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. The populations of spontaneously firing and repetitively firing neurons were increased by expressing R1279P. These observations indicate that the dominant proexcitatory gating changes associated with this mutation, including depolarized steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation, faster repriming, and larger ramp currents, override the depolarizing shift of activation, to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing of nociceptive neurons that underlie pain. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412328-13$15.00/0.

  3. Beyond Critical Exponents in Neuronal Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Butler, Tom; Deville, Robert; Beggs, John; Dahmen, Karin

    2011-03-01

    Neurons form a complex network in the brain, where they interact with one another by firing electrical signals. Neurons firing can trigger other neurons to fire, potentially causing avalanches of activity in the network. In many cases these avalanches have been found to be scale independent, similar to critical phenomena in diverse systems such as magnets and earthquakes. We discuss models for neuronal activity that allow for the extraction of testable, statistical predictions. We compare these models to experimental results, and go beyond critical exponents.

  4. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    , the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  5. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  6. Ensembles of gustatory cortical neurons anticipate and discriminate between tastants in a single lick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Stapleton

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The gustatory cortex (GC processes chemosensory and somatosensory information and is involved in learning and anticipation. Previously we found that a subpopulation of GC neurons responded to tastants in a single lick (Stapleton et al., 2006. Here we extend this investigation to determine if small ensembles of GC neurons, obtained while rats received blocks of tastants on a fixed ratio schedule (FR5, can discriminate between tastants and their concentrations after a single 50 µL delivery. In the FR5 schedule subjects received tastants every fifth (reinforced lick and the intervening licks were unreinforced. The ensemble firing patterns were analyzed with a Bayesian generalized linear model whose parameters included the firing rates and temporal patterns of the spike trains. We found that when both the temporal and rate parameters were included, 12 of 13 ensembles correctly identified single tastant deliveries. We also found that the activity during the unreinforced licks contained signals regarding the identity of the upcoming tastant, which suggests that GC neurons contain anticipatory information about the next tastant delivery. To support this finding we performed experiments in which tastant delivery was randomized within each block and found that the neural activity following the unreinforced licks did not predict the upcoming tastant. Collectively, these results suggest that after a single lick ensembles of GC neurons can discriminate between tastants, that they may utilize both temporal and rate information, and when the tastant delivery is repetitive ensembles contain information about the identity of the upcoming tastant delivery.

  7. A fast 30 kV 5 kHz repetition rate resonant capacitor charger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Huiskamp, T.; van Heesch, E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel circuit topology of a fast 30 kV resonant capacitor charger is presented in this paper. The charger is designed for high repetition rate spark gap based pulsed power modulators. A spark gap can fire spontaneously (pre-firing) during charging of a capacitor bank due to poor dielectric

  8. Medial septal dysfunction by Aβ-induced KCNQ channel-block in glutamatergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leão, Richardson N.; Colom, Luis V.; Borgius, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    (MS) neurons in mice. In glutamatergic neurons Aβ increases firing frequency and blocks the A- and the M-current (IA and IM, respectively). While the IA block is similar in other MS neuron classes, the block of IM is specific to glutamatergic neurons. IM block and a simulated Aβ block mimic the Aβ......-induced increase in spontaneous firing in glutamatergic neurons. Calcium imaging shows that under control conditions glutamatergic neurons rarely fire while nonglutamatergic neurons fire coherently at theta frequencies. Aβ increases the firing rate of glutamatergic neurons while nonglutamatergic neurons lose theta...... firing coherence. Our results demonstrate that Aβ-induced dysfunction of glutamatergic neurons via IM decrease diminishes MS rhythmicity, which may negatively affect hippocampal rhythmogenesis and underlie the memory loss observed in Alzheimer's disease....

  9. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  10. Criticality in Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Ito, Shinya; Brinkman, Braden A. W.; Shimono, Masanori; Deville, R. E. Lee; Beggs, John M.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Butler, Tom C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, experiments detecting the electrical firing patterns in slices of in vitro brain tissue have been analyzed to suggest the presence of scale invariance and possibly criticality in the brain. Much of the work done however has been limited in two ways: 1) the data collected is from local field potentials that do not represent the firing of individual neurons; 2) the analysis has been primarily limited to histograms. In our work we examine data based on the firing of individual neurons (spike data), and greatly extend the analysis by considering shape collapse and exponents. Our results strongly suggest that the brain operates near a tuned critical point of a highly distinctive universality class.

  11. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  12. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  13. Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Use Time and Rate Coding to Transmit Purkinje Neuron Pauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Shyam Kumar; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei convey the final output of the cerebellum to their targets in various parts of the brain. Within the cerebellum their direct upstream connections originate from inhibitory Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have a complex firing pattern of regular spikes interrupted by intermittent pauses of variable length. How can the cerebellar nucleus process this complex input pattern? In this modeling study, we investigate different forms of Purkinje neuron simple spike pause synchrony and its influence on candidate coding strategies in the cerebellar nuclei. That is, we investigate how different alignments of synchronous pauses in synthetic Purkinje neuron spike trains affect either time-locking or rate-changes in the downstream nuclei. We find that Purkinje neuron synchrony is mainly represented by changes in the firing rate of cerebellar nuclei neurons. Pause beginning synchronization produced a unique effect on nuclei neuron firing, while the effect of pause ending and pause overlapping synchronization could not be distinguished from each other. Pause beginning synchronization produced better time-locking of nuclear neurons for short length pauses. We also characterize the effect of pause length and spike jitter on the nuclear neuron firing. Additionally, we find that the rate of rebound responses in nuclear neurons after a synchronous pause is controlled by the firing rate of Purkinje neurons preceding it.

  14. Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Use Time and Rate Coding to Transmit Purkinje Neuron Pauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Shyam Kumar; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei convey the final output of the cerebellum to their targets in various parts of the brain. Within the cerebellum their direct upstream connections originate from inhibitory Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have a complex firing pattern of regular spikes interrupted by intermittent pauses of variable length. How can the cerebellar nucleus process this complex input pattern? In this modeling study, we investigate different forms of Purkinje neuron simple spike pause synchrony and its influence on candidate coding strategies in the cerebellar nuclei. That is, we investigate how different alignments of synchronous pauses in synthetic Purkinje neuron spike trains affect either time-locking or rate-changes in the downstream nuclei. We find that Purkinje neuron synchrony is mainly represented by changes in the firing rate of cerebellar nuclei neurons. Pause beginning synchronization produced a unique effect on nuclei neuron firing, while the effect of pause ending and pause overlapping synchronization could not be distinguished from each other. Pause beginning synchronization produced better time-locking of nuclear neurons for short length pauses. We also characterize the effect of pause length and spike jitter on the nuclear neuron firing. Additionally, we find that the rate of rebound responses in nuclear neurons after a synchronous pause is controlled by the firing rate of Purkinje neurons preceding it. PMID:26630202

  15. Future perspectives in imaging human brain function: A theoretical analysis of techniques that could be used to image neuronal firing in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    There have been enormous advances in the applications of computerised tomography since its inception just over a decade ago, and, as may be seen in many of the other presentations in this symposium, imaging techniques such as PET and NMR can be used to give three dimensional images of various types of metabolic activity. However, attempts to use these techniques to produce images of neuronal functional activity in the sense of neuronal discharge rate have proved to be more difficult, largely because the only parameters that can be measured at present are metabolic, and these have an uncertain relation to the underlying neuronal electrical activity. There appears to be a linear relationship between metabolic activity and the rate of neuronal discharge for lower rates of discharge but it is non-linear over the whole range, and only applies to the steady state. For clinical and neurophysiological applications, it would be very useful to have an imaging device that could produce images of neuronal electrical activity directly, with a high temporal resolution of the order of the action potential, so that individual spikes could be distinguished. This paper is a summary of recent theoretical work which represents an attempt to determine whether such a device could be constructed in the forseeable future. The results are based on an extensive review of the literature and recalculation of data where appropriate. The conclusions are, perhaps surprisingly, positive, and two techniques are put forward as suitable candidates. However, the work is naturally speculative, and is intended more as a basis for discussion with respect to directions for future research than as a statement of certain fact

  16. Increased transient Na+ conductance and action potential output in layer 2/3 prefrontal cortex neurons of the fmr1-/y mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brandy N; Rathour, Rahul K; Baumgardner, Michael E; Kalmbach, Brian E; Johnston, Daniel; Brager, Darrin H

    2017-07-01

    Layer 2/3 neurons of the prefrontal cortex display higher gain of somatic excitability, responding with a higher number of action potentials for a given stimulus, in fmr1 -/y mice. In fmr1 -/y L2/3 neurons, action potentials are taller, faster and narrower. Outside-out patch clamp recordings revealed that the maximum Na + conductance density is higher in fmr1 -/y L2/3 neurons. Measurements of three biophysically distinct K + currents revealed a depolarizing shift in the activation of a rapidly inactivating (A-type) K + conductance. Realistic neuronal simulations of the biophysical observations recapitulated the elevated action potential and repetitive firing phenotype. Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental impairment and autism. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for higher order cognitive processing, and prefrontal dysfunction is believed to underlie many of the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with fragile X syndrome. We recently demonstrated that somatic and dendritic excitability of layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the fmr1 -/y mouse is significantly altered due to changes in several voltage-gated ion channels. In addition to L5 pyramidal neurons, L2/3 pyramidal neurons play an important role in prefrontal circuitry, integrating inputs from both lower brain regions and the contralateral cortex. Using whole-cell current clamp recording, we found that L2/3 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex of fmr1 -/y mouse fired more action potentials for a given stimulus compared with wild-type neurons. In addition, action potentials in fmr1 -/y neurons were significantly larger, faster and narrower. Voltage clamp of outside-out patches from L2/3 neurons revealed that the transient Na + current was significantly larger in fmr1 -/y neurons. Furthermore, the activation curve of somatic A-type K + current was depolarized. Realistic conductance-based simulations revealed that these biophysical changes in Na

  17. The chemokine CXCL1/growth related oncogene increases sodium currents and neuronal excitability in small diameter sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wick Dayna M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered Na+ channel expression, enhanced excitability, and spontaneous activity occur in nerve-injury and inflammatory models of pathological pain, through poorly understood mechanisms. The cytokine GRO/KC (growth related oncogene; CXCL1 shows strong, rapid upregulation in dorsal root ganglion in both nerve injury and inflammatory models. Neurons and glia express its receptor (CXCR2. CXCL1 has well-known effects on immune cells, but little is known about its direct effects on neurons. Results We report that GRO/KC incubation (1.5 nM, overnight caused marked upregulation of Na+ currents in acutely isolated small diameter rat (adult sensory neurons in vitro. In both IB4-positive and IB4-negative sensory neurons, TTX-resistant and TTX-sensitive currents increased 2- to 4 fold, without altered voltage dependence or kinetic changes. These effects required long exposures, and were completely blocked by co-incubation with protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Amplification of cDNA from the neuronal cultures showed that 3 Na channel isoforms were predominant both before and after GRO/KC treatment (Nav 1.1, 1.7, and 1.8. TTX-sensitive isoforms 1.1 and 1.7 significantly increased 2 – 3 fold after GRO/KC incubation, while 1.8 showed a trend towards increased expression. Current clamp experiments showed that GRO/KC caused a marked increase in excitability, including resting potential depolarization, decreased rheobase, and lower action potential threshold. Neurons acquired a striking ability to fire repetitively; IB4-positive cells also showed marked broadening of action potentials. Immunohistochemical labelling confirmed that the CXCR2 receptor was present in most neurons both in dissociated cells and in DRG sections, as previously shown for neurons in the CNS. Conclusion Many studies on the role of chemokines in pain conditions have focused on their rapid and indirect effects on neurons, via release of inflammatory mediators

  18. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  19. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  20. Dopamine Neurons Change the Type of Excitability in Response to Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkin, Boris S.; Lapish, Christopher C.; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal excitability determine the neuron’s response to stimuli, its synchronization and resonance properties and, ultimately, the computations it performs in the brain. We investigated the dynamical mechanisms underlying the excitability type of dopamine (DA) neurons, using a conductance-based biophysical model, and its regulation by intrinsic and synaptic currents. Calibrating the model to reproduce low frequency tonic firing results in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitation balanced by γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition and leads to type I excitable behavior characterized by a continuous decrease in firing frequency in response to hyperpolarizing currents. Furthermore, we analyzed how excitability type of the DA neuron model is influenced by changes in the intrinsic current composition. A subthreshold sodium current is necessary for a continuous frequency decrease during application of a negative current, and the low-frequency “balanced” state during simultaneous activation of NMDA and GABA receptors. Blocking this current switches the neuron to type II characterized by the abrupt onset of repetitive firing. Enhancing the anomalous rectifier Ih current also switches the excitability to type II. Key characteristics of synaptic conductances that may be observed in vivo also change the type of excitability: a depolarized γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) reversal potential or co-activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) leads to an abrupt frequency drop to zero, which is typical for type II excitability. Coactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) together with AMPARs and GABARs shifts the type I/II boundary toward more hyperpolarized GABAR reversal potentials. To better understand how altering each of the aforementioned currents leads to changes in excitability profile of DA neuron, we provide a thorough dynamical analysis. Collectively, these results imply that type I

  1. Characterization of intrinsic properties of cingulate pyramidal neurons in adult mice after nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is important for cognitive and sensory functions including memory and chronic pain. Glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission undergo long-term potentiation in ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral injury. Less information is available for the possible long-term changes in neuronal action potentials or intrinsic properties. In the present study, we characterized cingulate pyramidal cells in the layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. We then examined possible long-term changes in intrinsic properties of the ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral nerve injury. In the control mice, we found that there are three major types of pyramidal cells according to their action potential firing pattern: (i regular spiking (RS cells (24.7%, intrinsic bursting (IB cells (30.9%, and intermediate (IM cells (44.4%. In a state of neuropathic pain, the population distribution (RS: 21.3%; IB: 31.2%; IM: 47.5% and the single action potential properties of these three groups were indistinguishable from those in control mice. However, for repetitive action potentials, IM cells from neuropathic pain animals showed higher initial firing frequency with no change for the properties of RS and IB neurons from neuropathic pain mice. The present results provide the first evidence that, in addition to synaptic potentiation reported previously, peripheral nerve injury produces long-term plastic changes in the action potentials of cingulate pyramidal neurons in a cell type-specific manner.

  2. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  3. The schizophrenia-associated Kv11.1-3.1 isoform results in reduced current accumulation during repetitive brief depolarizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Heide

    Full Text Available Recent genome wide association studies identified a brain and primate specific isoform of a voltage-gated potassium channel, referred to as Kv11.1-3.1, which is significantly associated with schizophrenia. The 3.1 isoform replaces the first 102 amino acids of the most abundant isoform (referred to as Kv11.1-1A with six unique amino acids. Here we show that the Kv11.1-3.1 isoform has faster rates of channel deactivation but a slowing of the rates of inactivation compared to the Kv11.1-1A isoform. The Kv11.1-3.1 isoform also has a significant depolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation. The consequence of the altered gating kinetics is that there is lower current accumulation for Kv11.1-3.1 expressing cells during repetitive action potential firing compared to Kv11.1-1A expressing cells, which in turn will result in longer lasting trains of action potentials. Increased expression of Kv11.1-3.1 channels in the brain of schizophrenia patients might therefore contribute to disorganized neuronal firing.

  4. Transduction of Repetitive Mechanical Stimuli by Piezo1 and Piezo2 Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H. Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations. We find that both channels function as pronounced frequency filters whose transduction efficiencies vary with stimulus frequency, waveform, and duration. We then use numerical simulations and human disease-related point mutations to demonstrate that channel inactivation is the molecular mechanism underlying frequency filtering and further show that frequency filtering is conserved in rapidly adapting mouse DRG neurons. Our results give insight into the potential contributions of Piezos in transducing repetitive mechanical stimuli.

  5. Firing patterns in the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Richard; Marcille, Nicolas; Clopath, Claudia; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2008-11-01

    For simulations of large spiking neuron networks, an accurate, simple and versatile single-neuron modeling framework is required. Here we explore the versatility of a simple two-equation model: the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron. We show that this model generates multiple firing patterns depending on the choice of parameter values, and present a phase diagram describing the transition from one firing type to another. We give an analytical criterion to distinguish between continuous adaption, initial bursting, regular bursting and two types of tonic spiking. Also, we report that the deterministic model is capable of producing irregular spiking when stimulated with constant current, indicating low-dimensional chaos. Lastly, the simple model is fitted to real experiments of cortical neurons under step current stimulation. The results provide support for the suitability of simple models such as the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron for large network simulations.

  6. The straintronic spin-neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Ayan K; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2015-01-01

    In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a ‘spin-neuron’ realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ to mimic neuron firing. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. It dissipates orders of magnitude less energy in threshold operations than the traditional current-driven spin neuron at 0 K temperature and may even be faster. We have also studied the room-temperature firing behaviors of both types of spin neurons and find that thermal noise degrades the performance of both types, but the current-driven type is degraded much more than the straintronic type if both are optimized for maximum energy-efficiency. On the other hand, if both are designed to have the same level of thermal degradation, then the current-driven version will dissipate orders of magnitude more energy than the straintronic version. Thus, the straintronic spin-neuron is superior to current-driven spin neurons. (paper)

  7. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  8. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulating synchronization in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian G.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss several techniques used in simulating neuronal networks by exploring how a network's connectivity structure affects its propensity for synchronous spiking. Network connectivity is generated using the Watts-Strogatz small-world algorithm, and two key measures of network structure are described. These measures quantify structural characteristics that influence collective neuronal spiking, which is simulated using the leaky integrate-and-fire model. Simulations show that adding a small number of random connections to an otherwise lattice-like connectivity structure leads to a dramatic increase in neuronal synchronization.

  10. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  11. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vivian M; Hegeman, Daniel J; Cui, Qiaoling; Kelver, Daniel A; Fiske, Michael P; Glajch, Kelly E; Pitt, Jason E; Huang, Tina Y; Justice, Nicholas J; Chan, C Savio

    2015-08-26

    Compelling evidence suggests that pathological activity of the external globus pallidus (GPe), a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contributes to the motor symptoms of a variety of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have challenged the idea that the GPe comprises a single, homogenous population of neurons that serves as a simple relay in the indirect pathway. However, we still lack a full understanding of the diversity of the neurons that make up the GPe. Specifically, a more precise classification scheme is needed to better describe the fundamental biology and function of different GPe neuron classes. To this end, we generated a novel multicistronic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line under the regulatory elements of the Npas1 gene. Using a combinatorial transgenic and immunohistochemical approach, we discovered that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons in the GPe represent two nonoverlapping cell classes, amounting to 55% and 27% of the total GPe neuron population, respectively. These two genetically identified cell classes projected primarily to the subthalamic nucleus and to the striatum, respectively. Additionally, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons were distinct in their autonomous and driven firing characteristics, their expression of intrinsic ion conductances, and their responsiveness to chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. In summary, our data argue that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons are two distinct functional classes of GPe neurons. This work revises our understanding of the GPe, and provides the foundation for future studies of its function and dysfunction. Until recently, the heterogeneity of the constituent neurons within the external globus pallidus (GPe) was not fully appreciated. We addressed this knowledge gap by discovering two principal GPe neuron classes, which were identified by their nonoverlapping expression of the

  12. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vivian M.; Hegeman, Daniel J.; Cui, Qiaoling; Kelver, Daniel A.; Fiske, Michael P.; Glajch, Kelly E.; Pitt, Jason E.; Huang, Tina Y.; Justice, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that pathological activity of the external globus pallidus (GPe), a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contributes to the motor symptoms of a variety of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have challenged the idea that the GPe comprises a single, homogenous population of neurons that serves as a simple relay in the indirect pathway. However, we still lack a full understanding of the diversity of the neurons that make up the GPe. Specifically, a more precise classification scheme is needed to better describe the fundamental biology and function of different GPe neuron classes. To this end, we generated a novel multicistronic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line under the regulatory elements of the Npas1 gene. Using a combinatorial transgenic and immunohistochemical approach, we discovered that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons in the GPe represent two nonoverlapping cell classes, amounting to 55% and 27% of the total GPe neuron population, respectively. These two genetically identified cell classes projected primarily to the subthalamic nucleus and to the striatum, respectively. Additionally, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons were distinct in their autonomous and driven firing characteristics, their expression of intrinsic ion conductances, and their responsiveness to chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. In summary, our data argue that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons are two distinct functional classes of GPe neurons. This work revises our understanding of the GPe, and provides the foundation for future studies of its function and dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Until recently, the heterogeneity of the constituent neurons within the external globus pallidus (GPe) was not fully appreciated. We addressed this knowledge gap by discovering two principal GPe neuron classes, which were identified by their nonoverlapping

  13. Mirror neurons: From origin to function

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, R; Bird, G; Catmur, C; Press, C; Heyes, C

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively...

  14. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  15. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  16. Evoking prescribed spike times in stochastic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.

  17. Response of spiking neurons to correlated inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Ruben; Rocha, Jaime de la; Renart, Alfonso; Parga, Nestor

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a temporally correlated afferent current on the firing rate of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron is studied. This current is characterized in terms of rates, autocorrelations, and cross correlations, and correlation time scale τ c of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The output rate ν out is calculated in the Fokker-Planck formalism in the limit of both small and large τ c compared to the membrane time constant τ of the neuron. By simulations we check the analytical results, provide an interpolation valid for all τ c , and study the neuron's response to rapid changes in the correlation magnitude

  18. Mirror neuron system: basic findings and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Mazziotta, John C

    2007-09-01

    In primates, ventral premotor and rostral inferior parietal neurons fire during the execution of hand and mouth actions. Some cells (called mirror neurons) also fire when hand and mouth actions are just observed. Mirror neurons provide a simple neural mechanism for understanding the actions of others. In humans, posterior inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal areas have mirror properties. These human areas are relevant to imitative learning and social behavior. Indeed, the socially isolating condition of autism is associated with a deficit in mirror neuron areas. Strategies inspired by mirror neuron research recently have been used in the treatment of autism and in motor rehabilitation after stroke.

  19. Nucleus accumbens neurons encode Pavlovian approach behaviors: evidence from an autoshaping paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J; Wheeler, Robert A; Roitman, Mitchell F; Carelli, Regina M

    2006-03-01

    Environmental stimuli predictive of appetitive events can elicit Pavlovian approach responses that enhance an organism's ability to track and secure natural rewards, but may also contribute to the compulsive nature of drug addiction. Here, we examined the activity of individual nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons during an autoshaping paradigm. One conditioned stimulus (CS+, a retractable lever presented for 10 s) was immediately followed by the delivery of a 45-mg sucrose pellet to a food receptacle, while another stimulus (CS-, a separate retractable lever presented for 10 s) was never followed by sucrose. Approach responses directed at the CS+ and CS- were recorded as lever presses and had no experimental consequence. Rats (n = 9) selectively approached the CS+ on more than 80% of trials and were surgically prepared for electrophysiological recording. Of 76 NAc neurons, 57 cells (75%) exhibited increases and/or decreases in firing rate (i.e. termed 'phasically active') during the CS+ presentation and corresponding approach response. Forty-seven percent of phasically active cells (27 out of 57) were characterized by time-locked but transient increases in cell firing, while 53% (30 out of 57) showed a significant reduction in firing for the duration of the CS+. In contrast, the same excitatory subpopulation exhibited smaller increases in activity relative to CS- onset, while the inhibitory subpopulation showed no change in firing during the CS- period. The magnitude and prevalence of cue-related neural responses reported here indicates that the NAc encodes biologically significant, repetitive approach responses that may model the compulsive nature of drug addiction in humans.

  20. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  1. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...... by dorso-ventral vibrations of the intact animal. We identified six response types: (1) primary-like cells with short latencies and follow repetition rates up to 100 Hz; (2) phasic cells responding only to the first pulse in a train; (3) bursting cells firing several spikes in response to any stimulation......; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  2. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  3. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  4. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  5. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries What's in this article? ...

  6. Dynamical mechanisms for sensitive response of aperiodic firing cells to external stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yong; Xu Jianxue; Hu Sanjue; Kang Yanmei; Yang Hongjun; Duan Yubin

    2004-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon that aperiodic firing neurons have a higher sensitivity to drugs than periodic firing neurons have been reported for the chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. In this study, the dynamical mechanisms for such a phenomenon are uncovered from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory. We use the Rose-Hindmarsh neuron model to illustrate our opinions. Periodic orbit theory is introduced to characterize the dynamical behavior of aperiodic firing neurons. It is considered that bifurcations, crises and sensitive dependence of chaotic motions on control parameters can be the underlying mechanisms. And then, a similar analysis is applied to the modified Chay model describing the firing behavior of pancreatic beta cells. The same dynamical mechanisms can be obtained underlying that aperiodic firing cells are more sensitive to external stimulation than periodic firing ones. As a result, we conjecture that sensitive response of aperiodic firing cells to external stimulation is a universal property of excitable cells

  7. Effects of zoxazolamine and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, R T; McMillen, B A; Speciale, S G; Jarrah, H; Shore, P A; Sanghera, M K; Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1984-05-01

    The effects of zoxazolamine (ZOX) and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism and turnover, and substantia nigra zona compacta DA neuronal impulse flow were studied in rats. ZOX, chlorzoxazone and mephenesin, but not meprobamate, chloral hydrate, diazepam, pentobarbital, ethanol or dantrolene, decreased striatal DA metabolism without affecting striatal DA concentrations. More specifically, ZOX, as a representative muscle relaxant, was shown to decrease striatal DA turnover without directly affecting DA synthesis, catabolism, reuptake, or release. ZOX decreased nigral DA neuronal firing rates and dramatically decreased firing rate variability (normally many of the cells fire with bursting firing patterns but after ZOX the cells often fired with a very regular pacemaker-like firing pattern). ZOX and related centrally acting muscle relaxants appear to decrease striatal DA turnover by decreasing both neuronal firing rate and firing rate variability. The possible relationships between DA neuronal activity and muscle tone are discussed.

  8. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  9. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  10. Responses of Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS) early and late neurons to blood pressure changes in anesthetized F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakova, Jenya; Li, Liang; Hatcher, Jeffrey T; Gu, He; Zhang, Xueguo; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2017-01-01

    Previously, many different types of NTS barosensitive neurons were identified. However, the time course of NTS barosensitive neuronal activity (NA) in response to arterial pressure (AP) changes, and the relationship of NA-AP changes, have not yet been fully quantified. In this study, we made extracellular recordings of single NTS neurons firing in response to AP elevation induced by occlusion of the descending aorta in anesthetized rats. Our findings were that: 1) Thirty-five neurons (from 46 neurons) increased firing, whereas others neurons either decreased firing upon AP elevation, or were biphasic: first decreased firing upon AP elevation and then increased firing during AP decrease. 2) Fourteen neurons with excitatory responses were activated and rapidly increased their firing during the early phase of AP increase (early neurons); whereas 21 neurons did not increase firing until the mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) reached near/after the peak (late neurons). 3) The early neurons had a significantly higher firing rate than late neurons during AP elevation at a similar rate. 4) Early neuron NA-ΔMAP relationship could be well fitted and characterized by the sigmoid logistic function with the maximal gain of 29.3. 5) The increase of early NA correlated linearly with the initial heart rate (HR) reduction. 6) The late neurons did not contribute to the initial HR reduction. However, the late NA could be well correlated with HR reduction during the late phase. Altogether, our study demonstrated that the NTS excitatory neurons could be grouped into early and late neurons based on their firing patterns. The early neurons could be characterized by the sigmoid logistic function, and different neurons may differently contribute to HR regulation. Importantly, the grouping and quantitative methods used in this study may provide a useful tool for future assessment of functional changes of early and late neurons in disease models.

  11. Repetitive learning control of continuous chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua

    2004-01-01

    Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller

  12. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  13. Model-Based Design of Stimulus Trains for Selective Microstimulation of Targeted Neuronal Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntyre, Cameron

    2001-01-01

    ... that accurately reproduced the dynamic firing properties of mammalian neurons, The neuron models were coupled to a three-dimensional finite element model of the spinal cord that solved for the potentials...

  14. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  15. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  16. Untuned But Not Irrelevant: The Role of Untuned Neurons In Sensory Information Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Zylberberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    In the sensory systems, most neurons' firing rates are tuned to at least one aspect of the stimulus. Other neurons are appear to be untuned, meaning that their firing rates do not depend on the stimulus. Previous work on information coding in neural populations has ignored untuned neurons, based on the tacit assumption that they are unimportant. Recent experimental work has questioned this assumption, showing that in some circumstances, neurons with no apparent stimulus tuning can contribute ...

  17. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought process...

  18. Haben repetitive DNA-Sequenzen biologische Funktionen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Maliyakal E.; Knöchel, Walter

    1983-05-01

    By DNA reassociation kinetics it is known that the eucaryotic genome consists of non-repetitive DNA, middle-repetitive DNA and highly repetitive DNA. Whereas the majority of protein-coding genes is located on non-repetitive DNA, repetitive DNA forms a constitutive part of eucaryotic DNA and its amount in most cases equals or even substantially exceeds that of non-repetitive DNA. During the past years a large body of data on repetitive DNA has accumulated and these have prompted speculations ranging from specific roles in the regulation of gene expression to that of a selfish entity with inconsequential functions. The following article summarizes recent findings on structural, transcriptional and evolutionary aspects and, although by no means being proven, some possible biological functions are discussed.

  19. Information transmission with spiking Bayesian neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmann, Timm; Deneve, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Spike trains of cortical neurons resulting from repeatedpresentations of a stimulus are variable and exhibit Poisson-like statistics. Many models of neural coding therefore assumed that sensory information is contained in instantaneous firing rates, not spike times. Here, we ask how much information about time-varying stimuli can be transmitted by spiking neurons with such input and output variability. In particular, does this variability imply spike generation to be intrinsically stochastic? We consider a model neuron that estimates optimally the current state of a time-varying binary variable (e.g. presence of a stimulus) by integrating incoming spikes. The unit signals its current estimate to other units with spikes whenever the estimate increased by a fixed amount. As shown previously, this computation results in integrate and fire dynamics with Poisson-like output spike trains. This output variability is entirely due to the stochastic input rather than noisy spike generation. As a result such a deterministic neuron can transmit most of the information about the time varying stimulus. This contrasts with a standard model of sensory neurons, the linear-nonlinear Poisson (LNP) model which assumes that most variability in output spike trains is due to stochastic spike generation. Although it yields the same firing statistics, we found that such noisy firing results in the loss of most information. Finally, we use this framework to compare potential effects of top-down attention versus bottom-up saliency on information transfer with spiking neurons

  20. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 .s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (U.S.)

  1. Repetitively pulsed material testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Gullickson, R.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1975-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed

  2. Reliable activation of immature neurons in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Mongiat

    Full Text Available Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus develop, mature, and connect over a long interval that can last from six to eight weeks. It has been proposed that, during this period, developing neurons play a relevant role in hippocampal signal processing owing to their distinctive electrical properties. However, it has remained unknown whether immature neurons can be recruited into a network before synaptic and functional maturity have been achieved. To address this question, we used retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein to identify developing granule cells of the adult mouse hippocampus and investigate the balance of afferent excitation, intrinsic excitability, and firing behavior by patch clamp recordings in acute slices. We found that glutamatergic inputs onto young neurons are significantly weaker than those of mature cells, yet stimulation of cortical excitatory axons elicits a similar spiking probability in neurons at either developmental stage. Young neurons are highly efficient in transducing ionic currents into membrane depolarization due to their high input resistance, which decreases substantially in mature neurons as the inward rectifier potassium (Kir conductance increases. Pharmacological blockade of Kir channels in mature neurons mimics the high excitability characteristic of young neurons. Conversely, Kir overexpression induces mature-like firing properties in young neurons. Therefore, the differences in excitatory drive of young and mature neurons are compensated by changes in membrane excitability that render an equalized firing activity. These observations demonstrate that the adult hippocampus continuously generates a population of highly excitable young neurons capable of information processing.

  3. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-07-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.

  4. Glutamate mediated astrocytic filtering of neuronal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Wallach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity.

  5. Glutamate Mediated Astrocytic Filtering of Neuronal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nitzan; De Pittà, Maurizio; Jacob, Eshel Ben; Berry, Hugues; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity. PMID:25521344

  6. Repetitive trauma and nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, E J; Hentz, V R

    1988-01-01

    Repetitive movement of the upper extremity, whether recreational or occupational, may result in various neuropathies, the prototype of which is the median nerve neuropathic in the carpal canal. The pathophysiology of this process is incompletely understood but likely involves both mechanical and ischemic features. Experimentally increased pressures within the carpal canal produced reproducible progressive neuropathy. Changes in vibratory (threshold-type) sensibility appears to be more sensitive than two-point (innervation density-type) sensibility. The specific occupational etiologies of carpal neuropathy are obscured by methodologic and sociological difficulties, but clearly some occupations have high incidences of CTS. History and physical examination are usually sufficient for the diagnosis, but diagnostic assistance when required is available through electrophysiological testing, CT scanning, and possibly MRI. Each of these tests has limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. Treatment by usual conservative means should be combined with rest from possible provocative activities. Surgical release of the carpal canal is helpful in patients failing conservative therapy. Occupational modifications are important in both treatment and prevention of median neuropathy due to repetitive trauma.

  7. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  8. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  9. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  10. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  11. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  12. Synaptic and intrinsic activation of GABAergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory brainstem network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Frank

    Full Text Available GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67 gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA. These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking nicotinic receptors, and many of these GABAergic neurons continue to fire after synaptic blockade. The spontaneous firing in these GABAergic neurons was not altered by the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride that blocks both neurotransmission to these neurons and voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents, but spontaneous firing was diminished by riluzole, demonstrating a role of persistent sodium channels in the spontaneous firing in these cardiorespiratory GABAergic neurons that possess a pacemaker phenotype. The spontaneously firing GABAergic neurons identified in this study that increase their activity during inspiration would support respiratory rhythm generation if they acted primarily to inhibit post-inspiratory neurons and thereby release inspiration neurons to increase their activity. This population of inspiratory-modulated GABAergic neurons could also play a role in inhibiting neurons that are most active during expiration and provide a

  13. Synaptic and intrinsic activation of GABAergic neurons in the cardiorespiratory brainstem network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Julie G; Mendelowitz, David

    2012-01-01

    GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67) gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking nicotinic receptors, and many of these GABAergic neurons continue to fire after synaptic blockade. The spontaneous firing in these GABAergic neurons was not altered by the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker cadmium chloride that blocks both neurotransmission to these neurons and voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents, but spontaneous firing was diminished by riluzole, demonstrating a role of persistent sodium channels in the spontaneous firing in these cardiorespiratory GABAergic neurons that possess a pacemaker phenotype. The spontaneously firing GABAergic neurons identified in this study that increase their activity during inspiration would support respiratory rhythm generation if they acted primarily to inhibit post-inspiratory neurons and thereby release inspiration neurons to increase their activity. This population of inspiratory-modulated GABAergic neurons could also play a role in inhibiting neurons that are most active during expiration and provide a framework for

  14. Upregulation of the sodium channel NaVβ4 subunit and its contributions to mechanical hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability in a rat model of radicular pain induced by local DRG inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenrui; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Barbosa, Cindy; Strong, Judith A.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    High frequency spontaneous firing in myelinated sensory neurons plays a key role in initiating pain behaviors in several different models, including the radicular pain model in which the rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are locally inflamed. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 contributes to pain behaviors and spontaneous activity in this model. Among all the isoforms in adult DRG, NaV1.6 is the main carrier of TTX-sensitive resurgent Na currents that allow high-frequency firing. Resurgent currents flow after a depolarization or action potential, as a blocking particle exits the pore. In most neurons the regulatory β4 subunit is potentially the endogenous blocker. We used in vivo siRNA mediated knockdown of NaVβ4 to examine its role in the DRG inflammation model. NaVβ4 but not control siRNA almost completely blocked mechanical hypersensitivity induced by DRG inflammation. Microelectrode recordings in isolated whole DRGs showed that NaVβ4 siRNA blocked the inflammation-induced increase in spontaneous activity of Aβ neurons, and reduced repetitive firing and other measures of excitability. NaVβ4 was preferentially expressed in larger diameter cells; DRG inflammation increased its expression and this was reversed by NaVβ4 siRNA, based on immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. NaVβ4 siRNA also reduced immunohistochemical NaV1.6 expression. Patch clamp recordings of TTX-sensitive Na currents in acutely cultured medium diameter DRG neurons showed that DRG inflammation increased transient and especially resurgent current; effects blocked by NaVβ4 siRNA. NaVβ4 may represent a more specific target for pain conditions that depend on myelinated neurons expressing NaV1.6. PMID:26785322

  15. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an "all or none" phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera).

  16. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L. [School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-9709 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)

  17. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)

  18. On the number of preganglionic neurones driving human postganglionic sympathetic neurones: a comparison of modelling and empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan G Macefield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Postganglionic sympathetic axons in awake healthy human subjects, regardless of their identity as muscle vasoconstrictor, cutaneous vasoconstrictor or sudomotor neurones, discharge with a low firing probability (~30%, generate low firing rates (~0.5 Hz and typically fire only once per cardiac interval. The purpose of the present study was to use modelling of spike trains in an attempt to define the number of preganglionic neurones that drive an individual postganglionic neurone. Artificial spike trains were generated in 1-3 preganglionic neurones converging onto a single postganglionic neurone. Each preganglionic input fired with a mean interval distribution of either 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 or 3000 ms and the standard deviation varied between 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 x the mean interval; the discharge frequency of each preganglionic neurone exhibited positive skewness and kurtosis. Of the 45 patterns examined, the mean discharge properties of the postganglionic neurone could only be explained by it being driven by, on average, two preganglionic neurones firing with a mean interspike interval of 2500 ms and SD of 5000 ms. The mean firing rate resulting from this pattern was 0.22 Hz, comparable to that of spontaneously active muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in healthy subjects (0.40 Hz. Likewise, the distribution of the number of spikes per cardiac interval was similar between the modelled and actual data: 0 spikes (69.5 vs 66.6 %, 1 spike (25.6 vs 21.2 %, 2 spikes (4.3 vs 6.4 %, 3 spikes (0.5 vs 1.7 % and 4 spikes (0.1 vs 0.7 %. Although some features of the firing patterns could be explained by the postganglionic neurone being driven by a single preganglionic neurone, none of the emulated firing patterns generated by the firing of three preganglionic neurones matched the discharge of the real neurones. These modelling data indicate that, on average, human postganglionic sympathetic neurones are driven by two preganglionic inputs.

  19. Mirror Neurons from Associative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Mirror neurons fire both when executing actions and observing others perform similar actions. Their sensorimotor matching properties have generally been considered a genetic adaptation for social cognition; however, in the present chapter we argue that the evidence in favor of this account is not compelling. Instead we present evidence supporting an alternative account: that mirror neurons’ matching properties arise from associative learning during individual development. Notably, this proces...

  20. Mirror Neurons Modeled Through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are Affected by Channelopathies Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Gabriela; Faria da Silva, Samuel F; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M

    2018-06-01

    Mirror neurons fire action potentials both when the agent performs a certain behavior and watches someone performing a similar action. Here, we present an original mirror neuron model based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) between two morpho-electrical models of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Both neurons fired spontaneously with basal firing rate that follows a Poisson distribution, and the STDP between them was modeled by the triplet algorithm. Our simulation results demonstrated that STDP is sufficient for the rise of mirror neuron function between the pairs of neocortical neurons. This is a proof of concept that pairs of neocortical neurons associating sensory inputs to motor outputs could operate like mirror neurons. In addition, we used the mirror neuron model to investigate whether channelopathies associated with autism spectrum disorder could impair the modeled mirror function. Our simulation results showed that impaired hyperpolarization-activated cationic currents (Ih) affected the mirror function between the pairs of neocortical neurons coupled by STDP.

  1. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  2. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  3. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  4. The Developmental Trajectory of Nonword Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiat, Shula

    2006-01-01

    In line with the original presentation of nonword repetition as a measure of phonological short-term memory (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989), the theoretical account Gathercole (2006) puts forward in her Keynote Article focuses on phonological storage as the key capacity common to nonword repetition and vocabulary acquisition. However, evidence that…

  5. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  6. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  7. Layer 5 Callosal Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons: A Distinct Functional Group of GABAergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Hector; Feyen, Paul L C; Apicella, Alfonso Junior

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that parvalbumin-expressing neurons (CC-Parv neurons) connect the two hemispheres of motor and sensory areas via the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the cortical circuit. Here we test the hypothesis that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons possess anatomical and molecular mechanisms which dampen excitability and modulate the gating of interhemispheric inhibition. In order to investigate this hypothesis we use viral tracing to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of layer 5 CC-Parv and parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons of the mouse auditory cortex (AC). Here we show that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons had larger dendritic fields characterized by longer dendrites that branched farther from the soma, whereas layer 5 Parv neurons had smaller dendritic fields characterized by shorter dendrites that branched nearer to the soma. The layer 5 CC-Parv neurons are characterized by delayed action potential (AP) responses to threshold currents, lower firing rates, and lower instantaneous frequencies compared to the layer 5 Parv neurons. Kv1.1 containing K + channels are the main source of the AP repolarization of the layer 5 CC-Parv and have a major role in determining both the spike delayed response, firing rate and instantaneous frequency of these neurons.

  8. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  9. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  10. First-spike latency in Hodgkin's three classes of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengtong; Chen, Yueling; Chen, Yong

    2013-07-07

    We study the first-spike latency (FSL) in Hodgkin's three classes of neurons with the Morris-Lecar neuron model. It is found that all the three classes of neurons can encode an external stimulus into FSLs. With DC inputs, the FSLs of all of the neurons decrease with input intensity. With input current decreased to the threshold, class 1 neurons show an arbitrary long FSL whereas class 2 and 3 neurons exhibit the short-limit FSLs. When the input current is sinusoidal, the amplitude, frequency and initial phase can be encoded by all the three classes of neurons. The FSLs of all of the neurons decrease with the input amplitude and frequency. When the input frequency is too high, all of the neurons respond with infinite FSLs. When the initial phase increases, the FSL decreases and then jumps to a maximal value and finally decreases linearly. With changes in the input parameters, the FSLs of the class 1 and 2 neurons exhibit similar properties. However, the FSL of the class 3 neurons became slightly longer and only produces responses for a narrow range of initial phase if input frequencies are low. Moreover, our results also show that the FSL and firing rate responses are mutually independent processes and that neurons can encode an external stimulus into different FSLs and firing rates simultaneously. This finding is consistent with the current theory of dual or multiple complementary coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic transition on the seizure-like neuronal activity by astrocytic calcium channel block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rong; Du, Mengmeng; Tang, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of astrocytes in neuronal firing dynamics is becoming increasingly evident. In this study, we used a classical hippocampal tripartite synapse model consisting of soma-dendrite coupled neuron models and a Hodgkin–Huxley-like astrocyte model, to investigate the seizure-like firing in the somatic neuron induced by the over-expressed neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Based on this model, we further investigated the effect of the astrocytic channel block on the neuronal firing through a bifurcation analysis. Results show that blocking inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate(IP3)-dependent calcium channel in astrocytes efficiently suppresses the astrocytic calcium oscillation, which in turn suppresses the seizure-like firing in the neuron.

  12. Spiking neuron devices consisting of single-flux-quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2006-01-01

    Single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits can be used for making spiking neuron devices, which are useful elements for constructing intelligent, brain-like computers. The device we propose is based on the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron (IFN) model and uses a SFQ pulse as an action signal or a spike of neurons. The operation of the neuron device is confirmed by computer simulator. It can operate with a short delay of 100 ps or less and is the highest-speed neuron device ever reported

  13. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Andrew R; Hentges, Shane T

    2017-08-02

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these

  14. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eOster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.

  15. Neuron-Type-Specific Utility in a Brain-Machine Interface: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Martha G; Bergquist, Austin J; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Nagai, Mary K; Zariffa, Jose; Marquez-Chin, Cesar; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-11-01

    Firing rates of single cortical neurons can be volitionally modulated through biofeedback (i.e. operant conditioning), and this information can be transformed to control external devices (i.e. brain-machine interfaces; BMIs). However, not all neurons respond to operant conditioning in BMI implementation. Establishing criteria that predict neuron utility will assist translation of BMI research to clinical applications. Single cortical neurons (n=7) were recorded extracellularly from primary motor cortex of a Long-Evans rat. Recordings were incorporated into a BMI involving up-regulation of firing rate to control the brightness of a light-emitting-diode and subsequent reward. Neurons were classified as 'fast-spiking', 'bursting' or 'regular-spiking' according to waveform-width and intrinsic firing patterns. Fast-spiking and bursting neurons were found to up-regulate firing rate by a factor of 2.43±1.16, demonstrating high utility, while regular-spiking neurons decreased firing rates on average by a factor of 0.73±0.23, demonstrating low utility. The ability to select neurons with high utility will be important to minimize training times and maximize information yield in future clinical BMI applications. The highly contrasting utility observed between fast-spiking and bursting neurons versus regular-spiking neurons allows for the hypothesis to be advanced that intrinsic electrophysiological properties may be useful criteria that predict neuron utility in BMI implementation.

  16. Regulation of neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling across the sleep-wake cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Magistretti, P J

    2016-05-26

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust energy production to neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term "neurometabolic coupling" (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in the firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations into brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose (Gluc) consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, Gluc and lactate (Lac) with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolite regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and NMC in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the "local and use dependent" sleep hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropathic pain in experimental autoimmune neuritis is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of nociceptive DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Omneya; Opitz, Thoralf; Mueller, Marcus; Pitsch, Julika; Becker, Albert; Evert, Bernd Oliver; Beck, Heinz; Jeub, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive paresis and sensory disturbances. Moderate to severe and often intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. Pathology of GBS is classically attributed to demyelination of large, myelinated peripheral fibers. However, there is increasing evidence that neuropathic pain in GBS is associated with impaired function of small, unmyelinated, nociceptive fibers. We therefore examined the functional properties of small DRG neurons, the somata of nociceptive fibers, in a rat model of GBS (experimental autoimmune neuritis=EAN). EAN rats developed behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. This was accompanied by a significant shortening of action potentials due to a more rapid repolarization and an increase in repetitive firing in a subgroup of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons. Na + current measurements revealed a significant increase of the fast TTX-sensitive current and a reduction of the persistent TTX-sensitive current component. These changes of Na + currents may account for the significant decrease in AP duration leading to an overall increase in excitability and are therefore possibly directly linked to pathological pain behavior. Thus, like in other animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, Na + channels seem to be crucially involved in the pathology of GBS and may constitute promising targets for pain modulating pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Neuron-Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling across the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-17

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust the energy production to the neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term “neurometabolic coupling” (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations on brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, glucose and lactate with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolites regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and neurometabolic coupling in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the “local and use dependent” sleep hypothesis.

  19. Polarized axonal surface expression of neuronal KCNQ potassium channels is regulated by calmodulin interaction with KCNQ2 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Cavaretta

    Full Text Available KCNQ potassium channels composed of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits give rise to the M-current, a slow-activating and non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current that limits repetitive firing of action potentials. KCNQ channels are enriched at the surface of axons and axonal initial segments, the sites for action potential generation and modulation. Their enrichment at the axonal surface is impaired by mutations in KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail that cause benign familial neonatal convulsion and myokymia, suggesting that their correct surface distribution and density at the axon is crucial for control of neuronal excitability. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon remain elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of KCNQ channels at the axonal surface of dissociated rat hippocampal cultured neurons is regulated by ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin. Using immunocytochemistry and the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 membrane protein as a trafficking reporter, we demonstrate that fusion of KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail is sufficient to target CD4 protein to the axonal surface whereas inhibition of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 abolishes axonal surface expression of CD4 fusion proteins by retaining them in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 also impairs enrichment of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels at the axonal surface by blocking their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the axon. Consistently, hippocampal neuronal excitability is dampened by transient expression of wild-type KCNQ2 but not mutant KCNQ2 deficient in calmodulin binding. Furthermore, coexpression of mutant calmodulin, which can interact with KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels but not calcium, reduces but does not abolish their enrichment at the axonal surface, suggesting that apo calmodulin but not calcium-bound calmodulin is necessary for their preferential targeting to the axonal

  20. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  1. [Repetitive impulse-associated behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists.

  2. Interaction function of coupled bursting neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xia; Zhang Jiadong

    2016-01-01

    The interaction functions of electrically coupled Hindmarsh–Rose (HR) neurons for different firing patterns are investigated in this paper. By applying the phase reduction technique, the phase response curve (PRC) of the spiking neuron and burst phase response curve (BPRC) of the bursting neuron are derived. Then the interaction function of two coupled neurons can be calculated numerically according to the PRC (or BPRC) and the voltage time course of the neurons. Results show that the BPRC is more and more complicated with the increase of the spike number within a burst, and the curve of the interaction function oscillates more and more frequently with it. However, two certain things are unchanged: ϕ = 0, which corresponds to the in-phase synchronization state, is always the stable equilibrium, while the anti-phase synchronization state with ϕ = 0.5 is an unstable equilibrium. (paper)

  3. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  4. Repetition Suppression in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Predicts Tone Learning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Takashima, Atsuko; Dediu, Dan; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2016-06-01

    Do individuals differ in how efficiently they process non-native sounds? To what extent do these differences relate to individual variability in sound-learning aptitude? We addressed these questions by assessing the sound-learning abilities of Dutch native speakers as they were trained on non-native tone contrasts. We used fMRI repetition suppression to the non-native tones to measure participants' neuronal processing efficiency before and after training. Although all participants improved in tone identification with training, there was large individual variability in learning performance. A repetition suppression effect to tone was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) before training. No whole-brain effect was found after training; a region-of-interest analysis, however, showed that, after training, repetition suppression to tone in the left IFG correlated positively with learning. That is, individuals who were better in learning the non-native tones showed larger repetition suppression in this area. Crucially, this was true even before training. These findings add to existing evidence that the left IFG plays an important role in sound learning and indicate that individual differences in learning aptitude stem from differences in the neuronal efficiency with which non-native sounds are processed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Deterministic integer multiple firing depending on initial state in Wang model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Yong [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: yxie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xu Jianxue [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiang Jun [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2006-12-15

    We investigate numerically dynamical behaviour of the Wang model, which describes the rhythmic activities of thalamic relay neurons. The model neuron exhibits Type I excitability from a global view, but Type II excitability from a local view. There exists a narrow range of bistability, in which a subthreshold oscillation and a suprathreshold firing behaviour coexist. A special firing pattern, integer multiple firing can be found in the certain part of the bistable range. The characteristic feature of such firing pattern is that the histogram of interspike intervals has a multipeaked structure, and the peaks are located at about integer multiples of a basic interspike interval. Since the Wang model is noise-free, the integer multiple firing is a deterministic firing pattern. The existence of bistability leads to the deterministic integer multiple firing depending on the initial state of the model neuron, i.e., the initial values of the state variables.

  6. Deterministic integer multiple firing depending on initial state in Wang model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yong; Xu Jianxue; Jiang Jun

    2006-01-01

    We investigate numerically dynamical behaviour of the Wang model, which describes the rhythmic activities of thalamic relay neurons. The model neuron exhibits Type I excitability from a global view, but Type II excitability from a local view. There exists a narrow range of bistability, in which a subthreshold oscillation and a suprathreshold firing behaviour coexist. A special firing pattern, integer multiple firing can be found in the certain part of the bistable range. The characteristic feature of such firing pattern is that the histogram of interspike intervals has a multipeaked structure, and the peaks are located at about integer multiples of a basic interspike interval. Since the Wang model is noise-free, the integer multiple firing is a deterministic firing pattern. The existence of bistability leads to the deterministic integer multiple firing depending on the initial state of the model neuron, i.e., the initial values of the state variables

  7. Impact of Partial Time Delay on Temporal Dynamics of Watts-Strogatz Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss effects of partial time delay on temporal dynamics of Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world neuronal networks by controlling two parameters. One is the time delay τ and the other is the probability of partial time delay pdelay. Temporal dynamics of WS small-world neuronal networks are discussed with the aid of temporal coherence and mean firing rate. With the obtained simulation results, it is revealed that for small time delay τ, the probability pdelay could weaken temporal coherence and increase mean firing rate of neuronal networks, which indicates that it could improve neuronal firings of the neuronal networks while destroying firing regularity. For large time delay τ, temporal coherence and mean firing rate do not have great changes with respect to pdelay. Time delay τ always has great influence on both temporal coherence and mean firing rate no matter what is the value of pdelay. Moreover, with the analysis of spike trains and histograms of interspike intervals of neurons inside neuronal networks, it is found that the effects of partial time delays on temporal coherence and mean firing rate could be the result of locking between the period of neuronal firing activities and the value of time delay τ. In brief, partial time delay could have great influence on temporal dynamics of the neuronal networks.

  8. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  9. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  10. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  11. Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael; Steinmetz, Nicholas; Cossell, Lee; Iacaruso, M Florencia; Ko, Ho; Barthó, Péter; Moore, Tirin; Hofer, Sonja B; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D

    2015-05-28

    A large population of neurons can, in principle, produce an astronomical number of distinct firing patterns. In cortex, however, these patterns lie in a space of lower dimension, as if individual neurons were "obedient members of a huge orchestra". Here we use recordings from the visual cortex of mouse (Mus musculus) and monkey (Macaca mulatta) to investigate the relationship between individual neurons and the population, and to establish the underlying circuit mechanisms. We show that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing of the population, ranging from strongly coupled 'choristers' to weakly coupled 'soloists'. Population coupling is largely independent of sensory preferences, and it is a fixed cellular attribute, invariant to stimulus conditions. Neurons with high population coupling are more strongly affected by non-sensory behavioural variables such as motor intention. Population coupling reflects a causal relationship, predicting the response of a neuron to optogenetically driven increases in local activity. Moreover, population coupling indicates synaptic connectivity; the population coupling of a neuron, measured in vivo, predicted subsequent in vitro estimates of the number of synapses received from its neighbours. Finally, population coupling provides a compact summary of population activity; knowledge of the population couplings of n neurons predicts a substantial portion of their n(2) pairwise correlations. Population coupling therefore represents a novel, simple measure that characterizes the relationship of each neuron to a larger population, explaining seemingly complex network firing patterns in terms of basic circuit variables.

  12. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Evidence for a persistent sodium conductance in neurons from the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Laursen, A M

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from 39 neurons in a slice preparation of the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus from guinea pigs. Morphological characteristics were confirmed by dying neurons with Lucifer yellow. The neurons were spontaneously active, firing in the range of 8-50 spikes/s. Spike...

  14. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I Angel-Chavez

    Full Text Available In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  15. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Chavez, Luis I; Acosta-Gómez, Eduardo I; Morales-Avalos, Mario; Castro, Elena; Cruzblanca, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV). Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  16. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Dynamics of a structured neuron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakdaman, Khashayar; Salort, Delphine; Perthame, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of assemblies of interacting neurons. For large fully connected networks, the dynamics of the system can be described by a partial differential equation reminiscent of age-structure models used in mathematical ecology, where the 'age' of a neuron represents the time elapsed since its last discharge. The nonlinearity arises from the connectivity J of the network. We prove some mathematical properties of the model that are directly related to qualitative properties. On the one hand, we prove that it is well-posed and that it admits stationary states which, depending upon the connectivity, can be unique or not. On the other hand, we study the long time behaviour of solutions; both for small and large J, we prove the relaxation to the steady state describing asynchronous firing of the neurons. In the middle range, numerical experiments show that periodic solutions appear expressing re-synchronization of the network and asynchronous firing

  18. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  19. Document retrieval on repetitive string collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagie, Travis; Hartikainen, Aleksi; Karhu, Kalle; Kärkkäinen, Juha; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    Most of the fastest-growing string collections today are repetitive, that is, most of the constituent documents are similar to many others. As these collections keep growing, a key approach to handling them is to exploit their repetitiveness, which can reduce their space usage by orders of magnitude. We study the problem of indexing repetitive string collections in order to perform efficient document retrieval operations on them. Document retrieval problems are routinely solved by search engines on large natural language collections, but the techniques are less developed on generic string collections. The case of repetitive string collections is even less understood, and there are very few existing solutions. We develop two novel ideas, interleaved LCPs and precomputed document lists , that yield highly compressed indexes solving the problem of document listing (find all the documents where a string appears), top- k document retrieval (find the k documents where a string appears most often), and document counting (count the number of documents where a string appears). We also show that a classical data structure supporting the latter query becomes highly compressible on repetitive data. Finally, we show how the tools we developed can be combined to solve ranked conjunctive and disjunctive multi-term queries under the simple [Formula: see text] model of relevance. We thoroughly evaluate the resulting techniques in various real-life repetitiveness scenarios, and recommend the best choices for each case.

  20. Burst firing enhances neural output correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ka eChan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks.

  1. Facilitation of speech repetition accuracy by theta burst stimulation of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restle, Julia; Murakami, Takenobu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    The posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in the left hemisphere is thought to form part of the putative human mirror neuron system and is assigned a key role in mapping sensory perception onto motor action. Accordingly, the pIFG is involved in motor imitation of the observed actions of others but it is not known to what extent speech repetition of auditory-presented sentences is also a function of the pIFG. Here we applied fMRI-guided facilitating intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS), or depressant continuous TBS (cTBS), or intermediate TBS (imTBS) over the left pIFG of healthy subjects and compared speech repetition accuracy of foreign Japanese sentences before and after TBS. We found that repetition accuracy improved after iTBS and, to a lesser extent, after imTBS, but remained unchanged after cTBS. In a control experiment, iTBS was applied over the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), a region not involved in sensorimotor processing of auditory-presented speech. Repetition accuracy remained unchanged after iTBS of MOG. We argue that the stimulation type and stimulation site specific facilitating effect of iTBS over left pIFG on speech repetition accuracy indicates a causal role of the human left-hemispheric pIFG in the translation of phonological perception to motor articulatory output for repetition of speech. This effect may prove useful in rehabilitation strategies that combine repetitive speech training with iTBS of the left pIFG in speech disorders, such as aphasia after cerebral stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual-mode operation of neuronal networks involved in left-right alternation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Bouvier, Julien; Borgius, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    All forms of locomotion are repetitive motor activities that require coordinated bilateral activation of muscles. The executive elements of locomotor control are networks of spinal neurons that determine gait pattern through the sequential activation of motor-neuron pools on either side of the bo...

  3. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  4. A Neuron-Based Model of Sleep-Wake Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Peters, Achim; Braun, Hans

    2008-03-01

    In recent years it was discovered that a neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin plays a main role in sleep processes. This peptide is produced by the neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, which project to almost all brain areas. We present a computational model of sleep-wake cycles, which is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons and considers reciprocal glutaminergic projections between the lateral hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Orexin is released as a neuromodulator and is required to keep the neurons firing, which corresponds to the wake state. When orexin is depleted the neurons are getting silent as observed in the sleep state. They can be reactivated by the circadian signal from the suprachiasmatic nucleus and/or external stimuli (alarm clock). Orexin projections to the thalamocortical neurons also can account for their transition from tonic firing activity during wakefulness to synchronized burst discharges during sleep.

  5. Management of synchronized network activity by highly active neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shein, Mark; Raichman, Nadav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Volman, Vladislav; Hanein, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that spontaneous brain activity may have an important functional role. Cultured neuronal networks provide a suitable model system to search for the mechanisms by which neuronal spontaneous activity is maintained and regulated. This activity is marked by synchronized bursting events (SBEs)—short time windows (hundreds of milliseconds) of rapid neuronal firing separated by long quiescent periods (seconds). However, there exists a special subset of rapidly firing neurons whose activity also persists between SBEs. It has been proposed that these highly active (HA) neurons play an important role in the management (i.e. establishment, maintenance and regulation) of the synchronized network activity. Here, we studied the dynamical properties and the functional role of HA neurons in homogeneous and engineered networks, during early network development, upon recovery from chemical inhibition and in response to electrical stimulations. We found that their sequences of inter-spike intervals (ISI) exhibit long time correlations and a unimodal distribution. During the network's development and under intense inhibition, the observed activity follows a transition period during which mostly HA neurons are active. Studying networks with engineered geometry, we found that HA neurons are precursors (the first to fire) of the spontaneous SBEs and are more responsive to electrical stimulations

  6. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  7. Ih equalizes membrane input resistance in a heterogeneous population of fusiform neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Celis Ceballos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a neuronal population, several combinations of its ionic conductances are used to attain a specific firing phenotype. Some neurons present heterogeneity in their firing, generally produced by expression of a specific conductance, but how additional conductances vary along in order to homeostatically regulate membrane excitability is less known. Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity. Particularly, fusiform neurons are divided into quiet, with no spontaneous firing, or active neurons, presenting spontaneous, regular firing. These modes are determined by the expression levels of an intrinsic membrane conductance, an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IKir. In this work, we tested whether other subthreshold conductances vary homeostatically to maintain membrane excitability constant across the two subtypes. We found that Ih expression covaries specifically with IKir in order to maintain membrane resistance constant. The impact of Ih on membrane resistance is dependent on the level of IKir expression, being much smaller in quiet neurons with bigger IKir, but Ih variations are not relevant for creating the quiet and active phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate that the individual proportion of each conductance, and not their absolute conductance, is relevant for determining the neuronal firing mode. We conclude that in fusiform neurons the variations of their different subthreshold conductances are limited to specific conductances in order to create firing heterogeneity and maintain membrane homeostasis.

  8. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  10. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  11. Integrated neuron circuit for implementing neuromorphic system with synaptic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Jungjin; Kwon, Min-Woo; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose and fabricate Integrate & Fire neuron circuit for implementing neuromorphic system. Overall operation of the circuit is verified by measuring discrete devices and the output characteristics of the circuit. Since the neuron circuit shows asymmetric output characteristic that can drive synaptic device with Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) characteristic, the autonomous weight update process is also verified by connecting the synaptic device and the neuron circuit. The timing difference of the pre-neuron and the post-neuron induce autonomous weight change of the synaptic device. Unlike 2-terminal devices, which is frequently used to implement neuromorphic system, proposed scheme of the system enables autonomous weight update and simple configuration by using 4-terminal synapse device and appropriate neuron circuit. Weight update process in the multi-layer neuron-synapse connection ensures implementation of the hardware-based artificial intelligence, based on Spiking-Neural- Network (SNN).

  12. Properties of an intermediate-duration inactivation process of the voltage-gated sodium conductance in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher R; Zeng, Zhen; Williams, David A; Hill-Yardin, Elisa L; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    Rapid transmembrane flow of sodium ions produces the depolarizing phase of action potentials (APs) in most excitable tissue through voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Macroscopic currents display rapid activation followed by fast inactivation (IF) within milliseconds. Slow inactivation (IS) has been subsequently observed in several preparations including neuronal tissues. IS serves important physiological functions, but the kinetic properties are incompletely characterized, especially the operative timescales. Here we present evidence for an "intermediate inactivation" (II) process in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons with time constants of the order of 100 ms. The half-inactivation potentials (V0.5) of steady-state inactivation curves were hyperpolarized by increasing conditioning pulse duration from 50 to 500 ms and could be described by a sum of Boltzmann relations. II state transitions were observed after opening as well as subthreshold potentials. Entry into II after opening was relatively insensitive to membrane potential, and recovery of II became more rapid at hyperpolarized potentials. Removal of fast inactivation with cytoplasmic papaine revealed time constants of INa decay corresponding to II and IS with long depolarizations. Dynamic clamp revealed attenuation of trains of APs over the 10(2)-ms timescale, suggesting a functional role of II in repetitive firing accommodation. These experimental findings could be reproduced with a five-state Markov model. It is likely that II affects important aspects of hippocampal neuron response and may provide a drug target for sodium channel modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Internally generated preactivation of single neurons in human medial frontal cortex predicts volition

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Itzhak; Mukamel, Roy; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how self-initiated behavior is encoded by neuronal circuits in the human brain remains elusive. We recorded the activity of 1019 neurons while twelve subjects performed self-initiated finger movement. We report progressive neuronal recruitment over ∼1500 ms before subjects report making the decision to move. We observed progressive increase or decrease in neuronal firing rate, particularly in the supplementary motor area (SMA), as the reported time of decision was approached. A ...

  14. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of premotor and parietal cells known as mirror neurons in the macaque brain that fire not only when the animal is in action, but also when it observes others carrying out the same actions provides a plausible neurophysiological mechanism for a variety of important social behaviours, from imitation to empathy. Recent data also show that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in humans might be a core deficit in autism, a socially isolating condition. Here, we review the neurophysiology of the mirror neuron system and its role in social cognition and discuss the clinical implications of mirror neuron dysfunction.

  15. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  16. Prototypic and Arkypallidal Neurons in the Dopamine-Intact External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Azzedine; Mallet, Nicolas; Mohamed, Foad Y.; Sharott, Andrew; Dodson, Paul D.; Nakamura, Kouichi C.; Suri, Sana; Avery, Sophie V.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Garas, Farid N.; Garas, Shady N.; Vinciati, Federica; Morin, Stéphanie; Bezard, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    Studies in dopamine-depleted rats indicate that the external globus pallidus (GPe) contains two main types of GABAergic projection cell; so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. Here, we used correlative anatomical and electrophysiological approaches in rats to determine whether and how this dichotomous organization applies to the dopamine-intact GPe. Prototypic neurons coexpressed the transcription factors Nkx2-1 and Lhx6, comprised approximately two-thirds of all GPe neurons, and were the major GPe cell type innervating the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In contrast, arkypallidal neurons expressed the transcription factor FoxP2, constituted just over one-fourth of GPe neurons, and innervated the striatum but not STN. In anesthetized dopamine-intact rats, molecularly identified prototypic neurons fired at relatively high rates and with high regularity, regardless of brain state (slow-wave activity or spontaneous activation). On average, arkypallidal neurons fired at lower rates and regularities than prototypic neurons, and the two cell types could be further distinguished by the temporal coupling of their firing to ongoing cortical oscillations. Complementing the activity differences observed in vivo, the autonomous firing of identified arkypallidal neurons in vitro was slower and more variable than that of prototypic neurons, which tallied with arkypallidal neurons displaying lower amplitudes of a “persistent” sodium current important for such pacemaking. Arkypallidal neurons also exhibited weaker driven and rebound firing compared with prototypic neurons. In conclusion, our data support the concept that a dichotomous functional organization, as actioned by arkypallidal and prototypic neurons with specialized molecular, structural, and physiological properties, is fundamental to the operations of the dopamine-intact GPe. PMID:25926446

  17. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  18. Leaders of neuronal cultures in a quorum percolation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical framework using quorum-percolation for describing the initiation of activity in a neural culture. The cultures are modeled as random graphs, whose nodes are neurons with $kin$ inputs and $kout$ outputs, and whose input degrees $kin=k$ obey given distribution functions $p_k$. We examine the firing activity of the population of neurons according to their input degree ($k$ classes and calculate for each class its firing probability $Phi_k(t$ as a function of $t$. The probability of a node to fire is found to be determined by its in-degree $k$, and the first-to-fire neurons are those that have a high $k$. A small minority of high-$k$ classes may be called ``Leaders,'' as they form an inter-connected subnetwork that consistently fires much before the rest of the culture. Once initiated, the activity spreads from the Leaders to the less connected majority of the culture. We then use the distribution of in-degree of the Leaders to study the growth rate of the number of neurons active in a burst, which was experimentally measured to be initially exponential. We find that this kind of growth rate is best described by a population that has an in-degree distribution that is a Gaussian centered around $k=75$ with width $sigma=31$ for the majority of the neurons, but also has a power law tail with exponent $-2$ for ten percent of the population. Neurons in the tail may have as many as $k=4,700$ inputs. We explore and discuss the correspondence between the degree distribution and a dynamic neuronal threshold, showing that from the functional point of view, structure and elementary dynamics are interchangeable. We discuss possible geometric origins of this distribution, and comment on the importance of size, or of having a large number of neurons, in the culture.

  19. Noise in attractor networks in the brain produced by graded firing rate representations

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Tristan J.; Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo; Feng, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Representations in the cortex are often distributed with graded firing rates in the neuronal populations. The firing rate\\ud probability distribution of each neuron to a set of stimuli is often exponential or gamma. In processes in the brain, such as\\ud decision-making, that are influenced by the noise produced by the close to random spike timings of each neuron for a given\\ud mean rate, the noise with this graded type of representation may be larger than with the binary firing rate distribut...

  20. Bistability induces episodic spike communication by inhibitory neurons in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, V B; Asatryan, S Yu

    2011-09-01

    Bistability is one of the important features of nonlinear dynamical systems. In neurodynamics, bistability has been found in basic Hodgkin-Huxley equations describing the cell membrane dynamics. When the neuron is clamped near its threshold, the stable rest potential may coexist with the stable limit cycle describing periodic spiking. However, this effect is often neglected in network computations where the neurons are typically reduced to threshold firing units (e.g., integrate-and-fire models). We found that the bistability may induce spike communication by inhibitory coupled neurons in the spiking network. The communication is realized in the form of episodic discharges with synchronous (correlated) spikes during the episodes. A spiking phase map is constructed to describe the synchronization and to estimate basic spike phase locking modes.

  1. Diversity of layer 5 projection neurons in the mouse motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Manfred J.; Tantirigama, Malinda L. S.; Sonntag, Ivo; Hughes, Stephanie M.; Empson, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    In the primary motor cortex (M1), layer 5 projection neurons signal directly to distant motor structures to drive movement. Despite their pivotal position and acknowledged diversity these neurons are traditionally separated into broad commissural and corticofugal types, and until now no attempt has been made at resolving the basis for their diversity. We therefore probed the electrophysiological and morphological properties of retrogradely labeled M1 corticospinal (CSp), corticothalamic (CTh), and commissural projecting corticostriatal (CStr) and corticocortical (CC) neurons. An unsupervised cluster analysis established at least four phenotypes with additional differences between lumbar and cervical projecting CSp neurons. Distinguishing parameters included the action potential (AP) waveform, firing behavior, the hyperpolarisation-activated sag potential, sublayer position, and soma and dendrite size. CTh neurons differed from CSp neurons in showing spike frequency acceleration and a greater sag potential. CStr neurons had the lowest AP amplitude and maximum rise rate of all neurons. Temperature influenced spike train behavior in corticofugal neurons. At 26°C CTh neurons fired bursts of APs more often than CSp neurons, but at 36°C both groups fired regular APs. Our findings provide reliable phenotypic fingerprints to identify distinct M1 projection neuron classes as a tool to understand their unique contributions to motor function. PMID:24137110

  2. Diversity of Layer 5 Projection Neurons in the Mouse Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J Oswald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary motor cortex (M1, layer 5 projection neurons signal directly to distant motor structures to drive movement. Despite their pivotal position and acknowledged diversity these neurons are traditionally separated into broad commissural and corticofugal types, and until now no attempt has been made at resolving the basis for their diversity. We therefore probed the electrophysiological and morphological properties of retrogradely labelled M1 corticospinal (CSp, corticothalamic (CTh, and commissural projecting corticostriatal (CStr and corticocortical (CC neurons. An unsupervised cluster analysis established at least four phenotypes with additional differences between lumbar and cervical projecting CSp neurons. Distinguishing parameters included the action potential (AP waveform, firing behaviour, the hyperpolarisation-activated sag potential, sublayer position, and soma and dendrite size. CTh neurons differed from CSp neurons in showing spike frequency acceleration and a greater sag potential. CStr neurons had the lowest AP amplitude and maximum rise rate of all neurons. Temperature influenced spike train behaviour in corticofugal neurons. At 26 ºC CTh neurons fired bursts of APs more often than CSp neurons, but at 36 ºC both groups fired regular APs. Our findings provide reliable phenotypic fingerprints to identify distinct M1 projection neuron classes as a tool to understand their unique contributions to motor function.

  3. Measure of synchrony in the activity of intrinsic cardiac neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Salavatian, Siamak; Jacquemet, Vincent; Beaumont, Eric; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Recent multielectrode array recordings in ganglionated plexi of canine atria have opened the way to the study of population dynamics of intrinsic cardiac neurons. These data provide critical insights into the role of local processing that these ganglia play in the regulation of cardiac function. Low firing rates, marked non-stationarity, interplay with the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems and artifacts generated by myocardial activity create new constraints not present in brain recordings for which almost all neuronal analysis techniques have been developed. We adapted and extended the jitter-based synchrony index (SI) to (1) provide a robust and computationally efficient tool for assessing the level and statistical significance of SI between cardiac neurons, (2) estimate the bias on SI resulting from neuronal activity possibly hidden in myocardial artifacts, (3) quantify the synchrony or anti-synchrony between neuronal activity and the phase in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. The method was validated on firing time series from a total of 98 individual neurons identified in 8 dog experiments. SI ranged from −0.14 to 0.66, with 23 pairs of neurons with SI > 0.1. The estimated bias due to artifacts was typically <1%. Strongly cardiovascular- and pulmonary-related neurons (SI > 0.5) were found. Results support the use of jitter-based SI in the context of intrinsic cardiac neurons. (paper)

  4. Spiking Activity of a LIF Neuron in Distributed Delay Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Kumar Choudhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of membrane potential and spiking activity for a single leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neuron in distributed delay framework (DDF is investigated. DDF provides a mechanism to incorporate memory element in terms of delay (kernel function into a single neuron models. This investigation includes LIF neuron model with two different kinds of delay kernel functions, namely, gamma distributed delay kernel function and hypo-exponential distributed delay kernel function. Evolution of membrane potential for considered models is studied in terms of stationary state probability distribution (SPD. Stationary state probability distribution of membrane potential (SPDV for considered neuron models are found asymptotically similar which is Gaussian distributed. In order to investigate the effect of membrane potential delay, rate code scheme for neuronal information processing is applied. Firing rate and Fano-factor for considered neuron models are calculated and standard LIF model is used for comparative study. It is noticed that distributed delay increases the spiking activity of a neuron. Increase in spiking activity of neuron in DDF is larger for hypo-exponential distributed delay function than gamma distributed delay function. Moreover, in case of hypo-exponential delay function, a LIF neuron generates spikes with Fano-factor less than 1.

  5. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  6. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  7. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  8. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  9. The effects of poliomyelitis on motor unit behavior during repetitive muscle actions: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A

    2014-09-06

    Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by the poliovirus and usually results in muscle atrophy and weakness occurring in the lower limbs. Indwelling electromyography has been used frequently to investigate the denervation and innervation characteristics of the affected muscle. Recently developed technology allows the decomposition of the raw surface electromyography signals into the firing instances of single motor units. There is limited information regarding this electromyographic decomposition in clinical populations. In addition, regardless of electromyographic methods, no study has examined muscle activation parameters during repetitive muscle actions in polio patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit firing rates and electromyographic amplitude and center frequency of the vastus lateralis during 20 repetitive isometric muscle actions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction in healthy subjects and one patient that acquired acute paralytic poliomyelitis. One participant that acquired acute type III spinal poliomyelitis (Caucasian male, age = 29 yrs) at 3 months of age and three healthy participants (Caucasian females, age = 19.7 ± 2.1 yrs) participated in this study. The polio participant reported neuromuscular deficiencies as a result of disease in the hips, knees, buttocks, thighs, and lower legs. None of the healthy participants reported any current or ongoing neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal injuries. An acute bout of poliomyelitis altered motor unit behavior, such as, healthy participants displayed greater firing rates than the polio patient. The reduction in motor unit firing rates was likely a fatigue protecting mechanism since denervation via poliomyelitis results in a reduction of motorneurons. In addition, the concurrent changes in motor unit firing rates, electromyography amplitude and frequency for the polio participant would suggest that the entire motorneuron pool was utilized in each contraction unlike

  10. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...

  11. Universal data compression and repetition times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frans M J

    1989-01-01

    A new universal data compression algorithm is described. This algorithm encodes L source symbols at a time. For the class of binary stationary sources, its rate does not exceed [formula omitted] [formula omitted] bits per source symbol. In our analysis, a property of repetition times turns out to be

  12. Matriculation Research Report: Course Repetition Data & Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerda, Joe

    Due to concerns that its policy on class repetition was not promoting student success, California's College of the Canyons (CoC) undertook a project to analyze student course-taking patterns and make recommendations to modify the policy. Existing college policy did not follow Section 58161 of the State Educational Code that allows colleges to…

  13. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  14. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  15. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  16. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment…

  17. Mirror neurons: from origin to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent. It is widely believed that mirror neurons are a genetic adaptation for action understanding; that they were designed by evolution to fulfill a specific socio-cognitive function. In contrast, we argue that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function. The evidence supporting this view shows that (1) mirror neurons do not consistently encode action "goals"; (2) the contingency- and context-sensitive nature of associative learning explains the full range of mirror neuron properties; (3) human infants receive enough sensorimotor experience to support associative learning of mirror neurons ("wealth of the stimulus"); and (4) mirror neurons can be changed in radical ways by sensorimotor training. The associative account implies that reliable information about the function of mirror neurons can be obtained only by research based on developmental history, system-level theory, and careful experimentation.

  18. Effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Perc, Matjaž; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we study effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks. Our focus is on the impact of two parameters, namely the time delay τ and the probability of partial time delay pdelay, whereby the latter determines the probability with which a connection between two neurons is delayed. Our research reveals that partial time delays significantly affect phase synchronization in this system. In particular, partial time delays can either enhance or decrease phase synchronization and induce synchronization transitions with changes in the mean firing rate of neurons, as well as induce switching between synchronized neurons with period-1 firing to synchronized neurons with period-2 firing. Moreover, in comparison to a neuronal network where all connections are delayed, we show that small partial time delay probabilities have especially different influences on phase synchronization of neuronal networks.

  19. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  20. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2008-01-01

    neurons). These features enable the neurons to adapt their responses to high-rate inputs from sensors, and to adapt their firing thresholds to mitigate noise or effects of potential sensor failure. The mathematical derivation of the SVM starts from a prior model, known in the art as the point soma model, which captures all of the salient properties of neuronal response while keeping the computational cost low. The point-soma latency time is modified to be an exponentially decaying function of the strength of the applied potential. Choosing computational efficiency over biological fidelity, the dendrites surrounding a neuron are represented by simplified compartmental submodels and there are no dendritic spines. Updates to the dendritic potential, calcium-ion concentrations and conductances, and potassium-ion conductances are done by use of equations similar to those of the point soma. Diffusion processes in dendrites are modeled by averaging among nearest-neighbor compartments. Inputs to each of the dendritic compartments come from sensors. Alternatively or in addition, when an affected neuron is part of a pool, inputs can come from other spiking neurons. At present, SVM neural networks are implemented by computational simulation, using algorithms that encode the SVM and its submodels. However, it should be possible to implement these neural networks in hardware: The differential equations for the dendritic and cellular processes in the SVM model of spiking neurons map to equivalent circuits that can be implemented directly in analog very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits.

  1. Stable Control of Firing Rate Mean and Variance by Dual Homeostatic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan; Miller, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Homeostatic processes that provide negative feedback to regulate neuronal firing rates are essential for normal brain function. Indeed, multiple parameters of individual neurons, including the scale of afferent synapse strengths and the densities of specific ion channels, have been observed to change on homeostatic time scales to oppose the effects of chronic changes in synaptic input. This raises the question of whether these processes are controlled by a single slow feedback variable or multiple slow variables. A single homeostatic process providing negative feedback to a neuron's firing rate naturally maintains a stable homeostatic equilibrium with a characteristic mean firing rate; but the conditions under which multiple slow feedbacks produce a stable homeostatic equilibrium have not yet been explored. Here we study a highly general model of homeostatic firing rate control in which two slow variables provide negative feedback to drive a firing rate toward two different target rates. Using dynamical systems techniques, we show that such a control system can be used to stably maintain a neuron's characteristic firing rate mean and variance in the face of perturbations, and we derive conditions under which this happens. We also derive expressions that clarify the relationship between the homeostatic firing rate targets and the resulting stable firing rate mean and variance. We provide specific examples of neuronal systems that can be effectively regulated by dual homeostasis. One of these examples is a recurrent excitatory network, which a dual feedback system can robustly tune to serve as an integrator.

  2. Relationship between the mechanisms of gamma rhythm generation and the magnitude of the macroscopic phase response function in a population of excitatory and inhibitory modified quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Akihiko; Ogawa, Yutaro; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Kotani, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are thought to play an important role in brain function. Interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal interneuron gamma (PING) mechanisms have been proposed as generation mechanisms for these oscillations. However, the relation between the generation mechanisms and the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation are still unclear. Among the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation, the phase response function (PRF) is important because it encodes the response of the oscillation to inputs. Recently, the PRF for an inhibitory population of modified theta neurons that generate an ING rhythm was computed by the adjoint method applied to the associated Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the model. The modified theta model incorporates conductance-based synapses as well as the voltage and current dynamics. Here, we extended this previous work by creating an excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) network using the modified theta model and described the population dynamics with the corresponding FPE. We conducted a bifurcation analysis of the FPE to find parameter regions which generate gamma oscillations. In order to label the oscillatory parameter regions by their generation mechanisms, we defined ING- and PING-type gamma oscillation in a mathematically plausible way based on the driver of the inhibitory population. We labeled the oscillatory parameter regions by these generation mechanisms and derived PRFs via the adjoint method on the FPE in order to investigate the differences in the responses of each type of oscillation to inputs. PRFs for PING and ING mechanisms are derived and compared. We found the amplitude of the PRF for the excitatory population is larger in the PING case than in the ING case. Finally, the E-I population of the modified theta neuron enabled us to analyze the PRFs of PING-type gamma oscillation and the entrainment ability of E and I populations. We found a parameter region in which PRFs of E and I are both purely positive in the case of

  3. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  4. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-07-24

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors.

  5. Prediction of the Maximum Number of Repetitions and Repetitions in Reserve From Barbell Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Feriche, Belén; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Padial, Paulino; Haff, Guy Gregory

    2018-03-01

    To provide 2 general equations to estimate the maximum possible number of repetitions (XRM) from the mean velocity (MV) of the barbell and the MV associated with a given number of repetitions in reserve, as well as to determine the between-sessions reliability of the MV associated with each XRM. After determination of the bench-press 1-repetition maximum (1RM; 1.15 ± 0.21 kg/kg body mass), 21 men (age 23.0 ± 2.7 y, body mass 72.7 ± 8.3 kg, body height 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed 4 sets of as many repetitions as possible against relative loads of 60%1RM, 70%1RM, 80%1RM, and 90%1RM over 2 separate sessions. The different loads were tested in a randomized order with 10 min of rest between them. All repetitions were performed at the maximum intended velocity. Both the general equation to predict the XRM from the fastest MV of the set (CV = 15.8-18.5%) and the general equation to predict MV associated with a given number of repetitions in reserve (CV = 14.6-28.8%) failed to provide data with acceptable between-subjects variability. However, a strong relationship (median r 2  = .984) and acceptable reliability (CV  .85) were observed between the fastest MV of the set and the XRM when considering individual data. These results indicate that generalized group equations are not acceptable methods for estimating the XRM-MV relationship or the number of repetitions in reserve. When attempting to estimate the XRM-MV relationship, one must use individualized relationships to objectively estimate the exact number of repetitions that can be performed in a training set.

  6. Effect of Electroacupuncture at ST36 on Gastric-Related Neurons in Spinal Dorsal Horn and Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA at the ST36 acupoint on the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. There were different effects of gastric distention in SDH and NTS in 46 male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 10 excitatory neurons in SDH, most of the neurons were inhibited by homolateral EA. The firing rates decreased significantly (P<0.05 in 10 excitatory gastric-related neurons in NTS; the firing rates of 6 neurons were further excited by homolateral EA, with a significant increase of the firing rates (P<0.05; all inhibitory gastric-related neurons in NTS were excited by EA. The inhibition rate of homolateral EA was significantly increased in comparison with contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of SDH (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between homolateral and contralateral EA in gastric-related neurons of NTS. EA at ST36 changes the firing rate of gastric-related neurons in SDH and NTS. However, there are some differences in responsive mode in these neurons. The existence of these differences could be one of the physiological foundations of diversity and complexity in EA effects.

  7. If you negate, you may forget: negated repetitions impair memory compared with affirmative repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ruth; Schul, Yaacov; Rosenthal, Meytal

    2014-08-01

    One of the most robust laws of memory is that repeated activation improves memory. Our study shows that the nature of repetition matters. Specifically, although both negated repetition and affirmative repetition improve memory compared with no repetition, negated repetition hinders memory compared with affirmative repetition. After showing participants different entities, we asked them about features of these entities, leading to either "yes" or "no" responses. Our findings show that correctly negating an incorrect feature of an entity elicits an active forgetting effect compared with correctly affirming its true features. For example, after seeing someone drink a glass of white wine, answering "no" to "was it red wine?" may lead one to greater memory loss of the individual drinking wine at all compared with answering "yes" to "was it white wine?" We find this negation-induced forgetting effect in 4 experiments that differ in (a) the meaning given for the negation, (b) the type of stimuli (visual or verbal), and (c) the memory measure (recognition or free recall). We discuss possible underlying mechanisms and offer theoretical and applied implications of the negation-induced forgetting effect in relation to other known inhibition effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. From spiking neuron models to linear-nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Brunel, Nicolas

    2011-01-20

    Neurons transform time-varying inputs into action potentials emitted stochastically at a time dependent rate. The mapping from current input to output firing rate is often represented with the help of phenomenological models such as the linear-nonlinear (LN) cascade, in which the output firing rate is estimated by applying to the input successively a linear temporal filter and a static non-linear transformation. These simplified models leave out the biophysical details of action potential generation. It is not a priori clear to which extent the input-output mapping of biophysically more realistic, spiking neuron models can be reduced to a simple linear-nonlinear cascade. Here we investigate this question for the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF), exponential integrate-and-fire (EIF) and conductance-based Wang-Buzsáki models in presence of background synaptic activity. We exploit available analytic results for these models to determine the corresponding linear filter and static non-linearity in a parameter-free form. We show that the obtained functions are identical to the linear filter and static non-linearity determined using standard reverse correlation analysis. We then quantitatively compare the output of the corresponding linear-nonlinear cascade with numerical simulations of spiking neurons, systematically varying the parameters of input signal and background noise. We find that the LN cascade provides accurate estimates of the firing rates of spiking neurons in most of parameter space. For the EIF and Wang-Buzsáki models, we show that the LN cascade can be reduced to a firing rate model, the timescale of which we determine analytically. Finally we introduce an adaptive timescale rate model in which the timescale of the linear filter depends on the instantaneous firing rate. This model leads to highly accurate estimates of instantaneous firing rates.

  9. Deciphering mirror neurons: rational decision versus associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Elias L

    2014-04-01

    The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons fire or do not fire - even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, that is, with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.

  10. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bazzigaluppi; Azin Ebrahim Amini; Iliya Weisspapir; Bojana Stefanovic; Peter L. Carlen

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilizat...

  11. Burst firing in a motion-sensitive neural pathway correlates with expansion properties of looming objects that evoke avoidance behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Allan McMillan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The locust visual system contains a well-defined motion-sensitive pathway that transfers visual input to motor centers involved in predator evasion and collision avoidance. One interneuron in this pathway, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD, is typically described as using rate coding; edge expansion of approaching objects causes an increased rate of neuronal firing that peaks after a certain retinal threshold angle is exceeded. However, evidence of intrinsic DCMD bursting properties combined with observable oscillations in mean firing rates and tight clustering of spikes in raw traces, suggest that bursting may be important for motion detection. Sensory neuron bursting provides important timing information about dynamic stimuli in many model systems, yet no studies have rigorously investigated if bursting occurs in the locust DCMD during object approach. We presented repetitions of 30 looming stimuli known to generate behavioural responses to each of 20 locusts in order to identify and quantify putative bursting activity in the DCMD. Overall, we found a bimodal distribution of inter-spike intervals (ISI with peaks of more frequent and shorter ISIs occurring from 1-8 ms and longer less frequent ISIs occurring from 40-50 ms. Subsequent analysis identified bursts and isolated single spikes from the responses. Bursting frequency increased in the latter phase of an approach and peaked at the time of collision, while isolated spiking was predominant during the beginning of stimulus approach. We also found that the majority of inter-burst intervals occurred at 40-50 ms (or 20-25 bursts/s. Bursting also occurred across varied stimulus parameters and suggests that burst timing may be a key component of looming detection. Our findings suggest that the DCMD uses two modes of coding to transmit information about looming stimuli and that these modes change dynamically with a changing stimulus at a behaviourally-relevant time.

  12. Short-term adaptations in spinal cord circuits evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: possible underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to induce adaptations in cortical neuronal circuitries. In the present study we investigated whether rTMS, through its effect on corticospinal pathways, also produces adaptations at the spinal level, and what the neuronal mechanisms...... that the depression of the H-reflex by rTMS can be explained, at least partly, by an increased presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferents. In contrast, rTMS had no effect on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition from ankle dorsiflexors to plantarflexors. We conclude that a train of rTMS may modulate transmission...

  13. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-03-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  14. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    Full Text Available It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans. The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum. These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  15. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution. PMID:21390261

  16. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  17. The pairwise phase consistency in cortical network and its relationship with neuronal activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-band neuronal oscillation and synchronization with the range of 30-90 Hz are ubiquitous phenomenon across numerous brain areas and various species, and correlated with plenty of cognitive functions. The phase of the oscillation, as one aspect of CTC (Communication through Coherence hypothesis, underlies various functions for feature coding, memory processing and behaviour performing. The PPC (Pairwise Phase Consistency, an improved coherence measure, statistically quantifies the strength of phase synchronization. In order to evaluate the PPC and its relationships with input stimulus, neuronal activation and firing rate, a simplified spiking neuronal network is constructed to simulate orientation columns in primary visual cortex. If the input orientation stimulus is preferred for a certain orientation column, neurons within this corresponding column will obtain higher firing rate and stronger neuronal activation, which consequently engender higher PPC values, with higher PPC corresponding to higher firing rate. In addition, we investigate the PPC in time resolved analysis with a sliding window.

  18. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  19. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  20. Treating Clinical Depression with Repetitive Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using the Brainsway H1-coil

    OpenAIRE

    Feifel, David; Pappas, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuron...

  1. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  2. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  3. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  4. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  5. Distinct Developmental Origins Manifest in the Specialized Encoding of Movement by Adult Neurons of the External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Duffell, James M.; Garas, Farid N.; Doig, Natalie M.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Duguid, Ian C.; Bogacz, Rafal; Butt, Simon J.B.; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional codes initiated during brain development are ultimately realized in adulthood as distinct cell types performing specialized roles in behavior. Focusing on the mouse external globus pallidus (GPe), we demonstrate that the potential contributions of two GABAergic GPe cell types to voluntary action are fated from early life to be distinct. Prototypic GPe neurons derive from the medial ganglionic eminence of the embryonic subpallium and express the transcription factor Nkx2-1. These neurons fire at high rates during alert rest, and encode movements through heterogeneous firing rate changes, with many neurons decreasing their activity. In contrast, arkypallidal GPe neurons originate from lateral/caudal ganglionic eminences, express the transcription factor FoxP2, fire at low rates during rest, and encode movements with robust increases in firing. We conclude that developmental diversity positions prototypic and arkypallidal neurons to fulfil distinct roles in behavior via their disparate regulation of GABA release onto different basal ganglia targets. PMID:25843402

  6. Arcuate hypothalamic AgRP and putative POMC neurons show opposite changes in spiking across multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Ramesh, Rohan N; Burgess, Christian R; Patella, Paola; Yang, Zongfang; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Agouti-related-peptide (AgRP) neurons—interoceptive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC)—are both necessary and sufficient for driving feeding behavior. To better understand the functional roles of AgRP neurons, we performed optetrode electrophysiological recordings from AgRP neurons in awake, behaving AgRP-IRES-Cre mice. In free-feeding mice, we observed a fivefold increase in AgRP neuron firing with mounting caloric deficit in afternoon vs morning recordings. In food-restricted mice, as food became available, AgRP neuron firing dropped, yet remained elevated as compared to firing in sated mice. The rapid drop in spiking activity of AgRP neurons at meal onset may reflect a termination of the drive to find food, while residual, persistent spiking may reflect a sustained drive to consume food. Moreover, nearby neurons inhibited by AgRP neuron photostimulation, likely including satiety-promoting pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, demonstrated opposite changes in spiking. Finally, firing of ARC neurons was also rapidly modulated within seconds of individual licks for liquid food. These findings suggest novel roles for antagonistic AgRP and POMC neurons in the regulation of feeding behaviors across multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07122.001 PMID:26159614

  7. Stress and Sucrose Intake Modulate Neuronal Activity in the Anterior Hypothalamic Area in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arojit; Guèvremont, Geneviève; Timofeeva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) is an important integrative relay structure for a variety of autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses including feeding behavior and response to stress. However, changes in the activity of the AHA neurons during stress and feeding in freely moving rats are not clear. The present study investigated the firing rate and burst activity of neurons in the central nucleus of the AHA (cAHA) during sucrose intake in non-stressful conditions and after acute stress in freely behaving rats. Rats were implanted with micro-electrodes into the cAHA, and extracellular multi-unit activity was recorded during 1-h access to 10% sucrose in non-stressful conditions or after acute foot shock stress. Acute stress significantly reduced sucrose intake, total sucrose lick number, and lick frequency in licking clusters, and increased inter-lick intervals. At the cluster start (CS) of sucrose licking, the cAHA neurons increased (CS-excited, 20% of the recorded neurons), decreased (CS-inhibited, 42% of the neurons) or did not change (CS-nonresponsive, 38% of the neurons) their firing rate. Stress resulted in a significant increase in the firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons by decreasing inter-spike intervals within the burst firing of these neurons. This increase in the stress-induced firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons was accompanied by a disruption of the correlation between the firing rate of CS-inhibited and CS-nonresponsive neurons that was observed in non-stressful conditions. Stress did not affect the firing rate of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons. However, stress changed the pattern of burst firing of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons by decreasing and increasing the burst number in the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons, respectively. These results suggest that the cAHA neurons integrate the signals related to stress and intake of palatable food and play a role in the stress- and eating-related circuitry.

  8. Feature-based motion control for near-repetitive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de J.J.T.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many manufacturing processes, production steps are carried out on repetitive structures which consist of identical features placed in a repetitive pattern. In the production of these repetitive structures one or more consecutive steps are carried out on the features to create the final product.

  9. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  10. Grade Repetition and Primary School Dropout in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Research on education in low-income countries rarely focuses on grade repetition. When addressed, repetition is typically presented along with early school dropout as the "wasting" of educational resources. Simplifying grade repetition in this way often fails to recognize significant methodological concerns and also overlooks the unique…

  11. Mechanical Dissociation of Retinal Neurons with Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Tamami; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    The neuromorphic device, which implements the functions of biological neural circuits by means of VLSI technology, has been collecting much attention in the engineering fields in the last decade. Concurrently, progress in neuroscience research has revealed the nonlinear computation in single neuron levels, suggesting that individual neurons are not merely the circuit elements but computational units. Thus, elucidating the properties of neuronal signal processing is thought to be an essential step for developing the next generation of neuromorphic devices. In the present study, we developed a method for dissociating single neurons from specific sublayers of mammalian retinas with using no proteolytic enzymes but rather combining tissue incubation in a low-Ca2+ medium and the vibro-dissociation technique developed for the slices of brains and spinal cords previously. Our method took shorter time of the procedure, and required less elaborated skill, than the conventional enzymatic method did; nevertheless it yielded enough number of the cells available for acute electrophysiological experiments. The isolated retinal neurons were useful for measuring the nonlinear membrane conductances as well as the spike firing properties under the perforated-patch whole-cell configuration. These neurons also enabled us to examine the effects of proteolytic enzymes on the membrane excitability in those cells.

  12. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  13. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  14. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  15. Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwinn, Sebastian; Macke, Jakob; Bethge, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a 'spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.

  16. Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gerwinn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a `spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.

  17. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Harish

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results.

  18. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Omri; Hansel, David

    2015-01-01

    The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI) spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results. PMID:26230679

  19. A phase plane analysis of neuron-astrocyte interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mahmood; Montaseri, Ghazal; Bahrami, Fariba

    2013-08-01

    Intensive experimental studies have shown that astrocytes are active partners in modulation of synaptic transmission. In the present research, we study neuron-astrocyte signaling using a biologically inspired model of one neuron synapsing one astrocyte. In this model, the firing dynamics of the neuron is described by the Morris-Lecar model and the Ca(2+) dynamics of a single astrocyte explained by a functional model introduced by Postnov and colleagues. Using the coupled neuron-astrocyte model and based on the results of the phase plane analyses, it is demonstrated that the astrocyte is able to activate the silent neuron or change the neuron spiking frequency through bidirectional communication. This suggests that astrocyte feedback signaling is capable of modulating spike transmission frequency by changing neuron spiking frequency. This effect is described by a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation in the coupled neuron-astrocyte model. In this way, our results suggest that the neuron-astrocyte crosstalk has a fundamental role in producing diverse neuronal activities and therefore enhances the information processing capabilities of the brain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling task-specific neuronal ensembles improves decoding of grasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan J.; Soares, Alcimar B.; Rouse, Adam G.; Schieber, Marc H.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Dexterous movement involves the activation and coordination of networks of neuronal populations across multiple cortical regions. Attempts to model firing of individual neurons commonly treat the firing rate as directly modulating with motor behavior. However, motor behavior may additionally be associated with modulations in the activity and functional connectivity of neurons in a broader ensemble. Accounting for variations in neural ensemble connectivity may provide additional information about the behavior being performed. Approach. In this study, we examined neural ensemble activity in primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor cortex (PM) of two male rhesus monkeys during performance of a center-out reach, grasp and manipulate task. We constructed point process encoding models of neuronal firing that incorporated task-specific variations in the baseline firing rate as well as variations in functional connectivity with the neural ensemble. Models were evaluated both in terms of their encoding capabilities and their ability to properly classify the grasp being performed. Main results. Task-specific ensemble models correctly predicted the performed grasp with over 95% accuracy and were shown to outperform models of neuronal activity that assume only a variable baseline firing rate. Task-specific ensemble models exhibited superior decoding performance in 82% of units in both monkeys (p  <  0.01). Inclusion of ensemble activity also broadly improved the ability of models to describe observed spiking. Encoding performance of task-specific ensemble models, measured by spike timing predictability, improved upon baseline models in 62% of units. Significance. These results suggest that additional discriminative information about motor behavior found in the variations in functional connectivity of neuronal ensembles located in motor-related cortical regions is relevant to decode complex tasks such as grasping objects, and may serve the basis for more

  1. Induction of hypertension blunts baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su Young; Bouwer, Gregory T; Seymour, Alexander J; Korpal, Aaron K; Schwenke, Daryl O; Brown, Colin H

    2015-11-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland is determined by action potential discharge of hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells. Vasopressin is a potent vasoconstrictor, but vasopressin levels are paradoxically elevated in some patients with established hypertension. To determine whether vasopressin neurons are excited in hypertension, extracellular single-unit recordings of vasopressin neurons from urethane-anaesthetized Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats with inducible angiotensin-dependent hypertension were made. The basal firing rate of vasopressin neurons was higher in hypertensive Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats than in non-hypertensive Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats. The increase in firing rate was specific to vasopressin neurons because oxytocin neuron firing rate was unaffected by the induction of hypertension. Intravenous injection of the α1-adrenoreceptor agonist, phenylephrine (2.5 μg/kg), transiently increased mean arterial blood pressure to cause a baroreflex-induced inhibition of heart rate and vasopressin neuron firing rate (by 52 ± 9%) in non-hypertensive rats. By contrast, intravenous phenylephrine did not inhibit vasopressin neurons in hypertensive rats, despite a similar increase in mean arterial blood pressure and inhibition of heart rate. Circulating angiotensin II can excite vasopressin neurons via activation of afferent inputs from the subfornical organ. However, the increase in vasopressin neuron firing rate and the loss of inhibition by intravenous phenylephrine were not blocked by intra-subfornical organ infusion of the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan. It can be concluded that increased vasopressin neuron activity at the onset of hypertension is driven, at least in part, by reduced baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons and that this might exacerbate the increase in blood pressure at the onset of hypertension. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Strategic neuronal encoding in medial prefrontal cortex of spatial working memory in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Mailman, Richard B

    2018-05-02

    Strategic neuronal encoding in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the rat was correlated with spatial working memory (sWM) assessed by behavior in the T-maze. Neurons increased their firing rate around choice, with the increase largely occurring before choice as a prospective encode of behavior. This could be classified as sensitive-to-spatial information or sensitive-to-choice outcome. The sensitivity-to-spatial choice was defined by distinct firing rate changes before left- or right-choice. The percentage of left-choice sensitive neurons was not different from the percentage of right-choice sensitive neurons. There was also location-related neuronal activity in which neurons fired at distinct rates when rats were in a left- or right-location. More neurons were sensitive to left-location, as most of them were recorded from rats preferring to enter the right-location. The sensitivity to outcome was defined by a distinct firing rate around correct or error choice. Significantly more neurons were sensitive to error outcome, and, among these, more preferred to encode prospectively, increasing firing in advance of an error outcome. Similar to single neuron activity, the mPFC enhanced its neuronal network as measured by the oscillation of local field potential. The maximum power of oscillation was around choice, and occurred slightly earlier before error versus before correct outcome. Thus, sWM modulation in the mPFC includes not only spatial, but also outcome-related inputs, and neuronal ensembles monitor behavioral outcome to make strategic adjustments ensuring successful task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase-locking and chaos in a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron exposed to sinusoidal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Si Wenjie; Fei Xiangyang

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal firing patterns are related to the information processing in neural system. This paper investigates the response characteristics of a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the stimulation of externally-applied sinusoidal electric field. The neuron exhibits both p:q phase-locked (i.e. a periodic oscillation defined as p action potentials generated by q cycle stimulations) and chaotic behaviors, depending on the values of stimulus frequencies and amplitudes. In one-parameter space, a rich bifurcation structure including period-adding without chaos and phase-locking alternated with chaos suggests frequency discrimination of the neuronal firing patterns. Furthermore, by mapping out Arnold tongues, we partition the amplitude-frequency parameter space in terms of the qualitative behaviors of the neuron. Thus the neuron's information (firing patterns) encodes the stimulus information (amplitude and frequency), and vice versa

  4. Direct projections from hypothalamic orexin neurons to brainstem cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2016-12-17

    Orexin neurons are known to augment the sympathetic control of cardiovascular function, however the role of orexin neurons in parasympathetic cardiac regulation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons contribute to parasympathetic control we selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in orexin neurons in orexin-Cre transgenic rats and examined postsynaptic currents in cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Simultaneous photostimulation and recording in ChR2-expressing orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus resulted in reliable action potential firing as well as large whole-cell currents suggesting a strong expression of ChR2 and reliable optogenetic excitation. Photostimulation of ChR2-expressing fibers in the DMV elicited short-latency (ranging from 3.2ms to 8.5ms) postsynaptic currents in 16 out of 44 CVNs tested. These responses were heterogeneous and included excitatory glutamatergic (63%) and inhibitory GABAergic (37%) postsynaptic currents. The results from this study suggest different sub-population of orexin neurons may exert diverse influences on brainstem CVNs and therefore may play distinct functional roles in parasympathetic control of the heart. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence for the existence of distinct subpopulations of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1988-11-01

    The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of dopaminergic neurons were systematically examined throughout the anterior-posterior extent of the substantia nigra zona compacta in the rat. Cells were characterized in terms of their (1) firing pattern, (2) firing rate, (3) antidromic response properties, and (4) inhibition in firing rate following dopaminergic agonist administration. These properties were then related to the cell's position within one of four anterior-posterior segments of the nucleus. There were three types of neuronal discharge pattern encountered; irregular, burst and regular. Cells which exhibited different firing patterns exhibited different firing rates and anatomical locations within the substantia nigra zona compacta. All neurons were antidromically activated from the striatum, however, the burst- and regular-firing cells exhibited significantly faster estimated conduction velocities than irregular-firing cells. The irregular-firing cells were most sensitive to dopaminergic autoreceptor agonists whereas the burst-firing cells were most sensitive to an indirect-acting dopaminergic agonist. These experiments provide both electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence to indicate that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are composed of distinct subpopulations which are characterized by their firing pattern.

  6. Optogenetic identification of hypothalamic orexin neuron projections to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2017-04-01

    Orexin neurons, and activation of orexin receptors, are generally thought to be sympathoexcitatory; however, the functional connectivity between orexin neurons and a likely sympathetic target, the hypothalamic spinally projecting neurons (SPNs) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has not been established. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons project directly to SPNs in the PVN, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was selectively expressed in orexin neurons to enable photoactivation of ChR2-expressing fibers while examining evoked postsynaptic currents in SPNs in rat hypothalamic slices. Selective photoactivation of orexin fibers elicited short-latency postsynaptic currents in all SPNs tested ( n = 34). These light-triggered responses were heterogeneous, with a majority being excitatory glutamatergic responses (59%) and a minority of inhibitory GABAergic (35%) and mixed glutamatergic and GABAergic currents (6%). Both glutamatergic and GABAergic responses were present in the presence of tetrodotoxin and 4-aminopyridine, suggesting a monosynaptic connection between orexin neurons and SPNs. In addition to generating postsynaptic responses, photostimulation facilitated action potential firing in SPNs (current clamp configuration). Glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, postsynaptic currents were diminished by application of the orexin receptor antagonist almorexant, indicating orexin release facilitates glutamatergic neurotransmission in this pathway. This work identifies a neuronal circuit by which orexin neurons likely exert sympathoexcitatory control of cardiovascular function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to establish, using innovative optogenetic approaches in a transgenic rat model, that there are robust heterogeneous projections from orexin neurons to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons, including excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Endogenous orexin release modulates glutamatergic, but not

  7. A complex-valued firing-rate model that approximates the dynamics of spiking networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S Schaffer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Firing-rate models provide an attractive approach for studying large neural networks because they can be simulated rapidly and are amenable to mathematical analysis. Traditional firing-rate models assume a simple form in which the dynamics are governed by a single time constant. These models fail to replicate certain dynamic features of populations of spiking neurons, especially those involving synchronization. We present a complex-valued firing-rate model derived from an eigenfunction expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation and apply it to the linear, quadratic and exponential integrate-and-fire models. Despite being almost as simple as a traditional firing-rate description, this model can reproduce firing-rate dynamics due to partial synchronization of the action potentials in a spiking model, and it successfully predicts the transition to spike synchronization in networks of coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  8. A complex-valued firing-rate model that approximates the dynamics of spiking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Evan S; Ostojic, Srdjan; Abbott, L F

    2013-10-01

    Firing-rate models provide an attractive approach for studying large neural networks because they can be simulated rapidly and are amenable to mathematical analysis. Traditional firing-rate models assume a simple form in which the dynamics are governed by a single time constant. These models fail to replicate certain dynamic features of populations of spiking neurons, especially those involving synchronization. We present a complex-valued firing-rate model derived from an eigenfunction expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation and apply it to the linear, quadratic and exponential integrate-and-fire models. Despite being almost as simple as a traditional firing-rate description, this model can reproduce firing-rate dynamics due to partial synchronization of the action potentials in a spiking model, and it successfully predicts the transition to spike synchronization in networks of coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  9. The equilibrium of neural firing: A mathematical theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Sizhong, E-mail: lsz@fuyunresearch.org [Fuyun Research, Beijing, 100055 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Inspired by statistical thermodynamics, we presume that neuron system has equilibrium condition with respect to neural firing. We show that, even with dynamically changeable neural connections, it is inevitable for neural firing to evolve to equilibrium. To study the dynamics between neural firing and neural connections, we propose an extended communication system where noisy channel has the tendency towards fixed point, implying that neural connections are always attracted into fixed points such that equilibrium can be reached. The extended communication system and its mathematics could be useful back in thermodynamics.

  10. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  11. Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamede eDe Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials.

  12. Noise in attractor networks in the brain produced by graded firing rate representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    Full Text Available Representations in the cortex are often distributed with graded firing rates in the neuronal populations. The firing rate probability distribution of each neuron to a set of stimuli is often exponential or gamma. In processes in the brain, such as decision-making, that are influenced by the noise produced by the close to random spike timings of each neuron for a given mean rate, the noise with this graded type of representation may be larger than with the binary firing rate distribution that is usually investigated. In integrate-and-fire simulations of an attractor decision-making network, we show that the noise is indeed greater for a given sparseness of the representation for graded, exponential, than for binary firing rate distributions. The greater noise was measured by faster escaping times from the spontaneous firing rate state when the decision cues are applied, and this corresponds to faster decision or reaction times. The greater noise was also evident as less stability of the spontaneous firing state before the decision cues are applied. The implication is that spiking-related noise will continue to be a factor that influences processes such as decision-making, signal detection, short-term memory, and memory recall even with the quite large networks found in the cerebral cortex. In these networks there are several thousand recurrent collateral synapses onto each neuron. The greater noise with graded firing rate distributions has the advantage that it can increase the speed of operation of cortical circuitry.

  13. Neuronal Entropy-Rate Feature of Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, Olivier; Jin, Xingxing; Von Wrangel, Christof; Schwabe, Kerstin; Nambu, Atsushi; Naritoku, Dean K; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-03-01

    The function of the nigro-striatal pathway on neuronal entropy in the basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, i.e. the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) was investigated in the unilaterally 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In both control subjects and subjects with 6-OHDA lesion of dopamine (DA) the nigro-striatal pathway, a histological hallmark for parkinsonism, neuronal entropy in EPN was maximal in neurons with firing rates ranging between 15 and 25 Hz. In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, neuronal entropy in the EPN was specifically higher in neurons with firing rates above 25 Hz. Our data establishes that the nigro-striatal pathway controls neuronal entropy in motor circuitry and that the parkinsonian condition is associated with abnormal relationship between firing rate and neuronal entropy in BG output nuclei. The neuronal firing rates and entropy relationship provide putative relevant electrophysiological information to investigate the sensory-motor processing in normal condition and conditions such as movement disorders.

  14. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  15. A small potassium current in AgRP/NPY neurons regulates feeding behavior and enery metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic m...

  16. Imbalance between abstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Philippot, Pierre; Grynberg, Delphine; Leleux, Dominique; Delatte, Benoît; Mangelinckx, Camille; Belge, Jan-Baptist; Constant, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive thoughts can be divided in two modes: abstract/analytic (decontextualized and dysfunctional) and concrete/experiential (problem-focused and adaptive). They constitute a transdiagnostic process involved in many psychopathological states but have received little attention in schizophrenia, as earlier studies only indexed increased ruminations (related to dysfunctional repetitive thoughts) without jointly exploring both modes. This study explored the two repetitive thinking modes, beyond ruminations, to determine their imbalance in schizophrenia. Thirty stabilized patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched controls completed the Repetitive Response Scale and the Mini Cambridge-Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale, both measuring repetitive thinking modes. Complementary measures related to schizophrenic symptomatology, depression and anxiety were also conducted. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia presented an imbalance between repetitive thinking modes, with increased abstract/analytic and reduced concrete/experiential thoughts, even after controlling for comorbidities. Schizophrenia is associated with stronger dysfunctional repetitive thoughts (i.e. abstract thinking) and impaired ability to efficiently use repetitive thinking for current problem-solving (i.e. concrete thinking). This imbalance confirms the double-faced nature of repetitive thinking modes, whose influence on schizophrenia's symptomatology should be further investigated. The present results also claim for evaluating these processes in clinical settings and for rehabilitating the balance between opposite repetitive thinking modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetitive thinking, executive functioning, and depressive mood in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pierre; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Previous findings and the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis suggest that the established association between executive functioning and depression is accounted for by repetitive thinking. Investigating the association between executive functioning, repetitive thinking, and depressive mood, the present study empirically tested this mediational model in a sample of older adults, while focusing on both concrete and abstract repetitive thinking. This latter distinction is important given the potential protective role of concrete repetitive thinking, in contrast to the depletive effect of abstract repetitive thinking. A sample of 43 elderly volunteers, between 75 and 95 years of age, completed tests of executive functioning (the Stroop test, the Trail Making test, and the Fluency test), and questionnaires of repetitive thinking and depression. Positive correlations were observed between abstract repetitive thinking and depressive mood, and between concrete repetitive thinking and executive functioning; a negative correlation was observed between depressive mood and executive functioning. Further, mediational analysis evidenced that the relation between executive functioning and depressive mood was mediated by abstract repetitive thinking. The present data provide, for the first time, empirical support to the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis: the lack of executive resources would favor a mode of abstract repetitive thinking, which in turn would deplete mood. It suggests that clinical intervention targeting depression in the elderly should take into consideration repetitive thinking modes and the executive resources needed to disengage from rumination.

  18. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie Ann

    2016-01-01

    receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types......Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates...... of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine...

  19. Internally generated preactivation of single neurons in human medial frontal cortex predicts volition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Itzhak; Mukamel, Roy; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how self-initiated behavior is encoded by neuronal circuits in the human brain remains elusive. We recorded the activity of 1019 neurons while twelve subjects performed self-initiated finger movement. We report progressive neuronal recruitment over ~1500 ms before subjects report making the decision to move. We observed progressive increase or decrease in neuronal firing rate, particularly in the supplementary motor area (SMA), as the reported time of decision was approached. A population of 256 SMA neurons is sufficient to predict in single trials the impending decision to move with accuracy greater than 80% already 700 ms prior to subjects’ awareness. Furthermore, we predict, with a precision of a few hundred ms, the actual time point of this voluntary decision to move. We implement a computational model whereby volition emerges once a change in internally generated firing rate of neuronal assemblies crosses a threshold. PMID:21315264

  20. Transcription of repetitive DNA in Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K; Chaudhuri, R K

    1975-01-01

    Repeated DNA sequences of Neurospora crassa were isolated and characterized. Approximately 10 to 12 percent of N. crassa DNA sequence were repeated, of which 7.3 percent were found to be transcribed in mid-log phase of mycelial growth as measured by DNA:RNA hybridization. It is suggested that part of repetitive DNA transcripts in N. crassa were mitochondrial and part were nuclear DNA. Most of the nuclear repeated DNAs, however, code for rRNA and tRNA in N. crassa. (auth)

  1. Metabolic sensing neurons and the control of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry E

    2006-11-30

    The brain and periphery carry on a constant conversation; the periphery informs the brain about its metabolic needs and the brain provides for these needs through its control of somatomotor, autonomic and neurohumoral pathways involved in energy intake, expenditure and storage. Metabolic sensing neurons are the integrators of a variety of metabolic, humoral and neural inputs from the periphery. Such neurons, originally called "glucosensing", also respond to fatty acids, hormones and metabolites from the periphery. They are integrated within neural pathways involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Unlike most neurons, they utilize glucose and other metabolites as signaling molecules to regulate their membrane potential and firing rate. For glucosensing neurons, glucokinase acts as the rate-limiting step in glucosensing while the pathways that mediate responses to metabolites like lactate, ketone bodies and fatty acids are less well characterized. Many metabolic sensing neurons also respond to insulin and leptin and other peripheral hormones and receive neural inputs from peripheral organs. Each set of afferent signals arrives with different temporal profiles and by different routes and these inputs are summated at the level of the membrane potential to produce a given neural firing pattern. In some obese individuals, the relative sensitivity of metabolic sensing neurons to various peripheral inputs is genetically reduced. This may provide one mechanism underlying their propensity to become obese when exposed to diets high in fat and caloric density. Thus, metabolic sensing neurons may provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity.

  2. Serotonergic neurons signal reward and punishment on multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin's function in the brain is unclear. One challenge in testing the numerous hypotheses about serotonin's function has been observing the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in animals engaged in behavioral tasks. We recorded the activity of dorsal raphe neurons while mice experienced a task in which rewards and punishments varied across blocks of trials. We ‘tagged’ serotonergic neurons with the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 and identified them based on their responses to light. We found three main features of serotonergic neuron activity: (1) a large fraction of serotonergic neurons modulated their tonic firing rates over the course of minutes during reward vs punishment blocks; (2) most were phasically excited by punishments; and (3) a subset was phasically excited by reward-predicting cues. By contrast, dopaminergic neurons did not show firing rate changes across blocks of trials. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons signal information about reward and punishment on multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06346.001 PMID:25714923

  3. Behavioral sensitivity of temporally modulated striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George ePortugal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations into the neural mechanisms that underlie temporal perception have revealed that the striatum is an important contributor to interval timing processes, and electrophysiological recording studies have shown that the firing rates of striatal neurons are modulated by the time in a trial at which an operant response is made. However, it remains unclear whether striatal firing rate modulations are related to the passage of time alone (i.e., whether temporal information is represented in an abstract manner independent of other attributes of biological importance, or whether this temporal information is embedded within striatal activity related to co-occurring contextual information, such as motor behaviors. This study evaluated these two hypotheses by recording from striatal neurons while rats performed a temporal production task. Rats were trained to respond at different nosepoke apertures for food reward under two simultaneously active reinforcement schedules: a variable-interval (VI-15 sec schedule and a fixed-interval (FI-15 sec schedule of reinforcement. Responding during a trial occurred in a sequential manner composing 3 phases; VI responding, FI responding, VI responding. The vast majority of task-sensitive striatal neurons (95% varied their firing rates associated with equivalent behaviors (e.g., periods in which their snout was held within the nosepoke across these behavioral phases, and 96% of cells varied their firing rates for the same behavior within a phase, thereby demonstrating their sensitivity to time. However, in a direct test of the abstract timing hypothesis, 91% of temporally modulated hold cells were further modulated by the overt motor behaviors associated with transitioning between nosepokes. As such, these data are inconsistent with the striatum representing time in an abstract’ manner, but support the hypothesis that temporal information is embedded within contextual and motor functions of the

  4. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Sadra; Rotter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are robust and do not

  5. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are

  6. Noise-Induced Transition in a Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Neuron Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huizhang; Liu Xuemei; Li Zhibing; Ai Baoquan; Liu Lianggang

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of Gaussian white noise, we study the properties of voltage-controlled oscillator neuron model and discuss the effects of the additive and multiplicative noise. It is found that the additive noise can accelerate and counterwork the firing of neuron, which depends on the value of central frequency of neuron itself, while multiplicative noise can induce the continuous change or mutation of membrane potential

  7. Does dysfunction of the mirror neuron system contribute to symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Andrew; Lemon, Roger; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Hornberger, Michael; Turner, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mirror neurons, initially discovered over two decades ago in the monkey, are present in the human brain. In the monkey, mirror neurons characteristically fire not only when it is performing an action, such as grasping an object, but also when observing a similar action performed by another agent (human or monkey). In this review we discuss the origin, cortical distribution and possible functions of mirror neurons as a background to exploring their potential rele...

  8. Multistability in a neuron model with extracellular potassium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Experiments show a primary role of extracellular potassium concentrations in neuronal hyperexcitability and in the generation of epileptiform bursting and depolarization blocks without synaptic mechanisms. We adopt a physiologically relevant hippocampal CA1 neuron model in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the function of extracellular potassium in neuronal seizurelike activities. The model neuron is surrounded by interstitial space in which potassium ions are able to accumulate. Potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion are regulatory mechanisms of extracellular potassium. We also consider a reduced model with a fixed potassium concentration. The bifurcation structure and spiking frequency of the two models are studied. We show that, besides hyperexcitability and bursting pattern modulation, the potassium dynamics can induce not only bistability but also tristability of different firing patterns. Our results reveal the emergence of the complex behavior of multistability due to the dynamical [K+]o modulation on neuronal activities.

  9. A new supervised learning algorithm for spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Shuiming

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by the precise firing times of spikes. If only running time is considered, the supervised learning for a spiking neuron is equivalent to distinguishing the times of desired output spikes and the other time during the running process of the neuron through adjusting synaptic weights, which can be regarded as a classification problem. Based on this idea, this letter proposes a new supervised learning method for spiking neurons with temporal encoding; it first transforms the supervised learning into a classification problem and then solves the problem by using the perceptron learning rule. The experiment results show that the proposed method has higher learning accuracy and efficiency over the existing learning methods, so it is more powerful for solving complex and real-time problems.

  10. Inhibitory coherence in a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold type-I neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Duk-Geun; Kim, Jean; Lim, Woochang

    2012-01-01

    We study inhibitory coherence (i.e. collective coherence by synaptic inhibition) in a population of globally coupled type-I neurons, which can fire at arbitrarily low frequency. No inhibitory coherence is observed in a homogeneous population composed of only subthreshold neurons, which exhibit noise-induced firings. In addition to subthreshold neurons, there exist spontaneously firing suprathreshold neurons in a noisy environment of a real brain. To take into consideration the effect of suprathreshold neurons on inhibitory coherence, we consider a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold neurons and investigate the inhibitory coherence by increasing the fraction of suprathreshold neurons P supra . As P supra passes a threshold P* supra , suprathreshold neurons begin to synchronize and play the role of coherent inhibitors for the emergence of inhibitory coherence. Thus, regularly oscillating population-averaged global potential appears for P supra > P* supra . For this coherent case, suprathreshold neurons exhibit sparse spike synchronization (i.e. individual potentials of suprathreshold neurons consist of coherent sparse spikings and coherent subthreshold small-amplitude hoppings). By virtue of their coherent inhibition, sparsely synchronized suprathreshold neurons suppress the noisy activity of subthreshold neurons. Thus, subthreshold neurons exhibit hopping synchronization (i.e. only coherent subthreshold hopping oscillations without spikings appear in the individual potentials of subthreshold neurons). We also characterize the inhibitory coherence in terms of the ‘statistical-mechanical’ spike-based and correlation-based measures, which quantify the average contributions of the microscopic individual spikes and individual potentials to the macroscopic global potential. Finally, the effect of sparse randomness of synaptic connectivity on the inhibitory coherence is briefly discussed. (paper)

  11. Migraine strikes as neuronal excitability reaches a tipping point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Marten; van den Berg, Albert; Ferrari, Michel D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point.

  12. Migraine Strikes as Neuronal Excitability Reaches a Tipping Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Berg, van den A.; Ferrari, B.

    2013-01-01

    Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point.

  13. Distinct types of feeding related neurons in mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eTang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of research provided evidence for a substantial heterogeneity among feeding-related neurons (FRNs in the hypothalamus. However, it remains unclear how FRNs differ in their firing patterns during food intake. Here, we investigated the relationship between the activity of neurons in mouse hypothalamus and their feeding behavior. Using tetrode-based in vivo recording technique, we identified various firing patterns of hypothalamic FRNs, which, after the initiation of food intake, can be sorted into four types: sharp increase (type I, slow increase (type II, sharp decrease (type III and sustained decrease (type IV of firing rates. The feeding-related firing response of FRNs was rigidly related to the duration of food intake and, to a less extent, associated with the type of food. The majority of these FRNs responded to glucose and leptin and exhibited electrophysiological characteristics of putative GABAergic neurons. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the diversity of neurons in the complex hypothalamic network coordinating food intake.

  14. Multiplicative multifractal modeling and discrimination of human neuronal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi; Gao Jianbo; Sanchez, Justin C.; Principe, Jose C.; Okun, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding neuronal firing patterns is one of the most important problems in theoretical neuroscience. It is also very important for clinical neurosurgery. In this Letter, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether neuronal firing recordings could be characterized by cascade multiplicative multifractals. By analyzing raw recording data as well as generated spike train data from 3 patients collected in two brain areas, the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and the globus pallidus interna (GPi), we show that the neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process over certain time scale range (t 1 ,t 2 ), where t 1 is argued to be not smaller than the mean inter-spike-interval of neuronal firings, while t 2 may be related to the time that neuronal signals propagate in the major neural branching structures pertinent to GPi and GPe. The generalized dimension spectrum D q effectively differentiates the two brain areas, both intra- and inter-patients. For distinguishing between GPe and GPi, it is further shown that the cascade model is more effective than the methods recently examined by Schiff et al. as well as the Fano factor analysis. Therefore, the methodology may be useful in developing computer aided tools to help clinicians perform precision neurosurgery in the operating room

  15. Autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations commonly impair striatal circuits to boost repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Maxeiner, Stephan; Hayton, Scott J; Gokce, Ozgun; Lim, Byung Kook; Fowler, Stephen C; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-07-03

    In humans, neuroligin-3 mutations are associated with autism, whereas in mice, the corresponding mutations produce robust synaptic and behavioral changes. However, different neuroligin-3 mutations cause largely distinct phenotypes in mice, and no causal relationship links a specific synaptic dysfunction to a behavioral change. Using rotarod motor learning as a proxy for acquired repetitive behaviors in mice, we found that different neuroligin-3 mutations uniformly enhanced formation of repetitive motor routines. Surprisingly, neuroligin-3 mutations caused this phenotype not via changes in the cerebellum or dorsal striatum but via a selective synaptic impairment in the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Here, neuroligin-3 mutations increased rotarod learning by specifically impeding synaptic inhibition onto D1-dopamine receptor-expressing but not D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons. Our data thus suggest that different autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations cause a common increase in acquired repetitive behaviors by impairing a specific striatal synapse and thereby provide a plausible circuit substrate for autism pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele`s pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  17. Pull-production in repetitive remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, D.W. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    In the past, production activity control practices in most repetitive remanufacturing facilities resembled those used in intermittent production operations. These operations were characterized by large amounts of work-in-process (WIP), frequent work stoppages due to part shortages, excessive overtime, low product velocity, informal scheduling between dependent operations, low employee and management moral, and a lot of wasted time, material, labor, and space. Improvement in production activity control (PAC) methods for repetitive remanufactures has been hampered by uncertainty in: supply of incoming assets, configuration of assets, process times to refurbish assets, and yields in reclamation processes. collectively these uncertainties make shop floor operations seem uncontrollable. However, one United States Army depot has taken on the challenge. Through management supported, cross-functional teams, the Tooele Army Depot has designed and implemented pull-production systems for two of its major products, with several others to follow. This article presents a generalized version of Tooele's pull-production system and highlights design characteristics which are specific to remanufacturing applications.

  18. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  19. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  20. Synergy Repetition Training versus Task Repetition Training in Acquiring New Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Craig, Jamie; Schumacher, Michelle; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning. A new task was designed to highlight the range of motion and dexterity of the human hand. Two separate training strategies were tested in healthy subjects: task repetition training and synergy training versus a control. All three groups showed improvements when retested on the same task. When tested on a similar, but different set of tasks, only the synergy group showed improvements in accuracy (9.27% increase) compared to the repetition (3.24% decline) and control (3.22% decline) groups. A kinematic analysis revealed that although joint angular peak velocities decreased, timing benefits stemmed from the initial feed-forward portion of the task (reaction time). Accuracy improvements may have derived from general improved coordination among the four involved fingers. These preliminary results warrant further investigation of synergy-based motor training in healthy individuals, as well as in individuals undergoing hand-based rehabilitative therapy.

  1. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  2. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  3. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  4. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  5. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  6. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  7. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  8. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  9. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  10. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  11. Response variability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a neuronal and glial energetics hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Vivienne A; Oades, Robert D; Tannock, Rosemary; Killeen, Peter R; Auerbach, Judith G; Johansen, Espen B; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-08-23

    conditions that vary in duration, complexity, speed, and reinforcement; 2) Use of sensitive neuroimaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electroencephalography or magnetoencephalopathy to quantify developmental changes in myelination in ADHD as a potential basis for the delayed maturation of brain function and coordination, and 3) Investigation of the prevalence of genetic markers for factors that regulate energy metabolism (lactate, glutamate, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, glycolytic enzymes), release of glutamate from synaptic terminals and glutamate-stimulated lactate production (SNAP25, glutamate receptors, adenosine receptors, neurexins, intracellular Ca2+), as well as astrocyte function (alpha1, alpha2 and beta-adrenoceptors, dopamine D1 receptors) and myelin synthesis (lactate transporter, Lingo-1, Quaking homolog, leukemia inhibitory factor, and Transferrin). The hypothesis extends existing theories of ADHD by proposing a physiological basis for specific aspects of the ADHD phenotype - namely frequent, transient and impairing fluctuations in functioning, particularly during performance of speeded, effortful tasks. The immediate effects of deficient ATP production and slow restoration of ionic gradients across membranes of rapidly firing neurons have implications for daily functioning: For individuals with ADHD, performance efficacy would be enhanced if repetitive and lengthy effortful tasks were segmented to reduce concurrent demands for speed and accuracy of response (introduction of breaks into lengthy/effortful activities such as examinations, motorway driving, assembly-line production). Also, variations in task or modality and the use of self- rather than system-paced schedules would be helpful. This would enable energetic demands to be distributed to alternate neural resources, and energy reserves to be re-established. Longer-term effects may manifest as reduction in regional brain

  12. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  13. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  14. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  15. Modulation of neuronal dynamic range using two different adaptation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of neurons to discriminate between intensity of external stimulus is measured by its dynamic range. A larger dynamic range indicates a greater probability of neuronal survival. In this study, the potential roles of adaptation mechanisms (ion currents in modulating neuronal dynamic range were numerically investigated. Based on the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model, which includes two different adaptation mechanisms, i.e. subthreshold and suprathreshold (spike-triggered adaptation, our results reveal that the two adaptation mechanisms exhibit rather different roles in regulating neuronal dynamic range. Specifically, subthreshold adaptation acts as a negative factor that observably decreases the neuronal dynamic range, while suprathreshold adaptation has little influence on the neuronal dynamic range. Moreover, when stochastic noise was introduced into the adaptation mechanisms, the dynamic range was apparently enhanced, regardless of what state the neuron was in, e.g. adaptive or non-adaptive. Our model results suggested that the neuronal dynamic range can be differentially modulated by different adaptation mechanisms. Additionally, noise was a non-ignorable factor, which could effectively modulate the neuronal dynamic range.

  16. Memristors Empower Spiking Neurons With Stochasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that probabilistic spiking can be interpreted as learning and inference in cortical microcircuits. This interpretation creates new opportunities for building neuromorphic systems driven by probabilistic learning algorithms. However, such systems must have two crucial features: 1) the neurons should follow a specific behavioral model, and 2) stochastic spiking should be implemented efficiently for it to be scalable. This paper proposes a memristor-based stochastically spiking neuron that fulfills these requirements. First, the analytical model of the memristor is enhanced so it can capture the behavioral stochasticity consistent with experimentally observed phenomena. The switching behavior of the memristor model is demonstrated to be akin to the firing of the stochastic spike response neuron model, the primary building block for probabilistic algorithms in spiking neural networks. Furthermore, the paper proposes a neural soma circuit that utilizes the intrinsic nondeterminism of memristive switching for efficient spike generation. The simulations and analysis of the behavior of a single stochastic neuron and a winner-take-all network built of such neurons and trained on handwritten digits confirm that the circuit can be used for building probabilistic sampling and pattern adaptation machinery in spiking networks. The findings constitute an important step towards scalable and efficient probabilistic neuromorphic platforms. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  18. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  19. Ordering chaos and synchronization transitions by chemical delay and coupling on scale-free neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Xie Yanhang; Lin Xiu; Hao Yinghang; Ma Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Chemical delay and chemical coupling can tame chaotic bursting. → Chemical delay-induced transitions from bursting synchronization to intermittent multiple spiking synchronizations. → Chemical coupling-induced different types of delay-dependent firing transitions. - Abstract: Chemical synaptic connections are more common than electric ones in neurons, and information transmission delay is especially significant for the synapses of chemical type. In this paper, we report a phenomenon of ordering spatiotemporal chaos and synchronization transitions by the delays and coupling through chemical synapses of modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neurons on scale-free networks. As the delay τ is increased, the neurons exhibit transitions from bursting synchronization (BS) to intermittent multiple spiking synchronizations (SS). As the coupling g syn is increased, the neurons exhibit different types of firing transitions, depending on the values of τ. For a smaller τ, there are transitions from spatiotemporal chaotic bursting (SCB) to BS or SS; while for a larger τ, there are transitions from SCB to intermittent multiple SS. These findings show that the delays and coupling through chemical synapses can tame the chaotic firings and repeatedly enhance the firing synchronization of neurons, and hence could play important roles in the firing activity of the neurons on scale-free networks.

  20. Enhanced Sensitivity to Rapid Input Fluctuations by Nonlinear Threshold Dynamics in Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Skander; Hagens, Olivier; Gerstner, Wulfram; Pozzorini, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The way in which single neurons transform input into output spike trains has fundamental consequences for network coding. Theories and modeling studies based on standard Integrate-and-Fire models implicitly assume that, in response to increasingly strong inputs, neurons modify their coding strategy by progressively reducing their selective sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations. Combining mathematical modeling with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that, in L5 pyramidal neurons, the firing threshold dynamics adaptively adjust the effective timescale of somatic integration in order to preserve sensitivity to rapid signals over a broad range of input statistics. For that, a new Generalized Integrate-and-Fire model featuring nonlinear firing threshold dynamics and conductance-based adaptation is introduced that outperforms state-of-the-art neuron models in predicting the spiking activity of neurons responding to a variety of in vivo-like fluctuating currents. Our model allows for efficient parameter extraction and can be analytically mapped to a Generalized Linear Model in which both the input filter--describing somatic integration--and the spike-history filter--accounting for spike-frequency adaptation--dynamically adapt to the input statistics, as experimentally observed. Overall, our results provide new insights on the computational role of different biophysical processes known to underlie adaptive coding in single neurons and support previous theoretical findings indicating that the nonlinear dynamics of the firing threshold due to Na+-channel inactivation regulate the sensitivity to rapid input fluctuations.

  1. Characterisation of rebound depolarisation in mice deep dorsal horn neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Arconada, Ivan; Lopez-Garcia, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Spinal dorsal horn neurons constitute the first relay for pain processing and participate in the processing of other sensory, motor and autonomic information. At the cellular level, intrinsic excitability is a factor contributing to network function. In turn, excitability is set by the array of ionic conductance expressed by neurons. Here, we set out to characterise rebound depolarisation following hyperpolarisation, a feature frequently described in dorsal horn neurons but never addressed in depth. To this end, an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord from mice pups was used combined with whole-cell recordings in current and voltage clamp modes. Results show the expression of H- and/or T-type currents in a significant proportion of dorsal horn neurons. The expression of these currents determines the presence of rebound behaviour at the end of hyperpolarising pulses. T-type calcium currents were associated to high-amplitude rebounds usually involving high-frequency action potential firing. H-currents were associated to low-amplitude rebounds less prone to elicit firing or firing at lower frequencies. For a large proportion of neurons expressing both currents, the H-current constitutes a mechanism to ensure a faster response after hyperpolarisations, adjusting the latency of the rebound firing. We conclude that rebound depolarisation and firing are intrinsic factors to many dorsal horn neurons that may constitute a mechanism to integrate somatosensory information in the spinal cord, allowing for a rapid switch from inhibited-to-excited states.

  2. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  3. Anti-correlated cortical networks arise from spontaneous neuronal dynamics at slow timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Nathan X; Feng, Tianyi; Ullett, James J; Chiel, Hillel J; Sivakumar, Siddharth S; Galán, Roberto F

    2018-01-12

    In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds. Slower firing fluctuations reveal two spatially distinct neuronal ensembles, which correspond to superficial and deeper layers. These ensembles are anti-correlated: when one fires more, the other fires less and vice versa. This interplay is clearest at timescales of several seconds and is therefore consistent with shifts between active sensing and anticipatory behavioral states in mice.

  4. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  5. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  6. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  7. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  8. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  9. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  10. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  11. Cost of two fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the protection of nuclear sites in connection with the fires in summer of 2000 near two greatest nuclear sites: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory located on the site of Hanford Nuclear Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory is considered. Both fires occur beyond the Laboratories. Undertaken urgent procedures for fire fighting and recovery of the objects are characterized [ru

  12. Brain signal complexity rises with repetition suppression in visual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Marc Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Lina, Jean-Marc; McIntosh, Anthony R; Gosselin, Frédéric; Théoret, Hugo; Lippé, Sarah

    2016-06-21

    Neuronal activity associated with visual processing of an unfamiliar face gradually diminishes when it is viewed repeatedly. This process, known as repetition suppression (RS), is involved in the acquisition of familiarity. Current models suggest that RS results from interactions between visual information processing areas located in the occipito-temporal cortex and higher order areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain signal complexity, which reflects information dynamics of cortical networks, has been shown to increase as unfamiliar faces become familiar. However, the complementarity of RS and increases in brain signal complexity have yet to be demonstrated within the same measurements. We hypothesized that RS and brain signal complexity increase occur simultaneously during learning of unfamiliar faces. Further, we expected alteration of DLPFC function by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate RS and brain signal complexity over the occipito-temporal cortex. Participants underwent three tDCS conditions in random order: right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal and sham. Following tDCS, participants learned unfamiliar faces, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Results revealed RS over occipito-temporal electrode sites during learning, reflected by a decrease in signal energy, a measure of amplitude. Simultaneously, as signal energy decreased, brain signal complexity, as estimated with multiscale entropy (MSE), increased. In addition, prefrontal tDCS modulated brain signal complexity over the right occipito-temporal cortex during the first presentation of faces. These results suggest that although RS may reflect a brain mechanism essential to learning, complementary processes reflected by increases in brain signal complexity, may be instrumental in the acquisition of novel visual information. Such processes likely involve long-range coordinated activity between prefrontal and lower order visual

  13. A Review of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Use in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Durmaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique first introduced by Barker et al. in 1985. The principle of rTMS is based on a cortical neuronal transmembrane potential stimulated by a pulsative magnetic field. This magnetic field is induced by a direct electrical current sent through a circular coil. rTMS is an effective and widely used therapeutic stimulation method for psychiatric disorders, primarily for unipolar depression. Cost-effectiveness, minor side effects and well-tolerated profile of rTMS with no need to hospitalization for administation are the prominent features of this method. Beside the information for depression, rTMS has been reported to have some remarkable impacts in alleviating symptoms of anxiety disorders. Although data regarding efficacy of rTMS in anxiety disorders is conflicting, there are positive outcomes about generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder whereas results of rTMS treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder are generally not favorable. Since low frequency stimulation techniques have been found to be effective in treatment of auditory hallucinations, methodological similarity in concerned studies could be accepted as a supportive aspect of efficacy. Additionally, high frequency stimulation techniques applied to prefrontal area have a potential to impact negative symptoms of schizophrenia. With improving novel techniques of this stimulation method, rTMS is being used increasingly in psychiatric disorders. However, some issues concerning rTMS treatment such as maintenance or prophilactic therapy procedures, duration of effect are remain unclear. Hence, we conclude that multicenter sham controlled studies including similar designs, sociodemographic and clinical variables, methodological protocols with larger sample sizes and studies guieded by imaging methods are warranted to determinate efficacy and side effects of rTMS use

  14. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  15. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2018-01-01

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  16. Signals and Circuits in the Purkinje Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev R Abrams

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum have over 100,000 inputs organized in an orthogonal geometry, and a single output channel. As the sole output of the cerebellar cortex layer, their complex firing pattern has been associated with motor control and learning. As such they have been extensively modeled and measured using tools ranging from electrophysiology and neuroanatomy, to dynamic systems and artificial intelligence methods. However, there is an alternative approach to analyze and describe the neuronal output of these cells using concepts from Electrical Engineering, particularly signal processing and digital/analog circuits. By viewing the Purkinje neuron as an unknown circuit to be reverse-engineered, we can use the tools that provide the foundations of today’s integrated circuits and communication systems to analyze the Purkinje system at the circuit level. We use Fourier transforms to analyze and isolate the inherent frequency modes in the Purkinje neuron and define 3 unique frequency ranges associated with the cells’ output. Comparing the Purkinje neuron to a signal generator that can be externally modulated adds an entire level of complexity to the functional role of these neurons both in terms of data analysis and information processing, relying on Fourier analysis methods in place of statistical ones. We also re-describe some of the recent literature in the field, using the nomenclature of signal processing. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data of the past decade with basic electronic circuitry, we can resolve the outstanding controversy in the field, by recognizing that the Purkinje neuron can act as a multivibrator circuit.

  17. Neurons in the Amygdala with Response-Selectivity for Anxiety in Two Ethologically Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong V.; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhiru; Lin, Longnian

    2011-01-01

    The amygdala is a key area in the brain for detecting potential threats or dangers, and further mediating anxiety. However, the neuronal mechanisms of anxiety in the amygdala have not been well characterized. Here we report that in freely-behaving mice, a group of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) fires tonically under anxiety conditions in both open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. The firing patterns of these neurons displayed a characteristic slow onset and progressively increased firing rates. Specifically, these firing patterns were correlated to a gradual development of anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field test. Moreover, these neurons could be activated by any impoverished environment similar to an open-field; and introduction of both comfortable and uncomfortable stimuli temporarily suppressed the activity of these BLA neurons. Importantly, the excitability of these BLA neurons correlated well with levels of anxiety. These results demonstrate that this type of BLA neuron is likely to represent anxiety and/or emotional values of anxiety elicited by anxiogenic environmental stressors. PMID:21494567

  18. Neurons in the amygdala with response-selectivity for anxiety in two ethologically based tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    Full Text Available The amygdala is a key area in the brain for detecting potential threats or dangers, and further mediating anxiety. However, the neuronal mechanisms of anxiety in the amygdala have not been well characterized. Here we report that in freely-behaving mice, a group of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA fires tonically under anxiety conditions in both open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. The firing patterns of these neurons displayed a characteristic slow onset and progressively increased firing rates. Specifically, these firing patterns were correlated to a gradual development of anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field test. Moreover, these neurons could be activated by any impoverished environment similar to an open-field; and introduction of both comfortable and uncomfortable stimuli temporarily suppressed the activity of these BLA neurons. Importantly, the excitability of these BLA neurons correlated well with levels of anxiety. These results demonstrate that this type of BLA neuron is likely to represent anxiety and/or emotional values of anxiety elicited by anxiogenic environmental stressors.

  19. Physiological Characterization of Vestibular Efferent Brainstem Neurons Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Sara; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of efferent innervation of the vestibular end-organs in the inner ear remains elusive. This study provides the first physiological characterization of the cholinergic vestibular efferent (VE) neurons in the brainstem by utilizing a transgenic mouse model, expressing eGFP under a choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-locus spanning promoter in combination with targeted patch clamp recordings. The intrinsic electrical properties of the eGFP-positive VE neurons were compared to the properties of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) brainstem neurons, which gives rise to efferent innervation of the cochlea. Both VE and the LOC neurons were marked by their negative resting membrane potential neurons differed significantly in the depolarizing range. When injected with positive currents, VE neurons fired action potentials faithfully to the onset of depolarization followed by sparse firing with long inter-spike intervals. This response gave rise to a low response gain. The LOC neurons, conversely, responded with a characteristic delayed tonic firing upon depolarizing stimuli, giving rise to higher response gain than the VE neurons. Depolarization triggered large TEA insensitive outward currents with fast inactivation kinetics, indicating A-type potassium currents, in both the inner ear-projecting neuronal types. Immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of Kv4.3 and 4.2 ion channel subunits in both the VE and LOC neurons. The difference in spiking responses to depolarization is related to a two-fold impact of these transient outward currents on somatic integration in the LOC neurons compared to in VE neurons. It is speculated that the physiological properties of the VE neurons might be compatible with a wide-spread control over motion and gravity sensation in the inner ear, providing likewise feed-back amplification of abrupt and strong phasic signals from the semi-circular canals and of tonic signals from the gravito-sensitive macular organs. PMID:24867596

  20. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  1. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION IN ORGANISATIONS OF REPETITIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek WIRKUS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the implementation of projects in organisations that achieve business objectives through the imple-mentation of repetitive actions. Projects in these organisations are, on the one hand, treated as marginal activities, while the results of these projects have significant impact on the delivery of main processes, e.g. through the introduction of new products. Human capital and solutions in this field bear impact on the success of projects in these organisations, which is not always conducive to smooth implementation of projects. Conflict results from the nature of a project, which is a one-time and temporary process, so organisational solutions are also temporary. It influences on attitudes and com-mitment of the project contractors. The paper identifies and analyses factors which affect the success of the projects.

  2. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.

  3. Repetitively pulsed power for meat pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Kaye, R.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic pasteurization of meat offers the potential for drastically reducing the incidence of food poisoning caused by biological pathogens accidentally introduced into meat products. Previous work has shown that γ-rays are an effective method of destroying E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, C. jejuni, L. monocytogenes, Listeria, and S. aureus bacteria types. The concern with the use of γ-rays is that radioactive material must be used in the pasteurization process that can lead to some market resistance and activist pressure on the meat industry. The use of accelerator generated high average power electron beams, at energies less than 10 MeV, or X-rays, with energies below 5 MeV, have been approved by the FDA for use in pasteurizing foods. Accelerator produced electronic pasteurization has the advantage that no radioactive material inventory is required. Electronic pasteurization has the additional benefit that it removes bacterial pathogens on the meat surface as well as within the volume of the meat product. High average power, repetitively-pulsed, broad-area electron beam sources being developed in the RHEPP program are suitable for large scale meat treatment in packing plant environments. RHEPP-II, which operates at 2.5 MeV and 25 kA at pulse repetition frequencies up to 120 Hz has adequate electron energy to penetrate hamburger patties which comprise about half of the beef consumption in the United States. Ground beef also has the highest potential for contamination since considerable processing is required in its production. A meat pasteurization facility using this size of accelerator source should be capable of treating 10 6 pounds of hamburger patties per hour to a dose of up to 3 kGy (300 kilorads). The RHEPP modular accelerator technology can easily be modified for other production rates and types of products

  4. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  5. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  6. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  7. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  8. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  9. Understanding the Generation of Network Bursts by Adaptive Oscillatory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Fardet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical studies have revealed that isolated populations of oscillatory neurons can spontaneously synchronize and generate periodic bursts involving the whole network. Such a behavior has notably been observed for cultured neurons in rodent's cortex or hippocampus. We show here that a sufficient condition for this network bursting is the presence of an excitatory population of oscillatory neurons which displays spike-driven adaptation. We provide an analytic model to analyze network bursts generated by coupled adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neurons. We show that, for strong synaptic coupling, intrinsically tonic spiking neurons evolve to reach a synchronized intermittent bursting state. The presence of inhibitory neurons or plastic synapses can then modulate this dynamics in many ways but is not necessary for its appearance. Thanks to a simple self-consistent equation, our model gives an intuitive and semi-quantitative tool to understand the bursting behavior. Furthermore, it suggests that after-hyperpolarization currents are sufficient to explain bursting termination. Through a thorough mapping between the theoretical parameters and ion-channel properties, we discuss the biological mechanisms that could be involved and the relevance of the explored parameter-space. Such an insight enables us to propose experimentally-testable predictions regarding how blocking fast, medium or slow after-hyperpolarization channels would affect the firing rate and burst duration, as well as the interburst interval.

  10. Pure state consciousness and its local reduction to neuronal space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggins, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The single neuronal state can be represented as a vector in a complex space, spanned by an orthonormal basis of integer spike counts. In this model a scalar element of experience is associated with the instantaneous firing rate of a single sensory neuron over repeated stimulus presentations. Here the model is extended to composite neural systems that are tensor products of single neuronal vector spaces. Depiction of the mental state as a vector on this tensor product space is intended to capture the unity of consciousness. The density operator is introduced as its local reduction to the single neuron level, from which the firing rate can again be derived as the objective correlate of a subjective element. However, the relational structure of perceptual experience only emerges when the non-local mental state is considered. A metric of phenomenal proximity between neuronal elements of experience is proposed, based on the cross-correlation function of neurophysiology, but constrained by the association of theoretical extremes of correlation/anticorrelation in inseparable 2-neuron states with identical and opponent elements respectively.

  11. Direct evidence of impaired neuronal Na/K-ATPase pump function in alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christine Q; Thompson, Christopher H; Cawthon, Bryan E; Westlake, Grant; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Ess, Kevin C; George, Alfred L

    2018-03-19

    Mutations in ATP1A3 encoding the catalytic subunit of the Na/K-ATPase expressed in mammalian neurons cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) as well as an expanding spectrum of other neurodevelopmental syndromes and neurological phenotypes. Most AHC cases are explained by de novo heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations, but the fundamental molecular and cellular consequences of these mutations in human neurons are not known. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of neurons generated from AHC patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to ascertain functional disturbances underlying this neurological disease. Fibroblasts derived from two subjects with AHC, a male and a female, both heterozygous for the common ATP1A3 mutation G947R, were reprogrammed to iPSCs. Neuronal differentiation of iPSCs was initiated by neurogenin-2 (NGN2) induction followed by co-culture with mouse glial cells to promote maturation of cortical excitatory neurons. Whole-cell current clamp recording demonstrated that, compared with control iPSC-derived neurons, neurons differentiated from AHC iPSCs exhibited a significantly lower level of ouabain-sensitive outward current ('pump current'). This finding correlated with significantly depolarized potassium equilibrium potential and depolarized resting membrane potential in AHC neurons compared with control neurons. In this cellular model, we also observed a lower evoked action potential firing frequency when neurons were held at their resting potential. However, evoked action potential firing frequencies were not different between AHC and control neurons when the membrane potential was clamped to -80 mV. Impaired neuronal excitability could be explained by lower voltage-gated sodium channel availability at the depolarized membrane potential observed in AHC neurons. Our findings provide direct evidence of impaired neuronal Na/K-ATPase ion transport activity in human AHC neurons and demonstrate the potential

  12. Modeling the Development of Goal-Specificity in Mirror Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Serge; Svensson, Henrik; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Neurophysiological studies have shown that parietal mirror neurons encode not only actions but also the goal of these actions. Although some mirror neurons will fire whenever a certain action is perceived (goal-independently), most will only fire if the motion is perceived as part of an action with a specific goal. This result is important for the action-understanding hypothesis as it provides a potential neurological basis for such a cognitive ability. It is also relevant for the design of artificial cognitive systems, in particular robotic systems that rely on computational models of the mirror system in their interaction with other agents. Yet, to date, no computational model has explicitly addressed the mechanisms that give rise to both goal-specific and goal-independent parietal mirror neurons. In the present paper, we present a computational model based on a self-organizing map, which receives artificial inputs representing information about both the observed or executed actions and the context in which they were executed. We show that the map develops a biologically plausible organization in which goal-specific mirror neurons emerge. We further show that the fundamental cause for both the appearance and the number of goal-specific neurons can be found in geometric relationships between the different inputs to the map. The results are important to the action-understanding hypothesis as they provide a mechanism for the emergence of goal-specific parietal mirror neurons and lead to a number of predictions: (1) Learning of new goals may mostly reassign existing goal-specific neurons rather than recruit new ones; (2) input differences between executed and observed actions can explain observed corresponding differences in the number of goal-specific neurons; and (3) the percentage of goal-specific neurons may differ between motion primitives.

  13. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  14. Stimulatory effect of harmane and other beta-carbolines on locus coeruleus neurons in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Durántez, E; Ruiz-Ortega JA; Pineda, J; Ugedo, L

    2001-08-10

    Harmane, harmaline and norharmane are beta-carboline related compounds which have been proposed to be endogenous ligands for imidazoline receptors. The effect of these compounds on the activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons was studied by extracellular recordings techniques. Intracerebroventricular administration of harmane and harmaline increased the firing rate of LC neurons. Systemic administration of efaroxan, a mixed alpha(2)-adrenoceptor/I(1)-imidazoline antagonist or vagotomy failed to modify the harmane effect. Furthermore, local applications of harmane and harmaline increased the firing rate of LC neurons in a dose-related manner. Finally, intravenous administration of norharmane also increased the activity of LC neurons. Our results demonstrate that beta-carbolines stimulate LC neuron activity and indicate that this stimulation occurs directly in the LC by a mechanism independent of I(1)- and I(2)-imidazoline receptors.

  15. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  16. Peripheral drive in Aα/β-fiber neurons is altered in a rat model of osteoarthritis: changes in following frequency and recovery from inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Q

    2013-03-01

    controls. These changes might influence peripheral drive of spinal excitability and plasticity, thus contributing to OA sensory abnormalities, including OA pain.Keywords: dorsal root ganglion, repetitive firing, peripheral drive, electrophysiology, conduction failure, adaptation

  17. Respiratory signaling of locus coeruleus neurons during hypercapnic acidosis in the bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, J M; Hartzler, L K

    2013-02-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) in the brainstem senses alterations in CO(2)/pH and influences ventilatory adjustments that restore blood gas values to starting levels in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). We hypothesized that neurons of the bullfrog LC are sensitive to changes in CO(2)/pH and that chemosensitive responses are intrinsic to individual neurons. In addition, we hypothesized putative respiratory control neurons of the bullfrog LC would be stimulated by hypercapnic acidosis within physiological ranges of P(CO(2))/pH. 84% of LC neurons depolarized and increased firing rates during exposure to hypercapnic acidosis (HA). A pH dose response curve shows LC neurons from bullfrogs increase firing rates during physiologically relevant CO(2)/pH changes. With chemical synapses blocked, half of chemosensitive neurons lost sensitivity to HA; however, gap junction blockade did not alter chemosensitive responses. Intrinsically chemosensitive neurons increased input resistance during HA. These data demonstrate that majority of neurons within the bullfrog LC elicit robust firing responses during physiological ΔCO(2)/pH, likely enabling adjustment of acid-base balance through breathing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Signalling properties of identified deep cerebellar nuclear neurons related to eye and head movements in the alert cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M

    1994-07-01

    1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and

  19. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  20. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  1. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  2. Using neuronal populations to study the mechanisms underlying spatial and feature attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene R.; Maunsell, John H.R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Visual attention affects both perception and neuronal responses. Whether the same neuronal mechanisms mediate spatial attention, which improves perception of attended locations, and non-spatial forms of attention has been a subject of considerable debate. Spatial and feature attention have similar effects on individual neurons. Because visual cortex is retinotopically organized, however, spatial attention can co-modulate local neuronal populations, while feature attention generally requires more selective modulation. We compared the effects of feature and spatial attention on local and spatially separated populations by recording simultaneously from dozens of neurons in both hemispheres of V4. Feature and spatial attention affect the activity of local populations similarly, modulating both firing rates and correlations between pairs of nearby neurons. However, while spatial attention appears to act on local populations, feature attention is coordinated across hemispheres. Our results are consistent with a unified attentional mechanism that can modulate the responses of arbitrary subgroups of neurons. PMID:21689604

  3. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  4. Differential effects of temperature on acid-activated currents mediated by TRPV1 and ASIC channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelands, Torben R; Zhang, Xu-Feng; McDonald, Heath; Puttfarcken, Pamela

    2010-05-06

    Elevated temperature and decreased extracellular pH are hallmarks of inflammatory pain states. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are integral in transferring painful stimuli from the periphery to central sites. This study investigated the effect of elevated temperatures on the response of DRG neurons to acute application of acidic solutions. At room temperature (22 degrees C), in response to pH 5.5, there were a variety of kinetic responses consistent with differential expression of TRPV1 and ASIC channels. Increasing the temperature resulted in a significant increase in the peak and total current mediated by TRPV1 in response to an acidic solution. In contrast, the amplitude of a fast activating, rapidly inactivating ASIC1-like current was not affected by increasing the temperature but did result in an increased rate of desensitization that reduced the total current level. This effect on the rate of desensitization was temperature-dependent and could be reversed by returning to 22 degrees C. Likewise, cells exhibiting slowly inactivating ASIC2-like responses also had temperature-dependent increase in the rate of desensitization. The ASIC2-like responses and the TRPV1 responses tended to decrease in amplitude with repetitive application of pH 5.5 even at 22 degrees C. The rate of desensitization of ASIC-like currents activated by less acidic solutions (pH 6.8) was also increased in a temperature-dependent manner. Finally, acidic pH reduced threshold to trigger action potentials, however, the pattern of action potential firing was shaped by the distribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels. These results indicate that the ambient temperature at which acidosis occurs has a profound effect on the contribution of ASIC and TRPV1 channels, therefore, altering the neuronal excitability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Center for Accelerator Science and Education

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). Below details the Principal Investigators and contact information. Each PI submits separately for a budget through his corresponding institute. The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-­conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-­antimonide cathodes (BNL – LBNL) b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes (SBU -­ BNL) c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns (SBU) and copper RF photoguns (LBNL) Our work made extensive use of synchrotron radiation materials science techniques, such as powder-­ and single-­crystal diffraction, x-­ray fluorescence, EXAFS and variable energy XPS. BNL and LBNL have many complementary facilities at the two light sources associated with these laboratories (NSLS and ALS, respectively); use of these will be a major thrust of our program and bring our understanding of these complex materials to a new level. In addition, CHESS at Cornell will be used to continue seamlessly throughout the NSLS dark period and

  6. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to

  7. Repetitively pulsed, double discharge TEA CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D C; James, D J; Ramsden, S A

    1975-10-01

    The design and operation of a repetitively pulsed TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described. Average powers of up to 400 W at a repetition frequency of 200 pulses/s have been obtained. The system has also been used to provide long pulses (over 20 ..mu..s) and tunable single axial mode pulses.

  8. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    ) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  9. Repetition Blindness: Out of Sight or Out of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alison L.; Harris, Catherine L.

    2004-01-01

    Does repetition blindness represent a failure of perception or of memory? In Experiment 1, participants viewed rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sentences. When critical words (C1 and C2) were orthographically similar, C2 was frequently omitted from serial report; however, repetition priming for C2 on a postsentence lexical decision task was…

  10. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  11. Pre-Lexical Disorders in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; de Bleser, Ria; Ackermann, Hermann; Preilowski, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    At the level of clinical speech/language evaluation, the repetition type of conduction aphasia is characterized by repetition difficulties concomitant with reduced short-term memory capacities, in the presence of fluent spontaneous speech as well as unimpaired naming and reading abilities. It is still unsettled which dysfunctions of the…

  12. Diverse Intrinsic Properties Shape Functional Phenotype of Low-Frequency Neurons in the Auditory Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory system, tonotopy is the spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequencies are processed. Defined by the organization of neurons and their inputs, tonotopy emphasizes distinctions in neuronal structure and function across topographic gradients and is a common feature shared among vertebrates. In this study we characterized action potential firing patterns and ion channel properties from neurons located in the extremely low-frequency region of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM, an auditory brainstem structure. We found that NM neurons responsible for encoding the lowest sound frequencies (termed NMc neurons have enhanced excitability and fired bursts of action potentials to sinusoidal inputs ≤10 Hz; a distinct firing pattern compared to higher-frequency neurons. This response property was due to lower amounts of voltage dependent potassium (KV conductances, unique combination of KV subunits and specialized sodium (NaV channel properties. Particularly, NMc neurons had significantly lower KV1 and KV3 currents, but higher KV2 current. NMc neurons also showed larger and faster transient NaV current (INaT with different voltage dependence of inactivation from higher-frequency neurons. In contrast, significantly smaller resurgent sodium current (INaR was present in NMc with kinetics and voltage dependence that differed from higher-frequency neurons. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of NaV1.6 channel subtypes across the tonotopic axis. However, various immunoreactive patterns were observed between regions, likely underlying some tonotopic differences in INaT and INaR. Finally, using pharmacology and computational modeling, we concluded that KV3, KV2 channels and INaR work synergistically to regulate burst firing in NMc.

  13. Nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen oxygen mixture exposure impairs long-term cognitive function in newborn mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Peng

    Full Text Available Human beings are exposed to compressed air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture, they will produce signs and symptoms of nitrogen narcosis such as amnesia or even loss of memory, which may be disappeared once back to the normobaric environment. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nitrogen narcosis induced by repetitive hyperbaric nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposure on long-term cognitive function in newborn mice and the underlying mechanisms. The electroencephalogram frequency was decreased while the amplitude was increased in a pressure-dependent manner during 0.6, 1.2, 1.8 MPa (million pascal nitrogen-oxygen mixture exposures in adult mice. Nitrogen narcosis in postnatal days 7-9 mice but not in adult mice induced by repetitive hyperbaric exposure prolonged the latency to find the platform and decreased the number of platform-site crossovers during Morris water maze tests, and reduced the time in the center during the open field tests. An increase in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus and cortex were observed immediately on the first day after hyperbaric exposure, and this lasted for seven days. Additionally, nitrogen narcosis induced loss of the dendritic spines but not of the neurons, which may mainly account for the cognitive dysfunction. Nitrogen narcosis induced long-term cognitive and emotional dysfunction in the postnatal mice but not in the adult mice, which may result from neuronal apoptosis and especially reduction of dendritic spines of neurons.

  14. Constructing Precisely Computing Networks with Biophysical Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Michael A; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Denéve, Sophie; Shea-Brown, Eric T

    2015-07-15

    While spike timing has been shown to carry detailed stimulus information at the sensory periphery, its possible role in network computation is less clear. Most models of computation by neural networks are based on population firing rates. In equivalent spiking implementations, firing is assumed to be random such that averaging across populations of neurons recovers the rate-based approach. Recently, however, Denéve and colleagues have suggested that the spiking behavior of neurons may be fundamental to how neuronal networks compute, with precise spike timing determined by each neuron's contribution to producing the desired output (Boerlin and Denéve, 2011; Boerlin et al., 2013). By postulating that each neuron fires to reduce the error in the network's output, it was demonstrated that linear computations can be performed by networks of integrate-and-fire neurons that communicate through instantaneous synapses. This left open, however, the possibility that realistic networks, with conductance-based neurons with subthreshold nonlinearity and the slower timescales of biophysical synapses, may not fit into this framework. Here, we show how the spike-based approach can be extended to biophysically plausible networks. We then show that our network reproduces a number of key features of cortical networks including irregular and Poisson-like spike times and a tight balance between excitation and inhibition. Lastly, we discuss how the behavior of our model scales with network size or with the number of neurons "recorded" from a larger computing network. These results significantly increase the biological plausibility of the spike-based approach to network computation. We derive a network of neurons with standard spike-generating currents and synapses with realistic timescales that computes based upon the principle that the precise timing of each spike is important for the computation. We then show that our network reproduces a number of key features of cortical networks

  15. Neural network regulation driven by autonomous neural firings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Won

    2016-07-01

    Biological neurons naturally fire spontaneously due to the existence of a noisy current. Such autonomous firings may provide a driving force for network formation because synaptic connections can be modified due to neural firings. Here, we study the effect of autonomous firings on network formation. For the temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning, bidirectional connections lose their balance easily and become unidirectional ones. Defining the difference between reciprocal connections as new variables, we could express the learning dynamics as if Ising model spins interact with each other in magnetism. We present a theoretical method to estimate the interaction between the new variables in a neural system. We apply the method to some network systems and find some tendencies of autonomous neural network regulation.

  16. Repetitive exposure: Brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of massed repetition on the modulation of the late positive potential elicited during affective picture viewing were investigated in two experiments. Despite a difference in the number of repetitions across studies (from 5 to 30), results were quite similar: the late positive potential continued to be enhanced when viewing emotional, compared to neutral, pictures. On the other hand, massed repetition did prompt a reduction in the late positive potential that was most pronounced for emotional pictures. Startle probe P3 amplitude generally increased with repetition, suggesting diminished attention allocation to repeated pictures. The blink reflex, however, continued to be modulated by hedonic valence, despite massive massed repetition. Taken together, the data suggest that the amplitude of the late positive potential during picture viewing reflects both motivational significance and attention allocation. PMID:20701711

  17. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  18. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ghrelin receptors mediate ghrelin-induced excitation of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y but not pro-opiomelanocortin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Pradhan, Geetali; Sun, Yuxiang; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, De-Pei

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and inhibiting anorexic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice. Perforated whole-cell recordings were performed on green fluorescent protein-tagged AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus in hypothalamic slices. In Ghsr +/+ mice, ghrelin (100 nM) significantly increased the firing activity of AgRP/NPY neurons but inhibited the firing activity of POMC neurons. In Ghsr -/- mice, the excitatory effect of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY neurons was abolished. Ablation of Ghsr also eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in the frequency of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents of POMC neurons. Strikingly, ablation of Ghsr converted the ghrelin effect on POMC neurons from inhibition to excitation. Des-acylated ghrelin had no such effect on POMC neurons in Ghsr -/- mice. In both Ghsr +/+ and Ghsr -/- mice, blocking GABA A receptors with gabazine increased the basal firing activity of POMC neurons, and ghrelin further increased the firing activity of POMC neurons in the presence of gabazine. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence that Ghsr is essential for ghrelin-induced excitation of AgRP/NPY neurons. However, ghrelin excites POMC neurons through an unidentified mechanism that is distinct from conventional Ghsr. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Bifurcation software in Matlab with applications in neuronal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Willy; Sautois, Bart

    2005-02-01

    Many biological phenomena, notably in neuroscience, can be modeled by dynamical systems. We describe a recent improvement of a Matlab software package for dynamical systems with applications to modeling single neurons and all-to-all connected networks of neurons. The new software features consist of an object-oriented approach to bifurcation computations and the partial inclusion of C-code to speed up the computation. As an application, we study the origin of the spiking behaviour of neurons when the equilibrium state is destabilized by an incoming current. We show that Class II behaviour, i.e. firing with a finite frequency, is possible even if the destabilization occurs through a saddle-node bifurcation. Furthermore, we show that synchronization of an all-to-all connected network of such neurons with only excitatory connections is also possible in this case.

  1. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-L; Kim, K; Truong, Q; Shen, A; Li, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a ‘soma’ circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions. (paper)

  2. A Neuron Model Based Ultralow Current Sensor System for Bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Arifuzzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultralow current sensor system based on the Izhikevich neuron model is presented in this paper. The Izhikevich neuron model has been used for its superior computational efficiency and greater biological plausibility over other well-known neuron spiking models. Of the many biological neuron spiking features, regular spiking, chattering, and neostriatal spiny projection spiking have been reproduced by adjusting the parameters associated with the model at hand. This paper also presents a modified interpretation of the regular spiking feature in which the firing pattern is similar to that of the regular spiking but with improved dynamic range offering. The sensor current ranges between 2 pA and 8 nA and exhibits linearity in the range of 0.9665 to 0.9989 for different spiking features. The efficacy of the sensor system in detecting low amount of current along with its high linearity attribute makes it very suitable for biomedical applications.

  3. Joint statistics of strongly correlated neurons via dimensionality reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Taşkın; Rotter, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The relative timing of action potentials in neurons recorded from local cortical networks often shows a non-trivial dependence, which is then quantified by cross-correlation functions. Theoretical models emphasize that such spike train correlations are an inevitable consequence of two neurons being part of the same network and sharing some synaptic input. For non-linear neuron models, however, explicit correlation functions are difficult to compute analytically, and perturbative methods work only for weak shared input. In order to treat strong correlations, we suggest here an alternative non-perturbative method. Specifically, we study the case of two leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with strong shared input. Correlation functions derived from simulated spike trains fit our theoretical predictions very accurately. Using our method, we computed the non-linear correlation transfer as well as correlation functions that are asymmetric due to inhomogeneous intrinsic parameters or unequal input. (paper)

  4. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  5. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  6. Repetitive switching for an electromagnetic rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruden, J. M.

    1983-12-01

    Previous testing on a repetitive opening switch for inductive energy storage has proved the feasibility of the rotary switch concept. The concept consists of a rotating copper disk (rotor) with a pie-shaped insulator section and brushes which slide along each of the rotor surfaces. While on top of the copper surface, the brushes and rotor conduct current allowing the energy storage inductor to charge. When the brushes slide onto the insulator section, the current cannot pass through the rotor and is diverted into the load. This study investigates two new brush designs and a rotor modification designed to improve the current commutating capabilities of the switch. One brush design (fringe fiber) employs carbon fibers on the leading and trailing edge of the brush to increase the resistive commutating action as the switch opens and closes. The other brush design uses fingers to conduct current to the rotor surface, effectively increasing the number of brush contact points. The rotor modification was the placement of tungsten inserts at the copper-insulator interfaces.

  7. Repetitive Interrogation of 2-Level Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.

    2010-01-01

    Trapped ion clocks derive information from a reference atomic transition by repetitive interrogations of the same quantum system, either a single ion or ionized gas of many millions of ions. Atomic beam frequency standards, by contrast, measure reference atomic transitions in a continuously replenished "flow through" configuration where initial ensemble atomic coherence is zero. We will describe some issues and problems that can arise when atomic state selection and preparation of the quantum atomic system is not completed, that is, optical pumping has not fully relaxed the coherence and also not fully transferred atoms to the initial state. We present a simple two-level density matrix analysis showing how frequency shifts during the state-selection process can cause frequency shifts of the measured clock transition. Such considerations are very important when a low intensity lamp light source is used for state selection, where there is relatively weak relaxation and re-pumping of ions to an initial state and much weaker 'environmental' relaxation of the atomic coherence set-up in the atomic sample.

  8. Characterization of neuronal intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in layer I of anterior cingulate cortex from adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurons in neocortex layer I (LI provide inhibition to the cortical networks. Despite increasing use of mice for the study of brain functions, few studies were reported about mouse LI neurons. In the present study, we characterized intrinsic properties of LI neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key cortical area for sensory and cognitive functions, by using whole-cell patch clamp recording approach. Seventy one neurons in LI and 12 pyramidal neurons in LII/III were recorded. Although all of the LI neurons expressed continuous adapting firing characteristics, the unsupervised clustering results revealed five groups in the ACC, including: Spontaneous firing neurons; Delay-sAHP neurons, Delay-fAHP neurons, and two groups of neurons with ADP, named ADP1 and ADP2, respectively. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that LI neurons received both excitatory (mediated by AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors, and inhibitory inputs (which were mediated by GABAA receptors. Our studies provide the first report characterizing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in LI of the ACC from adult mice.

  9. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  10. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  11. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  12. Interaction of NMDA receptor and pacemaking mechanisms in the midbrain dopaminergic neuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ha

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurotransmission has been found to play a role in addictive behavior and is altered in psychiatric disorders. Dopaminergic (DA neurons display two functionally distinct modes of electrophysiological activity: low- and high-frequency firing. A puzzling feature of the DA neuron is the following combination of its responses: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation evokes high-frequency firing, whereas other tonic excitatory stimuli (α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR activation or applied depolarization block firing instead. We suggest a new computational model that reproduces this combination of responses and explains recent experimental data. Namely, somatic NMDAR stimulation evokes high-frequency firing and is more effective than distal dendritic stimulation. We further reduce the model to a single compartment and analyze the mechanism of the distinct high-frequency response to NMDAR activation vs. other stimuli. Standard nullcline analysis shows that the mechanism is based on a decrease in the amplitude of calcium oscillations. The analysis confirms that the nonlinear voltage dependence provided by the magnesium block of the NMDAR determine its capacity to elevate the firing frequency. We further predict that the moderate slope of the voltage dependence plays the central role in the frequency elevation. Additionally, we suggest a repolarizing current that sustains calcium-independent firing or firing in the absence of calcium-dependent repolarizing currents. We predict that the ether-a-go-go current (ERG, which has been observed in the DA neuron, is the best fit for this critical role. We show that a calcium-dependent and a calcium-independent oscillatory mechanisms form a structure of interlocked negative feedback loops in the DA neuron. The structure connects research of DA neuron firing with circadian biology and determines common minimal models for investigation of robustness of oscillations

  13. Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca(2+) Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders V; Jensen, Camilla S; Crépel, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. ...... of epileptiform discharges induced in in vitro models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)....

  14. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  16. Area PEc Neurons Use a Multiphasic Pattern of Activity to Signal the Spatial Properties of Optic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Raffi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cortical representation of visual perception requires the integration of several-signal processing distributed across many cortical areas, but the neural substrates of such perception are largely unknown. The type of firing pattern exhibited by single neurons is an important indicator of dynamic circuitry within or across cortical areas. Neurons in area PEc are involved in the spatial mapping of the visual field; thus, we sought to analyze the firing pattern of activity of PEc optic flow neurons to shed some light on the cortical processing of visual signals. We quantified the firing activity of 152 optic flow neurons using a spline interpolation function, which allowed determining onset, end, and latency of each neuronal response. We found that many PEc neurons showed multiphasic activity, which is strictly related to the position of the eye and to the position of the focus of expansion (FOE of the flow field. PEc neurons showed a multiphasic activity comprised of excitatory phases interspersed with inhibitory pauses. This phasic pattern seems to be a very efficient way to signal the spatial location of visual stimuli, given that the same neuron sends different firing patterns according to a specific combination of FOE/eye position.

  17. Connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks as defined by the shape of individual neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, Sebastian E; A N Travencolo, Bruno; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    Biological neuronal networks constitute a special class of dynamical systems, as they are formed by individual geometrical components, namely the neurons. In the existing literature, relatively little attention has been given to the influence of neuron shape on the overall connectivity and dynamics of the emerging networks. The current work addresses this issue by considering simplified neuronal shapes consisting of circular regions (soma/axons) with spokes (dendrites). Networks are grown by placing these patterns randomly in the two-dimensional (2D) plane and establishing connections whenever a piece of dendrite falls inside an axon. Several topological and dynamical properties of the resulting graph are measured, including the degree distribution, clustering coefficients, symmetry of connections, size of the largest connected component, as well as three hierarchical measurements of the local topology. By varying the number of processes of the individual basic patterns, we can quantify relationships between the individual neuronal shape and the topological and dynamical features of the networks. Integrate-and-fire dynamics on these networks is also investigated with respect to transient activation from a source node, indicating that long-range connections play an important role in the propagation of avalanches.

  18. Spatially tuned normalization explains attention modulation variance within neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Amy M; Maunsell, John H R

    2017-09-01

    Spatial attention improves perception of attended parts of a scene, a behavioral enhancement accompanied by modulations of neuronal firing rates. These modulations vary in size across neurons in the same brain area. Models of normalization explain much of this variance in attention modulation with differences in tuned normalization across neurons (Lee J, Maunsell JHR. PLoS One 4: e4651, 2009; Ni AM, Ray S, Maunsell JHR. Neuron 73: 803-813, 2012). However, recent studies suggest that normalization tuning varies with spatial location both across and within neurons (Ruff DA, Alberts JJ, Cohen MR. J Neurophysiol 116: 1375-1386, 2016; Verhoef BE, Maunsell JHR. eLife 5: e17256, 2016). Here we show directly that attention modulation and normalization tuning do in fact covary within individual neurons, in addition to across neurons as previously demonstrated. We recorded the activity of isolated neurons in the middle temporal area of two rhesus monkeys as they performed a change-detection task that controlled the focus of spatial attention. Using the same two drifting Gabor stimuli and the same two receptive field locations for each neuron, we found that switching which stimulus was presented at which location affected both attention modulation and normalization in a correlated way within neurons. We present an equal-maximum-suppression spatially tuned normalization model that explains this covariance both across and within neurons: each stimulus generates equally strong suppression of its own excitatory drive, but its suppression of distant stimuli is typically less. This new model specifies how the tuned normalization associated with each stimulus location varies across space both within and across neurons, changing our understanding of the normalization mechanism and how attention modulations depend on this mechanism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Tuned normalization studies have demonstrated that the variance in attention modulation size seen across neurons from the same cortical

  19. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Identity and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, William C; Deneris, Evan S

    2017-01-01

    The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life. The transcriptional regulatory networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light. In this review, we first provide an update on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation. In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor (TF) Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was originally shown to positively regulate genes needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron-type transmitter identity. It has now been shown to regulate, both positively and negatively, many other categories of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors. Its function as a terminal selector results in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories thus indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation. Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling

  20. Morphological Analysis of the Axonal Projections of EGFP-Labeled Esr1-Expressing Neurons in Transgenic Female Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Buntaro; Karigo, Tomomi; Kanda, Shinji; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Some hypothalamic neurons expressing estrogen receptor α (Esr1) are thought to transmit a gonadal estrogen feedback signal to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons, which is the final common pathway for feedback regulation of reproductive functions. Moreover, estrogen-sensitive neurons are suggested to control sexual behaviors in coordination with reproduction. In mammals, hypothalamic estrogen-sensitive neurons release the peptide kisspeptin and regulate GnRH1 neurons. However, a growing body of evidence in nonmammalian species casts doubt on the regulation of GnRH1 neurons by kisspeptin neurons. As a step toward understanding how estrogen regulates neuronal circuits for reproduction and sex behavior in vertebrates in general, we generated a transgenic (Tg) medaka that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in esr1-expressing neurons (esr1 neurons) and analyzed their axonal projections. We found that esr1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA) project to the gnrh1 neurons. We also demonstrated by transcriptome and histological analyses that these esr1 neurons are glutamatergic or γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) but not kisspeptinergic. We therefore suggest that glutamatergic and GABAergic esr1 neurons in the POA regulate gnrh1 neurons. This hypothesis is consistent with previous studies in mice that found that glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission is critical for estrogen-dependent changes in GnRH1 neuron firing. Thus, we propose that this neuronal circuit may provide an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulation of reproduction. In addition, we showed that telencephalic esr1 neurons project to medulla, which may control sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that some POA-esr1 neurons coexpress progesterone receptors. These neurons may form the neuronal circuits that regulate reproduction and sex behavior in response to the serum estrogen/progesterone. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.