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Sample records for repetitive hand behaviour

  1. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  2. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour.

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    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  4. Risk factors for hand-wrist disorders in repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    (wrist pain and palpation tenderness) were determined in 3123 employees in 19 industrial settings. With the use of questionnaires and video recordings of homogenous work tasks number of wrist movements, hand force requirements and wrist position were analysed as risk factors for hand-wrist disorders......OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk of hand-wrist disorders related to repetitive movements, use of hand force and wrist position in repetitive monotonous work. METHODS: Using questionnaires and physical examinations, the prevalence and incidence of hand-wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis...... were less consistent. Working with the hand in a non-neutral position could not be identified as a risk factor...

  5. Stigmatization of repetitive hand use in newspaper reports of hand illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

    2008-03-01

    Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was assessed for stigmatization of activities involving repetitive hand use as well as for stigmatization of patients who use their hand repetitively. One hundred and twenty-four articles on hand illnesses were identified. Of these, 65.3% of articles stigmatized activities involving repetitive hand use, including 96.6% of articles discussing overuse injury of the hand, 90% of articles discussing tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and 51.8% of articles discussing carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient stigmatization was documented in 30.6% of the newspaper articles. Stigmatizing statements were most commonly made by journalists (94.8%), followed by patients (3.1%), and physicians (2.1%). Language that stigmatizes repetitive hand use and patients who use their hand repetitively is prevalent among US newspaper articles. Both health professionals and journalists reporting health-related news should be more sensitive to the use of stigmatizing language and provide a more balanced, measured, and evidenced-based account of hand illnesses.

  6. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein

  7. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

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    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  8. Neuronal network coherent with hand kinematics during fast repetitive hand movements.

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    Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Op de Beeck, Marc; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2012-01-16

    We quantified the coupling between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) cortical signals and the kinematics of fast repetitive voluntary hand movements monitored by a 3-axis accelerometer. Ten healthy right-handed adults performed self-paced flexion-extension movements of right-hand fingers at ~3Hz with either touching the thumb during flexions (TOUCH) or not (noTOUCH). At the sensor level, we found in all subjects and conditions significant coherence at the movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1). Coherence values were significantly higher in TOUCH compared to noTOUCH. At the group level, dynamic imaging of coherent sources localized the main source of coherent activity at the left primary motor (M1) hand area, except at F0 TOUCH were the main source was localized at the left primary sensory (S1) hand area. Other coherent brain areas were also identified at right S1-M1 cortices (F0), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F1), left posterior parietal cortex (F0 TOUCH and F1 noTOUCH) and left medial S1-M1 areas (TOUCH). This study highlights the prominent role of rhythmic neuronal activity phase-locked to movements for the encoding and the integration of key sensori-motor features of limb kinematics. This study also suggests that somatosensory afferences play a key role to sustain a high synchronization level between the neuronal activity in coherent brain areas and hand acceleration. Some coherent brain regions differed between F0 and F1 in both conditions, suggesting that distinct cortical areas are involved in different features of hand kinematics.

  9. The Relationship between Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Rodgers, J.; Glod, M.; Connolly, B.; McConachie, H.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are vulnerable to anxiety. Repetitive behaviours are a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and have been associated with anxiety. This study examined repetitive behaviours and anxiety in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder, those with high anxiety and those with lower levels of…

  10. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  11. Multiple sessions of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Arora, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to enhance intracortical inhibition has motivated its use as a potential therapeutic intervention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this preliminary investigation, we assessed the physiologic and behavioral...

  12. Behavioural Intervention Practices for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

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    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Smith, Veronica; Jelen, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the quality of conduct of experimental studies contributing to our empirical understanding of function-based behavioural interventions for stereotypic and repetitive behaviours (SRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: Systematic review methodology was used to…

  13. Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders.

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    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-04-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their parents the Short Sensory Profile and Childhood Routines Inventory. Significant correlations were found between degree of sensory abnormalities and amount of restricted and repetitive behaviours reported. Repetitive behaviours, age and IQ significantly predicted completion time on the EFT. The results suggest a cognitive link between an individual's detail-focused cognitive style and their repetitiveness. No such relationship was found with sensory processing abnormalities, which may arise at a more peripheral level of functioning.

  14. Sensory dysfunction associated with repetitive strain injuries of tendinitis and focal hand dystonia: a comparative study.

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    Byl, N; Wilson, F; Merzenich, M; Melnick, M; Scott, P; Oakes, A; McKenzie, A

    1996-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries are reaching epidemic levels among workers who perform heavy schedules of rapid alternating movements (eg., computer programmers, data entry workers) or repetitive, sustained, coordinated movements (eg., editors, writers, salespeople). The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with repetitive strain injury demonstrated degraded sensory motor performance with their hands. Sixty age-matched adults were recruited, with 15 each assigned to a healthy adult control group, a healthy musician control group, a tendinitis group, or a focal dystonia group. Four sensory motor subtests from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test were given to the subjects according to a standardized protocol. Using multiple one-factor analyses of variance in the parametric or nonparametric mode followed by post hoc pairwise testing, no significant differences were found between the healthy controls and the musician controls. On the test of kinesthesia, using the left hand, subjects with tendinitis performed significantly worse than controls and subjects with focal dystonia. Compared with controls, subjects with focal dystonia did significantly worse on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 1 and part 2). Subjects with focal dystonia also did significantly worse than subjects with tendinitis when using the left hand on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 2). When treating patients with repetitive strain injury, discriminative sensory motor skills must be carefully assessed and may need to be addressed as part of an effective treatment program.

  15. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

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    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  16. The sensory consequences of repetitive strain injury in musicians: focal dystonia of the hand.

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    Byl, N; Hamati, D; Melnick, M; Wilson, F; McKenzie, A

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals with repetitive strain injury (RSI) develop focal dystonia of the hand (FDh), a disorder of motor control manifested in a specific context during skilled, hand movements. This descriptive study was designed to determine if musicians with FDh had reduced tactile discrimination. Ten healthy adults and ten patients with FDh participated in the study. From the standardized Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, five subtests were selected to measure tactile discrimination. The Paired Wilcoxon Test was used to analyze, meaningful, planned pairwise differences by side and by group. The two groups performed similarly on the three tests measuring tactile motor perception (Finger Identification, Localization and Kinesthesia). However, those with FDh performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison group on two tactile perceptual tasks: (1) Graphesthesia, right affected (P < 0.003) and left unaffected (p < 0.005); and (2) Manual Form Perception (stereognosis) on the right affected (P < 0.002) and left unaffected (P < 0.002). It is possible that the somatosensory differences as measured by tactile discrimination tasks represent some degradation of the hand representation following prolonged, repetitive, near simultaneous sensory stimulation of adjacent digits. Tactile discrimination should be tested in patients with RSI to detect potential risks for developing FDh. Effective treatment of patients with RSI including FDh may need to target the somatosensory deficits in order to restore stress-free motor movements.

  17. Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison

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    Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

  18. Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

  19. Comorbid psychopathology and stress mediate the relationship between autistic traits and repetitive behaviours in adults with autism.

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    García-Villamisar, D; Rojahn, J

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. A battery of questionnaires including measures of autistic traits, repetitive behaviours, stress, executive dysfunctions and comorbid psychopathology were administered to a sample of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities (n = 43). We found that when taken as set dimensions of comorbidity, dysexecutive functioning and stress mediated or explained the effects of autistic symptoms on repetitive behaviour. The total model explained 60% of the variation in repetitive behaviours (R = 0.60; F = 13.64, P autism, while executive functioning did not contribute to that relationship. © 2013 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Improving hand hygiene behaviour among adolescents by a planning intervention.

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    Zhou, Guangyu; Jiang, Tingting; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p planning levels operated as a mediator between experimental conditions and changes in behavioural outcomes. Teaching self-regulatory planning strategies may constitute a superior approach than educational messages to improve regular hand hygiene practice in adolescents.

  1. Hand dominance and hand use behaviour reported in a survey of 2437 Koreans.

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    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2009-11-01

    Most tools, utensils, office equipment, home appliances, clothes, medical instruments, sporting goods, weapons and public facilities are made for people who are right-handed. Many left-handed people have to endure a certain amount of inconvenience or difficulty in carrying out daily activities in such an environment. In this study, 2437 Korean male and female participants were randomly selected to collect a variety of data on hand dominance and hand preference when handling diverse products and facilities. Their responses in a questionnaire survey revealed that 5.8% were left-handed and 7.9% were ambidextrous. The younger participants who were from teens to 39 years reported higher percentages of left-handedness than those over 40 years, with those in their thirties reporting the highest proportion of left-handedness (7.3-7.6%) for both men and women. A slightly higher percentage of the male participants (5.9%) said that they were left-handed than did the female participants (5.6%). However, the percentage who were ambidextrous varied with age group, but overall there was a higher percentage of women (8.3%) than of men (7.6%). The analysis of hand use behaviour revealed that the right-handed and ambidextrous people had a tendency to use their right hands more for actions that required accuracy than those that required force. The left-handed people had a strong tendency to use their left hands more often when making a forceful action than for one that required accuracy. Derived from these results, the conclusion is that, depending on their hand dominance, people seem to use their hands differently when they handle objects or use facilities, which should be considered in the design of hand-controlled devices. Depending on which hand is the dominant one, people seem to use their hands differently when they handle objects or use facilities. The left-handed tend to use their left hands more with force-required motions than with accuracy-required motions, while

  2. Adaptation of the Transverse Carpal Ligament Associated with Repetitive Hand Use in Pianists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Mhanna

    Full Text Available The transverse carpal ligament (TCL plays a critical role in carpal tunnel biomechanics through interactions with its surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo adaptations of the TCL's mechanical properties in response to repetitive hand use in pianists using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. It was hypothesized that pianists, in comparison to non-pianists, would have a stiffer TCL as indicated by an increased acoustic shear wave velocity (SWV. ARFI imagining was performed for 10 female pianists and 10 female non-pianists. The median SWV values of the TCL were determined for the entire TCL, as well as for its radial and ulnar portions, rTCL and uTCL, respectively. The TCL SWV was significantly increased in pianists relative to non-pianists (p < 0.05. Additionally, the increased SWV was location dependent for both pianist and non-pianist groups (p < 0.05, with the rTCL having a significantly greater SWV than the uTCL. Between groups, the rTCL SWV of pianists was 22.2% greater than that of the non-pianists (p < 0.001. This localized increase of TCL SWV, i.e. stiffening, may be primarily attributable to focal biomechanical interactions that occur at the radial TCL aspect where the thenar muscles are anchored. Progressive stiffening of the TCL may become constraining to the carpal tunnel, leading to median nerve compression in the tunnel. TCL maladaptation helps explain why populations who repeatedly use their hands are at an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal pathologies, e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism

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    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between…

  4. Learning effects of repetitive administration of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure in novice prosthetic users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) evaluates the functionality of normal, injured or prosthetic hands. The aim was to evaluate the learning effects of SHAP tasks and the appropriateness of the time limits applied per task in novice prosthetic users. Methods: Right-handed uni

  5. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  6. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  7. Repetitive behaviours in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: tics, compulsions, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Worbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive behaviours (RB in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS are frequent. However, a controversy persists whether they are manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD or correspond to complex tics. METHODS: 166 consecutive patients with GTS aged 15-68 years were recruited and submitted to extensive neurological, psychiatric and psychological evaluations. RB were evaluated by the YBOCS symptom checklist and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I, and classified on the basis of a semi-directive psychiatric interview as compulsions or tics. RESULTS: RB were present in 64.4% of patients with GTS (107/166 and categorised into 3 major groups: a 'tic-like' group (24.3%-40/166 characterised by RB such as touching, counting, 'just right' and symmetry searching; an 'OCD-like' group (20.5%-34/166 with washing and checking rituals; and a 'mixed' group (13.2%-22/166 with both 'tics-like' and 'OCD-like' types of RB present in the same patient. In 6.3% of patients, RB could not be classified into any of these groups and were thus considered 'undetermined'. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the phenomenological heterogeneity of RB in GTS patients and allows to distinguish two types: tic-like behaviours which are very likely an integral part of GTS; and OCD-like behaviours, which can be considered as a comorbid condition of GTS and were correlated with higher score of complex tics, neuroleptic and SSRIs treatment frequency and less successful socio-professional adaptation. We suggest that a meticulous semiological analysis of RB in GTS patients will help to tailor treatment and allow to better classify patients for future pathophysiologic studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00169351.

  8. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

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    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  9. Effects of intensive repetition of a new facilitation technique on motor functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand

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    Kawahira, Kazumi; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Kamada, Katsuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects on the hemiplegic upper limb of repetitive facilitation exercises (RFEs) using a novel facilitation technique, in which the patient's intention to move the hemiplegic upper limb or finger was followed by realization of the movement using multiple sensory stimulations. Methods Twenty-three stroke patients were enrolled in a cross-over study in which 2-week RFE sessions (100 repetitions each of five-to-eight types of facilitation exercise per day) were alternated with 2-week conventional rehabilitation (CR) sessions, for a total of four sessions. Treatments were begun with the 2-week RFE session in one group and the 2-week CR session in the second group. Results After the first 2-week RFE session, both groups showed improvements in the Brunnstrom stages of the upper limb and the hand, in contrast to the small improvements observed during the first CR session. The Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) score, which evaluates the ability of manipulating objects, in both groups improved during both sessions. After the second 2-week RFE and CR sessions, both groups showed little further improvement except in the STEF score. Conclusion The novel RFEs promoted the functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand to a greater extent than the CR sessions. PMID:20715890

  10. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

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    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Priming Hand Motor Training with Repetitive Stimulation of the Fingertips; Performance Gain and Functional Imaging of Training Effects.

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    Lotze, Martin; Ladda, Aija Marie; Roschka, Sybille; Platz, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R

    Application of repetitive electrical stimulation (rES) of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception and sensorimotor performance in healthy individuals. To increase motor performance by priming the effects of active motor training (arm ability training; AAT) using rES. We compared the performance gain for the training increase of the averaged AAT tasks of both hands in two groups of strongly right-handed healthy volunteers. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) before and after AAT was assessed using three tasks for each hand separately: finger sequence tapping, visually guided grip force modulation, and writing. Performance during fMRI was controlled for preciseness and frequency. A total of 30 participants underwent a two-week unilateral left hand AAT, 15 participants with 20 minutes of rES priming of all fingertips of the trained hand, and 15 participants without rES priming. rES-primed AAT improved the trained left-hand performance across all training tasks on average by 32.9%, non-primed AAT improved by 29.5%. This gain in AAT performance with rES priming was predominantly driven by an increased finger tapping velocity. Functional imaging showed comparable changes for both training groups over time. Across all participants, improved AAT performance was associated with a higher contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) fMRI activation magnitude during the grip force modulation task. This study highlights the importance of S1 for hand motor training gain. In addition, it suggests the usage of rES of the fingertips for priming active hand motor training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand hygiene of medical students and resident physicians: predictors of attitudes and behaviour.

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    Barroso, Violeta; Caceres, Wendy; Loftus, Pooja; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    We measured medical students' and resident trainees' hand hygiene behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in order to identify important predictors of hand hygiene behaviour in this population. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was distributed to medical students and residents at Stanford University School of Medicine in August of 2012. The questionnaire included questions regarding participants' behaviour, knowledge, attitude and experiences about hand hygiene. Behaviour, knowledge and attitude indices were scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 representing superior responses. Using multivariate regression, we identified positive and negative predictors of superior hand hygiene behaviour. We investigated effectiveness of interventions, barriers and comfort reminding others. 280 participants (111 students and 169 residents) completed the questionnaire (response rate 27.8%). Residents and medical students reported hand hygiene behaviour compliance of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively (p=0.02). Resident and medical student knowledge was 0.80 and 0.73, respectively (p=0.001). The attitude index for residents was 0.56 and 0.55 for medical students. Regression analysis identified experiences as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour (both positive and negative influence). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of behaviour, but a working gel dispenser and observing attending physicians with good hand hygiene practices were reported by both groups as the most effective strategy in influencing trainees. Medical students and residents have similar attitudes about hand hygiene, but differ in their level of knowledge and compliance. Concerns about hierarchy may have a significant negative impact on hand hygiene advocacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Key beliefs of hospital nurses' hand-hygiene behaviour: protecting your peers and needing effective reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene in hospitals is vital to limit the spread of infections. This study aimed to identify key beliefs underlying hospital nurses' hand-hygiene decisions to consolidate strategies that encourage compliance. Informed by a theory of planned behaviour belief framework, nurses from 50 Australian hospitals (n=797) responded to how likely behavioural beliefs (advantages and disadvantages), normative beliefs (important referents) and control beliefs (barriers) impacted on their hand-hygiene decisions following the introduction of a national '5 moments for hand hygiene' initiative. Two weeks after completing the survey, they reported their hand-hygiene adherence. Stepwise regression analyses identified key beliefs that determined nurses' hand-hygiene behaviour. Reducing the chance of infection for co-workers influenced nurses' hygiene behaviour, with lack of time and forgetfulness identified as barriers. Future efforts to improve hand hygiene should highlight the potential impact on colleagues and consider strategies to combat time constraints, as well as implementing workplace reminders to prompt greater hand-hygiene compliance. SO WHAT?: Rather than emphasising the health of self and patients in efforts to encourage hand-hygiene practices, a focus on peer protection should be adopted and more effective workplace reminders should be implemented to combat forgetting.

  14. Topic Repetitiveness after Traumatic Brain Injury: An Emergent, Jointly Managed Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Parker, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Topic repetitiveness is a common component of pragmatic impairment and a powerful contributor to social exclusion. Despite this, description, characterization and intervention remain underdeveloped. This article explores the nature of repetitiveness in traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case study of one individual after TBI provides the basis for a…

  15. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  16. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hands4U: the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on behaviour related to the prevention of hand eczema-a randomised controlled trial among healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, E.W. van der; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Coenraads, P.J.; Jungbauer, F.H.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Anema, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a multifaceted implementation strategy on behaviour, behavioural determinants, knowledge and awareness of healthcare workers regarding the use of recommendations to prevent hand eczema. METHODS: The Hands4U study is a randomised controlled trial. A total of

  18. Hands4U : the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on behaviour related to the prevention of hand eczema-a randomised controlled trial among healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Esther W. C.; Boot, Cecile R. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Jungbauer, Frank H. W.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Anema, Johannes R.

    Objectives To investigate the effects of a multifaceted implementation strategy on behaviour, behavioural determinants, knowledge and awareness of healthcare workers regarding the use of recommendations to prevent hand eczema. Methods The Hands4U study is a randomised controlled trial. A total of 48

  19. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Comprehensive Hand Repetitive Intensive Strength Training (CHRIST) Using Motion Analysis in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-A; Lee, Jung-Ah; Hwang, Pil-Woo; Lee, Min-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Jeong-Joon; You, Joshua H; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Lee, Nam-Gi

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Comprehensive Hand Repetitive Intensive Strength Training (CHRIST) on upper limb function in children with cerebral palsy using motion analysis. The subjects in this study included 19 children (10 males, 9 females, mean age=8.8 years) with cerebral palsy. The experimental group (n=10) received CHRIST and general rehabilitation therapy. The control group (n=9) received a home program as well as general rehabilitation therapy. Both groups received 30 sessions of CHRIST or home program training for 60 minutes per session 3 times a week during the 10-week period. The reaching movements were captured by a motion analysis system. Kinematic variables including movement time (MT), mean velocity (MV), normalized jerk score (NJS), mean angular velocity (MAV) and normalized jerk score of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joint with comfortable and fast speed were analyzed between groups and the pre-post training group. After pre- and post-training experimental group, MT, MV, NJS, MAV of shoulder, elbow, wrist and NJS of elbow and wrist improved significantlyin reaching movement of both comfortable and fast speed (ptraining control group, MV improved significantlyin reaching movement of only comfortable speed (pchildren with cerebral palsy.

  1. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, van T.; Bruin, de M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  2. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  3. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour chang

  4. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, van T.; Bruin, de M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour chan

  5. A seizure response dog: video recording of reacting behaviour during repetitive prolonged seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Lidia; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Seizure response and alerting behaviour may spontaneously develop in dogs living with children or adults with epilepsy. Some dogs can also be reliably trained to respond and anticipate seizures. We describe the case of a dog, not previously trained for assistance work, showing complex seizure response behaviour. This is the first release of a home video recording of a dog reacting to its owner's seizure.

  6. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001.

  7. Improvements in hand function in adults with chronic tetraplegia following a multi-day 10Hz rTMS intervention combined with repetitive task practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Evidence suggests the use of stimulation to increase corticomotor excitability improves hand function in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed effects of multi-day application of 10Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the corticomotor hand area combined with repetitive task practice (RTP) in participants with tetraplegia and neurologically healthy participants. Methods Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 11 participants with chronic tetraplegia and 10 neurologically healthy participants received 3 sessions of 10Hz rTMS+RTP and 3 sessions of sham-rTMS+RTP to the corticomotor hand region controlling the weaker hand. RTMS was interleaved with RTP of a skilled motor task between pulse trains. Hand function (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test [JTT], pinch, and grasp strength) and corticomotor excitability (amplitude of motor-evoked potential) were assessed prior to and following the rTMS+RTP and sham-rTMS+RTP phases. We assessed significance using paired t-tests on pre-post differences and effect sizes using standardized response mean (SRM). Results RTMS+RTP was associated with larger effect sizes compared to sham-rTMS+RTP for improvement in JTT for both the trained hand (SRM=0.85 and 0.42, respectively), non-trained hand (0.55, 0.31, respectively), and for grasp strength of the trained hand in the SCI group (0.67, 0.39, respectively) alone. Effect sizes for all other measures were small and there were no statistical between-condition differences in the outcomes assessed. Discussion and Conclusions RTMS may be a valuable adjunct to RTP for improving hand function in persons with tetraplegia. Higher stimulation dose (frequency, intensity, number of sessions) may be associated with larger effects. Video Abstract available (See Supplemental Digital Conent 1) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25415549

  8. Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests in Individuals with Down Syndrome—One Way of Managing Their World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Glenn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the repetitive behaviour and restrictive interests (RBRI displayed by individuals with Down syndrome have mostly positive functions. However, as research has developed from interests in Obsessional Compulsive Disorder or Autistic Spectrum Disorder, unfortunately a view has arisen that RBRI in individuals with Down syndrome are also likely to be pathological. This is particularly the case in adults. The paper reviews: (a measures employed and the perspectives that have been used; (b the development in typically developing individuals, those with Down syndrome, and those with other conditions associated with intellectual disability; (c positive and possible negative effects of RBRI; and (d the need for more research. The conclusion is that, for their level of development, RBRI are helpful for most individuals with Down syndrome.

  9. The Association between Repetitive Behaviours, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, C.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Arron, K.; Berg, K.; Furniss, F.; Hill, L.; Trusler, K.; Woodcock, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need for assessments of psychological difference and disorder in people who have more severe intellectual disability (ID). Hyperactivity and impulsivity are two behavioural domains of importance as they are correlated with self-injury and aggression and this alludes to a shared cognitive correlate of compromised behavioural…

  10. Effects of repetitive facilitative exercise with neuromuscular electrical stimulation, vibratory stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the hemiplegic hand in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Seiji; Noma, Tomokazu; Takiyoshi, Yuko; Arima, Michiko; Ohama, Rintaro; Yokoyama, Katsuya; Hokazono, Akihiko; Amano, Yumeko; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2016-11-01

    Repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE) is a developed approach to the rehabilitation of hemiplegia. RFE can be integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), direct application of vibratory stimulation (DAVS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The aims of the present study were to retrospectively compare the effects of RFE and NMES, DAVS with those of RFE and rTMS, and to determine the maximal effect of the combination of RFE with NMES, DAVS, rTMS and pharmacological treatments in stroke patients. Thirty-three stroke patients were enrolled and divided into three groups: 15 who received RFE with rTMS (4 min) (TMS4 alone), 9 who received RFE with NMES, DAVS (NMES, DAVS alone) and 9 who received RFE with NMES, DAVS and rTMS (10 min) (rTMS10 + NMES, DAVS). The subjects performed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) before and after the 2-week session. The 18 patients in the NMES, DAVS alone and rTMS10 + NMES, DAVS group underwent the intervention for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the increases in the FMA, ARAT scores in the three groups. The FMA or ARAT scores in the NMES, DAVS alone and the rTMS10 + NMES, DAVS group were increased significantly. The FMA and ARAT scores were significantly improved after 4 weeks in the NMES, DAVS alone group. RFE with NMES, DAVS may be more effective than RFE with rTMS for the recovery of upper-limb function. Patients who received RFE with NMES, DAVS and pharmacological treatments showed significant functional recovery.

  11. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial.

  12. Reductions in negative repetitive thinking and metacognitive beliefs during transdiagnostic internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    We explored whether transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression effectively reduces repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and whether reductions in RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs mediate symptom improvement during iCBT. Participants

  13. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  14. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (hands before meals, 26.5% after toileting and 59.8% washing their hands with soap (59.8%. In multivariate analysis, male gender, health risk behaviours and lack of protective factors were associated with sub-optimal tooth brushing, and lower socioeconomic status, health risk behaviours, psychological distress and lack of protective factors were found to be associated with sub-optimal hand washing hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  15. Cumulative sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) build up facilitation to subsequent TMS-mediated behavioural disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rushmore, Richard J

    2008-02-01

    A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce behavioural effects that outlast the duration of the stimulation train itself (off-line effects). Series of rTMS sessions on consecutive days are being used for therapeutic applications in a variety of disorders and are assumed to lead to the build-up of cumulative effects. However, no studies have carefully assessed this notion. In the present study we applied 30 daily sessions of 1 Hz rTMS (continuous train of 20 min) to repeatedly modulate activity in the posterior parietal cortex and associated neural systems in two intact cats. We assessed the effect on visuospatial orientation before and after each stimulation session. Cumulative sessions of rTMS progressively induced visuospatial neglect-like 'after-effects' of greater magnitude (from 5-10% to 40-50% error levels) and increasing spatial extent (from 90-75 degrees to 45-30 degrees eccentricity locations), affecting the visual hemifield contralateral to the stimulated hemisphere. Nonetheless, 60 min after each TMS session, visual detection-localization abilities repeatedly returned to baseline levels. Furthermore, no lasting behavioural effect could be demonstrated at any time across the study, when subjects were tested 1 or 24 h post-rTMS. We conclude that the past history of periodically cumulative rTMS sessions builds up a lasting 'memory', resulting in increased facilitation to subsequent TMS-induced disruptions. Such a phenomenon allows a behavioural effect of progressively higher magnitude, but equal duration, in response to individual TMS interventions.

  16. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis Anita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. Methods Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH improvement strategies were conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to November 2009. First, we extracted the study characteristics using the EPOC Data Collection Checklist, including study objectives, setting, study design, target population, outcome measures, description of the intervention, analysis, and results. Second, we used the Taxonomy of Behavioural Change Techniques to identify targeted determinants. Results We reviewed 41 studies. The most frequently addressed determinants were knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation of behaviour. Fewer studies addressed social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Thirteen studies used a controlled design to measure the effects of HH improvement strategies on HH behaviour. The effectiveness of the strategies varied substantially, but most controlled studies showed positive results. The median effect size of these strategies increased from 17.6 (relative difference addressing one determinant to 49.5 for the studies that addressed five determinants. Conclusions By focussing on determinants of behaviour change, we found hidden and valuable components in HH improvement strategies. Addressing only determinants such as knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation is not enough to change HH behaviour. Addressing combinations of different determinants showed better results. This indicates that we should be more creative in the application of

  17. Harnessing repetitive behaviours to engage attention and learning in a novel therapy for autism:An exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Megumi Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous, quantitative examination of therapeutic techniques anecdotally reported to have been successful in people with autism who lack communicative speech will help guide basic science towards a more complete characterisation of the cognitive profile in this underserved subpopulation, and show the extent to which theories and results developed with the high-functioning subpopulation may apply. This study examines a novel therapy, the Rapid Prompting Method (RPM. RPM is a parent-developed communicative and educational therapy for persons with autism who do not speak or who have difficulty using speech communicatively. The technique aims to develop a means of interactive learning by pointing amongst multiple choice options presented at different locations in space, with the aid of sensory prompts which evoke a response without cueing any specific response option. The prompts are meant to draw and to maintain attention to the communicative task – making the communicative and educational content co-incident with the most physically salient, attention-capturing stimulus – and to extinguish the sensory-motor preoccupations with which the prompts compete. Video-recorded RPM sessions with 9 autistic children ages 8 to 14 years who lacked functional communicative speech were coded for behaviours of interest. An analysis controlled for age indicates that exposure to the claimed therapy appears to support a decrease in repetitive behaviours and an increase in the number of multiple-choice response options without any decrease in successful responding. Direct gaze is not related to successful responding, suggesting that direct gaze might not be any advantage for this population and need not in all cases be a precondition to communication therapies.

  18. Disturbance and recovery of trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours following repetitive lifting: influences of flexion angle and lift rate on creep-induced effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bazrgari, Babak; Hendershot, Brad; Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive lifting is associated with an increased risk of occupational low back disorders, yet potential adverse effects of such exposure on trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were not well described. Here, 12 participants, gender balanced, completed 40 min of repetitive lifting in all combinations of three flexion angles (33, 66, and 100% of each participant's full flexion angle) and two lift rates (2 and 4 lifts/min). Trunk behaviours were obtained pre- and post-exposure and during recovery using sudden perturbations. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and reflexive responses were compromised after lifting exposures, with larger decreases in stiffness and reflexive force caused by larger flexion angles, which also delayed reflexive responses. Consistent effects of lift rate were not found. Except for reflex delay no measures returned to pre-exposure values after 20 min of recovery. Simultaneous changes in both trunk stiffness and neuromuscular behaviours may impose an increased risk of trunk instability and low back injury. An elevated risk of low back disorders is attributed to repetitive lifting. Here, the effects of flexion angle and lift rate on trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were investigated. Increasing flexion angle had adverse effects on these outcomes, although lift rate had inconsistent effects and recovery time was more than 20 min.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation attenuates the perception of force output production in non-exercised hand muscles after unilateral exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stuart; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Voller, Bernhard; Lomarev, Mike; Howatson, Glyn; Dang, Nguyet; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether unilateral exercise creates perception bias in the non-exercised limb and ascertained whether rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) interferes with this perception. All participants completed 4 interventions: 1) 15-min learning period of intermittent isometric contractions at 35% MVC with the trained hand (EX), 2) 15-min learning period of intermittent isometric contractions at 35% MVC with the trained hand whilst receiving rTMS over the contralateral M1 (rTMS+EX); 3) 15-min of rTMS over the 'trained' M1 (rTMS) and 4) 15-min rest (Rest). Pre and post-interventions, the error of force output production, the perception of effort (RPE), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were measured in both hands. EX did not alter the error of force output production in the trained hand (Δ3%; P>0.05); however, the error of force output production was reduced in the untrained hand (Δ12%; Phand. EX increased RPE in the trained hand (9.1±0.5 vs. 11.3±0.7; Phand (8.8±0.6 vs. 9.2±0.6; P>0.05). RPE was significantly higher after rTMS+EX in the trained hand (9.2±0.5 vs. 10.7±0.7; Phand (8.5±0.6 vs. 9.2±0.5; P>0.05). The novel finding was that exercise alone reduced the error in force output production by over a third in the untrained hand. Further, when exercise was combined with rTMS the transfer of force perception was attenuated. These data suggest that the contralateral M1 of the trained hand might, in part, play an essential role for the transfer of force perception to the untrained hand.

  20. Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, Fanny; Côté, Isabelle; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Neuropathic pain often follows spinal cord injury (SCI). To compare the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over different motor cortex targets (hand vs leg area) versus sham stimulation on neuropathic pain and local neurophysiological changes in patients with SCI. A total of 16 patients with complete or incomplete motor SCI and chronic neuropathic pain participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized study. Three single sessions of sham or active rTMS (10 Hz, total of 2000 stimuli) were applied in random order over the hand or leg area with a minimal 2-week interval. THE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: were the numeric rating scale for pain sensation and parameters derived from motor mapping of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, including maximal amplitude of evoked response as well as map area, volume, and location. rTMS applied to either the hand or the leg area, but not sham stimulation, induced a significant but equivalent reduction in pain for the first 48 hours postintervention (P stimulation of the hand area (P = .04) but not for the other conditions. rTMS applied over the hand or leg motor cortex decreased neuropathic pain regardless of any change in cortical excitability, suggesting that the analgesic effect is not associated with local changes at the motor cortex level itself.

  1. Observation of public health risk behaviours, risk communication and hand hygiene at Kansas and Missouri petting zoos--2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

    2013-06-01

    Outbreaks of human illness have been linked to visiting settings with animal contact throughout developed countries. This study details an observational study of hand hygiene tool availability and recommendations; frequency of risky behaviour; and handwashing attempts by visitors in Kansas (9) and Missouri (4), USA, petting zoos. Handwashing signs and hand hygiene stations were available at the exit of animal-contact areas in 10/13 and 8/13 petting zoos, respectively. Risky behaviours were observed being performed at all petting zoos by at least one visitor. Frequently observed behaviours were as follows: children (10/13 petting zoos) and adults (9/13 petting zoos) touching hands to face within animal-contact areas; animals licking children's and adults' hands (7/13 and 4/13 petting zoos, respectively); and children and adults drinking within animal-contact areas (5/13 petting zoos each). Of 574 visitors observed for hand hygiene when exiting animal-contact areas, 37% (n = 214) of individuals attempted some type of hand hygiene, with male adults, female adults and children attempting at similar rates (32%, 40% and 37%, respectively). Visitors were 4.8× more likely to wash their hands when a staff member was present within or at the exit to the animal-contact area (136/231, 59%) than when no staff member was present (78/343, 23%; P zoos with a fence as a partial barrier to human-animal contact were 2.3× more likely to wash their hands (188/460, 40.9%) than visitors allowed to enter the animals' yard for contact (26/114, 22.8%; P zoos outlining risks associated with animal contact, or providing recommendations for precautions to be taken to reduce these risks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. 一种新型穿戴式手功能康复机器人%A Novel Wearable Robot of Hand Repetitive Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢科新; 徐琦; 黄剑; 王永骥; 吴军

    2009-01-01

    针对中风和脑外伤患者的运动功能障碍问题,设计了一种新型的穿戴式手功能康复机器人.机器人采用气动肌肉驱动,能够辅助患者完成手指多关节复合运动功能训练.该机器人有3个自由度,通过角度和力传感器获取患手一机器人组合系统的状态参数,并采用虚拟现实技术构建康复治疗虚拟环境,提高患者的训练兴趣,从而增强康复效果.采用传统的PID控制器进行了临床实验,实现了关节角度的三次样条参考轨迹跟踪,实验结果验证了所设计的穿戴式手功能康复机器人的可用性和有效性.%A novel wearable robot of hand repetitive therapy was developed for stroke and traumatic brain rehabilitation. The robot driven by peneumatic muscles can help patients to complete repetitive training task for motion function rehabilitation of their fingers' joints. The robot had three degrees of freedom, which was equipped with three angle sensors and two force sensors to acquire the state of the human-robot hybrid system. At the same time, virtual reality technology was used to build a virtual rehabilitation environment in the system in order to enhance the patient's interest and optimize the effect of rehabilitation. Finally, a conventional PID controller was implemented and the cubic spline function trajectory tracking control for joint's angles was realized. Experiments were performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed devic and methods.

  3. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-09-18

    The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents' portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents' portion control behaviours including examination of affective and habitual influences often excluded from prevailing theories of behaviour change. Six focus groups exploring family weight management comprised of one with caseworkers (n = 4), four with parents of overweight children (n = 14) and one with parents of healthy weight children (n = 8). A thematic analysis was performed across the dataset where the TDF/COM-B were used as coding frameworks. To achieve the target behaviour, the behavioural analysis revealed the need for eliciting change in all three COM-B domains and nine associated TDF domains. Findings suggest parents' internal processes such as their emotional responses, habits and beliefs, along with social influences from partners and grandparents, and environmental influences relating to items such as household objects, interact to influence portion size behaviours within the home environment. This is the first study underpinned by COM-B/TDF frameworks applied to childhood weight management and provides new targets for intervention development and the opportunity for future research to explore the mediating and moderating effects of these variables on one another.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in everyday life with chronic hand eczema - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, A; Johansen, J D; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hand eczema is a common disease which may impact quality of life and have occupational and social consequences. Self-management is pivotal, both in handling acute eruptions and avoiding relapses. However, little is known about how people with hand eczema self-manage and integrate...

  5. Negotiating left-hand and right-hand bends: a motorcycle simulator study to investigate experiential and behaviour differences across rider groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Crundall

    Full Text Available Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding 'bad habits' gained through experience alone.

  6. Negotiating left-hand and right-hand bends: a motorcycle simulator study to investigate experiential and behaviour differences across rider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Crundall, David; Stedmon, Alex W

    2012-01-01

    Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding 'bad habits' gained through experience alone.

  7. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (

  8. Behaviour of Hexagon Split Ring Resonators and Left-Handed Metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fu-Li; ZHAO Qian; LIU Ya-Hong; LUO Chun-Rong; ZHAO Xiao-Peng

    2004-01-01

    We used a rectangular waveguide system to measure the X-band (8-12 GHz) transmission of hexagon split ring resonators (SRRs) alone and the left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) consisting of hexagon SRR array and wire array. The experimental results show that for an individual SRR, the resonance frequency increases with the azimuthal gap, but decreases with the radial gap. For two identical SRRs, the resonance peak has a shift because of the electromagnetic interaction, and the resonance frequency and the strength decrease with the separation distance. Finally, we demonstrate the left-handed effect of the LHMs.

  9. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, T. van; Bruin, M. de; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of

  10. Compliance to Hand Hygiene Guidelines in Hospital Care: A stepwise behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Erasmus (Vicky)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHealthcare associated infections (HAI) are a threat to the health of people requiring acute or chronic care. Since HAI can often be avoided by taking preventative measures, including proper application of hand hygiene principles, the prevention of these infections has received growing

  11. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  12. Self-harm and suicidal acts: a suitable case for treatment of impulsivity-driven behaviour with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; David, Anthony S.; Fonagy, Peter; Zaman, Rashid; Downar, Jonathan; Eliott, Emma; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-01-01

    Summary Suicidal thinking, self-harm and suicidal acts are common, although determining their precise prevalence is complex. Epidemiological work has identified a number of associated demographic and clinical factors, though, with the exception of past acts of self-harm, these are non-specific and weak future predictors. There is a critical need shift focus from managing ‘suicidality-by-proxy’ through general mental health treatments, to better understand the neuropsychology and neurophysiology of such behaviour to guide targeted interventions. The model of the cognitive control of emotion (MCCE) offers such a paradigm, with an underlying pan-diagnostic pathophysiology of a hypoactive prefrontal cortex failing to suitably inhibit an overactive threat-responding limbic system. The result is a phenotype – from any number of causative gene–environment interactions – primed to impulsively self-harm. We argue that such neural dysconnectivity is open to potential therapeutic modification from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The current evidence base for this is undoubtedly extremely limited, but the societal and clinical burden self-harm and suicide pose warrants such investigation. Declaration of interest K.B. is the Editor of BJPsych Open, but had no editorial involvement in the review or decision process regarding this paper. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703728

  13. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  14. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Repeatability of the timing of eye-hand coordinated movements across different cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, C; van der Steen, J; Schol, R J; Pel, J J M

    2013-08-15

    Quantification of eye-hand coordinated behaviour is a relatively new tool to study neurodegeneration in humans. Its sensitivity depends on the assessment of different behavioural strategies, multiple task testing and repeating tasks within one session. However, large numbers of repetition trials pose a significant burden on subjects. To introduce this method in large-scale population studies, it is necessary to determine whether reducing the number of task repetitions, which will lower subject burden, still leads to acceptable measurement accuracy. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of eye-hand coordination outcome parameters in eight healthy volunteers using a test-retest approach. Subjects were assessed during a shortened test procedure consisting of eight repetitions of three behavioural tasks: a reflex-based tapping task, a planning-based tapping task and a memory-based tapping task. Eye-hand coordination was quantified in terms of timing (eye and hand latencies), kinematics and accuracy. Eye and hand latencies were found within a normal range (between 150 and 450ms). A paired samples t-test revealed no differences in timing parameters between the first and second measurements. It was concluded that eight trial repetitions are sufficient for quantifying eye-hand coordination in terms of timing, kinematics and accuracy. This approach demonstrates the testing of multiple visuomotor behaviours within a reasonable time span of a few minutes per task.

  16. Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived...... power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most...... of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10...

  17. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  19. Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root-mean-square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10 % of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.

  20. Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the '5 critical moments' among Australian hospital-based nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Obst, Patricia L; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Haneman, Lara; Page, Katie; Campbell, Megan; Martin, Elizabeth; Paterson, David

    2015-02-13

    Improving hand hygiene among health care workers (HCWs) is the single most effective intervention to reduce health care associated infections in hospitals. Understanding the cognitive determinants of hand hygiene decisions for HCWs with the greatest patient contact (nurses) is essential to improve compliance. The aim of this study was to explore hospital-based nurses' beliefs associated with performing hand hygiene guided by the World Health Organization's (WHO) 5 critical moments. Using the belief-base framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we examined attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs underpinning nurses' decisions to perform hand hygiene according to the recently implemented national guidelines. Thematic content analysis of qualitative data from focus group discussions with hospital-based registered nurses from 5 wards across 3 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Important advantages (protection of patient and self), disadvantages (time, hand damage), referents (supportive: patients, colleagues; unsupportive: some doctors), barriers (being too busy, emergency situations), and facilitators (accessibility of sinks/products, training, reminders) were identified. There was some equivocation regarding the relative importance of hand washing following contact with patient surroundings. The belief base of the theory of planned behaviour provided a useful framework to explore systematically the underlying beliefs of nurses' hand hygiene decisions according to the 5 critical moments, allowing comparisons with previous belief studies. A commitment to improve nurses' hand hygiene practice across the 5 moments should focus on individual strategies to combat distraction from other duties, peer-based initiatives to foster a sense of shared responsibility, and management-driven solutions to tackle staffing and resource issues. Hand hygiene following touching a patient's surroundings continues to be reported as the most neglected opportunity for compliance.

  1. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Haapakoski, Jaason; Peltola, Piia A; Ziegler, Thedi; Korpela, Terttu; Anttila, Pirjo; Amiryousefi, Ali; Huovinen, Pentti; Huvinen, Markku; Noronen, Heikki; Riikkala, Pia; Roivainen, Merja; Ruutu, Petri; Teirilä, Juha; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-01-16

    Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare.

  2. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savolainen-Kopra Carita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. Methods A total of 21 clusters (683 persons were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons, with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons, or to serve as a control (224 persons. Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. Results In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04. Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002 difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year. Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. Conclusions We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 Source of funding The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare.

  3. Hand washing with soap and water together with behavioural recommendations prevents infections in common work environment: an open cluster-randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered as an important means of infection control. We explored whether guided hand hygiene together with transmission-limiting behaviour reduces infection episodes and lost days of work in a common work environment in an open cluster-randomized 3-arm intervention trial. Methods A total of 21 clusters (683 persons) were randomized to implement hand hygiene with soap and water (257 persons), with alcohol-based hand rub (202 persons), or to serve as a control (224 persons). Participants in both intervention arms also received standardized instructions on how to limit the transmission of infections. The intervention period (16 months) included the emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic and the subsequent national hand hygiene campaign influencing also the control arm. Results In the total follow-up period there was a 6.7% reduction of infection episodes in the soap-and water arm (p = 0.04). Before the onset of the anti-pandemic campaign, a statistically significant (p = 0.002) difference in the mean occurrence of infection episodes was observed between the control (6.0 per year) and the soap-and-water arm (5.0 per year) but not between the control and the alcohol-rub arm (5.6 per year). Neither intervention had a decreasing effect on absence from work. Conclusions We conclude that intensified hand hygiene using water and soap together with behavioural recommendations can reduce the occurrence of self-reported acute illnesses in common work environment. Surprisingly, the occurrence of reported sick leaves also increased in the soap-and water-arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981877 Source of funding The Finnish Work Environment Fund and the National Institute for Health and Welfare. PMID:22243622

  4. Eye-Hand Co-Ordination and Handedness': A Developmental Study of Visuo-Motor Behaviour in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, G.

    1973-01-01

    Consistently over the three test situations, initial left-handedness' gives way during the third quarter of the first year to right-hand dominance. The way in which the shift occurs lends support to a maturational, rather than a learning or social pressure explanation of lateral asymmetry. (Author/CB)

  5. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for modulating craving and addictive behaviours: a critical literature review of efficacy, technical and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, M; Sauvaget, A

    2014-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of addiction. This critical review aims to summarise the recent developments with respect to the efficacy of rTMS for all types of addiction and related disorders (including eating disorders), and concentrates on the associated methodological and technical issues. The bibliographic search consisted of a computerised screening of the Medline and ScienceDirect databases up to December 2013. Criteria for inclusion were the target problem was an addiction, a related disorder, or craving; the intervention was performed using rTMS; and the study was a clinical trial. Of the potential 638 articles, 18 met the criteria for inclusion. Most of these (11 of the 18) supported the efficacy of rTMS, especially in the short term. In most cases, the main assessment criterion was the measurement of craving using a Visual Analogue Scale. The results are discussed with respect to the study limitations and, in particular, the many methodological and technical discrepancies that were identified. Key recommendations are provided.

  6. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  7. "Not ready to sort it yet": revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) predicts left-handed behavioural inhibition during a manual sorting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lynn; Hardie, Scott M

    2011-11-01

    Wright, Hardie, and Rodway (2004) showed that left-handers were slower to respond initially to the Tower of Hanoi, and proposed that this was due to either anxious or inhibited behaviour in their approach or to right hemisphere superiority in spatial tasks. The revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) offers a rationale for the influence of anxiety, and Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009) demonstrated a behavioural inhibition system (BIS) difference related to handedness, arguing that, due to their increased BIS sensitivity, left-handers may show more anxiety-induced goal conflict and should take longer to initiate any novel task. On the basis of this, the current study tested the prediction of increased left-handed inhibition of action, using a manual sorting task. A total of 78 participants took part and analyses revealed that left-handers took significantly longer to move the first card. A significant handedness×sex interaction was found for task completion time. The significant initiation difference further supports the idea that rBIS sensitivity differences may be the source of divergent responses in novel tasks, rather than hemispheric dominance related withdrawal (Davidson, 1995), and provides support for the new role of BIS in the revised rather than original reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray, 1982).

  8. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  9. Hand to hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-08-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  10. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS.

  11. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  12. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  13. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  14. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  15. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  16. Curious Repetitions in Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Magnetars, the slowly spinning branch of the pulsar family with extremely high inferred dipole magnetic fields, often display bizarre spin behaviour rarely seen in their more typical rotation-powered cousins. In this talk, I will tell a tale of two magnetars, 1E 1048.1-5937 and 4U 0142+61 -- both of which seem to be repeating themselves. 1E 1048.1-5937 has, three times, shown flux increases of a factor of ~3 which which decayed over hundreds of days, followed months later by unique order of magnitude torque oscillations. 4U 0142+61, on the other hand, has displayed only short-term, i.e. minutes long, flux increases. In 2006, and now again in 2014, 4U 0142+61 has had typical 1E-7 Hz spin-up glitches which then over-recover on a timescale of weeks, leading to a net spin-down event associated with these short-term flux increases. Both of these sources seem to display a coupling between their X-ray flux and spin-down, but at vastly different timescales. By comparing these repeating events, we will try to shed some new light on the physics driving these extreme objects.

  17. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  18. The association between behaviour and genotype in Rett Syndrome using the Australian Rett Syndrome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laila; Hall, Sonĵa E; Jacoby, Peter; Ellaway, Carolyn; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the behaviour profile of cases in the Australian Rett Syndrome Database (ARSD) with those in a British study using the Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire (RSBQ) then examined behavioural patterns as measured by the RSBQ by genetic status. There were 145 Australian cases meeting the criteria for the first arm of the study and 135 for the second arm. Comparison of the scores obtained from the British and Australian cohorts indicated that the RSBQ was a satisfactory measure for describing behaviours in Rett syndrome (RS). Overall, there were some differences amongst the behaviour patterns of cases with the well-known common mutations. Fear/anxiety was more commonly reported in those with R133C and R306C. Those with the R294X mutation were more likely to have mood difficulties and body rocking but less likely to have hand behaviours and to display repetitive face movements. In contrast, hand behaviours were more commonly reported in those with R270X or R255X. We found the RSBQ is an appropriate instrument for measuring behaviour in girls with RS. Some behaviours differ according to genetic mutation but there is both inter and intra mutation variation in behaviour and there is a need for larger studies involving international collaboration to improve statistical power. PMID:16389588

  19. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  20. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  1. Protocol for a randomised trial on the effect of group education on skin-protective behaviour versus treatment as usual among individuals with newly notified occupational hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja Hvid; Agner, Tove; Lindschou, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of occupational hand eczema is approximately 0.32 per 1,000 person years. The burden of the disease is high, as almost 60% has eczema-related sick leave during the first year after notification, and 15% are excluded from the workforce 12 years after disease onset. New treatments...

  2. 科室管理者率先垂范对医务人员手卫生行为的影响%THE INFLUENCE ABOUT SETTING AN EXAMPLE BY SECTION MANAGERS FOR BEHAVIOUR OF HAND HYGIENE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence to execution of health care workers ( HCWs) for hand hygiene after man-agers execute Standard for Hand Hygiene for Healthcare Workers in Healthcare Settings in the lead, promote the compliance rate of hand hygiene. Methods On - the - spot investigation was used to know the influence of real behaviour and demon-stration of section managers to the intervention of hand hygiene of clinical HCWs. Results Everyday handwashing agent and alcohol - based hand rub average is 13. 28 ml a bed in five wards before education and intervention in the second quar-ter, the everyday average is 17. 25 ml a bed after education and intervention in the fourth quarter. The rate of compliance and the satisfactory rate were higher in the third and fourth quarter than the second quarter after intervention every section. Conclusion Demonstration conduct in the lead by clinical section managers stimulate the behaviour of hand hygiene obvi-ously for HCWs.%目的 观察医院科室管理人员率先执行《医务人员手卫生规范》对医务人员手卫生措施执行力的影响,提升手卫生执行率.方法 采用现场调查方法,通过临床科室管理人员实际行为和示范作用,对临床医务人员手卫生实施干预.结果 实施教育干预措施前的第2季度,洗手液和速干手消毒液5个科室每个床位平均日消耗量为13.28 ml;实施教育干预措施后的第4季度,每个床位平均日消耗量为17.25 ml.干预之后的第3、4季度,每个科室医务人员手卫生执行率和合格率都高于干预前的第2季度.结论 临床科室管理者率先示范作为对科室医务人员手卫生行为有明显促进作用.

  3. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  4. Android Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . On such occasions, android and humanoid hand models should have similar structure, functions, and performance as the human hand. In this paper we present the anatomy, and the key functionalities of the human hand followed by a literature review on android/humanoid hands for grasping and manipulating objects...

  5. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  6. Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME): a portable, passive hand exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Black, Iian; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Stroke patients often have flexor hypertonia and finger extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Because of this impairment, hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independent lifestyles. The goal of this study is to develop a passive, lightweight, wearable device to assist with hand function during performance of activities of daily living. The device, Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME), assists with opening the patient's hand using a series of elastic cords that apply extension torques to the finger joints and compensates for the flexor hypertonia. Device design and calibration are described as well as functional and usability testing with stroke subjects with a wide range of hand impairments. In initial testing with eight stroke subjects with finger flexor hypertonia, use of the HandSOME significantly increased range of motion and functional ability (p=0.002) . There was some decrease in grip strength with the HandSOME device at the subject's ideal setting, however this was not statistically significant (p=0.167) and did not seem to have a significant effect on function. Overall HandSOME shows promise as a training tool to facilitate repetitive task practice for improving hand function in stroke patients. HandSOME can be used as part of a home-based therapy program, or as an orthotic for replacing lost function.

  7. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist ... When one of these hand bones is broken (fractured), it can prevent you ...

  8. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  9. Exposures related to hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    between exposures (domestic and at work) and prevalence and severity of hand eczema. Methods. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 3181 healthcare workers in Denmark. Results. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-nine (71%) workers responded to the questionnaire. Frequent hand washing....... Conclusions. Although healthcare workers are recommended to use disinfectants when the hands are not visibly dirty, hand washing is still significantly related to hand eczema. Frequent hand washing may be a question of behavioural habits, and a focus for future guidance should be on changing hand washing......Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship...

  10. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task

    OpenAIRE

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E.; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M.; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relat...

  11. On the other hand: dummy hands and peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Tamar R; Holmes, Nicholas P; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2008-08-05

    Where are my hands? The brain can answer this question using sensory information arising from vision, proprioception, or touch. Other sources of information about the position of our hands can be derived from multisensory interactions (or potential interactions) with our close environment, such as when we grasp or avoid objects. The pioneering study of multisensory representations of peripersonal space was published in Behavioural Brain Research almost 30 years ago [Rizzolatti G, Scandolara C, Matelli M, Gentilucci M. Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys. II. Visual responses. Behav Brain Res 1981;2:147-63]. More recently, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and behavioural studies have contributed a wealth of evidence concerning hand-centred representations of objects in peripersonal space. This evidence is examined here in detail. In particular, we focus on the use of artificial dummy hands as powerful instruments to manipulate the brain's representation of hand position, peripersonal space, and of hand ownership. We also review recent studies of the 'rubber hand illusion' and related phenomena, such as the visual capture of touch, and the recalibration of hand position sense, and discuss their findings in the light of research on peripersonal space. Finally, we propose a simple model that situates the 'rubber hand illusion' in the neurophysiological framework of multisensory hand-centred representations of space.

  12. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  13. Hand Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman presents with redness of the hands and reports the intermittent occurrence of tiny vesicles, scaling, and fissuring, accompanied by itching on the palms, fingers, and dorsal sides of the hands. She has two young children and works as a nurse in a nearby hospital. She has a histor

  14. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  15. Hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marie Scharoun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioural assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge.

  16. Plasticity-Inducing TMS Protocols to Investigate Somatosensory Control of Hand Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand function depends on sensory feedback to direct an appropriate motor response. There is clear evidence that somatosensory cortices modulate motor behaviour and physiology within primary motor cortex. However, this information is mainly from research in animals and the bridge to human hand control is needed. Emerging evidence in humans supports the notion that somatosensory cortices modulate motor behaviour, physiology and sensory perception. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS allows for the investigation of primary and higher-order somatosensory cortices and their role in control of hand movement in humans. This review provides a summary of several TMS protocols in the investigation of hand control via the somatosensory cortices. TMS plasticity inducing protocols reviewed include paired associative stimulation, repetitive TMS, theta-burst stimulation as well as other techniques that aim to modulate cortical excitability in sensorimotor cortices. Although the discussed techniques may modulate cortical excitability, careful consideration of experimental design is needed to isolate factors that may interfere with desired results of the plasticity-inducing protocol, specifically events that may lead to metaplasticity within the targeted cortex.

  17. Hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-05-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients.

  18. [Hand infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  19. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  20. Hand eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients.

  1. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  2. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    /materials/methods. A survey of 3181 healthcare workers was performed. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Data on sick leave and notification to the authorities were obtained. Results. The response rate was 71% (2274 of 3181). The 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was 21%, and was positively associated with atopic...

  3. Magic Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE two most amazing things on the planet may well be the human brain and human hands. When they work together, the results can be enchanting. At an international folk art fair held recently in Beijing, artisans and masters from Japan, India, Switzerland, Peru, South

  4. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  5. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  6. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  7. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  8. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  9. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, Caroline G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590452; Wu, Jiangbo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357802721; Koelink, Pim J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323873464; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590193; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S. Mechiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088952827; Olivier, Berend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Kraneveld, Aletta D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126612838

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence

  10. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin

  11. Therapeutic benefit of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for severe mirror movements A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Sun Kim; Sung Ho Jang; Zee-Ihn Lee; Mi Young Lee; Yun Woo Cho; Migyoung Kweon; Su Min Son

    2013-01-01

    Congenital mirror movements retard typical hand functions, but no definite therapeutic modality is available to treat such movements. We report an 8-year-old boy with severe mirror movements of both hands. His mirror movements were assessed using the Woods and Teuber grading scale and his fine motor skills were also evaluated by the Purdue Pegboard Test. A 2-week regimen of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation produced markedly diminished mirror movement symptoms and increased the fine motor skills of both hands. Two weeks after the completion of the regimen, mirror movement grades had improved from grade 4 to 1 in both hands and the Purdue Pegboard Test results of the right and left hands also improved from 12 to 14 or 13. These improvements were maintained for 1 month after the 2-week repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation regimen. After 18 months, the mirror movement grade was maintained and the Purdue Pegboard test score had improved to 15 for the right hand while the left hand score was maintained at 13. This occurred without any additional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or other treatment. These findings suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for this patient had a therapeutic and long-term effect on mirror movements.

  12. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  13. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  14. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S

    2015-01-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene...

  16. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovic, N N; Shapiro, C M; Ong, A

    2007-08-01

    The case report describes a distinct variant of non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) arousal parasomnia, sleepwalking type, featuring repetitive abrupt arousals, mostly from slow-wave sleep, and various automatisms and semi-purposeful behaviours. The frequency of events and distribution throughout the night presented as a continuous status of parasomnia ('status parasomnicus'). The patient responded well to treatment typically administered for adult NREM parasomnias, and after careful review of the clinical presentation, objective findings and treatment outcome, sleep-related epilepsy was ruled out in favour of parasomnia.

  17. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  18. Hand Leading and Hand Taking Gestures in Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism use hand taking and hand leading gestures to interact with others. This is traditionally considered to be an example of atypical behaviour illustrating the lack of intersubjective understanding in autism. However the assumption that these gestures are atypical is based upon scarce empirical evidence. In this paper I present…

  19. Hand Leading and Hand Taking Gestures in Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism use hand taking and hand leading gestures to interact with others. This is traditionally considered to be an example of atypical behaviour illustrating the lack of intersubjective understanding in autism. However the assumption that these gestures are atypical is based upon scarce empirical evidence. In this paper I present…

  20. The neural consequences of repetition: clinical implications of a learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N N; Melnick, M

    1997-01-01

    Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) are difficult to treat. Some individuals with RSIs may ultimately develop chronic pain syndromes or movement problems like focal hand dystonia (FDh), a disorder of motor control manifested in a specific context during skilled, hand tasks. This paper reports on the results of four neuroplasticity studies suggesting that repetitive hand opening and closing can lead to motor control problems, measurable somatosensory changes, and problems in graphesthesia and stereognosis. The experiments support a learning hypothesis for the origin of severe RSIs, particularly FDh. This degradation in the sensory representation of the hand may not only explain the therapeutic challenge of returning these patients to work, but also provide a foundation for developing more effective physical rehabilitation strategies. Implications and conjectures for the applications of this learning hypothesis to conditions of chronic pain are also discussed.

  1. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  2. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Ase M; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-12-01

    The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5 seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force, performance, and ratings of perceived physical exertion (RPE), and perceived mental exertion. The urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol concentrations were higher during the repetitive task than on a reference day, but only the norepinephrine concentrations increased progressively during the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during the repetitive task. The variation in exerted force was higher during the repetitive task than during a force reference task without mental demands. The urinary biomarkers were increased during the repetitive task. However, only norepinephrine increased progressively during the 4 hours. Forearm muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force.

  3. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  4. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  5. Spatial Concept Learning in Preschool Children: Motoric Experiences and Verbal Repetition as Adjuncts to Passive Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…

  6. Characterization and distribution of repetitive elements in association with genes in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai-Chiang; Tseng, Joseph T; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive elements constitute more than 50% of the human genome. Recent studies implied that the complexity of living organisms is not just a direct outcome of a number of coding sequences; the repetitive elements, which do not encode proteins, may also play a significant role. Though scattered studies showed that repetitive elements in the regulatory regions of a gene control gene expression, no systematic survey has been done to report the characterization and distribution of various types of these repetitive elements in the human genome. Sequences from 5' and 3' untranslated regions and upstream and downstream of a gene were downloaded from the Ensembl database. The repetitive elements in the neighboring of each gene were identified and classified using cross-matching implemented in the RepeatMasker. The annotation and distribution of distinct classes of repetitive elements associated with individual gene were collected to characterize genes in association with different types of repetitive elements using systems biology program. We identified a total of 1,068,400 repetitive elements which belong to 37-class families and 1235 subclasses that are associated with 33,761 genes and 57,365 transcripts. In addition, we found that the tandem repeats preferentially locate proximal to the transcription start site (TSS) of genes and the major function of these genes are involved in developmental processes. On the other hand, interspersed repetitive elements showed a tendency to be accumulated at distal region from the TSS and the function of interspersed repeat-containing genes took part in the catabolic/metabolic processes. Results from the distribution analysis were collected and used to construct a gene-based repetitive element database (GBRED; http://www.binfo.ncku.edu.tw/GBRED/index.html). A user-friendly web interface was designed to provide the information of repetitive elements associated with any particular gene(s). This is the first study focusing on the gene

  7. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  8. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  9. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  10. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  11. Brain activation during manipulation of the myoelectric prosthetic hand: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruishi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miyatani, Makoto; Kawahara, Junichiro

    2004-04-01

    Neuroimaging data, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings, have not been reported in users of the myoelectric or electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand. We developed a virtual EMG prosthetic hand system to eliminate mutual signal noise interference between fMRI imaging and the EMG prosthesis. We used fMRI to localize activation in the human brain during manipulation of the virtual EMG prosthetic hand. Fourteen right-handed normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes closed (CEG); repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes open to obtain visual feedback of their own hand movement (OEG); and repetitive grasping with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand with the eyes open to obtain visual feedback of the prosthetic hand movement (VRG). The specific site activated during manipulation of the EMG prosthetic hand was the right ventral premotor cortex. Both paradigms with visual feedback also (OEG and VRG) demonstrated activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. The center of activation of the right posterior parietal cortex shifted laterally for visual feedback with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand compared to a subject's own hand. The results suggest that the EMG prosthetic hand might be recognized in the brain as a high-performance alternative to a real hand, being controlled through a "mirror system" in the brain.

  12. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  13. Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression.... Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more "psychological" conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour ("stereotypies" in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.

  14. Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Gautier, Emmanuel; Biquand, Véronique; Lunel, Christophe; Jégo, Patrick

    2009-10-28

    Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression...). Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more "psychological" conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour ("stereotypies") in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type) outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  18. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  19. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  20. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S; Oluoch, G; Fischer, T K; Quick, R

    2015-03-01

    Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene, and motivate clients to adopt these practices. In 2008, we evaluated this intervention's impact by conducting observations at facilities, and interviewing staff and clients about water treatment and hygiene. Of 30 randomly selected facilities, 97% had water stations in use. Chlorine residuals were detectable in at least one container at 59% of facilities. Of 164 interviewed staff, 79% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Of 298 clients, 45% had received training on water treatment at a facility; of these, 68% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Use of water stations, water treatment, and client training were sustained in some facilities for up to 3 years.

  2. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  3. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  4. Behaviour in commons dilemmas : Homo economicus and Homo psychologicus in an ecological-economic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, W; Janssen, MA; De Vries, HJM; De Greef, J; Vlek, CAJ

    2000-01-01

    In mainstream economy, behaviour is often formalised following the rational actor-approach. However, in real life the behaviour of people is typified by multidimensional optimisation. To realise this, people engage in cognitive processes such as social comparison, imitation and repetitive behaviour

  5. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  6. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  7. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE TSESSEBE (DAMALISCUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agonistic behaviour is evidenced by dominance and threat .... Taking into consideration all the available evidence at hand it becomes quite .... anything from SO to 300 m from the herd and, although casting a watchful eye over his harem,.

  8. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  9. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  10. Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects reaction times, but not priming effects, in a masked prime task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaghecken, F.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Rothwell, J.C.; Eimer, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces motor cortex excitability, but it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences in healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined the effects of 1 Hz rTMS (train of 20 min; stimulus intensity 80% of active motor thr

  11. Constructing an Integrated Model of the Nature of Challenging Behaviour: A Starting Point for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Claire W.; O'Connor, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    Although the issue of challenging behaviour receives a great deal of attention in educational literature, the exact nature of this behaviour is open to debate. Challenging behaviour can be defined objectively by listing or describing behaviours that are considered disruptive and undesirable. On the other hand, challenging behaviour can be seen as…

  12. Alcohol-based hand disinfection: a more robust hand-hygiene method in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, C; Bukholm, G

    2005-03-01

    This study involved observation of hand-hygiene behaviour and evaluation of the effect of alcohol-based hand disinfection and handwashing with plain liquid soap on microbial flora. The study was performed in a combined medical and surgical intensive care unit. We demonstrated a crude compliance of hand hygiene of 50.4%, which was only performed adequately in 20.8% of cases. Of this group, handwashing and hand-disinfection procedures were performed properly 34.0% and 71.6% of the time, respectively. Hand samples for bacteriological examinations with the glove juice method demonstrated that whilst handwashing was sensitive to the way in which hand hygiene was performed, alcohol-based hand disinfection was less sensitive to such performance. Our study demonstrated that alcohol-based hand disinfection is a robust hand-hygiene method with many advantages in a practical setting. It is very feasible for use in hospital wards.

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... future Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health More Information Hand Hygiene Clean Hands Basics Send Us Feedback ... 2013 Page last updated: November 22, 2013 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Page maintained ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the code below ... future Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health More Information Hand Hygiene Clean Hands Basics Send Us Feedback ...

  16. Arthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Arthritis of the Hand Page ( 1 ) The hand and wrist have multiple small joints that work together to ... a shoelace. When the joints are affected by arthritis, activities of daily living can be difficult. Arthritis ...

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tricky Treats Hygiene Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Go with the Flow Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Wash ... Wes Studi: Signs (:30) Traveler’s Health Way to Go Way to Go: Many Healthy Returns (4:00) ...

  18. Clinical application of gradient echo sequences with prolonged repetition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiling, R.; Fink, U.; Deimling, M.; Bauer, W.M.; Yousry, T.; Krauss, B.

    1988-09-01

    Studies designed to optimise image contrasts of gradient echo sequences showed, that especially repetition times between 250 and 500 ms in combination with adequate echo times and flip angles provide new image contrasts. The clinical purpose of gradient echo sequences with longer TR was systematically evaluated in 450 patients. A major advantage of GE sequences was the low signal intensity of fat and bone tissue. On the other hand differnt pathologic changes showed a high signal intensity in comparison to T/sub 2/ weighted spin echo sequences as well. With the possibility of multiple slices GE sequences were of outstanding diagnostic value especially in MR of soft tissue and of the musculoskeletal system. T/sub 2/ weighted SE sequences provided no additional informations and could therefore be omitted in a great number of examinations.

  19. [Can the behavioural phenotype of fragile X syndrome be attributed to mental retardation and to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Brun-Gasca, C

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) reveals itself as dysmorphic stigmata, systemic manifestations, neurological symptoms and cognitive-behavioural manifestations. Mental retardation (MR) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) nearly always appear as examples of this last case, but most patients also present a series of fairly common behavioural characteristics. The most characteristic types of conduct seen in FXS include: language problems, lack of attention, hyperactivity, anxiety, shyness, behavioural problems, stereotypical hand flapping, gaze aversion, obstinacy and aggressiveness. The purpose of this work is to determine which behavioural aspects of the syndrome are linked to the genetic specificity and are not, therefore, determined by MR and ADHD. Three groups of patients were compared: 30 children diagnosed as suffering from FXS, 30 children with MR caused by diverse aetiologies and 323 children diagnosed as suffering from ADHD. It was found that there were no significant differences between the IQ and the age of the FXS and MR groups. To determine the behavioural characteristics of the three groups the parents of the patients answered Achenbach's CBCL/4-18 survey. The results obtained show that certain types of conduct that are very typical of FXS are represented significantly more frequently in the FXS group than in the groups of patients with MR and ADHD. This behaviour includes: timidity, attachment to adults, shyness, repetition of certain actions over and over again, pronunciation and speech problems, fear of animals, situations or places, and concern for tidiness and cleanliness. These findings lend support to the idea that the behavioural phenotype of FXS is linked to the genetic disorder and is not, therefore, a consequence of MR or ADHD.

  20. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  1. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  2. Sickness Behaviour:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adaptive function for hyperthermia and ... on immunity. However ... infectious disorders probably lies in the ... nervous system, and thus behaviour, .... Fever: Basic ... system. In Ader R, Felten DL,. Cohen N, editors. Psychoneuro- immunology.

  3. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... nerves, skin and skin-related tissues, bones, and ... a systemic diseases. The hands may show changes noticed by the patient or ...

  4. Robotic hand and fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health (4:30) Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health (2:00) Tricky Treats Hygiene Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Go with the Flow Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Wash Your Hands Physical Activity Knees Lifted High Making Health Easier: Active ...

  6. An educational approach to an epidemic of repetitive motion injuries among office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halunen, L.J.

    1988-09-23

    Among office workers, repetitive motion injuries such as tendonitis, muscle fatigue, and nerve irritation (caused by poor posture and arm/hand positioning while performing repetitive tasks) are a fairly new phenomenon. Office workers and their managers are not prepared to respond properly to the identification and treatment of these injuries. We found an unusually high incidence within one department at a large research facility--the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory--and developed an educational approach to reduce the frequency and severity of these injuries. Our approach was to inform the workers and managers about the origins and severity of repetitive motion injuries and their effect on the work force. Classes in ergonomic adjustment of video workstations were scheduled for all personnel who had jobs that required heavy keyboard use. The individual's responsibility in reporting any symptoms of repetitive motion injury was emphasized. We stressed to management the seriousness of the problem, the desirability of obtaining improved equipment workers may need, or the possibility of arranging a lighter workload for those showing symptoms of repetitive motion injuries. We followed these classes and briefings with additional videotaped material and written guidelines, pamphlets, and articles for further study and discussion. Early results indicate that informed workers in a supportive environment detect symptoms earlier, and therefore recover more quickly; managers who understand the problem and are able to respond positively gain better labor relations as well as lower injury rates. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  7. In a demanding task, three-handed manipulation is preferred to two-handed manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Elahe; Burdet, Etienne; Bouri, Mohamed; Himidan, Sharifa; Bleuler, Hannes

    2016-02-01

    Equipped with a third hand under their direct control, surgeons may be able to perform certain surgical interventions alone; this would reduce the need for a human assistant and related coordination difficulties. However, does human performance improve with three hands compared to two hands? To evaluate this possibility, we carried out a behavioural study on the performance of naive adults catching objects with three virtual hands controlled by their two hands and right foot. The subjects could successfully control the virtual hands in a few trials. With this control strategy, the workspace of the hands was inversely correlated with the task velocity. The comparison of performance between the three and two hands control revealed no significant difference of success in catching falling objects and in average effort during the tasks. Subjects preferred the three handed control strategy, found it easier, with less physical and mental burden. Although the coordination of the foot with the natural hands increased trial after trial, about two minutes of practice was not sufficient to develop a sense of ownership towards the third arm.

  8. [Dominance of cerebral hemispheres and visual space-hand localization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-George, T; Kojder, I; Kowerska, D; Kopacka, W

    1990-10-01

    The visual space-hand localization from each eye and by each hand was examined by means of a localizer. Two kinds of examination were performed: one checked the initial, the other the postexercise localization. The dominance of the cerebral hemispheres was determined by psychological tests. No dependence of the behaviour of the visual hand localization on the domination of a given hemisphere was shown.

  9. Enhanced accuracy in novel mirror drawing after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced proprioceptive deafferentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Christensen, Lars O.D.; Lee, Ji-hang

    2004-01-01

    a performance benefit. In this study, we tested whether deafferentation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve mirror tracing skills in normal subjects. Hand trajectory error during novel mirror drawing was compared across two groups of subjects that received either 1 Hz r......TMS over the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the hand or sham stimulation. Mirror tracing was more accurate after rTMS than after sham stimulation. Using a position-matching task, we confirmed that rTMS reduced proprioceptive acuity and that this reduction was largest when the coil was placed...

  10. Associations between repetitive questioning, resistance to change, temper outbursts and anxiety in Prader-Willi and Fragile-X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, K; Oliver, C; Humphreys, G

    2009-03-01

    The behavioural phenotypes of Prader-Willi (PWS) and Fragile-X (FraX) syndromes both comprise repetitive behaviours with differences between the profiles. In this study we investigated the context and antecedents to the repetitive behaviours and the association with other behavioural phenotypic characteristics in order to generate testable hypotheses regarding the cause of the behaviours. The parents or carers of 46 children with PWS (mean age 14.1 years; 20 girls), and 33 boys with FraX (mean age 13.11 years) were interviewed about their children's repetitive behaviour in a semi-structured format. Children showed negative emotional behaviour (PWS: 87.0%; FraX: 79.4%) and repetitive questions (PWS: 78.3%; FraX: 73.5%) following changes in routine or expectations. Significantly more temper outbursts were reported to follow changes in children with PWS (89.1%) compared with boys with FraX (41.2%) (chi(2) = 20.93; P < 0.001). Anxiety that was frequently associated with repetitive and self-injurious behaviours in boys with FraX, followed changes in significantly more boys with FraX (76.5%) compared with children with PWS (6.5%) (chi(2) = 43.19, P < 0.001). On the basis of these reports and existing literature, we hypothesise that decreases in predictability are aversive to children with PWS and FraX. We also hypothesise that these children have a propensity to show a syndrome-related pattern of behaviour (temper outbursts in PWS and displays of anxiety in FraX) when an event in the environment has this aversive property. We hypothesise that questions may be reinforcing to children in their own right by increasing the predictability of the environment. We outline how a specific cognitive deficit in the endophenotypes associated with both PWS and FraX could be investigated as a potential explanation for the hypothesised aversive properties of decreased predictability.

  11. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  12. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  13. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  14. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  15. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  16. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Hand eczema is a long-lasting disease with a high prevalence in the background population. The disease has severe, negative effects on quality of life and sometimes on social status. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for onset and prognosis, but treatment...... of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... for hand eczema is needed. Objectives The present study attempts to characterize subdiagnoses of hand eczema with respect to basic demographics, medical history and morphology. Methods Clinical data from 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch test clinics were assessed. Results...

  17. Hand deburring guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1979-07-01

    Appropriate hand deburring techniques have always been difficult to define because of the infinite variety of part shapes, sizes, materials, and burr conditions. This guide, however, has been prepared to assist those responsible for hand deburring. The purpose of the guide is to define Bendix Kansas City burr specifications and inspection practices; to define the results of practical tests on hand deburring; to define some typical in-house practices; and to define the in-house tools available for this work.

  18. The alien hand syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Deepa; Mojumder, Deb; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with the complaint of observing her left hand moving without her knowledge while watching television. Her left hand stroked her face and hair as if somebody was controlling it. These movements lasted only half an hour but on recovery, she had left hemiparesis. Alien hand syndrome as the presentation of cardioembolic stroke is extremely rare but can be terrifying to patients. PMID:24982566

  19. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  1. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  2. Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Importance Of Early Developmental And Behavioural Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interaction. Parent mediated behavioural interventions are effective in the management of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Children with autistic symptoms who receive earlier referrals to specialists and obtain intensive behavioural intervention achieve optimal outcomes.

  3. [Hand surgery training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutet, F; Haloua, J P

    2003-10-01

    Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units

  4. Wash Your Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to get rid of germs in most situations. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer [423 KB] that contains at least 60% alcohol. ...

  5. Pneumatically actuated hand tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401195 (A) Pneumatically actuated hand tool for carrying out a mechanical operation, provided with an exchangeable gas cartridge in which the gas which is required for pneumatic actuation is stored. More particularly, the hand tool is provided with at least one pneumatic motor, at

  6. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  7. Hand measuring eqipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This note is used in connection with a 3 x 2 hours laboratory exercise as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratory includes a demonstration of a series of hand measuring tools as well as a number of exercises, illustrating the use of hand measuring equipment...

  8. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  9. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the entire procedure: ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  10. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  11. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  12. Action planning with two-handed tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Arvid; Massen, Cristina

    2009-09-01

    In tool use, the intended external goals have to be transformed into bodily movements by taking into account the target-to-movement mapping implemented by the tool. In bimanual tool use, this mapping may depend on the part of the tool that is operated and the effector used (e.g. the left and right hand at the handle bar moving in opposite directions in order to generate the same bicycle movement). In our study, we investigated whether participants represent the behaviour of the tool or only the effector-specific mapping when using two-handed tools. In three experiments, participants touched target locations with a two-jointed lever, using either the left or the right hand. In one condition, the joint of the lever was constant and switching between hands was associated with switching the target-to-movement-mapping, whereas in another condition, switching between hands was associated with switching the joint, but the target-to-movement-mapping remained constant. Results indicate pronounced costs of switching hands in the condition with constant joint, whereas they were smaller with constant target-to-movement mapping. These results suggest that participants have tool-independent representations of the effector-specific mappings.

  13. Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, S.; Weidauer, S.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F. [Institute of Neuroradiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

  14. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  15. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  16. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  17. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  18. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  19. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  20. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  1. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  2. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  3. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  4. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  5. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users : A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrume

  6. Interactional leader-follower sensorimotor communication strategies during repetitive joint actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Curioni, Arianna; Donnarumma, Francesco; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Non-verbal communication is the basis of animal interactions. In dyadic leader-follower interactions, leaders master the ability to carve their motor behaviour in order to 'signal' their future actions and internal plans while these signals influence the behaviour of follower partners, who automatically tend to imitate the leader even in complementary interactions. Despite their usefulness, signalling and imitation have a biomechanical cost, and it is unclear how this cost-benefits trade-off is managed during repetitive dyadic interactions that present learnable regularities. We studied signalling and imitation dynamics (indexed by movement kinematics) in pairs of leaders and followers during a repetitive, rule-based, joint action. Trial-by-trial Bayesian model comparison was used to evaluate the relation between signalling, imitation and pair performance. The different models incorporate different hypotheses concerning the factors (past interactions versus online movements) influencing the leader's signalling (or follower's imitation) kinematics. This approach showed that (i) leaders' signalling strategy improves future couple performance, (ii) leaders used the history of past interactions to shape their signalling, (iii) followers' imitative behaviour is more strongly affected by the online movement of the leader. This study elucidates the ways online sensorimotor communication help individuals align their task representations and ultimately improves joint action performance.

  7. About Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us eat, dress, write, earn a living, create art and do many other activities. To accomplish these ... 2009 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Definition developed by ASSH Council. Other Links CME Mission ...

  8. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... for those with osteoarthritis. TREATMENT The Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis When diagnosing osteoarthritis, your doctor will ask you ...

  9. Stiffness in the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis Fractures Dislocations Bad sprains Tendon and muscle injuries Evaluating Hand Stiffness Your doctor will ask when the stiffness ... scan. CAUSES SIGNS AND ... stretching exercises for the joints and muscles to help loosen them. Different types of splints ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get more than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best ... reminding healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Release Date: 8/4/ ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ... Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene ... Director for Communication, Division of News and Electronic Media Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene ...

  15. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  16. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Second Hand Smoke: Danger! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Make ... the United States are still exposed to secondhand smoke, even though cigarette smoking rates are dropping and ...

  17. Mind the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    , to construct and problem solve, and to show and imitate. The analyses show how a space emerges from the interaction between the children and the touchscreen, and how their hand movements reveal intelligence-as-action. Three situations with three different pairs were analysed to explore how children use......Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control access...... their hands in activities around touchscreens, focusing in particular on how they collaborate. The analysis presented here is part of a research study on the use of touchscreens in children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning activities in their everyday classrooms. The general aim of the study...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems Mapping: The Basics ... how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene in hospitals and ...

  19. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  20. Recent advancements in prosthetic hand technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Angana; Mazumdar, Sushmi; Sahai, Nitin; Paul, Sudip; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh; Rohilla, Punit Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Recently, significant advances over the past decade have been made in robotics, artificial intelligence and other cognitive related fields, allowing development of highly sophisticated bio-mimetic robotics systems. In addition, enormous number of robots have been designed and assembled by explicitly realising their biological oriented behaviours. To enhance skill behaviours and adequate grasping abilities in these devices, a new phase of dexterous hands has been developed recently with bio-mimetically oriented and bio-inspired functionalities. The aim in writing this review paper is to present a detailed insight towards the development of the bio-mimetic based dexterous robotic multi-fingered artificial hand. An "ideal" upper limb prosthesis should be perceived as a part of their natural body by the amputee and should replicate sensory-motor capabilities of the amputated limb. Upper-limb amputations are most often the result of sudden trauma to the body, although they also can be caused by malignancy, congenital deficiencies and vascular diseases. This paper discusses the different bio-mimetic approaches using a framework that permits for a common description of biological and technical based hand manipulation behaviour. In particular, the review focuses on a number of developments in the inspired robotic systems. In conclusion, the study found that a huge amount of research efforts in terms of kinematics, dynamics, modelling and control methodologies are being put in to improve the present hand technology, thereby providing more functionality to the prosthetic limb of the amputee. This would improve their quality-of-life and help in performing activities of daily living (ADL) tasks with comparative ease in the near future.

  1. Behavioural variability and motor performance: Effect of practice specialization in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, L; De Jesus, K; Komar, J; Ribeiro, J; Abraldes, J A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Fernandes, R J

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to examine behavioural variability within and between individuals, especially in a swimming task, to explore how swimmers with various specialty (competitive short distance swimming vs. triathlon) adapt to repetitive events of sub-maximal intensity, controlled in speed but of various distances. Five swimmers and five triathletes randomly performed three variants (with steps of 200, 300 and 400m distances) of a front crawl incremental step test until exhaustion. Multi-camera system was used to collect and analyse eight kinematical and swimming efficiency parameters. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between swimmers and triathletes, with significant individual effect. Cluster analysis put these parameters together to investigate whether each individual used the same pattern(s) and one or several patterns to achieve the task goal. Results exhibited ten patterns for the whole population, with only two behavioural patterns shared between swimmers and triathletes. Swimmers tended to use higher hand velocity and index of coordination than triathletes. Mono-stability occurred in swimmers whatever the task constraint showing high stability, while triathletes revealed bi-stability because they switched to another pattern at mid-distance of the task. Finally, our analysis helped to explain and understand effect of specialty and more broadly individual adaptation to task constraint.

  2. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006, repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006. In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary?To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behaviour through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behaviour resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioural

  3. [Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A potential therapy for cognitive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, C; Sherrard, R M; Belmin, J

    2017-03-01

    Considering the limited effectiveness of drugs treatments in cognitive disorders, the emergence of noninvasive techniques to modify brain function is very interesting. Among these techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate cortical excitability and have potential therapeutic effects on cognition and behaviour. These effects are due to physiological modifications in the stimulated cortical tissue and their associated circuits, which depend on the parameters of stimulation. The objective of this article is to specify current knowledge and efficacy of rTMS in cognitive disorders. Previous studies found very encouraging results with significant improvement of higher brain functions. Nevertheless, these few studies have limits: a few patients were enrolled, the lack of control of the mechanisms of action by brain imaging, insufficiently formalized technique and variability of cognitive tests. It is therefore necessary to perform more studies, which identify statistical significant improvement and to specify underlying mechanisms of action and the parameters of use of the rTMS to offer rTMS as a routine therapy for cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Characterizing Aciniform Silk Repetitive Domain Backbone Dynamics and Hydrodynamic Modularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laurence Tremblay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spider aciniform (wrapping silk is a remarkable fibrillar biomaterial with outstanding mechanical properties. It is a modular protein consisting, in Argiope trifasciata, of a core repetitive domain of 200 amino acid units (W units. In solution, the W units comprise a globular folded core, with five α-helices, and disordered tails that are linked to form a ~63-residue intrinsically disordered linker in concatemers. Herein, we present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy-based 15N spin relaxation analysis, allowing characterization of backbone dynamics as a function of residue on the ps–ns timescale in the context of the single W unit (W1 and the two unit concatemer (W2. Unambiguous mapping of backbone dynamics throughout W2 was made possible by segmental NMR active isotope-enrichment through split intein-mediated trans-splicing. Spectral density mapping for W1 and W2 reveals a striking disparity in dynamics between the folded core and the disordered linker and tail regions. These data are also consistent with rotational diffusion behaviour where each globular domain tumbles almost independently of its neighbour. At a localized level, helix 5 exhibits elevated high frequency dynamics relative to the proximal helix 4, supporting a model of fibrillogenesis where this helix unfolds as part of the transition to a mixed α-helix/β-sheet fibre.

  5. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  6. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  7. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  8. Clean Hands for Life: results of a large, multicentre, multifaceted, social marketing hand-hygiene campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K

    2010-03-01

    A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Choppers to optimise the repetition rate multiplication technique on a direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, Anette; Deen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of repetition rate multiplication (RRM) on direct geometry neutron spectrometers has been established and is the common mode of operation on a growing number of instruments. However, the chopper configurations are not ideally optimised for RRM with a resultant 100 fold flu...... in time resolution probed for a single European Spallation Source (ESS) period, which is ideal to probe complex relaxational behaviour. These two chopper configurations have been simulated for the Versatile Optimal Resolution direct geometry spectrometer, VOR, that will be built at ESS....

  10. Recent Research on Aetiology, Development and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, F.; Biswas, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Behavioural interventions conceptualise self-injurious behaviour (SIB) as developing from early repetitive behaviours through acquisition of homeostatic functions in regulating stimulation and subsequent shaping into SIB through socially mediated or automatic operant reinforcement. Despite high success rates, such interventions rarely…

  11. Hand Models Emerge in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGTIELIANG

    2003-01-01

    CHINESE women have now discovered that beautiful hands are realizable assets. A new career invites those with shapely hands: that of hand model. This nascent profession has great prospects, as images involving hands are essential in the advertising business for promotion of such products as jewelry, watches and cell phones. Certain film stars also employ standins for hand close-ups.

  12. ReRep: Computational detection of repetitive sequences in genome survey sequences (GSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Ferreira Marcelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome survey sequences (GSS offer a preliminary global view of a genome since, unlike ESTs, they cover coding as well as non-coding DNA and include repetitive regions of the genome. A more precise estimation of the nature, quantity and variability of repetitive sequences very early in a genome sequencing project is of considerable importance, as such data strongly influence the estimation of genome coverage, library quality and progress in scaffold construction. Also, the elimination of repetitive sequences from the initial assembly process is important to avoid errors and unnecessary complexity. Repetitive sequences are also of interest in a variety of other studies, for instance as molecular markers. Results We designed and implemented a straightforward pipeline called ReRep, which combines bioinformatics tools for identifying repetitive structures in a GSS dataset. In a case study, we first applied the pipeline to a set of 970 GSSs, sequenced in our laboratory from the human pathogen Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of leishmaniosis, an important public health problem in Brazil. We also verified the applicability of ReRep to new sequencing technologies using a set of 454-reads of an Escheria coli. The behaviour of several parameters in the algorithm is evaluated and suggestions are made for tuning of the analysis. Conclusion The ReRep approach for identification of repetitive elements in GSS datasets proved to be straightforward and efficient. Several potential repetitive sequences were found in a L. braziliensis GSS dataset generated in our laboratory, and further validated by the analysis of a more complete genomic dataset from the EMBL and Sanger Centre databases. ReRep also identified most of the E. coli K12 repeats prior to assembly in an example dataset obtained by automated sequencing using 454 technology. The parameters controlling the algorithm behaved consistently and may be tuned to the properties

  13. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  14. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  15. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  16. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  17. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants). Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence). Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence). Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high

  18. Hand eczema: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD. In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis, wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment.

  19. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  20. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  1. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub.

  2. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  3. Measuring mimicry: general corticospinal facilitation during observation of naturalistic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J E; Sacheli, L M; Bekkering, H; Toni, I; Aglioti, S M

    2017-07-01

    Mimicry of others' postures and behaviours forms an implicit yet indispensable component of social interactions. However, whereas numerous behavioural studies have investigated the occurrence of mimicry and its social sensitivity, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal facilitation during a naturalistic behaviour observation task adapted from the behavioural mimicry literature. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants' right hands were measured as they observed stimulus videos of a confederate describing photographs. MEPs were recorded while confederates were and were not carrying out hand and leg behaviours that also differed in spatial extent (i.e. large behaviours: face rubbing and leg crossing; small behaviours: finger tapping and foot bouncing). Importantly, the cover task instructions did not refer to the behaviours but instead required participants to focus on the confederates' photograph descriptions in order to later perform a recognition test. A general arousal effect was found, with higher MEPs during stimulus video observation than during a fixation-cross baseline, regardless of whether or not the confederate was carrying out a behaviour at the time of the pulse. When controlling for this general arousal effect, results showed that MEPs during observation of the larger two behaviours were significantly higher than the smaller two behaviours, irrespective of effector. Thus, using a controlled yet naturalistic paradigm, this study suggests that general sensorimotor arousal during social interactions could play a role in implicit behavioural mimicry. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  5. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Feil, Yvonne; Eggerstedt, Sven; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael

    2008-10-29

    Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application"). Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible application". Large untreated areas were found only

  6. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Yvonne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s. However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application". Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. Results The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible

  7. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice hand hygiene in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Release Date: 8/4/2010 Source: Healthcare-associated ... choose "Save target as…", save file in desired location. Firefox/Chrome: Right-click on the link, choose " ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  10. De hand van Huizinga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Johan

    2009-01-01

    De hand van Huizinga bevat een nieuwe selectie van de belangrijkste essays uit het omvangrijke oeuvre van de wereldberoemde Nederlandse historicus Johan Huizinga. Deze essays en studies zijn geselecteerd op basis van de diverse disciplines waarmee Huizinga zich bezighield - van de Middeleeuwen tot

  11. Shanghai Hand Puppet Tcoupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    PUPPETRY n ancient artform, has had difficulties ca-tering to children’s aesthet-ic needs and perceptions.ShanghaiHand Puppet Troupe has,however,successfully reached children audi-ences with its new science fictlonpiece,Nuozha Meets the Inhabitants of Tai star.

  12. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  13. Passive hand prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian, Hooman; de Bese, Genevieve; Beasley, Robert W

    2003-02-01

    For many mangled hands, appropriately designed passive prostheses now available, alone or in conjunction with surgical reconstruction, can offer the best available improvement, provided they are of high quality and backed by prompt and reliable after-delivery services. Invariably, there is improvement in physical capability along with restoration of good social presentation.

  14. Put Your Hands Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  15. Man and his hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a world where mechanisation and automation have led to a devaluation of skilled manual work, and where only certain press and publicity media doubt the superiority of the mind, the following operating-theatre dialogue is refreshing: Surgeon: The surgeon's hands are his f

  16. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  17. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  18. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  19. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  20. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  1. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  2. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  3. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  4. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  5. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  6. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  7. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  8. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Yushuf Sharker, M A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M

    2010-12-01

    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology. Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens. At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but soap intervention compounds were much more likely to wash their hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds. Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  11. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS.

  12. Tying the Manager's Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Vázquez-Vicente, Xosé H.

    2003-01-01

    AbstractWe discuss and empirically examine a firm-level equivalent of the ancient problem of `tying the King's hands,' namely how to maximize managerial intervention for `good cause,' while avoiding intervention for `bad cause.' Managers may opportunistically intervene when such intervention...... produces private benefits. Overall firm performance is harmed as a result, because opportunistic managerial intervention harms employee motivation. The central point of the paper is that various mechanisms and factors, such as managers staking their personal reputation, employees controlling important...

  13. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries.

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene ...

  15. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  17. [Costs of hand emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbeau, G

    2003-10-01

    In France at the present time, there is no comprehensive registry of hand injuries. Three types of occurrences; motor vehicle accidents, work accidents, and accidents incident to activities of daily living, are covered by different types of insurance. It is the individual insurance companies, payers of the indemnification, who maintain registries of these accidents. Statistics on work accidents are very detailed and consistent, but they are oriented toward risk management. The aggregate cost of traumatic injuries to the hand is not known. Only large financial institutions are equipped to determine appropriate preventive measures and to establish premium rates based on loss experience. In 2001, hand injuries accounted for 27% of work accidents causing loss of work of at least 1 day. About 29.8% of these work accidents caused permanent partial impairment. About 17.7% of total days lost and 18.2% of the total costs of permanent impairment were due to hand injuries. In the system of compensation for work accidents, there is a major difference in the cost according to the severity of the impairment. If the permanent impairment is equal to or less than 9%, a lump sum payment is made, but if the permanent impairment is over 9%, the worker receives regular payments for the rest of his life. In 2000, the average cost of a work injury with partial permanent impairment of over 9% was [symbol: see text] 85,405, while the average cost of a lump sum settlement was only [symbol: see text] 1479, a ratio of 57 to 1. The compensation costs represent 80% of the cost of work accidents, while the cost of treatment, including all providers and institutions, makes up only 20% of the cost. Compensation for sequelae of accidents in the course of daily life is new for the insurance companies, although these accidents are frequent and often cause significant repercussions in the professional lives of victims because of the loss of hand function. Provision of optimal treatment for these

  18. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  19. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  20. Association between interpersonal behaviour and helping alliance in substance-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weert-Van Oene, G H; Jörg, F; de Jong, C A J

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on exploring the association between the patient's perception of his own interpersonal behaviour on the one hand, and that of the therapist's behaviour and of helping alliance on the other hand. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 83 patients from substance dependence

  1. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two robotic hands that have been developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand are described in terms of design and operational features. In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar linkages. Results of experimental tests are reported to show how key design issues affect each robotic hand’s performance.

  2. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we...... would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... regards the problems of spurious correlations due to underlying omitted or unobservable characteristics shaping both religious activities and risk attitudes. This paper examines empirically the demand for religion by analysing the association between risk attitudes on the one hand, and church attandance...

  3. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...

  4. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  5. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-03-09

    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements.

  6. Iconicity in Discourse: The Case of Repetition in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minako

    This analysis of repeated utterances in Japanese conversational discourse focuses on repetition as an expression of iconicity. In the analysis of a 30-minute conversation among 4 Japanese speakers, the iconic meanings expressed by both reduplication and conversational repetition are highlighted. The iconicity characteristic of conversational data…

  7. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  8. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to t

  9. On the Functions of Lexical Repetition in English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical repetition, as a cohesive device of an English text, can help make up a cohesive and coherent text. Therefore, in English textual learning, it is helpful for students to know about different patterns and functions of lexical repetition to improve their English level and ability.

  10. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  11. Evidence for an expectancy-based theory of avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli.

  12. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  13. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  14. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Chengying; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb comprising a single soliton in an anomalous dispersion silicon nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency tuning. The contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and from thermal effects are evaluated both experimentally and theoretically; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in repetition rate. The relationship between the changes in repetition rate and pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ~50 fs.

  15. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  16. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2017-02-15

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb composed of a single soliton in an anomalous group velocity dispersion silicon-nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency. By comparing operation in the soliton and non-soliton states, the contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and the thermal effects are evaluated; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in the repetition rate, similar to silica cavities. The relationship between the changes in the repetition rate and the pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ∼50  fs.

  17. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  18. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  19. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  20. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  1. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  2. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  3. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its...... functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically...

  4. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  5. [Rehabilitation Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Various novel stroke rehabilitative methods have been developed based on findings in basic science and clinical research. Recently, many reports have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves function in stroke patients by altering the excitability of the human cortex. The interhemispheric competition model proposes that deficits in stroke patients are due to reduced output from the affected hemisphere and excessive interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected hemisphere to the affected hemisphere. The interhemispheric competition model indicates that improvement in deficits can be achieved either by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere using excitatory rTMS or by decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere using inhibitory rTMS. Recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neural connections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairments. Artificially modulating the neural network by rTMS may induce a more suitable environment for use-dependent plasticity and also may interfere with maladaptive neural activation, which weakens function and limits recovery. There is potential, therefore, for rTMS to be used as an adjuvant therapy for developed neurorehabilitation techniques in stroke patients.

  6. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  8. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  9. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence).Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence).Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention

  10. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… ... creating a handwashing campaign for your school community. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Resources for healthcare workers and ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of hand allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Brian T; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Moran, Steven L

    2013-07-01

    The hand is the most refined anatomical terminal device known and the leading edge of the sensorium. Further, the hand is second only to the face in terms of visibility and is a vitally important aspect aesthetic and body image. Hand amputation represents a devastating loss of function and independence. Restoring function after limb loss is a challenge and traditionally includes autologous methods and prosthetics. In the last 15 years, hand transplantation has become a viable option for select patients.

  12. Repetitive energy transfer from an inductive energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of a research program aimed at finding practical ways to transfer energy repetitively from an inductive energy store to various loads are discussed. The objectives were to investigate and develop the high power opening switches and transfer circuits needed to enable high-repetition-rate operation of such systems, including a feasibility demonstration at a current level near 10 kA and a pulse repetition rate of 1-10 kpps with a 1-ohm load. The requirements of nonlinear, time-varying loads, such as the railgun electromagnetic launcher, were also addressed. Energy storage capability is needed for proper power conditioning in systems where the duty factor of the output pulse train is low. Inductive energy storage is attractive because it has both a high energy storage density and a fast discharge capability. By producing a pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW at a pulse repetition rate of 5 kpps in a one-ohm load system, this research program was the first to demonstrate fully-controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy storage and transfer system with survivable switches. Success was made possible by using triggered vacuum gap switches as repetitive, current-zero opening switches and developing several new repetitive transfer circuits using the counterpulse technique.

  13. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  14. Dermal tolerance of Sterillium, a propanol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Muscatiello, M

    2003-12-01

    Alcohol-based hand rubs have been used for hygienic hand disinfection in hospitals for decades. In order to achieve good compliance with hand hygiene practices in the healthcare setting, dermal tolerance of a hand rub product is crucial. Sterillium, which is used in many European countries for hygienic hand disinfection, is based on iso-propanol, n-propanol and mecetronium etilsulphate. The potential for dermal irritation and sensitization of commercially available propanol-based hand rubs containing emollients has not been studied systematically. We therefore studied the dermal tolerance of Sterillium in a repetitive occlusive patch test on 55 subjects. Sterillium was applied to one site on the back under an occlusive patch during an induction phase (total of nine applications over a three-week period) and two weeks later to a virgin site on the back during a challenge phase (one application). Twenty-four hours after removal of the patches (induction phase and challenge phase), and in addition, after 48 and 72 h (challenge phase), the sites were graded for skin reactions using a standardized scoring scale. In the induction phase, two of the 55 subjects had a barely perceptible minimal erythema at one of nine time points. The remaining 53 subjects had no skin reaction at any time. In the challenge phase, all 55 subjects had no skin reaction at all. The absence of significant reactions with respect to severity and frequency demonstrates the favourable dermal tolerance of the hand rub product. The lack of irritation or sensitization potential could enhance compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers.

  15. [Hand injuries management of care and hand prevention networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Injuries of the hand are common and sometimes more serious than it appears on a non-specialist initial examination. They are a public health issue with some major impact on the continued activity of patients who have been victims of those injuries. The European Federation of Hand Emergency Services (FESUM) accredits SOS Hand centers, dedicated hand trauma organizations in which the specialized medical cares is optima, avoiding the loss of chance to inadequate primary orientation. If nevertheless a serious injury leaves a debilitating sequela Hand Prevention networks, organized by practitioners of SOS Hand centers, help patients establish a process of socio-professional rehabilitation as soon as possible. These networks organize primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of hand trauma and disabilities that can accompany them. Innovative organizations, they resemble a national association that supports the development of new structures. They are open to all professionals of health and their patients, members or not of the network.

  16. The Importance of Hand Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昌寿

    2004-01-01

    Medical experts say the most effective way to prevent the spread of diseases is for people to wash their hands with soap and water. The Word Bank and the United Nations carried out a study to urge hand washing around the world. They say programmes to increase hand washing with

  17. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  18. Gravitons that shake hands

    CERN Document Server

    Gubitosi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We examine some of the roots of parity violation for gravitons and uncover a closely related new effect: correlations between right and left handed gravitons. Such correlators have spin 4 if they involve gravitons moving along the same direction, and spin zero for gravitons moving with opposite directions. In the first case, the most immediate implication would be a degree of linear polarization for the tensor vacuum fluctuations, which could be seen by gravity wave detectors sensitive enough to probe the primordial background, its degree of polarization and anisotropies. Looking at the anisotropy of the gravity waves linear polarization we identify the parity respecting and violating components of the effect. The imprint on the CMB temperature and polarization would be more elusive, since it averages to zero in the two-point functions, appearing only in their cosmic variance or in fourth order correlators. In contrast, spin zero correlations would have an effect on the two point function of the CMB temperatu...

  19. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... HE, protein contact dermatitis/contact urticaria, hyperkeratotic endogenous eczema and vesicular endogenous eczema, respectively. An additional diagnosis was given if symptoms indicated that factors additional to the main diagnosis were of importance for the disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  20. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... of signal of firms, which is based on a formalized common practice of external, academic experts referring to firms in their peer reviewed publications. The findings provide qualitative evidence that helps explain why and how this new type of ‘second‐hand’ signal is created, validated and systematically...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  1. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu

    2010-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  2. Effect of hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis: Implications for practicing hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Helga; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Assadian, Ojan; Bransmöller, Katja; Baguhl, Romy; Löffler, Harald; Kramer, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Skin protection products should be used after washing hands with soap, during breaks, after work, and during leisure time. Aside from their beneficial effects, skin care products may also interact with alcohol-based hand disinfectants by reducing their efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub. The effect of a protective hand lotion against an isopropyl alcohol-based handrub was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers according to the European standard test procedure EN 1500 in the following combinations: handwashing and application of hand lotion, only application of hand lotion, and no washing and no hand lotion (control), each for 5 minutes or 1 hour before hand antisepsis. The difference in microbiologic before-and-after values were expressed as log reduction factor. The effectiveness of hand antisepsis was not significantly affected in any of the groups using the tested hand lotion. Hand antisepsis may be delayed for 5 minutes after hand lotion application. Shorter time intervals might be possible but were not tested. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  4. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  5. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  8. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  9. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  10. Neuronal mechanisms during repetitive trigemino-nociceptive stimulation in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderjan, David; Stankewitz, Anne; May, Arne

    2010-10-01

    Habituation deficits in various sensory modalities have been observed in migraine patients in several experimental designs. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are, however, still unknown. Past studies have used electrophysiological measures and focussed on habituation behaviour during one single session. We were interested in how repeated painful stimulation over several days is processed, perceived and modulated in migraineurs. Fifteen migraine patients and 15 healthy controls were stimulated daily with a 20 min trigeminal pain paradigm for eight consecutive days, using functional MRI performed on days one and eight and one follow-up measurement three months later. The results demonstrate that migraine patients did not differ in behavioural pain ratings compared to the controls at any time. However, functional imaging data revealed a significant difference in several brain areas over time. The activity level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) increased in healthy control subjects from day one to day eight, whereas it decreased in migraine patients. These data suggest that several brain areas known to be involved in endogenous pain control show a completely opposite behaviour in migraine patients compared to healthy controls. These brain networks seem not to be disrupted per se in migraine patients but changed activity over time responding to repetitive nociceptive input. The alteration of pain inhibitory circuits may be the underlying mechanism responsible for the dys-functional neuronal filters of sensory input.

  11. Your left-handed brain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    While most people prefer to use their right hand to brush their teeth, throw a ball, or hold a tennis racket, left-handers prefer to use their left hand. This is the case for around 10% of all people. There was a time (not so long ago) when left-handers were stigmatized (see Glossary) in Western (and other) communities: it was considered a bad sign if you were left-handed, and left-handed children were often forced to write with their right hand. This is nonsensical: there is nothing wrong wi...

  12. Dissociated small hand muscle atrophy in aging: the 'senile hand' is a split hand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, N.C.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Munneke, M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'split hand' refers to a pattern of dissociated atrophy of hand muscles and was first described in ALS. We hypothesize that this phenomenon also occurs in 'normal' aging. We investigated healthy subjects of different ages and found a progressive dissociation in atrophy of the hand muscles,

  13. Patient empowerment and hand hygiene, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, M; Govednik, J

    2013-07-01

    Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  15. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  16. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  17. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  18. The repetition effect in building and construction works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Haugbølle, Kim

    are then applied on the Public Transport Authorities' main account structure of units and costs, and a method for assessing the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition for each account is described. Finally, the report summarises the core conditions necessary to take into consideration in relation......This report summarises the results from the work undertaken for the Public Transport Authority on the effect of learning and repetition in building and construction works. The results are applied by the Public Transport Authority in a new budgeting model, while the agency investigates...... the establishment of a new railway between Copenhagen and Ringsted. Drawing on an extensive literature review, the effect of repetition is determined to be in the range of 6-12 %. Further, the report identifies a series of factors affecting the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition. These factors...

  19. Prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  20. Digit and hand replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beris, Alexandros E; Lykissas, Marios G; Korompilias, Anastasios V; Mitsionis, Gregory I; Vekris, Marios D; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P

    2010-09-01

    For the past 45 years, the advent of microsurgery has led to replantation of almost every amputated part such as distal phalanx, finger tip, etc. Replantation of digits and hand can restore not only circulation, but also function and cosmetic of the amputated part. The goals of replantation are to restore circulation and regain sufficient function and sensation of the amputated part. Strict selection criteria are necessary to optimize the functional result. The management of this type of injuries includes meticulous preoperative management, microsurgical experience and continuous postoperative care. Among various factors influencing the outcome, the most important are the type and the level of injury, ischemia time, history of diabetes, age, sex, and smoking history. During the replantation procedure, bone stabilization, tendon repair, arterial anastomoses, venous anastomoses, nerve coaptation, and skin coverage should be performed. All structures should be repaired primarily, unless a large nerve gap or a flexor tendon avulsion injury is present. Adequate postoperative evaluation is mandatory to avoid early or late complications. To improve functional results, many replantation patients may need further reconstructive surgery.

  1. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  2. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  3. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  4. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.

  5. Linear- and Repetitive-Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  6. Linear- and Repetitive Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  7. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  8. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  9. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Buzuloiu; Patrick Lambert; Didier Coquin; Bogdan Ionescu

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on ...

  10. The effects of joint torque, pace and work:rest ratio on powered hand tool operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Maikala, Rammohan V

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive use of hand-held power tools is associated with work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Using a pneumatic nutrunner, 21 men completed twelve 360 repetitive fastener-driving sessions on three joints (hard, soft and control) at slow and fast pace, and two different work:rest patterns. Handgrip force and perceived exertions were collected throughout each session. For the control joint, the mean grip force exerted was 39.6% of maximum voluntary exertion (MVE) whereas during hard and soft joint sessions it was 48.9% MVE and 56.9% MVE, respectively. Throughout each session, the grip force decreased, more while operating soft and hard joints as compared with the control joint (regression slope: -0.022 and -0.023, compared with -0.007 N/drive, respectively), suggesting considerable upper extremity muscular effort by participants during torque buildup. Fast work pace resulted in higher average grip forces by participants but a greater decrease in the force as the session progressed. Providing rest breaks reduced perceived exertions. The findings gain additional knowledge for assembly task design to possibly reduce the hand/arm injury risks for the operator. Practitioner Summary: Powered hand tools are widely used in assembly and manufacturing industries. However, the nature of their repetitive use on human operator biomechanical and perceptual responses is not fully understood. This study examined work-related risk factors such as joint torque, pace and work:rest ratios on powered hand tool performance.

  11. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  12. Hand spring operated movement enhancer (HandSOME) device for hand rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independent lifestyles. After stroke, patients often have flexor hypertonia, making it difficult to open their hand for functional grasp. The development and initial testing of a passive hand rehabilitation device is discussed. The device, Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME), assists with opening the patient's hand using a series of bungee cords that apply extension torques to the finger joints that compensate for the flexor hypertonia. This results in significant increase in range of motion and functional use when wearing HandSOME, even in severely impaired subjects. Device design, calibration, and range of motion are described as well as functional and usability testing with stroke subjects.

  13. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  14. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  15. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Claudia H; Springston, Elizabeth E; Sohn, Min-Woong; Mason, Iyana; Gadola, Emily; Damitz, Maureen; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-05-15

    Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4-14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers' perceptions of students' hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P students and reported time constraints as a

  16. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  17. Temporal dynamics of high repetition rate pulsed single longitudinal mode dye laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Sridhar; V S Rawar; S Singh; L M Gantayet

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of temporal dynamics of grazing incidence grating (GIG) cavity, single-mode dye laser pumped by high repetition rate copper vapour laser (CVL) are presented. Spectral chirp of the dye laser as they evolve in the cavity due to transient phase dynamics of the amplifier gain medium is studied. Effect of grating efficiency, focal spot size, pump power and other cavity parameters on the temporal behaviour of narrow band dye laser such as build-up time, pulse shape and pulse width is studied using the four level dye laser rate equation and photon evolution equation. These results are compared with experimental observations of GIG single-mode dye laser cavity. The effect of pulse stretching of CVL pump pulse on the temporal dynamics of the dye laser is studied.

  18. Plasma Sheet Actuator Driven by Repetitive Nanosecond Pulses with a Negative DC Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧敏; 张乔根; 李应红; 贾敏; 吴云; 梁华

    2012-01-01

    A type of electrical discharge called sliding discharge was developed to generate plasma aerodynamic actuation for flow control. A three-electrode plasma sheet actuator driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses with a negative DC component was used to generate sliding discharge, which can be called nanosecond-pulse sliding discharge. The phenomenology and behaviour of the plasma sheet actuator were investigated experimentally. Discharge morphology shows that the formation of nanosecond-pulse sliding discharge is dependent on the peak value of the repetitive nanosecond pulses and negative DC component applied on the plasma sheet actuator. Compared to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), the extension of plasma in nanosecond-pulse sliding discharge is quasi-diffusive, stable, longer and more intensive. Test results of particle image velocimetry demonstrate that the negative DC component applied to a third electrode could significantly modify the topology of the flow induced by nanosecond-pulse DBD. Body force induced by the nanosecond-pulse sliding discharge can be approximately in the order of mN. Both the maximum velocity and the body force induced by sliding discharge increase significantly as compared to single DBD. Therefore, nanosecond-pulse sliding discharge is a preferable plasma aerodynamic actuation generation mode, which is very promising in the field of aerodynamics.

  19. Early effects of emotion on word immediate repetition priming: electrophysiological and source localization evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

    2011-12-01

    The processing of a stimulus benefits from the previous exposure of an identical stimulus, which is known as immediate repetition priming (IRP). Although several experimental manipulations modulate the size of this effect, the influence of affective information is still unclear. In order to explore the temporo-spatial characteristics of the interaction between emotion and IRP, event-related potentials (ERPs) to negative and neutral target words were measured during a lexical decision task in an IRP paradigm. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with IRP. A source localization procedure provided information on the neural origin of these components. Behavioural analyses showed that reaction times to repeated negative and neutral words differed from those to unrepeated negative and neutral words, respectively. However, the interaction between repetition and emotion was only marginally significant. In contrast, ERP analyses revealed specific IRP effects for negative words: Repeated negative words elicited reduced P120/enhanced N170 effects and weaker activation suppression in the left inferior frontal gyrus than did unrepeated negative words. These results suggest that a word's negative content captures attention interfering with IRP mechanisms, possibly at an early semantic stage of processing.

  20. Repetitive Reduction Patterns in Lambda Calculus with letrec (Work in Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rochel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the lambda-calculus with letrec we develop an optimisation, which is based on the contraction of a certain class of 'future' (also: virtual redexes. In the implementation of functional programming languages it is common practice to perform beta-reductions at compile time whenever possible in order to produce code that requires fewer reductions at run time. This is, however, in principle limited to redexes and created redexes that are 'visible' (in the sense that they can be contracted without the need for unsharing, and cannot generally be extended to redexes that are concealed by sharing constructs such as letrec. In the case of recursion, concealed redexes become visible only after unwindings during evaluation, and then have to be contracted time and again. We observe that in some cases such redexes exhibit a certain form of repetitive behaviour at run time. We describe an analysis for identifying binders that give rise to such repetitive reduction patterns, and eliminate them by a sort of predictive contraction. Thereby these binders are lifted out of recursive positions or eliminated altogether, as a result alleviating the amount of beta-reductions required for each recursive iteration. Both our analysis and simplification are suitable to be integrated into existing compilers for functional programming languages as an additional optimisation phase. With this work we hope to contribute to increasing the efficiency of executing programs written in such languages.

  1. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  2. Organizational Behaviour Study Material

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Organizational Behaviour – History of Organisational Behaviour and its  emergence as a disciple-emerging perspective Organizational Behaviour.  Individual process in organisation – Learning, perception and attribution- Individual differences - Basic concepts of motivation - Advanced concepts of motivation. Group process in Organisation – Group dynamics, leadership theories - Power, politics and conflict - inter- personal communication. Enhancing individu...

  3. [Hand involvement in systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Luc

    2013-12-01

    Hand involvement is very common in patients with systemic sclerosis and represents an important tool for the early diagnosis of the disease. Vascular involvement of the hands is at the forefront of systemic sclerosis, with Raynaud's phenomenon, which may be complicated by digital ulcers, digital necrosis causing pain, infection and significant disability. Joint inflammation can also be disabling and causes the occurrence of contractures and deformities resulting in a marked hand disability. Skin sclerosis involving fingers and hands leads to the occurrence of pain and functional impairment. Hand involvement contributes to 75 % of global disability in patients with systemic sclerosis. Only a comprehensive care, taking into account the vascular, skin and joint manifestations, including physical therapy if needed can improve hand function in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  4. Do Behavioural Approaches Teach Children with Autism to Play or Are They Pretending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Play is, by definition, internally motivated, flexible, spontaneous and voluntary. Yet some researchers claim to have taught children with autism to play using behavioural interventions that are heavily structured, repetitive and make use of external reinforcements. In the current systematic review, we examine the extent to which these claims are…

  5. Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Marko (Mollie K.); D. Crocetti (Deana); T. Hulst (Thomas); O. Donchin (Opher); R. Shadmehr (Reza); S.H. Mostofsky (Stewart H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAutism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviours. Although not part of the diagnostic criteria, individuals with autism experience a host of motor impairments, potenti

  6. Hands-on Virtual Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pihuit, Adeline; Kry, Paul; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2008-01-01

    poster; International audience; This paper presents a new interaction system designed for hands-on 3D shape modeling and deformation through natural hand gestures. Our system is made of a Phantom haptic device coupled with a deformable foam ball that supports pressure sensors. These sensors detect forces exerted by the user's fingertips, and are used to control the configuration of a compliant virtual hand that is modeling soft virtual clay. During interaction, the user is provided both passi...

  7. On Semantic Development of HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎金娥

    2015-01-01

    The body-part term, HAND, ranks 48 in Swadesh's 100-Word List.This paper discusses the origin and meanings, and then the rules of semantic development in the HAND semantic field by comparing with other languages.The word itself does not only denote the body part but also things resembling hands in shape, position, function and things associated with hands.Plenty of linguistic evidence can be found to illustrate that all human beings regard their bodies as the basis and starting point of recognition of the whole world.

  8. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  9. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  10. Stery-hand: A new device to support hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Laszlo; Lehotsky, Akos; Nagy, Melinda; Haidegger, Tamas; Benyo, Balazs; Benyo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection can cause serious complications in surgical care. The teaching of effective hand washing is crucial in modern medical training. To support the objective evaluation of hand disinfection, we developed a compact, mobile device, relying on digital imaging and image processing. The hardware consists of a metal case with matte black interior, ultra-violet lighting and a digital camera. Image segmentation and clustering are performed on a regular notebook. The hand washing procedures performed with a soap mixed with UV-reflective powder. This results the skin showing bright under UV light only on the treated (sterile) surfaces. When the surgeon inserts its hands into the box, the camera placed on the top takes an image of the hand for evaluation. The software performs the segmentation and clustering automatically. First, the hand contour is determined from the green intensity channel of the recorded RGB image. Then, the pixels of the green channel belonging to the hand are partitioned to three clusters using a quick, histogram based fuzzy c-means algorithm. The optimal threshold between the intensities of clean and dirty areas is extracted using these clusters, while the final approximated percentage of the clean area is computed using a weighting formula. The main advantage of our device is the ability to obtain objective and comparable result on the quality of hand disinfection. It may find its best use in the clinical education and training.

  11. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  12. Physical Performance Characteristics of Military Aircraft Maintenance Personnel Resistant to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Hand and Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    inflammatory disorders include tendonitis, trigger finger, and tenosynovitis. Nerve compression conditions include carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar ...workers with about 20% attributed to the wrist, hand, or finger (BLS, 2005). Inflammatory, nerve compression, and degenerative conditions such as...tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome , and arthritis are included in the category of WMSDs. Risk factors such as repetition, vibration, awkward positions

  13. Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Demmler, Stefan; Klenke, Arno; Tünnermann, Andreas; Limpert, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and

  14. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  15. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  16. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquin Didier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  17. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  18. A computationally efficient method for hand-eye calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-19

    Surgical robots with cooperative control and semiautonomous features have shown increasing clinical potential, particularly for repetitive tasks under imaging and vision guidance. Effective performance of an autonomous task requires accurate hand-eye calibration so that the transformation between the robot coordinate frame and the camera coordinates is well defined. In practice, due to changes in surgical instruments, online hand-eye calibration must be performed regularly. In order to ensure seamless execution of the surgical procedure without affecting the normal surgical workflow, it is important to derive fast and efficient hand-eye calibration methods. We present a computationally efficient iterative method for hand-eye calibration. In this method, dual quaternion is introduced to represent the rigid transformation, and a two-step iterative method is proposed to recover the real and dual parts of the dual quaternion simultaneously, and thus the estimation of rotation and translation of the transformation. The proposed method was applied to determine the rigid transformation between the stereo laparoscope and the robot manipulator. Promising experimental and simulation results have shown significant convergence speed improvement to 3 iterations from larger than 30 with regard to standard optimization method, which illustrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  20. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  1. Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Campillo, Igor

    2006-06-12

    Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as photonic band-gap, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed propagation. Up to now, relations of photonic crystals and negative refraction have been shown as well as of photonic crystals and sub-wavelength hole arrays. Here we report a left-handed metamaterial engineered by a combination of sub-wavelength hole array plates periodically stacked to form a photonic crystal structure. It is shown the possibility of fine-tuning the metamaterial in order to permit extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of engineering left-handed metamaterials by just drilling holes in metallic plates and brings together single structure photonic crystals, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour.

  2. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  3. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AND ONE REPETITION MAXIMAL STRENGTH IN TRAINED ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim CAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between some performance parameters and one repetition maximal strength in trained athletes. In accordance with this purpose, thirty four amateur athletes competed in football, volleyball, wrestling and kickboxing sport branches (age: 22,0 ± 3,03 years; height: 179,2 ± 0,06 cm; weight: 75,2 ± 8,9 kg; training experince: 9,0 ± 2,82 years have participated voluntarily in this study. Repeated sprint test, agility test, standing long jump test, vertical jump test and one repetition maximal (1RM tests were applied to subjects. To assessment of data, descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlation analysis methods were used to determine whether there was a relationship between some performance parameters and 1RM strength values in full back squat (SQ exercise. According to the analysis results, it was obtained that there wasn’t statistically significant relationship between standing long jump (r = ,157 and agility (r = - ,207 performances with 1RM strength values in full back SQ exercise of research group (p > 0,05. On the other hand, there was a positive, statistically significant relationship (p 0,05 relationships between 1RM strength values with total test duration (r = ,038 and fatigue index (r = ,142 in repeated sprint test.

  4. Repetitive short-pulse light mainly inactivates photosystem I in sunflower leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejima, Takehiro; Takagi, Daisuke; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2014-06-01

    Under field conditions, the leaves of plants are exposed to fluctuating light, as observed in sunfleck. The duration and frequency of sunfleck, which is caused by the canopy being blown by the wind, are in the ranges from 0.2 to 50 s, and from 0.004 to 1 Hz, respectively. Furthermore, >60% of the sunfleck duration ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 s. In the present research, we analyzed the effects of repetitive illumination by short-pulse (SP) light of sunflower leaves on the photosynthetic electron flow. The duration of SP light was set in the range from 10 to 300 ms. We found that repetitive illumination with SP light did not induce the oxidation of P700 in PSI, and mainly inactivated PSI. Increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of SP light enhanced PSI photoinhibition. PSI photoinhibition required the presence of O2. The inactivation of PSI suppressed the net CO2 assimilation. On the other hand, the increase in the oxidized state of P700 suppressed PSI inactivation. That is, PSI with a reduced reaction center would produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by SP light, leading to PSI photodamage. This mechanism probably explains the PSI photodamage induced by constant light. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during...... seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force...... muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force....

  6. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  7. Please wash your hands often

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This poster advises washing hands "before and after using the toilet, handling food, touching animals, eating, drinking, or smoking." It advocates "always use clean water / never wash your hands in used wash water!" The purpose is to protect self and others from diseases. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  8. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn; Diepgen, Thomas L;

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD...

  9. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD) is a...

  10. The Work of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludick, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing Maria and Mario Montessori's reverence for the hand, Pat Ludick takes the reader into the wonder of the human body, mind, and spirit and across the planes of education, into the making of a whole personality and grounded intelligence that is ready for the adult world. Putting the hand front and center, she lyrically evolves an overview…

  11. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  12. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  13. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  14. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility and their psych......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  15. Hand Transplantation Versus Hand Prosthetics: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminger, S; Roche, A D; Sturma, A; Mayer, J A; Aszmann, O C

    Composite tissue transplantation and new developments in the field of prosthetics have opened new frontiers in the restoration of function among upper limb amputees. It is now possible to restore hand function in affected patients; however, the indications, advantages, and limitations for either hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting must be carefully considered depending on the level and extent of the limb loss. Hand transplantation allows comprehensive hand function to be restored, yet composite tissue transplantation comes with disadvantages, making this method a controversial topic in the hand surgical community. Alternatively, prosthetic limb replacement represents the standard of care for upper limb amputees, but results in the known limitations of function, sensation, and usage. The indication for hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting strongly depends on the level of amputation, as well as on the extent (unilateral/bilateral) of the amputation. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hand transplantation and prosthetic replacement for upper limb amputees in general, as well as in regard to the different levels of amputation.

  16. Hand eczema - prognosis and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A. H.; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course...... of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using...... a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. RESULTS: Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline...

  17. Hand Detection Using HSV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Noreen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural Human Computer Interaction HCI is the demand of todays technology oriented world. Detecting and tracking of face and hands are important for gesture recognition. Skin detection is a very popular and useful technique for detecting and tracking human-body parts. It has been much attention mainly because of its vast range of applications such as face detection and tracking naked people detection hand detection and tracking people retrieval in databases and Internet etc. Many models and algorithms are being used for detection of face hand and its gesture. Hand detection using model or classification is to build a decision rule that will discriminate between skin and non-skin pixels. Identifying skin color pixels involves finding the range of values for which most skin pixels would fall in a given color space. All external factors will be eliminated to detect the hand and its color in the image in complex background.

  18. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  19. RPERT: Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project with a specified/certain duration including repetitive identical activities by using program evaluation and review technique is the most essential part in construction areas since the activities were had optimistic, most likely and pessimistic durations. This paper focuses on the calculation of expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project within a specified/certain duration (contract duration by using Line Of Balance technique (LOB in case of single or multiple number of crews integrated with Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique (RPERT, which is a simplified software, will generate the expected project completion probability of a specified/certain duration (contract duration. RPERT software is designed by java programming code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Viewing the expected project completion probability according to a set of specified durations per each identical activity (optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic time in the analyzed project; (2 Providing seamless integration with available project time calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of RPERT, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; and (4 A processing module. At the end, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of proposed software (RPERT, by using probabilistic calculations for repetitive construction projects.

  20. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  1. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Eye-dominance, writing hand, and throwing hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Porac, C; Bryden, M P; Boucher, R

    1999-04-01

    Handedness and eye-dominance are undoubtedly associated statistically, although a previous meta-analysis has found that the precise relationship is difficult to explain, with about 35% of right-handers and 57% of left-handers being left eye dominant. Of particular difficulty to genetic or other models is that the proportions are distributed asymmetrically around 50%. The present study asked whether this complicated pattern of association occurred because, following Peters, it is necessary to divide right-and left-handers into consistent handers (who write and throw with the same hand) and inconsistent handers (who write and throw with opposite hands). In an analysis of 10,635 subjects from questionnaire studies, 28.8% of left-handers and 1.6% of right-handers by writing were inconsistent for throwing. Our results also showed that writing hand and throwing hand both relate independently to eyedness, that throwing hand is somewhat more strongly associated with eyedness, and that the awkward asymmetry around 50% is now removed, 24.2% of consistent right-handers being left eye dominant compared with 72.3% of consistent left-handers, and 55.4% of inconsistent right-handers compared with 47.0% of inconsistent left-handers. We conclude that eyedness is phenotypically secondary to writing and throwing handedness. In our discussion we note that eyedness runs in families, we present new data suggesting that writing hand and throwing hand are co-inherited, and we argue that further data are now required to model properly the associations of writing hand, throwing hand, and eyedness, as well as probably also footedness and language dominance.

  3. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of combining 2 weeks of passive sensory stimulation with active hand motor training in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Marie Ladda

    Full Text Available The gold standard to acquire motor skills is through intensive training and practicing. Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral gains can also be acquired by mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation to drive the plasticity processes. Single application of repetitive electric stimulation (rES of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception in young adults as well as sensorimotor performance in healthy elderly individuals. The combination of repetitive motor training with a preceding rES has not been reported yet. In addition, the impact of such a training on somatosensory tactile and spatial sensitivity as well as on somatosensory cortical activation remains elusive. Therefore, we tested 15 right-handed participants who underwent repetitive electric stimulation of all finger tips of the left hand for 20 minutes prior to one hour of motor training of the left hand over the period of two weeks. Overall, participants substantially improved the motor performance of the left trained hand by 34%, but also showed a relevant transfer to the untrained right hand by 24%. Baseline ipsilateral activation fMRI-magnitude in BA 1 to sensory index finger stimulation predicted training outcome for somatosensory guided movements: those who showed higher ipsilateral activation were those who did profit less from training. Improvement of spatial tactile discrimination was positively associated with gains in pinch grip velocity. Overall, a combination of priming rES and repetitive motor training is capable to induce motor and somatosensory performance increase and representation changes in BA1 in healthy young subjects.

  5. A novel educational programme to improve knowledge regarding health care-associated infection and hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Nevo, Igal; Shekhter, Ilya; Rosen, Lisa F; Scheinman, Stephen R; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J

    2011-06-01

    Lack of hand hygiene by health-care workers is the most significant cause of health care-associated infection. This programme was designed to make health-care workers want to wash their hands, to change their knowledge regarding hand hygiene and health care-associated infection, and influence practice. Improvement between pre- and post-test scores was statistically significant. Compliance is a multifactorial problem that involves knowledge and behaviour. Educational awareness and frequent reminders are critical to maintain high rates of hand hygiene compliance.

  6. ROBUST REPETITIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVING RATE SMOOTHNESS OF TEST TURNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu; ZENGMing; SUBao-ku

    2005-01-01

    A robust repetitive control scheme is used to improve the rate smoothness of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driven test turntable. The method synthesizes variable structure control (VSC) laws and repetitive control (RC) laws in a complementary manner. The VSC strategy can stabilize the system and suppress uncertainties, such as the aperiodic disturbance and noises, while RC strategy can eliminate the periodic rate fluctuation in a steady state. The convergence of the repetitive learning process is also guaranteed by VSC. A general nonlinear system model is discussed. The model can be considered as an extension of BLDCMs. The stability and asymptotic position tracking performance are validated by using Lyapunov functions. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the rate smoothness.

  7. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  8. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  9. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation. E.E. Castrillon W1, 2, Xinwen Zhou 3, P. Svensson1, 2, 4 1 Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Aarhus University, Denmark2 Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... (SCON)3 Department of Dentistry, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 4 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden  Background: Contingent electrical stimulation (CES) of the facial skin has been shown to reduce electromyographic (EMG......) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  10. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  11. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    through the use of focus groups. If patients deem necessary, we will develop new items based on the patients' input. We will examine whether it is valid to score all selected and developed items on the same scale as the original items from the PROMIS PF item bank. Our analyses will follow the methods used...... will be obtained from all participants. We aim to disseminate the results of the study through publication in international peer-reviewed journals and at international conferences....... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  12. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  13. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  14. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Senna

    Full Text Available Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  15. Clinical implementation of a scrubless chlorhexidine/ethanol pre-operative surgical hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Richard; Theoret, Sylvie; Dion, Danielle; Pellerin, Michel

    2008-06-01

    The objective of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the bioburden on the hands of the surgical team in hope that if gloves are punctured or torn, the number of bacteria released at the operation site will be minimal and therefore reduce the risk of site infection. Long procedures with scrubbing and soaping can, however, be counterproductive because with repetition they tend to cause skin abrasions, damages and injuries without further reducing the risk of bacterial release. Within a general review of OR processes, it was decided to substitute to the standard surgical scrub a "new" scrubless pre-op surgical hand rub procedure. This article summarizes the results.

  16. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  17. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  18. Shank3 mutant mice display autistic-like behaviours and striatal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peça, João; Feliciano, Cátia; Ting, Jonathan T; Wang, Wenting; Wells, Michael F; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Lascola, Christopher D; Fu, Zhanyan; Feng, Guoping

    2011-04-28

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of disorders that share a core of neurobehavioural deficits characterized by widespread abnormalities in social interactions, deficits in communication as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. The neurological basis and circuitry mechanisms underlying these abnormal behaviours are poorly understood. SHANK3 is a postsynaptic protein, whose disruption at the genetic level is thought to be responsible for the development of 22q13 deletion syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome) and other non-syndromic ASDs. Here we show that mice with Shank3 gene deletions exhibit self-injurious repetitive grooming and deficits in social interaction. Cellular, electrophysiological and biochemical analyses uncovered defects at striatal synapses and cortico-striatal circuits in Shank3 mutant mice. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for SHANK3 in the normal development of neuronal connectivity and establish causality between a disruption in the Shank3 gene and the genesis of autistic-like behaviours in mice.

  19. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve regeneration is a complex biological process where the outcome depends on multiple biological and environmental factors such as survival of nerve cells, axonal regeneration rate, extent of axonal misdirection, type of injury, type of nerve, level of the lesion, age of the patient and compliance to training. A major problem is the cortical functional reorganization of hand representation which occurs as a result of axonal misdirection. Although protective sensibility usually occurs following nerve repair, tactile discriminative functions seldom recover--a direct result of cortical remapping. Sensory re-education programmes are routinely applied to facilitate understanding of the new sensory patterns provided by the hand. New trends in hand rehabilitation focus on modulation of central nervous processes rather than peripheral factors. Principles are being evolved to maintain the cortical hand representation by using the brain capacity for visuo-tactile and audio-tactile interaction for the initial phase following nerve injury and repair (phase 1). After the start of the re-innervation of the hand (phase 2), selective de-afferentation, such as cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm of the injured hand, allows expansion of the nerve-injured cortical hand representation, thereby enhancing the effects of sensory relearning. Recent data support the view that training protocols specifically addressing the relearning process substantially increase the possibilities for improved

  20. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

  1. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  3. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  4. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  5. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  6. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  7. Medium Repetition Rate TEA Laser For Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bruno

    1987-09-01

    The design and performance of an inexpensive compact repetitively pulsed TEA CO2 laser is described. The device uses a modified corona preionization technique and a fast transverse gas flow to achieve high repetition rates. An output energy of 500 mJ per pulse and an out-put power of 6.2W at 40Hz have been obtained. Due to the small energy needed for preionization, the efficiency of the device is high, whereas the gas dissociation is low when compared with commercial laser systems. This results in the relatively small fresh laser gas exchange of 20 ltr h-1 for long term operation.

  8. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  9. Convention, Repetition and Abjection: The Way of the Gothic

    OpenAIRE

    Łowczanin Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs Deleuze and Kristeva in an examination of certain Gothic conventions. It argues that repetition of these conventions- which endows Gothicism with formulaic coherence and consistence but might also lead to predictability and stylistic deadlock-is leavened by a novelty that Deleuze would categorize as literary “gift.” This particular kind of “gift” reveals itself in the fiction of successive Gothic writers on the level of plot and is applied to the repetition of the genre’s m...

  10. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...

  11. A Brief Account on the Functions of Rhetorical Repetition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuping

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that using rhetoric devices precisely is of great importance for the English Learners, if they want to write good articles. Repetition is one of the rhetoric devices that is frequently used in English writing. This paper gives a brief account on the four functions of repetition by presenting some typical examples, focusing the reader's attention on the significance of this device in the English writing. The following are the four functions: an effective means of emphasis; making anidea clear and easier; generating emotional force; heightening a certain atmosphere.

  12. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  13. The effect of perceptual expectation on repetition suppression to faces is not modulated by variation in autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Michael P; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Powell, Thomas E; Henson, Richard N; Calder, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    There is substantial variation in the magnitude of the repetition suppression (RS) effects across individuals; however the causes of this variation remain unclear. In a recent study, we found that RS in occipitotemporal cortex was negatively related to individual variation in autistic traits in a neurotypical population. Recent proposals have considered autistic behaviours within a Bayesian framework, suggesting that individuals with autism may have 'attenuated priors' (i.e., their perception is less influenced by prior information). Predictive coding represents a neural instantiation of Bayesian inference, and characterises RS as reduction in prediction error between 'top-down' (prior beliefs) and 'bottom-up' (stimulus related) inputs. In accordance with this, evidence shows that RS is greater when repetition of a stimulus is expected relative to when it is unexpected. Here, using an established paradigm which manipulates the probability of stimulus repetition, we investigated the effect of perceptual expectation on RS in a group of neurotypical individuals varying on a measure of autistic traits. We predicted that the magnitude of the perceptual expectation effect would be negatively related to individual differences in autistic traits. We found a significant effect of perceptual expectation on RS in face-selective regions (i.e., greater RS when repetitions were expected relative to unexpected). However, there was no evidence of a relationship between autistic traits and the magnitude of this effect in any face-selective region of interest (ROI). These findings provide a challenge for the proposal that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may be associated with the attenuated influence of prior information.

  14. Hands-On Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Dawn

    1984-01-01

    Patterns and directions are given for making bulletin boards that teach language arts and mathematics skills through hands-on student involvement. The boards help teach multiplication tables, word contractions, letter sounds, homonyms, compound words, alphabetization, and other skills. (PP)

  15. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION In its most literal sense, arthritis means “inflamed joint.” Arthritis describes any condition where ...

  16. Neural bases of hand synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of "fixed" vs. "flexible" synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control.

  17. American Association for Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hand Care Provider Connect With Us: Notice Regarding Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico The AAHS ... closely monitoring the situation in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria. Leadership and staff have been ...

  18. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there is brush and fuel for the fire. Residence in the area next to these foothills (like ... Hope Orthopedics - Salem, OR CHT/Hand Therapist - Duke University Hospital - Adult Ambulatory Division PT/OT - Durham, NC ...

  19. Hands-On Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Dawn

    1984-01-01

    Patterns and directions are given for making bulletin boards that teach language arts and mathematics skills through hands-on student involvement. The boards help teach multiplication tables, word contractions, letter sounds, homonyms, compound words, alphabetization, and other skills. (PP)

  20. Principles of Hand Fracture Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, DN; Jordan, D; Malahias, M; Hindocha, S; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities. A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management. PMID:22423303

  1. Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias; Hecht, Juliane; Napp, Matthias; Lange, Joern; Grossjohann, Rico; Stengel, Dirk; Schmucker, Uli; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Hinz, Peter

    2010-09-06

    Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand injuries due to electric circular saws. Patients treated from 1999 through 2007 for circular saw-related hand injuries were contacted and asked for clinical follow-up assessment. The clinical follow-up protocol consisted of a physical examination and an assessment of static muscle power (grip and pinch strength). For assessment of the subjective experience of the patients regarding their injury-related disability and impairment, the DASH follow-up questionnaire was used. The occupational impact of these injuries was measured by number of lost working days. Finally, safety-related behaviour of the patients was investigated. 114 Patients were followed-up on average 52 months after the injury. Average in-house treatment was 8.8 days. Average time lost from work was 14.8 weeks. A significant reduction of static muscle testing parameters compared with the uninjured hand was revealed for grip strength, tip pinch, key pinch, and palmar pinch. Average DASH score was 17.4 (DASH work 15.8, DASH sports/music 17.7). Most patients had more than ten years experience in using these power tools. The everyday occurrence of circular saw-related hand injuries followed by relatively short periods of in-house treatment might distort the real dimension of the patients' remaining disability and impairment. While the trauma surgeon's view is generally confined to the patients' clinical course, the outcome parameters in this follow-up investigation, with loss of working time as the key factor, confirm that the whole socioeconomic burden is much greater than the direct cost of treatment.

  2. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  4. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  5. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  6. The Rubber Hand Illusion: feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift do not go hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror) and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1) or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2). We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s) and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision). Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision). Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire) show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies that

  7. The Rubber Hand Illusion: feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift do not go hand in hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Rohde

    Full Text Available In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1 or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2. We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision. Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision. Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies

  8. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  9. Market power behaviour in the danish food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and demonstrates an econometric approach to analysing food industry firms' market pricing behaviour within the framework of translog cost functions and based on firm-level accounts panel data. The study identifies effects that can be interpreted as firms' market power behaviour...... in output or input markets. The most robust indications of market power behaviour in output markets are found in the pork and poultry processing sectors, as well as for firms in the bakeries sector. On the other hand, the most robust market power behaviour indications regarding input markets are found...... for poultry processing. In general, the patterns with regard to market power behaviour seem to be more clearly identified in the processing sectors than in the distribution sectors....

  10. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  11. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  12. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  13. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  14. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  15. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  16. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  17. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  18. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  19. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  20. Piriform spider silk sequences reveal unique repetitive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David J; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2010-11-08

    Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple, and repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces, has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species: A. trifasciata , N. clavipes , and N. cruentata . The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif, where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6-8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species, with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA is larger than 11 kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the piriform sequences form an ortholog group.

  1. Focus on form through task repetition in TBLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Guchte, M.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Bimmel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners’ attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where

  2. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  3. Spierbelasting en RSI [Muscle load and repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Visser, B.; Huysmans, M.A.; Speklé, E.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of theories concerning the development of RSI (repetitive strain injury), related to muscle disorders. Movement is a noisy process. The level of noise is affected by factors such as fatigue and psychosocial stress. In order for precision movements to be made in such

  4. Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  5. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  6. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  8. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  9. Behaviour change communication targeting four health behaviours in developing countries: a review of change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances

    2012-08-01

    Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies.

  10. Stabilization of behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der Robert

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the set of all restrictions on the behaviour of a plant that shape the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system. These control laws include both classical feedback laws and singular feedback laws. One of the results is the behavioural version of the Youla-Jab

  11. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...

  12. Aggression and flight behaviour of the marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus: an ethogram for brain stimulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, H P

    1978-01-01

    The aggressive and flight behaviour of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is described and split into behavioural units, allowing analysis of agonistic behaviour evoked by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. The social context of the described units is also considered. C. jacchus shows clearly recognizable behavioural patterns. Free-born animals are very timid and show typical flight reactions. Within aggressive behaviour, two types of aggression can be distinguished: very violent attacks causing severe injuries, often accompanied by particular threat displays and observed during dominance and territorial encounters, and, on the other hand, relatively harmless short attacks, together with a noisy vocalization, for defensive purposes or keeping group members at a distance.

  13. Intrinsic optical bistability between left-handed material and nonlinear optical materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Hong-Yan; Jiang Yong-Yuan; Sun Xiu-Dong; Guo Ru-Hai; Zhao Yi-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the interface between a left-handed material and a conventional nonlinear material were investigated theoretically and numerically. We found a new phenomenon-optical bistability of the interface.It was shown that the incident intensity, incident angle and permeability ratio between the left-handed and the nonlinear materials could dramatically affect the optical bistable behaviour. We also compared the bistable behaviours of different electromagnetic modes. The results indicated that the TE mode was prior to the TM mode to obtain optical bistability for the same parameter.

  14. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, A S; Buykx, P.; Martin, N.; Sadler, S.; Southgate, B.; Rockliffe, L.; Walker, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background At least one third of adults are not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations despite evidence of effectiveness of interventions to promote PA (including remote/web 2.0-based interventions). A key barrier to the uptake of any new behaviour, particularly one like a new PA regime requiring effort, is remembering, and finding time, to do it. A promising long-term solution is to make the behaviour habitual. Habit theory says that through repetition in a stable context, behavio...

  15. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Finite-Repetition threshold for infinite ternary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Badkobeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exponent of a word is the ratio of its length over its smallest period. The repetitive threshold r(a of an a-letter alphabet is the smallest rational number for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most r(a. This notion was introduced in 1972 by Dejean who gave the exact values of r(a for every alphabet size a as it has been eventually proved in 2009. The finite-repetition threshold for an a-letter alphabet refines the above notion. It is the smallest rational number FRt(a for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most FRt(a and that contains a finite number of factors with exponent r(a. It is known from Shallit (2008 that FRt(2=7/3. With each finite-repetition threshold is associated the smallest number of r(a-exponent factors that can be found in the corresponding infinite word. It has been proved by Badkobeh and Crochemore (2010 that this number is 12 for infinite binary words whose maximal exponent is 7/3. We show that FRt(3=r(3=7/4 and that the bound is achieved with an infinite word containing only two 7/4-exponent words, the smallest number. Based on deep experiments we conjecture that FRt(4=r(4=7/5. The question remains open for alphabets with more than four letters. Keywords: combinatorics on words, repetition, repeat, word powers, word exponent, repetition threshold, pattern avoidability, word morphisms.

  17. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  18. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  19. 2D Hand Tracking Based on Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihong Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture-based interaction provides a natural and powerful means for human-computer interaction. It is also a good interface for human-robot interaction. However, most of the existing proposals are likely to fail when they meet some skin-coloured objects, especially the face region. In this paper, we present a novel hand tracking method which can track the features of the hand based on the obstacle avoidance flocking behaviour model to overcome skin-coloured distractions. It allows features to be split into two groups under severe distractions and merge later. The experiment results show that our method can track the hand in a cluttered background or when passing the face, while the Flocking of Features (FoF and the Mean Shift Embedded Particle Filter (MSEPF methods may fail. These results suggest that our method has better performance in comparison with the previous methods. It may therefore be helpful to promote the use of the hand gesture-based human-robot interaction method.

  20. Lateralized ultradian rhythms: evidence from tactile discrimination of either hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Koll, A

    1998-12-01

    Endogenous ultradian rhythms with periods of one or a few hours affect not only on physiological and behavioural functions but also perception and cognition. In particular, lateralized ultradian rhythms which seem to operate separately in the right and left hemispheres of the brain can be monitored by testing the tactile discrimination of the contralateral hand. The present paper is based on two subsequent studies: First, ultradian rhythms in tactile discrimination of either hand were examined in German subjects under laboratory conditions. Considerably different ultradian periods of right and left-handed tactile error rate were found in men but not in women. In a second study, a group of Kenyan Masai shepherds were tested while the subjects were leading herds on daily feeding routes through a savanna habitat. They showed ultradian periods of about 2 hours in tactile discrimination of either hand. Since the right hemisphere is specialized for visuospatial, the left for verbal processing lateralized ultradian rhythms may serve for a long-scale timing of neural processes underlying spatial and semantic mapping of the environment. Sex difference in German subjects and lateral differences found in left-handed (right-hemispheric) ultradian rhythms of German and Masai subjects are discussed from this point of view.