Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…
Reeve, Emily; Molin, Pierre; Hui, Amaris; Rockwood, Kenneth
Online tools can be used by people with dementia and their caregivers to self-identify and track troubling symptoms, such as verbal repetition. We aimed to explore verbal repetition behaviors in people with dementia. Participants were recruited via an online resource for people with dementia and their caregivers. Respondents were instructed to complete information about symptoms that are most important to them for tracking over time. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data pertaining to individuals with dementia who had at least three symptoms selected for tracking. Of the 3,573 participants who began a user profile, 1,707 fulfilled criteria for analysis. Verbal repetition was identified as a treatment target in 807 respondents (47.3%). Verbal repetition was more frequent in individuals with mild dementia compared to those with moderate and severe dementia (57.2% vs. 36.0% and 39.9%, p < 0.01) and in those with Alzheimer's disease versus other dementias (65.2% vs. 29.7%, p < 0.001). Repetitive questioning was the most frequent type of verbal repetition (90.5% of individuals with verbal repetition). Verbal repetition was most strongly associated with difficulties operating gadgets/appliances (OR 3.65, 95%CI: 2.82-4.72), lack of interest and/or initiative (3.52: 2.84-4.36), misplacing or losing objects (3.25: 2.64-4.01), and lack of attention and/or concentration (2.62: 2.12-3.26). Verbal repetition is a common symptom in people at all stages of dementia but is most commonly targeted for monitoring and treatment effects in its mild stage. Much research is required to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the effect of different treatment strategies.
Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H
The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH
for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS......: The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...
South, Mikle; Ozonoff, Sally; McMahon, William M
This study examined the relationship between everyday repetitive behavior (primary symptoms of autism) and performance on neuropsychological tests of executive function and central coherence (secondary symptoms). It was hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of repetitive behavior would be positively correlated with laboratory measures of cognitive rigidity and weak central coherence. Participants included 19 individuals (ages 10-19) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and 18 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls (TD group). There was partial support in the ASD group for the link between repetitive behavior and executive performance (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task). There was no support for a link between repetitive behavior and measures of central coherence (a Gestalt Closure test and the Embedded Figures Test). Further research on repetitive behaviors in autism may benefit from a focus on narrow behavioral and cognitive constructs rather than general categories.
Bonde, J P; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J H; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S W; Thomsen, J F; Frost, P; Kaergaard, A
Pain in the neck and upper extremity is reported with high frequency in repetitive work. Mechanical overload of soft tissues seems a plausible mechanism, but psychological factors have received considerable attention during the past decade. If psychological factors are important for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress Profile Inventory. Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution because the stress inventory has not been validated against a gold standard.
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function
Jon E. Grant
Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.
Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…
Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W
This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.
Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related to stress involving the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings highlight specific areas of stress experienced by mothers of children with ASD that are related to the child's symptoms, providing information for caregiver support and intervention.
Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists.
Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…
Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Martinellil, José Eduardo; Bartholomeu, Luana Luz; Basqueira, Ana Paula; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Aprahamian, Ivan
Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD) and normal controls. A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG). All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1). The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3) were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.
Juliana Francisca Cecato
Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.
Flessner, Christopher A
This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article focuses on the efficacy of CBT for these 2 conditions. An overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns is provided. This review focuses particularly on habit reversal training, which is at the core of most CBT-based interventions. Two recent empirical studies on the immense potential of CBT in treating childhood repetitive behavior disorders and future areas of research are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L
This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.
Mili V Mehta
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP, an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.
Broster, Lucas S; Li, Juan; Wagner, Benjamin; Smith, Charles D; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Munro, Nancy; Haney, Ryan H; Jiang, Yang
Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects. Participants with AD showed preserved behavioral repetition effects and a change in the posterior repetition effect. Visual cortex may play a role in maintained repetition effects in persons with early AD.
Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse
Lai, Jian-bo; Han, Mao-mao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua
Abstract Rationale: Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with disrupted sleep-architecture. Clinical management of narcolepsy lies dominantly on symptom-driven pharmacotherapy. The treatment role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for narcolepsy remains unexplored. Patient concerns: In this paper, we present a case of a 14-year-old young girl with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. Diagnoses: After excluding other possible medical conditions, this patient was primarily diagnosed with narcolepsy. Interventions: The patient received 25 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Outcomes: The symptoms of EDS and cataplexy significantly improved after rTMS treatment. Meanwhile, her score in the Epworth sleep scale (ESS) also remarkably decreased. Lessons: This case indicates that rTMS may be selected as a safe and effective alternative strategy for treating narcolepsy-like symptoms. Well-designed researches are warranted in future investigations on this topic. PMID:29145290
Nota, Jacob A; Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) are associated with poor inhibitory control. Sleep disruptions may partially mediate these relations and/or act as a "second hit" to individuals with OC symptoms and RNT. Models including habitual (past month) hours slept and bedtimes were tested. We employed a go/no-go task that allowed us to examine the relation between sleep and inhibition with various task contingencies. Sixty-seven unselected individuals were recruited from the participant pool at a public university. Bias-corrected bootstrap estimates did not show that sleep disruption mediated the relation between OC symptoms and response inhibition nor the relation between RNT and response inhibition. Multiple linear regression analyses found significant interactions between hours slept and OC symptom severity and between RNT and hours slept to predict poor response inhibition. Hours slept significantly negatively predicted commission errors when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively heightened but not when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively low. These effects were present in blocks where task contingencies were designed to shape a no-go bias. No significant relations were found with habitual bedtimes. The cross-sectional study design precludes testing the temporal precedence of symptoms in the "second hit" model. The unselected sample also limits generalization to clinical samples. These findings support a "second hit" model of interaction between sleep disruption and perseverative thoughts and behaviors. Further research on the mechanisms of the relation between sleep disruption and perseverative thought symptoms (OC and RNT) is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniel E. Gustavson
Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances have emphasized the commonality between rumination and worry, often referred to as repetitive negative thinking. Although not studied extensively, repetitive negative thinking may not only account for a substantial overlap between depression and anxiety symptoms but also encapsulate other constructs including one’s tendency to experience unwanted intrusive thoughts or have low levels of mindfulness. In this study, 643 college students completed self-report questionnaire measures of repetitive negative thinking (the Habit Index of Negative Thinking and other relevant constructs including rumination, worry, depression and anxiety symptoms, intrusive thoughts, and mindfulness. To analyze the data, we conducted systematic commonality analyses, which algebraically decomposed shared variances among these measures into various unique components. Results in Study 1 indicated that individual differences in repetitive negative thinking were explained largely by the overlap between rumination and worry, but also by some rumination-specific and worry-specific variance. Moreover, the shared variation in rumination and worry explained the frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms and their overlap. We also found in Study 2 that repetitive negative thinking was positively related to intrusive thoughts and negatively related to mindfulness. These associations were mostly explained by shared variance with rumination and worry, but there was also some mindfulness-specific variance. These results suggest that repetitive negative thinking may indeed lie at the core of the comorbidity between depression and anxiety symptoms, but that it is also a broader construct that encompasses intrusive thoughts and low levels of mindfulness.
Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R.; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris
Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals…
Hundley, Rachel J.; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A.
We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry.…
Mills, Adam C; Grant, DeMond M; Judah, Matt R; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Frosio, Kristen E
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been implicated in several disorders (e.g., Clark (2005)). However, little research has examined how RNT influences other risk factors of psychopathology, such as attentional control. This study used prospective methodology to determine if relationships among various RNT styles and symptoms of psychological disorders are indirectly influenced by facets of attentional control. The sample included 376 participants who completed measures of RNT (worry, rumination, anticipatory processing, obsessions, intrusive thoughts and panic cognitions), psychopathology (generalized anxiety disorder, depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder), and attentional control at two time points. Several relationships between RNT forms and symptom levels were indirectly predicted by the focusing subscale of attentional control; however, the patterns of these relationships differed based on the disorder. The shifting subscale did not indirectly predict any relationship. Therefore, it appears that low focusing may be a particular risk factor for the development of later RNT and/or psychopathology symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…
Evans, David W; Maliken, Ashley
This study examines the link between children's repetitive, ritualistic, behavior and cortical brain activity. Twelve typically developing children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were administered two visual P300, oddball tasks with a 32-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) system. One of the oddball tasks was specifically designed to reflect sensitivity to asymmetry, a phenomenon common in children and in a variety of disorders involving compulsive behavior. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children's repetitive, compulsive-like behaviors were strongly associated with faster processing of an asymmetrical target stimulus, even when accounting for their P300 latencies on a control task. The research punctuates the continuity between observed brain-behavior links in clinical disorders such as OCD and autism spectrum disorders, and normative variants of repetitive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Becker, James T.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Huber, Lynne M.; Waterstram, Laura F.; Ward, Amalie Andrew; Grattan, Emily S.; Holm, Margo B.
Objective We examined whether cognitive impairments or depressive symptoms impeded improvement in upper extremity function in a clinical repetitive task practice program. Design Participants had mild to moderate upper extremity impairment after stroke (n=20). We characterized baseline cognitive function and depressive symptoms with the Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. We measured upper extremity function at baseline, week 4 and week 24 with the Action Research Arm Test. Results Participants with and without cognitive impairments improved significantly over time (F1,17=84.48, pstroke (t17=.07, p=.95). Participants with and without depressive symptoms improved significantly over time (F1,18=86.29, pstroke (t17=.06, p=.95). Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest that cognitive impairments and depressive symptoms may not impede benefit from repetitive task practice after stroke. PMID:22311057
Dionisio A. Amodeo
Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.
Amodeo, D A; Rivera, E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A; Ragozzino, M E
Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a defining feature of autism, which can be expressed as a cognitive flexibility deficit or stereotyped, motor behaviors. There is limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathophysiology contributing to these behaviors. Previous findings suggest that central 5HT 2A receptor activity is altered in autism, while recent work indicates that systemic 5HT 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic model of autism. 5HT 2A receptors are expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. These two regions have been shown to be altered in autism. The present study investigated whether 5HT 2A receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum or orbitofrontal cortex in the BTBR mouse strain, an idiopathic model of autism, affects the phenotype related to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Microinfusion of the 5HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907 into the dorsomedial striatum alleviated a reversal learning impairment and attenuated grooming behavior. M100907 infusion into the orbitofrontal cortex increased perseveration during reversal learning and potentiated grooming. These findings suggest that increased 5HT 2A receptor activity in the dorsomedial striatum may contribute to behavioral inflexibility and stereotyped behaviors in the BTBR mouse. 5HT 2A receptor signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex may be critical for inhibiting a previously learned response during reversal learning and expression of stereotyped behavior. The present results suggest which brain areas exhibit abnormalities underlying repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic mouse model of autism, as well as which brain areas systemic treatment with M100907 may principally act on in BTBR mice to attenuate repetitive behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Kirsten, Thiago B; Bernardi, Maria M
Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day 9.5 increased the head washing episodes (frequency and time), as well as the total self-grooming. However, body grooming, paw/leg licking, tail/genital grooming, and circling behavior/tail chasing did not vary significantly among the groups. Moreover, prenatal LPS induced dopaminergic hypoactivity (HVA metabolite and turnover) in the hypothalamus. Therefore, our rat model induced restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors and the other main symptoms of autism experimentally studied in rodent models and also found in patients. The hypothalamic dopaminergic impairments seem to be associated with the autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.
Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…
Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia
Dlabac-de Lange, J. J.; Bais, L.; van Es, F. D.; Visser, B. G. J.; Reinink, E.; Bakker, B.; van den Heuvel, E. R.; Aleman, A.; Knegtering, H.
Background. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3
Lai, Jian-Bo; Han, Mao-Mao; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-Hua
Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with disrupted sleep-architecture. Clinical management of narcolepsy lies dominantly on symptom-driven pharmacotherapy. The treatment role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for narcolepsy remains unexplored. In this paper, we present a case of a 14-year-old young girl with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. After excluding other possible medical conditions, this patient was primarily diagnosed with narcolepsy. The patient received 25 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The symptoms of EDS and cataplexy significantly improved after rTMS treatment. Meanwhile, her score in the Epworth sleep scale (ESS) also remarkably decreased. This case indicates that rTMS may be selected as a safe and effective alternative strategy for treating narcolepsy-like symptoms. Well-designed researches are warranted in future investigations on this topic.
Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Maxeiner, Stephan; Hayton, Scott J; Gokce, Ozgun; Lim, Byung Kook; Fowler, Stephen C; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C
In humans, neuroligin-3 mutations are associated with autism, whereas in mice, the corresponding mutations produce robust synaptic and behavioral changes. However, different neuroligin-3 mutations cause largely distinct phenotypes in mice, and no causal relationship links a specific synaptic dysfunction to a behavioral change. Using rotarod motor learning as a proxy for acquired repetitive behaviors in mice, we found that different neuroligin-3 mutations uniformly enhanced formation of repetitive motor routines. Surprisingly, neuroligin-3 mutations caused this phenotype not via changes in the cerebellum or dorsal striatum but via a selective synaptic impairment in the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Here, neuroligin-3 mutations increased rotarod learning by specifically impeding synaptic inhibition onto D1-dopamine receptor-expressing but not D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons. Our data thus suggest that different autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations cause a common increase in acquired repetitive behaviors by impairing a specific striatal synapse and thereby provide a plausible circuit substrate for autism pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J
Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct 'MBI' and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes
Michael J Kane
Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.
Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.
There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…
Full Text Available Objective: The relation between autism disorder’s symptoms and cognitive capabilities can help with a better phenotype description of this disorder and can facilitate its pathological evaluation and treatment. Destruction of executive functions seems to be one of the cognitive reasons of potential phenotype in autism disorder. Thus, the present paper aims to study the relationship between executive dysfunction and autism disorder’s symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 50 children with high-functioning autism were selected using convenience sampling method from Behara, Tehranpars and Roshd centers. Then, the GARS test and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire was completed by therapists and neuropsychological tests of Strop and continuous performance test and shift attention were taken by the subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variant regression were used for data analysis. Results: There is a significant positive relationship between selective attention with communicative and social interaction symptoms, sustained attention with social interaction symptoms and repetitive behaviors, shifting attention with communicative, social interaction and repetitive behavior symptoms (P<0.001 (P<0.01 (P<0.05. In addition, the results of regression analysis also revealed that selective attention and shifting attention can predict communication, and sustained attention can predict social interaction and repetitive behaviors symptoms (P<0.01 (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained by this study indicate the significant role of executive functions in autistic symptoms. Thus, it is recommended to consider new treatment interventions in repairing executive functions for treatment of children with autistic disorder.
Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E
Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network's potential role as
Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Khisro, Said Nasir; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong
Highlights: • Abnormal elements redistribution behavior was observed in tellurite glass. • The refractive index and Raman intensity distribution changed significantly. • The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed. • First time report on the abnormal element redistribution behavior in glass. • The glass network structure determines the elemental redistribution behavior. - Abstract: The success in the fabrication of micro-structures in glassy materials using femtosecond laser irradiation has proved its potential applications in the construction of three-dimensional micro-optical components or devices. In this paper, we report the elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass after the irradiation of high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed significantly, which is quite different from previously reported results about the high repetition rate femtosecond laser induced elemental redistribution in silicate glasses. The involved mechanism is discussed with the conclusion that the glass network structure plays the key role to determine the elemental redistribution. This observation not only helps to understand the interaction process of femtosecond laser with glassy materials, but also has potential applications in the fabrication of micro-optical devices
Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves
Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...
Fasano, Alfonso; Barra, Andrea; Nicosia, Paola; Rinaldi, Federica; Bria, Pietro; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Tonioni, Federico
"Punding" is a stereotypical motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive handling and examining of objects. Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Punding is classifiable as the most severe form of Repetitive Reward-Seeking Behaviours (RRSB) syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and phenomelogy of RRSB acutely induced by cocaine in order to determine the prevalence, severity and distinctive features discriminating "punders" from "non-punders". A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. RRSB diagnosis and severity were assessed using a modified version of a previous published questionnaire designed to identify punding in patients with PD. In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. These results and the observation that in the majority of cases RRSB started soon after first drug intake, strongly suggest that an underlying unknown predisposition led to the development of these behaviors. In conclusion, RRSB and punding is much more common than has been described previously and the resultant social disability is often overlooked.
Grossberg, Stephen; Kishnan, Devika
This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The article expands the model's explanatory range by, first, explaining recent data about Fragile X syndrome (FXS), mGluR, and trace conditioning; and, second, by explaining distinct causes of stereotyped behaviors in individuals with autism. Some of these stereotyped behaviors, such as an insistence on sameness and circumscribed interests, may result from imbalances in the cognitive and emotional circuits that iSTART models. These behaviors may be ameliorated by operant conditioning methods. Other stereotyped behaviors, such as repetitive motor behaviors, may result from imbalances in how the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia open or close movement gates, respectively. These repetitive behaviors may be ameliorated by drugs that augment D2 dopamine receptor responses or reduce D1 dopamine receptor responses. The article also notes the ubiquitous role of gating by basal ganglia loops in regulating all the functions that iSTART models.
Full Text Available This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The article expands the model’s explanatory range by, first, explaining recent data about Fragile X syndrome (FXS, mGluR, and trace conditioning; and, second, by explaining distinct causes of stereotyped behaviors in individuals with autism. Some of these stereotyped behaviors, such as an insistence on sameness and circumscribed interests, may result from imbalances in the cognitive and emotional circuits that iSTART models. These behaviors may be ameliorated by operant conditioning methods. Other stereotyped behaviors, such as repetitive motor behaviors, may result from imbalances in how the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia open or close movement gates, respectively. These repetitive behaviors may be ameliorated by drugs that augment D2 dopamine receptor responses or reduce D1 dopamine receptor responses. The article also notes the ubiquitous role of gating by basal ganglia loops in regulating all the functions that iSTART models.
Full Text Available Feline idiopathic head-and-neck dermatitis—also named feline idiopathic ulcerative dermatitis (IUD—is considered as a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It is usually associated with a crusted, non-healing, self-induced ulcer occurring most commonly on the dorsal or lateral neck or between the scapula where self-grooming by scratching occurs. Usually, IUD is diagnosed after exclusion of other causes of pruritus. In feline medicine, self-induced alopecia is recognized as a behavioral disorder (abnormal repetitive behavior due to excessive licking, which is an amplification of a normal maintenance behavior. Such repetitive behaviors, like self-induced alopecia or self-induced wounds, are named stereotypies and considered as indicators of poor welfare. The objectives of our study were to determine, first, if the repetitive behavior associated with self-induced wounds was related to a poor welfare, and, second, if improving the welfare in the cat’s environment would lead to healing, thanks to environmental enrichment. We recruited 13 cats diagnosed with IUD by a dermatologist. These cats were referred to a behaviorist for welfare evaluation. A welfare score was attributed using a new 21-point welfare scale. The median score of the 13 IUD cats was 16, while the median score of 35 healthy cats was 7 (significant difference, p < 0.001. Major modifications of the cat’s environment and the human–cat relationship were then recommended for IUD cats. Within 15 days after environment modifications, ulcerative lesions were healed and welfare scores improved significantly (median score of 6, significantly different from the score before environmental modifications, being similar to healthy cats (no significant differences. Only one cat was treated with a psychotropic drug, owners being reluctant to improve environmental modifications. These results suggest that feline IUD is a behavioral disorder indicative of poor welfare and that it
Titeux, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Caroline; Briand, Amaury; Cochet-Faivre, Noëlle
Feline idiopathic head-and-neck dermatitis—also named feline idiopathic ulcerative dermatitis (IUD)—is considered as a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It is usually associated with a crusted, non-healing, self-induced ulcer occurring most commonly on the dorsal or lateral neck or between the scapula where self-grooming by scratching occurs. Usually, IUD is diagnosed after exclusion of other causes of pruritus. In feline medicine, self-induced alopecia is recognized as a behavioral disorder (abnormal repetitive behavior) due to excessive licking, which is an amplification of a normal maintenance behavior. Such repetitive behaviors, like self-induced alopecia or self-induced wounds, are named stereotypies and considered as indicators of poor welfare. The objectives of our study were to determine, first, if the repetitive behavior associated with self-induced wounds was related to a poor welfare, and, second, if improving the welfare in the cat’s environment would lead to healing, thanks to environmental enrichment. We recruited 13 cats diagnosed with IUD by a dermatologist. These cats were referred to a behaviorist for welfare evaluation. A welfare score was attributed using a new 21-point welfare scale. The median score of the 13 IUD cats was 16, while the median score of 35 healthy cats was 7 (significant difference, p cat’s environment and the human–cat relationship were then recommended for IUD cats. Within 15 days after environment modifications, ulcerative lesions were healed and welfare scores improved significantly (median score of 6, significantly different from the score before environmental modifications), being similar to healthy cats (no significant differences). Only one cat was treated with a psychotropic drug, owners being reluctant to improve environmental modifications. These results suggest that feline IUD is a behavioral disorder indicative of poor welfare and that it requires management by behavior specialists, proposing
[Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].
Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika
Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.
Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.
The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…
Doyle, Carolyn A.; McDougle, Christopher J.
This review outlines pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, adolescents, and adults. Symptom domains include repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, irritability and aggression, hyperactivity and inattention, and social impairment. Medications covered include serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), mirtazapine, antipsychotics, psychostimulants, atomoxetine, α-2 agonists, D-cycloserine, and memantine. Overall, SRIs are less efficacious and more poorly tolerated in children with ASDs than in adults. Antipsychotics are the most efficacious drugs for the treatment of irritability in ASDs, and may be useful in the treatment of other symptoms. Psychostimulants demonstrate some benefit for the treatment of hyperactivity and inattention in individuals with ASDs, but are less efficacious and associated with more adverse effects compared with individuals with ADHD. D-cycloserine and memantine appear helpful in the treatment of social impairment, although further research is needed. PMID:23226952
McEvoy, Peter M; Hyett, Matthew P; Ehring, Thomas; Johnson, Sheri L; Samtani, Suraj; Anderson, Rebecca; Moulds, Michelle L
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a cognitive process that is repetitive, passive, relatively uncontrollable, and focused on negative content, and is elevated in emotional disorders including depression and anxiety disorders. Repetitive positive thinking is associated with bipolar disorder symptoms. The unique contributions of positive versus negative repetitive thinking to emotional symptoms are unknown. The first aim of this study was to use confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the psychometrics of two transdiagnostic measures of RNT, the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ-10) and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and a measure of repetitive positive thinking, the Responses to Positive Affect (RPA) Questionnaire. The second aim was to determine incremental predictive utility of these measures. All measures were administered to a sample of 2088 undergraduate students from the Netherlands (n = 992), Australia (n = 698), and America (n = 398). Unidimensional, bifactor, and three-factor models were supported for the RTQ-10, PTQ, and RPA, respectively. A common factor measured by all PTQ items explained most variance in PTQ scores suggesting that this measure is essentially unidimensional. The RNT factor of the RTQ-10 demonstrated the strongest predictive utility, although the PTQ was also uniquely although weakly associated with anxiety, depression, and mania symptoms. The RPA dampening factor uniquely predicted anxiety and depression symptoms, suggesting that this scale is a separable process to RNT as measured by the RTQ-10 and PTQ. Findings were cross-sectional and need to be replicated in clinical samples. Transdiagnostic measures of RNT are essentially unidimensional, whereas RPA is multidimensional. RNT and RPA have unique predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.
Alexandra Martini de Oliveira
Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.
Yamakawa, Glenn R; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C; Mychasiuk, Richelle
Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours). In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau), in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.
Glenn R Yamakawa
Full Text Available Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI, we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours. In addition, pathophysiological outcomes were examined with histological measures of volume and cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus, as well as microglia activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Finally, modifications to expression of 12 genes (Adora2a, App, Aqp4, Bdnf, Bmal1, Clock, Cry, Gfap, Orx1, Orx2, Per, Tau, in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and/or the hypothalamus were assessed. We found that chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence altered normal developmental trajectories, as well as recovery from RmTBI. Of particular importance, many of the outcomes exhibited sex-dependent responses whereby the sex of the animal modified response to caffeine, RmTBI, and the combination of the two. These results suggest that caffeine consumption in adolescents at high risk for RmTBI should be monitored.
Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A
Acute paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by the poliovirus and usually results in muscle atrophy and weakness occurring in the lower limbs. Indwelling electromyography has been used frequently to investigate the denervation and innervation characteristics of the affected muscle. Recently developed technology allows the decomposition of the raw surface electromyography signals into the firing instances of single motor units. There is limited information regarding this electromyographic decomposition in clinical populations. In addition, regardless of electromyographic methods, no study has examined muscle activation parameters during repetitive muscle actions in polio patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit firing rates and electromyographic amplitude and center frequency of the vastus lateralis during 20 repetitive isometric muscle actions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction in healthy subjects and one patient that acquired acute paralytic poliomyelitis. One participant that acquired acute type III spinal poliomyelitis (Caucasian male, age = 29 yrs) at 3 months of age and three healthy participants (Caucasian females, age = 19.7 ± 2.1 yrs) participated in this study. The polio participant reported neuromuscular deficiencies as a result of disease in the hips, knees, buttocks, thighs, and lower legs. None of the healthy participants reported any current or ongoing neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal injuries. An acute bout of poliomyelitis altered motor unit behavior, such as, healthy participants displayed greater firing rates than the polio patient. The reduction in motor unit firing rates was likely a fatigue protecting mechanism since denervation via poliomyelitis results in a reduction of motorneurons. In addition, the concurrent changes in motor unit firing rates, electromyography amplitude and frequency for the polio participant would suggest that the entire motorneuron pool was utilized in each contraction unlike
Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.
A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…
Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.
Martínez-González, A. E.; Piqueras, J. A.
Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is one of the two key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DSM-5 highlights the importance of severity-based diagnostic modifiers assigned on the basis of intensity of needed supports. Therefore, there is a need for available measures that assess the severity of RRB. The repetitive…
Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.
Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…
Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie
Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…
Evans, David W; Uljarević, Mirko; Lusk, Laina G; Loth, Eva; Frazier, Thomas
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a heterogeneous set of behaviors common across a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) that extend well into the general population. This study introduces 2 dimensional measurements of RRBs for use in typical and clinical populations from infancy to adulthood. The Childhood Routines Inventory-Revised (CRI-R) and the Adult Routines Inventory (ARI) were created and administered online to a nationally representative cohort of 3,108 parents with 3,032 children (range 12 months to 17 years 11 months). Twenty-six percent of children and 36% of adults had at least 1 NDD or NPD. Principal axis factoring exploratory analysis showed a 2-factor structure for the 2 instruments (motor behaviors/compulsions and rigidity/insistence on sameness). Analyses for convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency (Cronbach α ≥ 0.94), and test-retest reliability (r ≥ 0.87) indicated strong psychometric properties. Item response theory analyses indicated strong reliability across the score range for the 2 instruments. RRB rates varied across development, peaking between the preschool and school years. Children with NDDs or NPDs (particularly those with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia/bipolar disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder/tic disorders) had increased RRBs compared with those with no diagnosis. Parent-child (0.69-0.84) and sibling-sibling (0.76-0.87) intraclass correlations indicated high heritability. Children of parents with an NDD or an NPD exhibited more RRBs compared with children of parents without NDDs or NPDs. The CRI-R and ARI are open-source instruments with excellent psychometric properties and will be useful for developmental, clinical, and family genetic studies and for the identification of prodromal conditions involving RRBs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie
A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.
Pallanti, Stefano; Bernardi, Silvia; Raglione, Laura Maria; Marini, Paolo; Ammannati, Franco; Sorbi, Sandro; Ramat, Silvia
"Punding" is the term used to describe a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by an intense fascination with repetitive purposeless movements, such as taking apart mechanical objects, handling common objects as if they were new and entertaining, constantly picking at oneself, etc. As a phenomenon with both impulsive and compulsive features, the phenomenology of punding is currently being questioned. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, we screened a population of Parkinson's disease (PD) outpatients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). We conducted a patient-and-relative-completed survey with 24 consecutive patients in an academic outpatient care center, using a modified version of a structured interview. Patients were administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Five (20.8%) of the 24 subjects were identified as punders, including three men (60%) and two women. The punders were comparable to the non-punders in terms of clinical and demographic factors. The punder and non-punder groups only differed statistically with regard to the length of time from DBS implantation. Those findings suggest that punding might be induced by STN DBS, and its rate of occurrence in DBS population seems to be more common than previously suspected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E F; Spornick, Nicholas A; Kenyon, Nicholas; Kamimura, Sayuri; Khaibullina, Alfia; Nouraie, Mehdi; Quezado, Zenaide M N
Accumulating evidence implicates the nicotinic cholinergic system in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathobiology. Neuropathologic studies suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) subtypes are altered in brain of autistic individuals. In addition, strategies that increase ACh, the neurotransmitter for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, appear to improve cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders and ASD. The aim of this study is to examine the role of the nicotinic cholinergic system on social and repetitive behavior abnormalities and exploratory physical activity in a well-studied model of autism, the BTBR T(+) Itpr3 (tf) /J (BTBR) mouse. Using a protocol known to up-regulate expression of brain nAChR subtypes, we measured behavior outcomes before and after BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice were treated (4 weeks) with vehicle or nicotine (50, 100, 200, or 400 μg/ml). Increasing nicotine doses were associated with decreases in water intake, increases in plasma cotinine levels, and at the higher dose (400 μg/ml) with weight loss in BTBR mice. At lower (50, 100 μg/ml) but not higher (200, 400 μg/ml) doses, nicotine increased social interactions in BTBR and B6 mice and at higher, but not lower doses, it decreased repetitive behavior in BTBR. In the open-field test, nicotine at 200 and 400 μg/ml, but not 100 μg/ml compared with vehicle, decreased overall physical activity in BTBR mice. These findings support the hypotheses that the nicotinic cholinergic system modulates social and repetitive behaviors and may be a therapeutic target to treat behavior deficits in ASD. Further, the BTBR mouse may be valuable for investigations of the role of nAChRs in social deficits and repetitive behavior.
Garner, Joseph P; Thogerson, Collette M; Dufour, Brett D; Würbel, Hanno; Murray, James D; Mench, Joy A
The NIMH's new strategic plan, with its emphasis on the "4P's" (Prediction, Pre-emption, Personalization, and Populations) and biomarker-based medicine requires a radical shift in animal modeling methodology. In particular 4P's models will be non-determinant (i.e. disease severity will depend on secondary environmental and genetic factors); and validated by reverse-translation of animal homologues to human biomarkers. A powerful consequence of the biomarker approach is that different closely related disorders have a unique fingerprint of biomarkers. Animals can be validated as a highly specific model of a single disorder by matching this 'fingerprint'; or as a model of a symptom seen in multiple disorders by matching common biomarkers. Here we illustrate this approach with two Abnormal Repetitive Behaviors (ARBs) in mice: stereotypies and barbering (hair pulling). We developed animal versions of the neuropsychological biomarkers that distinguish human ARBs, and tested the fingerprint of the different mouse ARBs. As predicted, the two mouse ARBs were associated with different biomarkers. Both barbering and stereotypy could be discounted as models of OCD (even though they are widely used as such), due to the absence of limbic biomarkers which are characteristic of OCD and hence are necessary for a valid model. Conversely barbering matched the fingerprint of trichotillomania (i.e. selective deficits in set-shifting), suggesting it may be a highly specific model of this disorder. In contrast stereotypies were correlated only with a biomarker (deficits in response shifting) correlated with stereotypies in multiple disorders, suggesting that animal stereotypies model stereotypies in multiple disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.
Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…
Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.
Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5
Possin, Katherine L; Chester, Serana K; Laluz, Victor; Bostrom, Alan; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H
On tests of design fluency, an examinee draws as many different designs as possible in a specified time limit while avoiding repetition. The neuroanatomical substrates and diagnostic group differences of design fluency repetition errors and total correct scores were examined in 110 individuals diagnosed with dementia, 53 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 37 neurologically healthy controls. The errors correlated significantly with volumes in the right and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right and left superior frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right striatum, but did not correlate with volumes in any parietal or temporal lobe regions. Regression analyses indicated that the lateral OFC may be particularly crucial for preventing these errors, even after excluding patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the analysis. Total correct correlated more diffusely with volumes in the right and left frontal and parietal cortex, the right temporal cortex, and the right striatum and thalamus. Patients diagnosed with bvFTD made significantly more repetition errors than patients diagnosed with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal syndrome. In contrast, total correct design scores did not differentiate the dementia patients. These results highlight the frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions. In addition, the results indicate that the propensity to make these errors supports the diagnosis of bvFTD. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-11).
Hiyoshi-Taniguchi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl B; Kinoshita, Ayae
Patients' irritability and aggression have been linked to caregiver depression, but the behaviors that most burden caregivers are not yet definitively identified. This study examines the connection between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the burnout of caregivers caring for home-dwelling elders with dementia symptoms in Japan. 80 Japanese rural and urban family caregivers completed detailed questionnaires about their experiences in caring for demented family members. We statistically analyzed the results for correlations between types of dementia, Pines Burnout, and Caregiver Distress. BPSD symptom severity significantly correlated with caregiver distress. The dementia symptoms most strongly correlated with caregiver burnout were: aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucinations. Among the commonest symptoms, apathy, anxiety, and depression did not seriously aggravate caregiver burnout. Caregivers displayed higher burnout facing agitation/aggression, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, and hallucinations. Caregivers' reported distress was surprisingly dissimilar to their burnout scores; patients' delusions and anxiety led to higher distress reporting but not to burnout. Advance diagnosis of BPSD symptoms should be helpful to support nurses and caregivers of dementia patients. Particular support should be considered for caregivers and nurses of patients expressing aggression, irritability, abnormal motor behavior, and hallucination.
Ha, Sungji; Park, Hyunjun; Mahmood, Usman; Ra, Jeong Chan; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Chang, Keun-A
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and patients often display co-occurring repetitive behaviors. Although the global prevalence of ASD has increased over time, the etiology and treatments for ASD are poorly understood. Recently, some researchers have suggested that stem cells have therapeutic potential for ASD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), a kind of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adipose tissue, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism model mice. Human ASCs were injected into the neonatal pups (P2 or P3) intraventricularly and then we evaluated major behavior symptoms of ASD. VPA-treated mice showed increased repetitive behaviors, decreased social interactions and increased anxiety but these autistic behaviors were ameliorated through transplantation of hASCs. In addition, hASCs transplantation restored the alteration of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and p-AKT/AKT ratio in the brains of VPA-induced ASD model mice. The decreased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) by VPA were rescued in the brains of the hASC-injected VPA mice. With these results, we experimentally found hASCs' therapeutic effects on autistic phenotypes in a ASD model mice for the first time. This animal model system can be used to elucidate further mechanisms of therapeutic effects of hASCs in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kelly M McAteer
Full Text Available A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1 or 3x mTBI spaced five days apart using a modified version of the Marmarou impact-acceleration diffuse-TBI model to deliver 110G of linear force. Functional outcomes were assessed six and twelve weeks post-injury, with histopathology assessed twenty-four hours and twelve weeks post-injury. Repetitive mTBI resulted in mild spatial and recognition memory deficits as reflected by increased escape latency on the Barnes maze and decreased time spent in the novel arm of the Y maze. There was a trend towards increased anxiety-like behavior, with decreased time spent in the inner portion of the open field. At 24 hours and 12 weeks post injury, repetitive mTBI animals showed increased tau phosphorylation and microglial activation within the cortex. Increases in APP immunoreactivity were observed in repetitive mTBI animals at 12 weeks indicating long-term changes in axonal integrity. This novel model of repetitive mTBI with its persistent cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, axonal injury and tau hyperphosphorylation, thus represents a clinically relevant experimental approach to further explore the underlying pathogenesis of CTE.
Feitosa, Caroline A; Santos, Darci N; Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Letícia M; Teles, Carlos A S; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America. It is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems. 19.26% (n=212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10-1.85). These results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vafai, Yassaman; Steinberg, Julia R; Shenassa, Edmond D
Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (pexternalizing behaviors and 10.5% (pexternalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Methods: Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We used those articles that address any non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. Results: In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on the difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M
This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Morrissey, Taryn W
This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.
Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo
The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…
Eussen, Mart L J M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin
Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a detail-focused cognitive style. The aim of the current longitudinal study was to investigate whether this detail-focused cognitive style in childhood predicted a higher symptom severity of repetitive and restrictive behaviors and interests (RRBI) in adolescence. The Childhood Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were administered in 87 children with ASD at the age of 6-12 years old (T1), and the ADOS was readministered 7 years later when the participants were 12-19 years old (T2). Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate whether accuracy and reaction time in the complex versus simple CEFT condition and performance in the complex condition predicted T2 ADOS RRBI calibrated severity scores (CSS), while taking into consideration relevant covariates and ADOS RRBI CSS at T1. The CEFT performance (accuracy in the complex condition divided by the time needed) significantly predicted higher ADOS RRBI CSS at T2 (ΔR(2) = 15%). This finding further supports the detail-focused cognitive style in individuals with ASD, and shows that it is also predictive of future RRBI symptoms over time. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ogawa, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.
Oxygen impurity behaviors of one long duration discharge and repetition of short duration discharges have been investigated in TRIAM-1M. In the former case, the OII line intensity divided by the line averaged electron density, which is considered as a monitor of oxygen concentration on the plasma facing surface (PFS), decreased with the time constant, τ d , of 30-50 s during the discharge due to the hydrogen flux to PFS. In the latter case, τ d is in the range of 70-600 s. There exists a big difference of global behavior of oxygen impurity between both cases. The difference seems to result from the absence or presence of the interval time between the discharges. The oxygen concentration on PFS increases during the interval time due to adsorption of H 2 O. The time constant of the increase in the oxygen concentration is evaluated to be about 5500 s from Langmuir adsorption isotherms analysis
Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie
Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients.
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline
This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…
Imtiaz, Danish; Khan, Arshia; Seelye, Adriana
The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.
Snippe, Evelien; Bos, E.H.; van der Ploeg, K.M.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, J.; Schroevers, M.J.
Mindfulness and ruminative thinking have been shown to mediate the effects of mindfulness-based treatments on depressive symptoms. Yet, the dynamic interplay between these variables in daily life during mindfulness-based treatment has received little attention. The present study focuses on the
Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.
BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom
Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale
Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are relevant since they are frequent and cause distress to caregivers. However, they may not be reported by physicians due to the priority usually attributed to cognitive symptoms. Objectives: To verify whether BPSD is being systematically investigated by physicians even in specialized settings and whether their records on medical files are accurate. Methods: Assessment of records on medical files of BPSD reported by caregivers to 182 patients (57.1% men, mean age 67.6±13.5 years assisted in a tertiary-care behavioral neurology outpatient clinic (BNOC who also had appointments in other clinics of the same hospital. Alzheimer's disease (37.9% and vascular disease (19.2% were the most frequent causes of dementia. Results: Report/appointment ratios were 0.58 in BNOC, 0.43 in other neurological, 0.93 in psychiatric and 0.20 in non-neurological, non-psychiatric clinics. BPSD most frequently recorded in BNOC were insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation/hyperactivity, visual hallucinations, apathy, inadequate behavior and ease of crying. Sorted by psychiatrists, categories associated to more BPSD were affect/mood, thought and personality/behavior. affect/mood and sensoperception symptoms were the most frequently reported. Sorted according to Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, categories associated to more BPSD were depression/dysphoria, delusion and apathy/indifference. depression/dysphoria and agitation/ aggression symptoms were the most frequently reported. Conclusions: BPSD reported by caregivers were very diverse and were not systematically investigated by physicians. Notes in medical files often contained non-technical terms.
Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.
Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)
Landreville, Philippe; Voyer, Philippe; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues
Persons with dementia frequently present behavioral and psychological symptoms as well as delirium. However, the association between these has received little attention from researchers and current knowledge in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). Participants were 155 persons with a diagnosis of dementia, 109 (70.3%) of whom were found delirious according to the Confusion Assessment Method. BSD were assessed using the Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. Participants with delirium presented significantly more BSD than participants without delirium. More specifically, they presented more wandering/trying to leave, sleep problems, and irrational behavior after controlling for cognitive problems and use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Most relationships between participant characteristics and BSD did not differ according to the presence or absence of delirium, but some variables, notably sleep problems, were more strongly associated to BSD in persons with delirium. Although correlates of BSD in persons with delirium superimposed on dementia are generally similar to those in persons with dementia alone, delirium is associated with a higher level of BSD. Results of this study have practical implications for the detection of delirium superimposed on dementia, the management of behavioral disturbances in patients with delirium, and caregiver burden.
Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive–compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and
Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Gibson, William T; Gonzalez, Carlos R; Fernandez, Conchi; Ramasamy, Lakshminarayanan; Tabachnik, Tanya; Du, Rebecca R; Felsen, Panna D; Maire, Michael R; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J
The neural circuit mechanisms underlying emotion states remain poorly understood. Drosophila offers powerful genetic approaches for dissecting neural circuit function, but whether flies exhibit emotion-like behaviors has not been clear. We recently proposed that model organisms may express internal states displaying "emotion primitives," which are general characteristics common to different emotions, rather than specific anthropomorphic emotions such as "fear" or "anxiety." These emotion primitives include scalability, persistence, valence, and generalization to multiple contexts. Here, we have applied this approach to determine whether flies' defensive responses to moving overhead translational stimuli ("shadows") are purely reflexive or may express underlying emotion states. We describe a new behavioral assay in which flies confined in an enclosed arena are repeatedly exposed to an overhead translational stimulus. Repetitive stimuli promoted graded (scalable) and persistent increases in locomotor velocity and hopping, and occasional freezing. The stimulus also dispersed feeding flies from a food resource, suggesting both negative valence and context generalization. Strikingly, there was a significant delay before the flies returned to the food following stimulus-induced dispersal, suggestive of a slowly decaying internal defensive state. The length of this delay was increased when more stimuli were delivered for initial dispersal. These responses can be mathematically modeled by assuming an internal state that behaves as a leaky integrator of stimulus exposure. Our results suggest that flies' responses to repetitive visual threat stimuli express an internal state exhibiting canonical emotion primitives, possibly analogous to fear in mammals. The mechanistic basis of this state can now be investigated in a genetically tractable insect species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elizabeth C Hersch
Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, Sharon FalzgrafVA Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington, USAAbstract: More than 50% of people with dementia experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD. BPSD are distressing for patients and their caregivers, and are often the reason for placement into residential care. The development of BPSD is associated with a more rapid rate of cognitive decline, greater impairment in activities of daily living, and diminished quality of life (QOL. Evaluation of BPSD includes a thorough diagnostic investigation, consideration of the etiology of the dementia, and the exclusion of other causes, such as drug-induced delirium, pain, or infection. Care of patients with BPSD involves psychosocial treatments for both the patient and family. BPSD may respond to those environmental and psychosocial interventions, however, drug therapy is often required for more severe presentations. There are multiple classes of drugs used for BPSD, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA modulators, but the evidence base for pharmacological management is poor, there is no clear standard of care, and treatment is often based on local pharmacotherapy customs. Clinicians should discuss the potential risks and benefits of treatment with patients and their surrogate decision makers, and must ensure a balance between side effects and tolerability compared with clinical benefit and QOL.Keywords: dementia, management, behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms
Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko
Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Kang, Suk-Yun; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Wan; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Jang-Hern
The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13) spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management.
Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max
Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…
correlations between the folate or vitamin B12 levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores were not significant. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. This was a cross-sectional study and the findings should be confirmed by repetitive, prospective longitudinal studies in a larger group of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, homocysteine, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD
McClelland, Jessica; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Campbell, Iain C; Jacob, Shirabdi; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Schmidt, Ulrike
Advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) are most likely to arise from targeted, brain-directed treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We describe findings from two individuals with treatment-resistant AN who received 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated, high frequency rTMS, applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within-session measures assessed changes pre-rTMS, post-rTMS in subjective eating disorder (ED) experiences. Weight, ED symptoms and mood were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 1 month follow-up. In both cases, there was improvement in ED symptomatology and mood after 19-20 sessions of neuronavigated rTMS, and these changes persisted or continued to improve at follow-up. Within sessions, Patient A demonstrated a consistent reduction in subjective ED experiences, and Patient B a reduction in some ED related experiences. These findings suggest that rTMS has potential as an adjunct to the treatment of AN and deserves further study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Edelson Stephen M
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely
Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O
Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.
Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence
Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...
Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G
Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.
Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira
People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…
Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.
Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...
Full Text Available The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD that occur in individuals with Alzheimer’s. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer’s currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...
Ellison, Jenna K; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark
Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Yamakawa, Glenn R.; Lengkeek, Connor; Salberg, Sabrina; Spanswick, Simon C.; Mychasiuk, Richelle
Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury...
Melanie C. Morse
Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…
Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…
Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence
Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495
Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue
Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.
Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence
Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn
Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635
Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine
Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence
Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine
Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4-5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence of concomitant language
Conclusion: A strategy of targeting type-specific BPSD may be beneficial, such as environmental stimulus control for DLB patients who are prone to have hallucinations, design of a pacing path for patients with FTD who need support for symptoms of wandering and emotional support for patients with VaD who are susceptible to depression.
Veenman, B.Y.; Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.
Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Positivity & Rules Program (PR program), a behavioral teacher program targeting ADHD symptoms in the classroom involving both student-focused and classroom-focused programs. Method: Primary school children with ADHD symptoms (N = 114) were
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Marchand, Jennifer F.; Schedler, Steven; Wagstaff, David A.
The present study examined links among parents' attachment orientations, depressive symptoms, and conflict behaviors (attacking and compromising) and children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in a sample of 64 nonclinical, Caucasian families. Correlational analyses showed that all three parent attributes were significantly…
Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...
Full Text Available Being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer is emotionally and physically challenging. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death for women in the United States. Accordingly, women with a breast cancer history are the largest group of female cancer survivors. Psychological stress substantially augments adverse autonomic, endocrine, and immune discharge, including enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammation is a key biological mechanism underlying the symptom cluster of pain, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; there is also good evidence that inflammation contributes to breast cancer recurrence. Stress may exert direct effects on psychological and physiological risk processes. In this review, we take a biobehavioral approach to understanding predictors and mechanisms underlying somatic symptoms in breast cancer survivors.
the Ways of Coping Scale ( Folkman & Lazarus , 1988). During survival training, the Clinician- Administered Dissociative States Scale (Bremner et al...Published on behalf of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Acute Stress Symptoms 217 Folkman , S., & Lazarus , R. (1988). Manual...and performance in sport (pp. 17–42). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Lazarus , R. S. (2000). Cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. In Y . Hanin
Hosain, G M Monawar; Berenson, Abbey B; Tennen, Howard; Bauer, Lance O; Wu, Z Helen
This study was undertaken to assess the association between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and high-risk sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study interviewed 462 low-income women aged 18-30 years. We used the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist to assess ADHD symptoms. Risky sexual behaviors included sex before 15 years of age, risky sex partners in lifetime, number of sex partners in the last 12 months, condom use in the last 12 months, alcohol use before sex in the last 12 months, traded sex in lifetime, and diagnosed with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in lifetime. Mean ADHD symptom score was 19.8 (SD±12.9), and summary index of all risky sexual behavior was 1.77 (SD±1.37). Using unadjusted odds ratios (OR), women who endorsed more ADHD symptoms reported engaging in more risky sexual behaviors of all types. However, when multivariable logistic regression was applied adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, the adjusted ORs remained significant for having risky sex partners and having ≥3 sex partners in the prior 12 months. We observed some differences in risky sexual behavior between two domains of ADHD. The ADHD symptom score appears to be associated with some risky sexual behaviors and deserves further attention. A brief ADHD screening can identify this high-risk group for timely evaluation and safe sex counseling.
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J.; McDonough, Susan C.
This longitudinal study of 251 families examined bidirectional associations between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavioral problems. Functional regulatory problems in infancy and gender were examined as moderators. Mothers rated children’s regulatory problems of crying, feeding, and sleeping in infancy, toddler-age externalizing behavior, and their own depressive symptoms when children were ages 7, 15, and 33 months. Using a structural equation model we found that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms at 7 months predicted high levels of child externalizing behavior at 15 and 33 months. Gender moderated the effect, such that maternal depressive symptoms only predicted boys’ externalizing behavior at 33 months. Toddler-age externalizing behavior predicted high levels of maternal depressive symptoms at 33 months, only among those who had relatively few regulatory problems as infants. Infancy seems to be a period of heightened vulnerability to effects of maternal depression and boys are more likely than girls to develop resulting externalizing problems. Mothers of infants with few regulatory problems may develop worse depressive symptoms in response to their children’s preschool-age behavioral problems. PMID:23545078
Yang, Xiao-Lei; Liang, Shuang; Zou, Ming-Yang; Sun, Cai-Hong; Han, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Xi-Tao; Xia, Wei; Wu, Li-Jie
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from concurrent medical symptoms, including gastrointestinal (GI) and sleeping problems. However, there is limited information on the correlation between co-morbidities and autistic behavioral symptoms. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of GI and sleep problems in Chinese ASD children, examined the impacts of GI and sleep problems on autistic behavioral symptoms, and investigated the factors associated with GI and sleep problems. The survey included 169 ASD and 172 healthy children. Data regarding demographic characteristics, GI symptoms, sleep disturbances and behavioral symptoms were collected through questionnaires. GI and sleep problems were prevalent in Chinese ASD children. Moreover, ASD children with GI symptoms reported more severe ASD core symptoms than others. Autistic children's GI symptoms were associated with maternal sleep problems during pregnancy, child's 0-6 month food sources and picky eating. ASD children with sleep disturbances had lower performance in daily living skills, social cognition, social communication and intellectual development than ASD children without sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances were associated with extra nutrient supply during lactation and feeding, and child's picky eating. Autistic children with GI or/and sleep problems may represent clinically relevant subtypes of ASD, for which targeted treatments may be needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J
This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.
Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y; Constantino, John N; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L; Eng, Charis
Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive Autism Network registry. Social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior symptoms were obtained using caregiver-reports on the So...
Emily P. Flynn
Full Text Available Over 50% of mothers in rural Mexico have high depressive symptoms, and their children’s health and development are likely to be negatively affected. A critical question is whether children vary in their vulnerability to the effects of high maternal depressive symptoms according to their indigenous ethnicity, maternal education, or household wealth. Our sample included 4442 mothers and 5503 children from an evaluation of Mexico’s social welfare program. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale, and child behavior was measured using an adapted version of the Behavior Problems Index (BPI. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems, and the heterogeneity of associations by indigenous ethnicity, maternal education, and household assets. We found that having greater maternal depressive symptoms was significantly associated with having a child with more behavior problems (β = 0.114, p < 0.0001, [95% CI 0.101, 0.127], in adjusted models. In tests of heterogeneity, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems was strongest in households with indigenous ethnicity, low maternal education, or in households with fewer assets. These results strengthen the case for effective mental health interventions in low- and middle-income countries, particularly among the most vulnerable families where mothers and children appear to be at the greatest risk.
A.F. Nederlof (Angela F.)
textabstractAs an introduction on the topic of this dissertation, it might be interesting to look at some other cases of psychiatric patients that displayed clear-cut aggressive behavior towards other persons: Case 1. Twenty-nine-year-old man, who stabbed his mother’s fiancé in the chest with the
Gudiño, Omar G
Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.
Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…
Chen, Cynthia E.
Educational research has examined factors contributing to teachers' burnout symptoms, including their perceptions of student behaviors (Ingersoll, 2003). Interestingly, teacher and students' races have been differentially related to teachers' perceptions of student behavior (Downey & Pribesh, 2004); this disparity in perceptions has been…
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Lee, Jaerim; August, Gerald J.
This study examined the relationships among financial stress encountered by families, parents' social support, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors to advance our understanding of the processes by which family financial stress is associated with children's problem behaviors. We also…
Curtis, David F.
This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…
Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S
The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improved Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, but Also Cognitive Performance: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial with a Cross-Over Design and Sham Condition.
Jahangard, Leila; Haghighi, Mohammad; Shyayganfard, Mehran; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
There is some evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective method of treating patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and cognitive performance in such patients. Specifically, short-term verbal processing speed and flexibility were assessed. Ten patients suffering from refractory OCD and treated with standard medication were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition. At baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks, symptom severity (experts' ratings) and cognitive performance (auditory perception, visual perception, short-term memory, and processing speed) were assessed. After 2 weeks, the treatment condition switched to the sham condition, and the sham condition switched to the treatment condition. Under treatment but not under sham conditions, symptom severity reduced. Moreover, cognitive performance improved in parallel. rTMS is a safe and efficient treatment for patients suffering from refractory OCD; symptoms and cognitive performance improved in parallel. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.
Park, Joanne L; Hudec, Kristen L; Johnston, Charlotte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists throughout the lifespan, and there are known impairments associated with adult ADHD. Understanding ADHD-related impairments in the parenting domain is particularly important given that the children of adults with ADHD also are likely to have ADHD, and there is potential for parenting to alter the developmental outcomes of these children. The present study quantitatively synthesizes evidence regarding the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting behaviors. Across 32 studies, this meta-analysis found that parental ADHD symptoms accounted for 2.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% of the variance of harsh, lax, and positive parenting, respectively. Greater parental ADHD symptoms were associated with less positive and more harsh and lax parenting behaviors. Variables, such as the proportion of children in the sample diagnosed with ADHD, child gender, and method/rater variance, moderated the strength of these relations. Results also suggest more similarities than differences in the associations between parenting behaviors and the two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Overall, parental ADHD symptoms are significantly associated with parenting behaviors with effect sizes similar to the associations found between other parental psychopathologies and parenting, although the associations remain relatively small. The paper concludes with comments regarding remaining gaps in the literature that warrant further research and the clinical implications of the associations between parental ADHD symptoms and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura; Russo, Joan; McCarty, Carolyn A; Rockhill, Carol; McCauley, Elizabeth; Richards, Julie; Grossman, David C
Although multiple studies of adolescents have examined the association of depression with individual health risk behaviors such as obesity or smoking, this is one of the few studies that examined the association between depression and multiple risk behaviors. A brief mail questionnaire, which screened for age, gender, weight, height, sedentary behaviors, physical activity, perception of general health, functional impairment and depressive symptoms, was completed by a sample of 2291 youth (60.7% response rate) aged 13-17 enrolled in a health care plan. A subset of youth who screened positive on the two-item depression screen and a random sample of those screening negative were approached to participate in a telephone interview with more in-depth information obtained on smoking and at-risk behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Youth screening positive for high levels of depressive symptoms compared to those with few or no depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to meet criteria for obesity, had a poorer perception of health, spent more time on the computer, got along less well with parents and friends, had more problems completing school work and were more likely to have experimented with smoking and a wide array of behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Because many adverse health behaviors that develop in adolescence continue into adulthood, the association of depressive symptoms with multiple risk behaviors and poor functioning suggest that early interventions are needed at an individual, school, community and primary care level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars
The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Mariën, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and to characterize the behavior associated with significant depressive symptoms in MCI and AD patients. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective, longitudinal study on behavioral symptoms of dementia and MCI was performed. The study population consisted of 270 MCI and 402 AD patients. Behavioral assessment was performed by means of Middelheim Frontality Score, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia total score >7. The prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in AD patients (25%) was higher compared with MCI patients (16%) (p = 0.005). Patients with significant depressive symptoms showed an increased severity of frontal lobe symptoms, behavioral symptoms and agitation (Middelheim Frontality Score, Behave-AD and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory total scores; p depressive symptoms showed more severe behavioral symptoms and more severe verbally agitated behavior than AD patients without depressive symptoms (p depressive symptoms as compared with patients without depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo
Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo
Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms. PMID:28036376
Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh
Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female college students..
Meins, W; Frey, A; Thiesemann, R
The purpose of this study was to examine whether premorbid personality traits predispose to noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Munich Personality Test was used to evaluate caregivers' perception of personality prior to symptom onset in 56 outpatients with probable AD. Caregivers also completed the "mood" and "disturbed behavior" scales of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients. A neuropsychiatrist rated depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale for Depression and the occurrence of personality change in four domains according to ICD-10. Under statistical control of confounding variables, results showed a moderate association between (high) premorbid neuroticism, subsequent troublesome behavior, and personality change, on the one hand, and (low) frustration tolerance and depression, on the other. Premorbid personality traits may indeed predispose to subsequent noncognitive symptoms in AD.
Yoon, Susan; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R; Perzynski, Adam T
In this study we investigated whether witnessing violence and violence victimization were associated with children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Path analyses were conducted to test direct and indirect effects of violence exposure on behavior problems, using 2,064 children (ages 8-15 years) reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment. Being a victim of violence in the home was directly associated with more internalizing (β = .06, p = .007) and externalizing behavior problems (β = .07, p = .002), whereas witnessing violence was not directly related to either internalizing (β = .04, p = .056) or externalizing behavior problems (β = .03, p = .130). PTS symptoms mediated the effects of witnessing violence and violence victimization on internalizing behavior problems (β = .02, p = .002). Our findings suggest that PTS symptoms may be a mechanism underlying the association between violence exposure and internalizing behavior problems (R(2) = .23), underscoring the potential importance of assessing PTS symptoms and providing targeted trauma-focused interventions for children exposed to violence at home. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M
"Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.
Yim, Yeong Shin; Lee, Jinu; Kim, Gun-Tae; Song, Teresa; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo
An individual's behavior is generally based on genetic blueprint and previous experiences. A coping strategy, affected by personal interpretation of past events, can be determined by behavioral controllability of stress. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hippocampal mGluR5 expression and coping strategies to stress. Rats were exposed to stress via inescapable and unpredictable footshocks on PNDs 14 and 90. Coping strategies to stress were also measured. Hippocampal mGluR5 was found to be linked to the behavioral coping strategy, as it increased in rats that showed helplessness behavior (HL (+) group) and decreased in those that did not (HL (-) group). Also, the HL (+) group showed a lack of adaptation in a novel environment but the HL (-) group did not. The results suggest that mGluR5 has a pivotal role in the controllability-based coping strategy. Hippocampal mGluR5 could be a target molecule in the manipulation of neuropsychiatric conditions for which maladaptation is a part of behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yasinski, Carly; Hayes, Adele; Ready, C. Beth; Cummings, Jorden A.; Berman, Ilana S.; McCauley, Thomas; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther
Objective Involving caregivers in trauma-focused treatments for youth has been shown to result in better outcomes, but it is not clear which in-session caregiver behaviors enhance or inhibit this effect. The current study examined the associations between caregiver behaviors during Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and youth cognitive processes and symptoms. Method Participants were a racially diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7–17) and their non-offending caregivers (N= 71 pairs) who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting. Caregiver and youth processes were coded from audio-recorded sessions, and outcomes were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV (UPID) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-intake. Results Piecewise linear growth curve modeling revealed that during the trauma narrative phase of TF-CBT, caregivers’ cognitive-emotional processing of their own and their child's trauma-related reactions predicted decreases in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms over treatment. Caregiver support predicted lower internalizing symptoms over follow-up. In contrast, caregiver avoidance and blame of the child predicted worsening of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms over follow-up. Caregiver avoidance early in treatment also predicted worsening of externalizing symptoms over follow-up. During the narrative phase, caregiver blame and avoidance were correlated with more child overgeneralization of trauma beliefs, and blame was also associated with less child accommodation of balanced beliefs. Conclusions The association between in-session caregiver behaviors and youth symptomatology during and after TF-CBT highlights the importance of assessing and targeting these behaviors to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:27618641
Yasinski, Carly; Hayes, Adele M; Ready, C Beth; Cummings, Jorden A; Berman, Ilana S; McCauley, Thomas; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther
Involving caregivers in trauma-focused treatments for youth has been shown to result in better outcomes, but it is not clear which in-session caregiver behaviors enhance or inhibit this effect. The current study examined the associations between caregiver behaviors during Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and youth cognitive processes and symptoms. Participants were a racially diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7-17) and their nonoffending caregivers (N = 71 pairs) who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting. Caregiver and youth processes were coded from audio-recorded sessions, and outcomes were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; UPID) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postintake. Piecewise linear growth curve modeling revealed that during the trauma narrative phase of TF-CBT, caregivers' cognitive-emotional processing of their own and their child's trauma-related reactions predicted decreases in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms over treatment. Caregiver support predicted lower internalizing symptoms over follow-up. In contrast, caregiver avoidance and blame of the child predicted worsening of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms over follow-up. Caregiver avoidance early in treatment also predicted worsening of externalizing symptoms over follow-up. During the narrative phase, caregiver blame and avoidance were correlated with more child overgeneralization of trauma beliefs, and blame was also associated with less child accommodation of balanced beliefs. The association between in-session caregiver behaviors and youth symptomatology during and after TF-CBT highlights the importance of assessing and targeting these behaviors to improve clinical outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.
Boredom is closely aligned with depression, but is understood to be conceptually distinct. Little is known about boredom among active drug users and the potential association with depression and HIV risk. Current IDUs (n=845) completed a baseline behavioral survey including socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported boredom, depressive symptoms (CESD score), and HIV risk behaviors. One-third of the sample reported high boredom in the past week. In multivariate analysis, those who reported boredom were less likely to be older, African-American, have a main partner, and to be employed at least part-time. Controlling for covariates, those with high boredom were almost five times as likely to report high depressive symptoms. Co-occurrence of boredom and depressive symptoms (28%) was strongly and independently associated with a range of injection risk behaviors and sex exchange. This study demonstrates the need for more thorough understanding of mental health and HIV risk among urban drug users. PMID:22760741
Yerys, Benjamin E; Wallace, Gregory L; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Shook, Devon A; James, Joette D; Kenworthy, Lauren
Recent estimates suggest that 31% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 24% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new problems unreported in ASD or ADHD; having no clear impact; or producing some combination of these scenarios. Children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD symptoms (ASD+ADHD; n = 21), children with ASD without ADHD (ASD; n = 28), and a typically developing control group (n = 21) were included in the study; all groups were matched on age, gender-ratio, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Data were collected on verbal and spatial working memory, response inhibition, global executive control (EC), autistic traits, adaptive functioning, and maladaptive behavior problems. In this sample, the presence of ADHD symptoms in ASD exacerbated impairments in EC and adaptive behavior and resulted in higher autistic trait, and externalizing behavior ratings. ADHD symptoms were also associated with greater impairments on a lab measure of verbal working memory. These findings suggest that children with ASD+ADHD symptoms present with exacerbated impairments in some but not all domains of functioning relative to children with ASD, most notably in adaptive behavior and working memory. Therefore, ADHD may moderate the expression of components of the ASD cognitive and behavioral phenotype, but ASD+ADHD may not represent an etiologically distinct phenotype from ASD alone.
Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A
Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score > or = 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33-2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14-4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37-2.40). Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.
Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.
Full Text Available This paper offers a description of the meaning of the category of repetition. Firstly, it is pointed out that Constantin uses repetition as a concept that means the creation of epochs; the passing from Greece to Modernity is accomplished distinguishing between recollection, a concept that looks back to the past, and repetition, a concept that looks forward to future. Secondly, it is showed that the category of repetition, as a religious category, relates with what Climacus calls “ethic despair” and with what Vigilius calls “second ethics”; it is through repetition that it can be understood that sin finds its place in ethics and these shows the tension between it and dogmatics. And thirdly, it is showed that the descovery of the new category of repetition is a rediscovery of what Kierkegaard calls category of spirit; repetition has for its object the individuality, and coming to be oneself is what Kierkegaard undertands as liberty. At the end of the paper it is questioned if the category of repetition is inconsistent with the book Repetition.
Stephen Grossberg; Devika Kishnan
This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused atte...
Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J
In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn
Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678
Sernec, Karin; Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan
The aim of the study was to provide further and up to date information on the evaluation of the management of Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa at the Eating Disorders Unit (EDU) of the Ljubljana Psychiatric Clinic, based upon detailed assessment of the eating disorders specific and non specific symptoms of impulsive behaviors, highly correlated with these entities. 34 female patients with anorexia (restrictive or purgative type) and 38 female patients with Bulimia nervosa (purgative or non-purgative type) undergoing hospital treatment at the EDU were evaluated upon admission, as well as upon discharge and three and six months after discharge, using the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Upon discharge a marked decrease in the overall symptoms was noted. The differences in symptoms incidences between the two groups were significantly specific for the individual form of eating disorder, especially upon admission, and were more pronounced in anorexia group. In later measurements, performed during the period of three and six months after discharge, a mild trend of increase in the disorder specific symptoms was detected in both groups, but was not statistically significant. In addition to binging on food, striking, quarreling and spending sprees are characteristics of patients with eating disorders, which in particular apply to the Bulimia nervosa group. Apart from the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior was also reduced during study period, while the difference in its occurrence between the two groups gradually became non-significant. The management of patients with eating disorders at the EDU was successful in both groups, confirmed by an intense reduction of the disorder specific symptoms, impulsive behavior and increased stability recorded three and six months after discharge. The study strongly suggests that the effect of treatment regime for eating disorders can be predicted by careful assessment of the relevant symptoms and impulsive behavioral patterns.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Hu, Fu-Chang
The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane
While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rufus Wale Ojewola
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and the factors influencing the healthcare-seeking behavior of men with LUTS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 658 men selected using multi-staged sampling techniques. They were interviewed about LUTS and their healthcare-seeking behavior. The data were analysed using PASW Statistics ver. 18. Associations between specific factors and healthcare-seeking behavior were examined using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: The overall prevalence of LUTS was 59.1%. Storage symptoms (48.2% were more prevalent than voiding (36.8% or post-micturition (29.9% symptoms. Approximately a quarter (25.5% had a poor quality of life (QoL score. The average duration of symptoms before seeking help was 3.4 years. Almost half (46.8% of the men with LUTS had never sought help. Perceptions of LUTS as an inevitable part of ageing, subjective feelings of wellness, financial constraints, and fear of surgery were the most common reasons for not seeking help. The most common reasons for seeking help were to moderate-severe symptoms, impaired QoL, and fear of cancer. Severe LUTS, impaired QoL, and the concomitant presence of erectile dysfunction, dysuria, or haematuria were clinical factors that positively influenced healthcare-seeking behavior. Conclusions: In this population-based study, we found that the prevalence of LUTS was very high amongst adult males. However, only about half of these men sought medical attention. Their healthcare-seeking behavior was influenced by severity of symptoms, QoL scores, and socio-demographic factors such as educational status.
Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...
Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B
Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) is characterized by intrusive frightening thoughts, images or impulses (obsessions; e.g., “did I stab my partner while doing the dishes?”) to which patients respond with repetitive behavior (compulsions; e.g., checking the knives and scissors in the house or
Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen
The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430
Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.
In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…
Kort-Butler, Lisa A.
Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…
Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.
This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…
Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.
The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…
Fahmy, Sarah Farid; El-hamamsy, Manal H.; Zaki, Osama K.; Badary, Osama A.
L-Carnitine was proposed as a potential treatment for patients diagnosed with autism to ameliorate the behavioral symptoms associated with the disease. Thirty children diagnosed with autism were randomly assigned to receive (100 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of liquid L-carnitine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14) for 6 months. Measurements included changes in…
Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.
Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…
Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.
This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…
Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…
Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa
Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…
Papatriantafyllou, John D; Viskontas, Indre V; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Miller, Bruce L; Pavlic, Danijela; Bingol, Ayse; Yener, Gorsev
Cross-cultural studies of neurodegenerative disorders are especially important when the disease in question is difficult to diagnose, particularly if symptoms of the illness include behavioral disturbances that may be interpreted differently in different cultures. One such disease is frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), an early-age-of-onset dementia that disproportionately affects social behavior. We report the demographic and neuropsychologic characteristics of more than 300 patients diagnosed with FTLD in the United States, Greece, and Turkey. We find that patients with the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are diagnosed at an earlier age and report earlier symptom onset in the United States than in Greece or Turkey. Furthermore, neuropsychologic measures indicate that at diagnosis, FTD patients in the United States are less impaired than patients in Greece and Turkey. Patients with FTD in Greece and Turkey are diagnosed later in the disease, presumably because their behavioral symptoms are not easily detected by the medical system in these countries. Our study underscores the need to create culturally appropriate indices of the behavioral symptoms of FTLD, so that patients may be diagnosed and treated at an earlier stage.
Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…
Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.
Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…
Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy
Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid…
Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.
Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…
Schnitzler, Caroline E; von Ranson, Kristin M; Wallace, Laurel M
This study evaluated the cognitive-behavioral (CB) model of bulimia nervosa and an extension that included two additional maintaining factors - thin-ideal internalization and impulsiveness - in 327 undergraduate women. Participants completed measures of demographics, self-esteem, concern about shape and weight, dieting, bulimic symptoms, thin-ideal internalization, and impulsiveness. Both the original CB model and the extended model provided good fits to the data. Although structural equation modeling analyses suggested that the original CB model was most parsimonious, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the additional variables accounted for significantly more variance. Additional analyses showed that the model fit could be improved by adding a path from concern about shape and weight, and deleting the path from dieting, to bulimic symptoms. Expanding upon the factors considered in the model may better capture the scope of variables maintaining bulimic symptoms in young women with a range of severity of bulimic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hong Jin; Jin-Ru Zhang; Yun Shen; Chun-Feng Liu
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of parkinsonism,and it may serve as a prodromal marker of neurodegenerative disease.The mechanism underlying RBD is unclear.Several prospective studies have reported that specific non-motor symptoms predict a conversion risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease,including olfactory dysfunction,abnormal color vision,autonomic dysfunction,excessive daytime sleepiness,depression,and cognitive impairment.Parkinson's disease (PD) with RBD exhibits clinical heterogeneity with respect to motor and non-motor symptoms compared with PD without RBD.In this review,we describe the main clinical and pathogenic features of RBD,focusing on its association with other non-motor symptoms of parkinsonism.
Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P
Background Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. Methods A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. Results A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must be replicated in a larger study among participants with confirmed clinical symptoms, they suggest that phone sensors offer numerous clinical opportunities, including continuous monitoring of at-risk populations with
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.
Full Text Available This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia. Lesion-symptom analyses explored the relationship between neurological damage and jargon repetition in a group of 38 aphasia participants. Behavioral results showed that neologisms produced by 23 jargon individuals contained greater degrees of target lexico-phonological information than predicted by chance and that neologistic and perseverative production were closely associated. A significant relationship between jargon production and lesions to temporoparietal regions was identified. Region of interest regression analyses suggested that damage to the posterior superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in combination was best predictive of a Jargon aphasia profile. Taken together, these results suggest that poor phonological encoding, secondary to impairment in sensory-motor integration, alongside impairments in self-monitoring result in jargon repetition. Insights for clinical management and future directions are discussed.
Aizpitarte, Alazne; Atherton, Olivia E; Robins, Richard W
Researchers have debated whether relational aggression is a developmentally-normative behavior or a sign of some underlying psychopathology. However, due to the dearth of longitudinal studies, we know little about how relational aggression and more severe forms of disruptive behavior co-develop. The present study examined bidirectional associations between relational aggression and two psychiatric disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth followed from age 10 to 16. Results showed that individuals who engaged in relational aggression tended to increase over time in ODD and CD symptoms, and conversely, individuals exhibiting symptoms of ODD and CD tended to increase in relational aggression. These findings held for boys and girls, for youth born in Mexico and the U.S., and after controlling for physical aggression. Thus, relational aggression seems to be both a developmentally-normative behavior and a predictor of future mental health problems.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542
Sakaguchi, Katsuyoshi; Yagi, Takakazu; Maeda, Aya; Nagayama, Kunihiro; Uehara, Sawako; Saito-Sakoguchi, Yoko; Kanematsu, Kyoko; Miyawaki, Shouichi
There are few large-scale epidemiologic studies examining the associations between sleep problems, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, lifestyle and food habits and problem behaviors (PB) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among these factors in Japanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 1840 junior high school students was carried out using questionnaires. The subjects were classified into PB or normal behavior (NB) groups using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). The scores of the sleep-related factors, sleep bruxism, lifestyle and food habits, and GERD symptoms were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors related to PB. Mean subject age was 13.3 ± 1.8 years. The PB group had significantly longer sleep latency and higher GERD symptom score (P sleep bruxism, difficulty falling asleep within 30 min, nightmares, feeling of low sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and daytime lack of motivation. Feelings of low sleep quality had the strongest association with PB, with an adjusted odds ratio of 12.88 (95% confidence interval: 8.99-18.46). PB in adolescents are associated with sleep problems, including sleep bruxism, as well as lifestyle and food habits and GERD symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.
This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…
Liao, Yung; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro
Associations between levels of sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms independently and in combination with different levels of physical activity remain unclear. This study aimed to examine independent and combined associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive symptoms among Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey collected data on depression levels (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-reported time spent in PA and SB (Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and sociodemographic variables from 2,914 adults in 2009. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the odds ratios (ORs) for being depressed (depression scores ≥16) according to independent PA levels (none, insufficient, sufficient), SB levels (low, moderate, high), and nine combinations of PA and SB categories. After adjusting for potential confounders, sufficient PA level was found to be related to lower risk of depressive symptoms independently (OR = 0.61), whereas no significant associations were observed between SB levels and depression. In the combined associations, adults in the sufficient PA/high SB (OR = 0.44), sufficient PA/moderate SB (OR = 0.56), and sufficient PA/low SB (OR = 0.57) categories were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms in comparison with the no PA/high SB category. Meeting physical activity recommendations is associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms, regardless of time spent in total sedentary behavior. These results suggest that promoting physical activity may be an effective strategy against depressive symptoms among Japanese adults.
Thastum, Mille; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard
on principles from cognitive-behavioral therapy and gradual return to activities. The primary treatment objective was to reduce PCS and prevent chronification of symptoms by reducing negative illness perceptions (eg. beliefs that one cannot control the symptoms and that they will persist), and reducing......Background: About 5 – 15 % of patients with concussion experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) longer than 3 months post-injury. Currently, treatment options are limited, and no evidence-based intervention is available. Recent studies suggest that cognitive and behavioral processes may...... be involved in symptom maintenance. Aim: To explore in an uncontrolled study design: 1) the overall outcome of a newly developed, brief behavioral intervention in young patients (15 – 30 years) with persistent PCS 3 – 6 months after concussion, and 2) the hypothesised mediators, i.e. illness perceptions...
Becirevic, Amel; Reed, Derek D; Amlung, Michael; Murphy, James G; Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel J
Indoor tanning remains a popular activity in Western cultures despite a growing body of literature suggesting its link to skin cancer and melanoma. Advances in indoor tanning research have illuminated problematic patterns of its use. With problems such as difficulty quitting, devoting resources toward its use at the expense of healthy activities, and excessive motivation and urges to tan, symptoms of excessive indoor tanning appear consistent with behavioral addiction. The present study bridges the gap between clinical approaches to understanding indoor tanning problems and behavioral economic considerations of unhealthy habits and addiction. Eighty undergraduate females completed both the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener and the Tanning Purchase Task. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand for tanning significantly differs between risk classification groups, providing divergent validity to the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener and offering additional evidence of the sensitivity of the Tanning Purchase Task to differentiating groups according to tanning profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.
Anthony J Deo
Full Text Available For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms.We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21.The findings presented are novel and demonstrate the efficacy of this
van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Overbeek, G.; Frijns, T.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.
Introduction: Aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms co-occur frequently during adolescence. The failure model argues that the onset of aggressive behavior is more likely to precede the onset of depressive symptoms, whereas the acting-out model states that depressed mood predicts subsequent
Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Overbeek, G.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.
Introduction Aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms co-occur frequently during adolescence. The failure model argues that the onset of aggressive behavior is more likely to precede the onset of depressive symptoms, whereas the acting-out model states that depressed mood predicts subsequent
van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.T.J.; Overbeek, G.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.
Introduction Aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms co-occur frequently during adolescence. The failure model argues that the onset of aggressive behavior is more likely to precede the onset of depressive symptoms, whereas the acting-out model states that depressed mood predicts subsequent
Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.
Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…
Hirsch, Jameson K.; Visser, Preston L.; Chang, Edward C.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
Objective: The authors examined trait hope and hopelessness as potential moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Participants: A diverse sample of 372 college students. Methods: Depressive symptoms, hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), trait hope (Trait Hope Scale), and suicidal behaviors were assessed.…
Friedmann, Peter D; Melnick, Gerald; Jiang, Lan; Hamilton, Zachary
This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought insertion/control ideation (OR, 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-75.2), antisocial personality disorder (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9), and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.3) were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.54) and high school graduation (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0) were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin
This study compares different nonpharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. Participants were 89 nursing home residents from six Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD: 8.6 years). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants' needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person's interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on-one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation, ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Denny, Simon J; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa M; Grant, Sue; Milfont, Taciano L; Crengle, Sue; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Clark, Terryann
Many schools engage in health promotion, health interventions, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being outcomes for students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of schools on student health risk-taking behaviors and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample (n = 9,056) of students from 96 secondary schools completed a health and well-being survey using Internet Tablets that included questions on school climate, health risk-taking behaviors, and mental health. Teachers (n = 2,901) and school administrators (n = 91) completed questionnaires on aspects of the school climate which included teacher well-being and burnout, the staff work environment, health and welfare services for students, and school organizational support for student health and well-being. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on the health risk-taking behaviors and depression symptoms among students. Schools where students reported a more positive school climate had fewer students with alcohol use problems, and fewer students engaging in violence and risky motor vehicle behaviors. Schools where teachers reported better health and welfare services for students had fewer students engaging in unsafe sexual health behaviors. Schools where teachers reported higher levels of well-being had fewer students reporting significant levels of depressive symptoms. More positive school climates and better school health and welfare services are associated with fewer health risk-taking behaviors among students. However, the overall school effects were modest, especially for cigarette use and suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Svetlicky, Vlad; Solomon, Zahava; Benbenishty, Rami; Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi
Prior research has revealed heightened risk-taking behavior among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether the risktaking behavior is a direct outcome of the traumatic exposure or whether this relationship is mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms. The sample was comprised of 180 traumatized Israeli reserve soldiers, who sought treatment in the wake of the Second Lebanon War. Combat exposure was indirectly associated with risk-taking behavior primarily through its relationship with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results of the multivariate analyses depict the implication of posttraumatic stress symptoms in risk taking behavior, and the role of self-medication and of aggression in traumatized veterans.
Acute confusional state, delirium, occurs in up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit and is also a common, life-threatening and potentially preventable clinical syndrome among persons who are 65 years of age or older in general hospital. The cause of acute confusional state is typically multifactorial. Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated and dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium. So the key steps to distinguish between delirium and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are to address all evident causes, e.g. dementia, dehydration, infection, polymedication and to prevent complications and treat behavioral symptoms. First nonpharmacologic approaches should be instituted, including a calm, comfortable environment with the use of orienting influences. Pharmacologic management should be reserved for patients whose symptoms would threaten their own safety or the safety of other persons. Therapeutic drug options include modern antidepressants and neuroleptics.
Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: There were few studies to investigate the related factors of depression among Korean students. Therefore, this study examined disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on a total of 637 students (279 men and 358 women, and the Korean version of the Beck depression rating scale (K-BDI was used to evaluate the students' depression status. Results: Of the 637 students, 419 (65.8% had no depressive symptoms (normal: K-BDI<10, whereas 136 (21.4%: K-BDI 10–16, 69 (10.8%: K-BDI 17–29, and 13 (2.0%: K-BDI≥30 had mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (K-BDI≥10 were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 2.76; p = .002, high level of life stress (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 2.23 to 8.55; p < .001, and disturbed eating behaviors (Korean version of Eating Attitude Test-26 ≥ 20; OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 2.52 to 10.5; p < .001. In contrast, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with a high body image satisfaction (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.68; p = .001 and self-esteem (self-esteem score≥30 (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.43; p < .001. Conclusions: This study confirmed that students with depressive symptoms tended to have disturbed eating behaviors, low body image satisfaction, low self-esteem, and high levels of stress. Keywords: Depression, Disturbed eating attitude, Health behavior, Depressive symptoms, Korean students
Mausbach, Brent T; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Grant, Igor
Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease is a highly stressful experience that is associated with significant depressive symptoms. Previous studies indicate a positive association between problem behaviors in patients with Alzheimer disease (e.g., repeating questions, restlessness, and agitation) and depressive symptoms in their caregivers. Moreover, the extant literature indicates a robust negative relationship between escape-avoidance coping (i.e., avoiding people, wishing the situation would go away) and psychiatric well-being. The purpose of this study was to test a mediational model of the associations between patient problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers. Ninety-five spousal caregivers (mean age: 72 years) completed measures assessing their loved ones' frequency of problem behaviors, escape-avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was tested to determine if escape-avoidant coping partially mediated the relationship between patient problem behaviors and caregiver depressive symptoms. Patient problem behaviors were positively associated with escape-avoidance coping (beta = 0.38, p avoidance coping was positively associated with depressive symptoms (beta = 0.33, p avoidance coping. Sobel's test confirmed that escape-avoidance coping significantly mediated the relationship between problem behaviors and depressive symptoms (z = 2.07, p avoidance coping partially mediates the association between patient problem behaviors and depressive symptoms among elderly caregivers of spouses with dementia. This finding provides a specific target for psychosocial interventions for caregivers.
Full Text Available Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Sara Tognini, Valeria Calsolaro, Antonio Polini, Fabio Monzani Geriatrics Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: The use of multi drug regimens among the elderly population has increased tremendously over the last decade although the benefits of medications are always accompanied by potential harm, even when prescribed at recommended doses. The elderly populations are particularly at an increased risk of adverse drug reactions considering comorbidity, poly-therapy, physiological changes affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and, in some cases, poor compliance due to cognitive impairment and/or depression. In this setting, drug–drug interaction may represent a serious and even life-threatening clinical condition. Moreover, the inability to distinguish drug-induced symptoms from a definitive medical diagnosis often results in addition of yet another drug to treat the symptoms, which in turn increases drug–drug interactions. Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are the most widely prescribed agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including psychotic symptoms and behavioral disorders, represent noncognitive disturbances frequently observed in AD patients. Antipsychotic drugs are at high risk of adverse events, even at modest doses, and may interfere with the progression of cognitive impairment and interact with several drugs including anti-arrhythmics and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Other medications often used in AD patients are represented by anxiolytic, like benzodiazepine, or antidepressant agents. These agents also might interfere with other concomitant drugs through both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. In this review we focus on the most frequent drug–drug interactions, potentially harmful, in AD patients with
Full Text Available Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi is considered the standard treatment. The internet has proven to be a useful and successful tool of providing CBTi. However, few studies have investigated the possible effect of unguided internet-delivered CBTi (ICBTi on comorbid psychological symptoms and fatigue. Methods: Based on a randomized controlled trial, we investigated whether unguided ICBTi had an effect on comorbid psychological symptoms. Adults with insomnia (n = 181; 67% women; mean age 44.9 years [SD 13.0] were randomized to ICBTi (n = 95 or to an online patient education condition (n = 86 for a nine-week period. Results: The results from mixed linear modelling yielded medium to large between-group effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment for symptoms of anxiety or depression (d = −0.57; 95% CI = 0.79–0.35 and fatigue (d = 0.92; 95% CI = 1.22–0.62. The ICBTi group was reassessed at a 6-month non-randomized follow-up, and the completing participants had on the average a significant increase (from the post-assessment on symptoms of anxiety or depression, while the reduction in symptoms of fatigue (on post-assessment was maintained. However, due to high dropout attrition and no control group data, caution should be made regarding the long-term effects. In conclusion, the present findings show that unguided ICBTi positively influence comorbid symptoms in the short-term, thereby emphasizing the clinical relevance of unguided ICBTi. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02261272 Keywords: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, Internet-based intervention, Fatigue, Depression, Anxiety
Buodo, Giulia; Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Palomba, Daniela
This study investigated whether the parenting stress-child externalizing behavior link is moderated by children's emotional reactivity, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCRs). Participants were 61 children aged 9-12 years and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of parenting stress and their children's externalizing symptoms; children also reported on their externalizing behavior. Children's SCRs were assessed during the viewing of standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cluster analysis on SCRs identified two groups, labeled Lower SCRs and Higher SCRs. Regression analyses indicated that among children with lower SCRs, those exposed to increased parenting stress reported more externalizing symptoms, whereas those who experienced low parenting stress reported similar rates of externalizing problems as children with higher SCRs. No effect of parenting stress emerged for children with higher SCRs. Findings suggest that higher parenting stress renders children with lower, as opposed to higher, SCRs to emotional stimuli more vulnerable to externalizing problems.
Loomba-Albrecht, Lindsey A; Bremer, Andrew A; Styne, Dennis M; Glaser, Nicole S
Descriptive data characterizing the frequency of various chief complaints and presenting symptomatology in children with hyperthyroidism are lacking. Furthermore, difficulties in recognizing atypical presentations may delay diagnosis and increase morbidity. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 76 children with hyperthyroidism to characterize their chief complaints at initial presentation to care and document other presenting symptomatology. Cardiac symptoms were the most frequent chief complaint, accounting for 23% of presenting complaints. Major mood and behavior disturbances were also frequently present (21%), but were infrequently cited as the chief complaint (6%). This study is the first to describe chief complaints separately from the other signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism noted at the time of presentation to medical attention. Cardiac complaints were the most common: however, complaints associated with behavioral and mood disorders also occurred frequently. Clinicians should be aware of these presentations so that hyperthyroidism is diagnosed promptly to avoid morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis.
Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon
Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.
Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul
Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206
Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana
Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.
Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam
Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...
Full Text Available Objectives. This study measured gender differences in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS in regard to the severity of behavioral symptoms. Methods. The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version, the Childhood Routines Inventory, the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, and Japanese ADHD-RS were administered to PWS patients (45 males aged 6 to 58 and 37 females aged 6 to 45. To examine the effects that gender and genotype have on the severity of each symptom, two-way ANOVAs were conducted. Results. Significant interactions were found only in regard to FRPQ scores, such as FRPQ total score (F(1, 78 = 8.43, p<0.01. The FRPQ of male deletion (DEL individuals was higher than that of female DEL and male mUPD. The FRPQ of male maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD was lower than that of female mUPD. Conclusions. In terms of problem behaviors, routines, autistic behaviors, and hyperactivity, no significant differences were found. Food-related behaviors in DEL were more severe in males, although those in mUPD were less severe in males.
Ju Ryoung Moon
Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.
Full Text Available Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results Age (± standard deviation was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes. Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.
Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul
One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N = 325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N = 81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility
Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Davidson, Collin; Wingate, LaRicka R
College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related hyperactive/impulsive (HI) and/or inattentive (IA) symptoms may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior due to core and secondary symptoms that increase their potential to engage in behaviors that put them at risk for suicidal behavior. Consequently, the current study examined the moderating effect of combined HI/IA symptoms, in addition to independent HI and IA symptoms on the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and behavior. A sample of 1,056 undergraduate students (61.5% female, 96.4% aged 18-24 years) provided self-report ratings of mood, suicidal behavior (thoughts, self-harm, attempts, and need for medical attention), and current HI/IA symptoms. Significant moderation effects were detected, such that greater HI/IA symptoms were associated with a stronger relationship between depressed mood and suicidal ideation and attempts, but not self-harm. Current HI and IA symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, but did not moderate the relationship between depressed mood and self-harm and need for medical attention. The current findings suggest that the presence of combined HI/IA symptoms conveys increased suicide risk for depressed college students. Additionally, results suggest a complex relationship between independent HI and IA symptoms and severe suicidal outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kring, Ann M; Barch, Deanna M
A range of emotional and motivation impairments have long been clinically documented in people with schizophrenia, and there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the psychological and neural mechanisms of the so-called "negative symptoms" in schizophrenia, given their lack of treatment responsiveness and their role in constraining function and life satisfaction in this illness. Negative symptoms comprise two domains, with the first covering diminished motivation and pleasure across a range of life domains and the second covering diminished verbal and non-verbal expression and communicative output. In this review, we focus on four aspects of the motivation/pleasure domain, providing a brief review of the behavioral and neural underpinnings of this domain. First, we cover liking or in-the-moment pleasure: immediate responses to pleasurable stimuli. Second, we cover anticipatory pleasure or wanting, which involves prediction of a forthcoming enjoyable outcome (reward) and feeling pleasure in anticipation of that outcome. Third, we address motivation, which comprises effort computation, which involves figuring out how much effort is needed to achieve a desired outcome, planning, and behavioral response. Finally, we cover the maintenance emotional states and behavioral responses. Throughout, we consider the behavioral manifestations and brain representations of these four aspects of motivation/pleasure deficits in schizophrenia. We conclude with directions for future research as well as implications for treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
While recent advances in the development of neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers for studying neurodegenerative conditions have revolutionized the field, dementia remains a clinical diagnosis. No component of the diagnostic process is more crucial than obtaining a good history. Getting to know the first manifestations of the disease, tracking their evolution and functional impact, combined with a targeted neurological examination, further guides differential diagnosis. This paper summarizes the key symptoms of the behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia. The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by severe changes in behavior and personality such as disinhibition, apathy, loss of empathy, or stereotypic behavior, leading to a loss of social competence. Executive functions are impaired, while memory and visuospatial skills are relatively better preserved. By contrast, the language variants or primary progressive aphasias (PPAs) are marked by prominent language disturbances that can be subclassified into a non-fluent/agrammatic variant (naPPA), a semantic variant (svPPA), and a logopenic variant (lvPPA). Although combined characterization of clinical, imaging, biological and genetic biomarkers is essential to establish a detailed diagnosis of such heterogeneous conditions, the author emphasizes the importance of accurate recognition of key symptoms that can lead to better identification of underlying neuropathology and appropriate treatment approaches.
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how non-marital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. PMID:27854469
Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N
A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.
Palmer, Mary H; Willis-Gray, Marcella G; Zhou, Fang; Newman, Diane K; Wu, Jennifer M
To describe toileting behaviors working women habitually use and investigate behaviors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), especially urinary urgency with or without leakage. Non-pregnant female employees of a large academic medical center 18 years and over were eligible to complete an online survey about bladder health and toileting behaviors. One hundred eighty-two women participated in the survey. The majority were white (83.52%), married (52.49%), had ≥1 pregnancy (54.40%), and in excellent health (93.41%). The average age and body mass index were 47.28 ± 13.56 years and 27.92 ± 6.78, respectively. The sample was further sub-divided into two groups: urinary urgency (N = 119) or no urinary urgency symptoms (N = 51). Habitual toileting behaviors for these groups (N = 170) included: sitting to urinate at home (98.24%), emptying the bladder completely (88.82%), emptying the bladder before leaving home (80.00%), and sitting to urinate when away from home (68.82%). Logistic regression analysis showed age increased the odds of urinary urgency (aOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09). Women who waited too long to urinate at work (aOR 7.85, 95%CI 1.57-39.24) and wore panty liners for urinary leakage (aOR 2.86, 95%CI 1.25-6.56) had greater odds of urinary urgency than women who did neither. Most habitual toileting behaviors were not associated with urinary urgency except waiting too long to urinate when at work. Logistic regression revealed significant relationships among health-related factors, personal characteristics, behaviors, and urinary urgency. LUTS in women is both a women's health and occupational health issue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sweet, R A; Pollock, B G; Mulsant, B H; Rosen, J; Lo, K H; Yao, J K; Henteleff, R A; Mazumdar, S
Neuroleptic treatment of psychotic symptoms or agitated behavior in elderly patients diagnosed with dementia is associated with reduced efficacy and increased rates of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism in comparison to younger patients with schizophrenia. We report the first study to examine the relationship between an in vivo measure of dopaminergic function, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and ratings of psychosis, agitation, and parkinsonism before and after neuroleptic treatment in dementia patients. Pretreatment pHVA was significantly correlated with parkinsonian rigidity, with a trend observed with agitation and hostility. Though mean pHVA did not change during perphenazine treatment, intraindividual change in pHVA at day 15 was correlated with improvement in hostility, with a similar trend for improvement in agitation. These preliminary findings are consistent with reports associating dopaminergic function with agitated, but not psychotic, symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia, and with a reduced responsivity of dopaminergic systems to neuroleptic treatment in these patients.
The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.
Johnson, Leigh G; Rohan, Kelly J
...), group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or combination therapy (CBT+LT). Atypical and typical symptoms were assessed using subscales of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - SAD Version (SIGH-SAD...
Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.
This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…
Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.
Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…
Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…
Kroenke, K; Swindle, R
Few treatments for somatization have been proven effective. In the past decade, however, clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have been promising. Our aim was to critically review and synthesize the evidence from these trials. A search of the Medline database from 1966 through July 1999 was conducted to identify controlled trials designed to evaluate the efficacy of CBT in patients with somatization or symptom syndromes. A total of 31 controlled trials (29 randomized and 2 nonrandomized) were identified. Twenty-five studies targeted a specific syndrome (e.g. chronic fatigue, irritable bowel, pain) while 6 focused on more general somatization or hypochondriasis. Primary outcome assessment included physical symptoms, psychological distress and functional status in 28, 26 and 19 studies, respectively. Physical symptoms appeared the most responsive: CBT-treated patients improved more than control subjects in 71% of the studies and showed possibly greater improvement (i.e., a trend) in another 11% of the studies. A definite or possible advantage of CBT for reducing psychological distress was demonstrated in only 38 and 8% of studies, and for improving functional status in 47 and 26%. Group therapy and interventions as brief as 5 sessions proved efficacious. Benefits were sustained for up to 12 months. CBT can be an effective treatment for patients with somatization or symptom syndromes. Benefits can occur whether or not psychological distress is ameliorated. Since chronic symptoms are exceptionally common and most studies were conducted in referral populations, the optimal sequencing of CBT in treating primary care patients and the identification of those most likely to accept and respond to therapy should be further evaluated. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Baliatsas, Christos, E-mail: email@example.com [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamp, Irene van, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, Wim, E-mail: email@example.com [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hooiveld, Mariëtte, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Yzermans, Joris, E-mail: J.Yzermans@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands)
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other
Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A
Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Swart, Wim; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Yzermans, Joris
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other
Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.
Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A
Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes.
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza. Participants filled out quantitative questionnaires, which relate to the pathological consequences of continuous exposure to security threats, and to the role of the school and the community as a protective environment against disruptive behavior resulting from such exposure. The findings revealed that PTSS responses were mainly related to the security threat, whereas interpersonal aggression resulted from other types of traumatic events. Significant differences were found between aggression and posttraumatic symptoms, by age and gender. PTSS was found to be lower for older participants and higher for girls, whereas aggression was higher for boys and higher for older participants. Furthermore, the sense of belonging to the place of residence was negatively associated with PTSS as well as with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging, the lower their levels of PTSS and aggressive responses. In contrast, the sense of belonging to the school was negatively associated only with aggressive behavior: the higher the participants' sense of belonging to the school, the lower their aggressive responses. The findings are discussed in the light of trauma theories and in light of the results of previous research. The study contributed to knowledge about the differential consequences of exposure to a security threat, and highlighted the importance of
Zimmaro, Lauren A; Sephton, Sandra E; Siwik, Chelsea J; Phillips, Kala M; Rebholz, Whitney N; Kraemer, Helena C; Giese-Davis, Janine; Wilson, Liz; Bumpous, Jeffrey M; Cash, Elizabeth D
Head and neck cancers are associated with high rates of depression, which may increase the risk for poorer immediate and long-term outcomes. Here it was hypothesized that greater depressive symptoms would predict earlier mortality, and behavioral (treatment interruption) and biological (treatment response) mediators were examined. Patients (n = 134) reported depressive symptomatology at treatment planning. Clinical data were reviewed at the 2-year follow-up. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with significantly shorter survival (hazard ratio, 0.868; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.819-0.921; P ratio, 0.865; 95% CI, 0.774-0.966; P = .010), and poorer treatment response (odds ratio, 0.879; 95% CI, 0.803-0.963; P = .005). The poorer treatment response partially explained the depression-survival relation. Other known prognostic indicators did not challenge these results. Depressive symptoms at the time of treatment planning predict overall 2-year mortality. Effects are partly influenced by the treatment response. Depression screening and intervention may be beneficial. Future studies should examine parallel biological pathways linking depression to cancer survival, including endocrine disruption and inflammation. Cancer 2018;124:1053-60. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Babowitch, Jacklyn D; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P
Previous research has reported an association between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore whether gender moderates this association in a sample of HIV-positive African-Americans. Participants (N = 93) self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D), and sexual risk behavior for the past 4 months. Analyses revealed that the depressive symptoms-by-gender interaction was associated with condomless sex and substance use proximal to sex. When analyses were stratified by gender, depressive symptoms were associated with condomless sex and frequency of substance use only for women. We conclude that depressive symptoms may be a more powerful sexual risk factor among women relative to men.
Sajith, Sreedharan Geetha; Liew, Siew Fai; Tor, Phern Chern
There are several reports of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the context of catatonic symptoms. We describe response to ECT in two adults with ASD and intellectual disability with intractable aggression and self-injurious behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms who had not responded to standard interventions. Unilateral ECT at a frequency of 3 times a week was given followed by weekly maintenance ECT. Patients' catatonic symptoms included episodes of agitation and echophenomena. Electroconvulsive therapy resulted in significant improvement in their behavior problems but 1 patient relapsed when the ECT was discontinued or frequency of treatment reduced. The second patient required 2 courses of ECT before improvement which was maintained on weekly ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy could be a potentially beneficial intervention in patients with ASD and severe challenging behaviors associated with catatonic symptoms including agitated or excited forms of catatonia.
Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J
This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.
R. C. Hamdy MD
Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.
Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter
This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…
Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.
Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…
Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy
This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…
L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter)
textabstractThis study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form,
Lovell, Geoff P; Nash, Kim; Sharman, Rachael; Lane, Ben R
Transitioning to university involves a major life change that can have implications for physical and mental health. This study had three objectives: first, assess the mental health and health-behavior participation of Australian university students; second, evaluate clustering of health behaviors; and third, examine how mental health relates to health behaviors. University students (n = 751) enrolled at an Australian regional university completed an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and a health-behavior questionnaire. Over one-third of students reported mild or higher mental illness symptoms and most reported engaging in multiple unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, mental health was associated with unhealthy behaviors. For males, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast and poor sleep quality. For females, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast, inadequate vigorous physical activity, and short or long sleep hours. Stress symptoms in females were associated with healthy sleep hours, but poor sleep quality. Future research may consider whether an intervention targeting one or two key health behaviors has utility in improving participation in other health behaviors and mental health. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Poletti, Piero; Visintainer, Roberto; Lepri, Bruno; Merler, Stefano
Mixing patterns of human populations play a crucial role in shaping the spreading paths of infectious diseases. The diffusion of mobile and wearable devices able to record close proximity interactions represents a great opportunity for gathering detailed data on social interactions and mixing patterns in human populations. The aim of this study is to investigate how social interactions are affected by the onset of symptomatic conditions and to what extent the heterogeneity in human behavior can reflect a different risk of infection. We study the relation between individuals' social behavior and the onset of different symptoms, by making use of data collected in 2009 among students sharing a dormitory in a North America university campus. The dataset combines Bluetooth proximity records between study participants with self-reported daily records on their health state. Specifically, we investigate whether individuals' social activity significantly changes during different symptomatic conditions, including those defining Influenza-like illness, and highlight to what extent possible heterogeneities in social behaviors among individuals with similar age and daily routines may be responsible for a different risk of infection for influenza. Our results suggest that symptoms associated with Influenza-like illness can be responsible of a reduction of about 40% in the average duration of contacts and of 30% in the daily time spent in social interactions, possibly driven by the onset of fever. However, differences in the number of daily contacts were found to be not statistically significant. In addition, we found that individuals who experienced clinical influenza during the study period were characterized by a significantly higher social activity. In particular, both the number of person-to-person contacts and the time spent in social interactions emerged as significant risk factors for influenza infection. Our findings highlight that Influenza-like illness can remarkably
Lee, Kristen; Hutton, Heidi E; Lesko, Catherine R; Monroe, Anne K; Alvanzo, Anika; McCaul, Mary E; Chander, Geetanjali
Alcohol misuse is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk behaviors by women. Drug use, intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur, are well-recognized alcohol misuse comorbidities, and may interact to increase risk behaviors. Using a syndemic framework we examined associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors by 400 women with alcohol misuse attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. Participants completed computer-assisted interviews querying drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior outcomes-unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol, sex for drugs/money, and number of lifetime sexual partners. We used multivariable analysis to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for independent and joint associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and our outcomes. To investigate synergy between risk factors we calculated the relative excess prevalence owing to interaction for all variable combinations. In multivariable analysis, drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms alone and in combination were associated with higher prevalence/count of risk behaviors compared with women with alcohol misuse alone. The greatest prevalence/count occurred when all three were present (unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9]), sex for money or drugs [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2], and number of lifetime partners [PR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2]). Drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms did not interact synergistically to increase sexual risk behavior prevalence. A higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by women with alcohol misuse combined with drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms supports the need for alcohol interventions addressing these additional comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleinstäuber, Maria; Lambert, Michael J; Hiller, Wolfgang
Early dramatic treatment response suggests a subset of patients who respond to treatment before most of it has been offered. These early responders tend to be over represented among those who are well at termination and at follow-up. Early response patterns in psychotherapy have been investigated only for a few of mental disorders so far. The main aim of the current study was to examine early response after five therapy-preparing sessions of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). In the context of a randomized, waiting-list controlled trial 48 patients who suffered from ≥3 MUS over ≥6 months received 5 therapy-preparing sessions and 20 sessions of CBT for somatoform disorders. They completed self-report scales of somatic symptom severity (SOMS-7 T), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (BSI), illness anxiety and behavior (IAS) at pre-treatment, after 5 therapy-preparing sessions (FU-5P) and at therapy termination (FU-20 T). The current analyses are based on data from the treatment arm only. Repeated measure ANOVAs revealed a significant decrease of depression (d = 0.34), anxiety (d = 0.60), illness anxiety (d = 0.38) and illness behavior (d = 0.42), but no change of somatic symptom severity (d = -0.03) between pre-treatment and FU-5P. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses showed that symptom improvements between pre-treatment and FU-5P predict a better outcome at therapy termination for depression and illness anxiety, after controlling for pre-treatment scores. Mixed-effect ANOVAs revealed significant group*time interaction effects indicating differences in the course of symptom improvement over the therapy between patients who fulfilled a reliable change (i.e., early response) during the 5 therapy-preparing sessions and patients who did not reach an early reliable change. Demographic or clinical variables at pre-treatment were not significantly correlated with differential scores between pre
Hawley, Lance L; Padesky, Christine A; Hollon, Steven D; Mancuso, Enza; Laposa, Judith M; Brozina, Karen; Segal, Zindel V
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies. Bivariate latent difference score (LDS) longitudinal analyses were used to examine patterns of differential skill use and subsequent symptom change, and multigroup LDS analyses were used to determine whether longitudinal associations differed as a function of initial depression severity. Higher levels of BA use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms for patients with mild to moderate initial depression symptoms relative to those with severe symptoms. Higher levels of CR use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of CB use were followed by a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms, regardless of initial severity. Results indicated that the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential patterns of subsequent symptom change. BA use was associated with differential subsequent change as a function of initial severity (patients with less severe depression symptoms demonstrated greater symptom improvement), whereas CR use was associated with symptom alleviation and CB use with an increase in subsequent symptoms as related to initial severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Hyunjoo; Seong, Sujeong; Park, Soowon; Lee, Jun-Young
One caregiver relationship that has been neglected in caregiver depression research is the daughter-in-law. Compared with Western countries, in which those who are closer in familial relationships such as the spouse or child usually take care of the patient, in many Asian countries, the daughter-in-law often assumes the caretaker role. However, not much research has been done on how this relationship may result in different caregiver outcomes. We sought to identify whether the association between patient characteristics and caregiver depressive symptoms differs according to the familial relationship between caregiver and patient. Ninety-five daughter (n = 47) and daughter-in-law (n = 48) caregivers of dementia patients were asked to report their own depressive symptoms and patient behavioral symptoms. Patients' cognitive abilities, daily activities, and global dementia ratings were obtained. Hierarchical linear regression was employed to determine predictors of depressive symptoms. Daughters-in-law had marginally higher depressive scores. After adjusting for caregiver and patient characteristics, in both groups, greater dependency in activities of daily living and more severe and frequent behavioral symptoms predicted higher caregiver depressive scores. However, greater severity and frequency of behavioral symptoms predicted depression to a greater degree in daughters compared with daughters-in-law. Although behavioral symptoms predicted depression in both caregiver groups, the association was much stronger for daughters. This suggests that the emotional relationship between the daughter and patient exacerbates the negative effect of behavioral symptoms on caregiver depression. The familial relationship between the caregiver and dementia patient should be considered in managing caregiver stress.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Extant literature has documented a significant relationship between borderline symptoms and substance use disorders. As supported in past work, there is a significant theoretical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors because both disorders share common underlying behaviors and traits. There is no known research that has examined the empirical relationship between borderline symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors in a population with substance use disorders. To fill this important gap in the literature, this relationship was examined in the current study. Medical records from 120 women admitted to a private, residential treatment program for substance use disorders were reviewed for the current study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that borderline symptoms were significantly associated with compulsive sexual behaviors after controlling for alcohol use and problems, drug use and problems, age, and positive impression management. Results from this study provide potentially important research and clinical implications, which could ultimately aid treatment and reduce relapse. However, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between symptoms and compulsive sexual behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS vary. Non-drug psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences.Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the studentsResults: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012. Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012.Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female college students.
Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Marelli, Sara; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Högl, Birgit; Birgit, Högl; Manni, Raffaele; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Fantini, Maria-Livia; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Sonka, Karel; Santamaria, Joan; Zucconi, Marco; Rancoita, Paola M V; Leu-Semenescu, Smeranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Terzaghi, Michele; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Unger, Marcus; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Desautels, Alex; Wolfson, Christina; Pelletier, Amélie; Montplaisir, Jacques
Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic symptoms between our iRBD patients and controls emerged in the gastrointestinal domain. Interestingly, it has been reported that an altered gastrointestinal motility can predate the motor phase of PD. The cardiovascular domain SCOPA-AUT score in our study in iRBD patients was intermediate with respect to the scores reported in PD patients by other authors. Our findings underline the importance of collecting data on autonomic symptoms in iRBD. These data may be used in prospective studies for evaluating the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.
Ana Rita Ferreira
Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun
The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.
Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A
Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K.; Strazielle, C.
The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. PMID:22373961
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi
Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pemberton, Caroline K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Ge, Xiaojia
This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers' behavior problems through the longitudinal and multigenerational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9 months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways.
He, J. (Jin); Koot, Hans; Buil, J.M. (J. Marieke); Lier, Pol
textabstractHolding a low social position among peers has been widely demonstrated to be associated with the development of depressive and aggressive symptoms in children. However, little is known about potential protective factors in this association. The present study examined whether increases in children’s prosocial behavior can buffer the association between their low social preference among peers and the development of depressive and aggressive symptoms in the first few school years. We...
Woodman, Ashley C.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.
Little is known about outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into adulthood. Several characteristics of individuals with ASD predict long-term outcomes, and the family environment may also play a role. The present study uses a prospective, longitudinal design to describe and predict trajectories of autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors over 8.5 years in a large, community-based sample of adolescents and adults with ASD. Overall, autism symptoms and maladaptive behav...
William Collinge; Paul Yarnold; Robert Soltysik
Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic pain condition that is difficult to treat. The prevailing approach is an integration of pharmacological, psycho-educational, and behavioral strategies. Information technology offers great potential for FM sufferers to systemically monitor symptoms as well as potential impacts of various management strategies. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate effects of a web-based, self-monitoring and symptom management system (SMARTLog) that analyzes perso...
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Little research has examined the way in which perceptions of peer behavior (i.e., descriptive norms) influence externalizing behavior among rural adolescents. Using a social norms framework, the current study examined gender differences in the relationship between perceived delinquency among friends and externalizing behavior in a sample of rural adolescents. Based on previous research, the authors proposed that adolescents experience negative emotional responses when they believe that their peers are engaging in delinquency, which subsequently influences externalizing behavior. Consequently, internalizing symptoms were explored as a mediator of the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior. Data came from the NC-ACE Rural Adaptation Project, a longitudinal panel study of adolescents in two rural, economically disadvantaged counties with exceptional racial/ethnic diversity (29 % White, 25 % African American, 25 % American Indian, 12 % Mixed Race/Other, 9 % Hispanic/Latino). Using multiple group structural equation modeling (N = 3489; 51 % female), results indicated that perceived friend delinquency was significantly related to externalizing behavior and this relationship did not vary by gender. Internalizing symptoms fully mediated the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior and the path between perceived friend delinquency and internalizing symptoms was stronger for males. Implications of these relationships for prevention and intervention programming for externalizing behavior were highlighted.
Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B
Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a
Leung, Cherry Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary
Prospectively childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem are associated with depression. However, these mental health changes over time have never been examined. This study assessed the association of childhood behavioral trajectories and self-esteem changes over time with adolescent depressive symptoms. Parent-reported Rutter behavioral assessments and self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories (SEI) were obtained via record linkage from the Student Health Service, Department of Health (Hong Kong), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depressive symptom scores were obtained via active follow-up of the Hong Kong's Children of 1997" Chinese birth cohort. Partitional clustering was used to generate homogenous trajectories between ~ 7 and ~ 11 years for Rutter scores. Changes in low self-esteem between ~ 10 and ~ 12 years were obtained from the SEI. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate their associations with depressive symptom scores at ~ 13 years. Four trajectories/groups (stable low, declining, rising, and stable high) of Rutter score and self-esteem groups were created. The stable low behavioral trajectory was associated with the fewest depressive symptoms while the stable high trajectory had 1.23 more depressive symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.61] than the stable low trajectory. Consistently low self-esteem (stable low) was associated with 2.96 more depressive symptoms (95% CI 2.35-3.57) compared to consistently high self-esteem (stable high). Sustained or worsening childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem were precursors of adolescent depressive symptoms, and as such could be an early indicator of the need for intervention.
Cao, Xing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Zhang, Jianxin; Elhai, Jon D
Given the significant modifications to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom criteria from DSM-IV to DSM-5, a better understanding of the dimensionality underlying DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents is needed. However, to date, whether gender moderates the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in youth remains unclear. Meanwhile, little is known about how distinct PTSD dimensions relate to adolescent behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. A sample of 1184 disaster-exposed Chinese adolescents (53.8 % girls) with age ranging from 13 to 17 years (M = 14.3, SD = 0.8) completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, and the Withdrawn, Aggressive Behavior, and Delinquent Behavior subscales of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model provided the best fit to the data for both girls and boys. Measurement equivalence of this model held across gender, although girls had higher mean scores than boys on some factors. Differential patterns of associations emerged between PTSD dimensions and behavioral problems, with anhedonia symptoms most strongly relating to social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior symptoms most strongly relating to aggression and delinquency. These findings further support the gender invariance and external criterion validity of the newly refined hybrid model that best represents DSM-5 PTSD symptom structure in youth, and carry implications for accurate assessment, diagnosis, and gender comparison of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology, and potential symptom targets for PTSD intervention among adolescent disaster survivors.
Browne, Dillon T.; Tannock, Rosemary
Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors. PMID:25083349
Andrade, Brendan F; Browne, Dillon T; Tannock, Rosemary
Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.
Brendan F. Andrade
Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.
Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Richardson, Caroline R; Holleman, Rob G; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Kriska, Andrea M
Examine the association between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms among overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Randomized clinical trial; Weight Assessment and Intervention in Schizophrenia Treatment (WAIST) Study: baseline data collected 2005-2008. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Community-dwelling adults diagnosed with SZO/SA, with mild symptom severity [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)losing weight, age 18-70years, BMI>27kg/m(2). Objectively measured sedentary behavior by accelerometry, and psychopathology assessed by PANSS. Participants wore the actigraphs for 7 consecutive days during their waking hours. Sedentary behavior was defined as ≤100 counts per minute during wear-time and excluded sleep and non-wear time. On average, 81% of the participant's monitoring time or 756min/day was classified as sedentary behavior using accelerometry. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and PANSS psychiatric symptoms [total (p≥0.75), positive (p≥0.81), negative (p≥0.59) and general psychopathology (p≥0.65) subscales]. No association was observed between sedentary behaviors and age, race, gender and BMI. From a clinical and public health perspective, the amount of time (approximately 13h) and percentage of time (81% excluding non-wear time associated with sleeping) engaged in sedentary behavior among overweight and obese adults in this population is alarming, and points to an urgent need for interventions to decrease sedentary behaviors. The lack of associations between sedentary behavior and psychiatric symptoms may be due to a ceiling effect for sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Walker, Lynn S; Romano, Joan M; Christie, Dennis L; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M; Feld, Andrew D; Ballard, Sheri A; Welsh, Ericka M; Jeffery, Robert W; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J; Whitehead, William E
Unexplained abdominal pain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominal pain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions-a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition.
Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.
Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C; McQuaid, John R
Identifying treatments to improve functioning and reduce negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia is of high public health significance. In this randomized clinical trial, participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 149) were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) or an active goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC) control condition. CBSST combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem-solving training to improve functioning and negative symptoms. GFSC was weekly supportive group therapy focused on setting and achieving functioning goals. Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey [ILSS]), CBSST skill knowledge, positive and negative symptoms, depression, and defeatist performance attitudes. In mixed-effects regression models in intent-to-treat analyses, CBSST skill knowledge, functioning, amotivation/asociality negative symptoms, and defeatist performance attitudes improved significantly more in CBSST relative to GFSC. In both treatment groups, comparable improvements were also found for positive symptoms and a performance-based measure of social competence. The results suggest CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning and experiential negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and supportive group therapy actively focused on setting and achieving functioning goals can improve social competence and reduce positive symptoms.
Turner, Alezandria K; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S Darius
To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N=617; age 16-23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veenman, Betty; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program), a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers' involvement with the training. Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6-13) displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment ( n = 58) or control group ( n = 65). ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects. Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures. Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child's behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711.
Hart, Shelley R; Van Eck, Kathryn; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Musci, Rashelle J; Newcomer, Alison; Wilcox, Holly C
Because suicide attempts are multi-determined events, multiple pathways to suicidal behaviors exist. However, as a low-frequency behavior, within group differences in trajectories to attempts may not emerge when examined in samples including non-attempters. We used longitudinal latent profile analysis to identify subtypes specific for suicide attempters based on longitudinal trajectories of childhood clinical symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and aggression measured in 2nd, 4th-7th grades) for 161 young adults (35.6% male; 58.6% African American) who attempted suicide between ages 13-30 from a large, urban community-based, longitudinal prevention trial (n = 2311). Differences in psychiatric diagnoses, suicide attempt characteristics, criminal history and traumatic stress history were studied. Three subtypes emerged: those with all low (n = 32%), all high (n = 16%), and high depressive/anxious, but low aggressive (n = 52%) symptoms. Those with the highest levels of all symptoms were significantly more likely to report a younger age of suicide attempt, and demonstrate more substance abuse disorders and violent criminal histories. Prior studies have found that childhood symptoms of depression, anxiety and aggression are malleable targets; interventions directed at each reduce future risk for suicidal behaviors. Our findings highlight the link of childhood aggression with future suicidal behaviors extending this research by examining childhood symptoms of aggression in the context of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine
To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C
Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nonneman Dan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.
Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.
This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…
Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body
Chardon, Marie L; Janicke, David M; Carmody, Julia K; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C
Internalizing symptoms increase the risk for disordered eating; however, the mechanism through which this relationship occurs remains unclear. Sleep-related problems may be a potential link as they are associated with both emotional functioning and disordered eating. The present study aims to evaluate the mediating roles of two sleep-related problems (sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness) in the relationship between youth internalizing symptoms and disordered eating, and to explore if age moderates these relations. Participants were 225 youth (8-17years) attending a primary care appointment. Youth and legal guardians completed questionnaires about youth disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, internalizing symptoms, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleepiness. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were utilized. The mediation model revealed both youth sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness independently mediated the association between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and explained 18% of the variance in disordered eating. The moderated mediation model including youth age accounted for 21% of the variance in disordered eating; youth age significantly interacted with sleep disturbance, but not with daytime sleepiness, to predict disordered eating. Sleep disturbance only mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating in youth 12years old and younger, while daytime sleepiness was a significant mediator regardless of age. As sleep-related problems are frequently improved with the adoption of health behaviors conducive to good sleep, these results may suggest a relatively modifiable and cost-effective target to reduce youth risk for disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Given the important role of family environment in children's psychological development, the objective of this study was to examine the linkages between family factors at the whole, dyadic, and individual levels and two dimensions (affective and behavioral of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD symptoms in Chinese children. Participants comprised of 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads from families with ODD children. The results indicated that multilevel family factors were differently associated with children's affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. All the family factors at the dyadic and individual levels were significantly associated with child affective ODD symptoms. However, only the most proximal factors (parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation, which were directly related to child were significantly related to child behavioral ODD symptoms. The present study extends the current knowledge regarding the relationships between family factors and two dimensions of child ODD symptoms by testing the comprehensive multilevel family factors model. This study also recommends that future interventions for ODD children should consider the multi-level family factors to enhance intervention efficacy.
Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...
Paap, Muirne C. S.; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Frøydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with
Muirne C. S. Paap
Full Text Available Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS, a prospective longitudinal total population study of children’s developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N=9430. All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases and parent (6253 complete cases report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV, and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if
Paap, Muirne C S; Haraldsen, Ira R; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R; Hellem, Frøydis M; Stormark, Kjell M
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7-9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with
Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…
Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.
Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn
This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…
Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill
The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.
Massimo, Lauren; Kales, Helen C; Kolanowski, Ann
Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy. In this article, we modify a current conceptual model of the factors contributing to BPSDs to examine determinants of apathy. This integrative model provides a more complete and theoretically informed understanding of apathy, allowing for greater insight into potential targets for research, intervention, and care. We end by proposing an agenda for moving the science of BPSDs in general, and apathy in particular, forward. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.
Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda
No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the
Dieleman, L.M. (Lisa M.); S.S.W. de Pauw (Sarah); Soenens, B. (Bart); Mabbe, E. (Elien); Campbell, R. (Rachel); P.J. Prinzie (Peter)
textabstractResearch in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not
R. C. Hamdy MD
Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.
Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas
This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Cremonini, F; Camilleri, M; Clark, MM; Beebe, TJ; Locke, GR; Zinsmeister, AR; Herrick, LM; Talley, NJ
Background The psychological symptoms associated with binge eating disorder (BED) have been well documented. However, the physical symptoms associated with BED have not been explored. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as heartburn and diarrhea are more prevalent in obese adults, but the associations remain unexplained. Patients with bulimia have increased gastric capacity. The objective of the study was to examine if the severity of binge eating episodes would be associated with upper and lower GI symptoms. Methods Population-based survey of community residents through a mailed questionnaire measuring GI symptoms, frequency of binge eating episodes and physical activity level. The association of GI symptoms with frequency of binge eating episodes was assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level. Results In 4096 subjects, BED was present in 6.1%. After adjusting for BMI, age, gender, race, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and physical activity level, BED was independently associated with the following upper GI symptoms: acid regurgitation (P symptoms: diarrhea (P symptoms in the general population, independent of the level of obesity. The relationship between increased GI symptoms and physiological responses to increased volume and calorie loads, nutritional selections and rapidity of food ingestion in individuals with BED deserves further study. PMID:19139750
Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD is an important feature of dementia. However, this definition comprises a large array of symptoms and syndromes. This hampers understanding of the behavior of patients with dementia and the devising of strategies to ameliorate these symptoms. Objectives: This review aimed to describe the main factors and syndromes that comprise BPSD, as well as neuroimaging, psychopharmacological, and genetic data derived from studies of these factors. Methods: A search on the Medline, Scielo, and ISI databases was performed using the keyword BPSD for articles published within the last five years. Selected publications were favored, so this review should not be regarded as a systematic study on the subject. Results: The main factors and syndromes comprising BPSD were identified, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. Different ways of clustering symptoms were considered. The main manifestations of psychosis, apathy and depression were focused, relating phenomenology to neuroimaging and pharmacological issues. Conclusions: BPSD is a heterogeneous array of symptoms which can be better understood as clusters. At least three factors can be separated in BSPD, namely psychosis, depression, and activity. This division may offer guidance to clinicians regarding treatment management and follow up of the chosen therapeutic strategy.
Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.
Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.
Ni, Hsing-Chang; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Tseng, Yu-Han
Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4–6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress—parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents’ stress resulted from their child’s temperament—were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores. PMID:29016602
Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H
Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. METHODS: The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach (1988, through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. FINDINGS: The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women's decision-making about utilizing health services. CONCLUSION: Help seeking
Dekker, Alain D; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G Danielle E; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M W; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two training methods of emotional regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT and gross emotion regulation process model(GERM in reducing symptoms of emotional problems (depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 45 students who referred to Isfahan university center by themselves, randomly selected between the students who have emotional problems, they randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and a waiting list group. One of the experimental group received DBT and another on GERM. The data obtained using SCL-90-R and psychological interview (in pre- post test and follow-up. Results: 1- Both experimental methods reduce interpersonal sensitivity of students. 2- Just DBT reduced depression symptoms. 3- Both experimental methods reduce anxiety symptoms but in DBT, recurrent anxiety symptoms were observed in follow up stage. Also these methods had different effect on anxiety symptoms. 4- None of the above methods could reduce hostility symptoms. Conclusion: Those findings showed effectiveness of two training methods of emotional regulation on emotion problems. We could use GERM method for intervention in anxiety, DBT method for intervention in depression and both method for intervention in interpersonal sensitivity
Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Embacher, Rebecca; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Constantino, John N.; Law, Paul; Findling, Robert L.; Eng, Charis
Demographic and clinical factors may influence assessment of autism symptoms. This study evaluated these correlates and also examined whether social communication and interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior provided unique prediction of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. We analyzed data from 7352 siblings included in the Interactive…
Shi, Jingyuan Jolie; Smith, Sandi W
This study examined the effect of moderately repeated exposure (three times) to a fear appeal message on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) variables of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions for the recommended behaviors in the message, as well as the proportions of systematic and message-related thoughts generated after each message exposure. The results showed that after repeated exposure to a fear appeal message about preventing melanoma, perceived threat in terms of susceptibility and perceived efficacy in terms of response efficacy significantly increased. The behavioral intentions of all recommended behaviors did not change after repeated exposure to the message. However, after the second exposure the proportions of both systematic and all message-related thoughts (relative to total thoughts) significantly decreased while the proportion of heuristic thoughts significantly increased, and this pattern held after the third exposure. The findings demonstrated that the predictions in the EPPM are likely to be operative after three exposures to a persuasive message.
Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Lem, Frederik C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano; Geurts, Alexander C H
To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety poststroke. Multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Patients who had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale (HADS-D) score >7 at least 3 months poststroke (N=61). Participants were randomly allocated to either augmented CBT or computerized cognitive training (CCT). The CBT intervention was based on the principles of recognizing, registering, and altering negative thoughts and cognitions. CBT was augmented with goal-directed real-life activity training given by an occupational or movement therapist. HADS-D was the primary outcome, and measures of participation and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and at 4- and 8-month follow-up. Analysis was performed with linear mixed models using group (CBT vs CCT) as the between-subjects factor and time (4 assessments) as the within-subjects factor. Mixed model analyses showed a significant and persistent time effect for HADS-D (mean difference, -4.6; 95% confidence interval, -5.7 to -3.6; P<.001) and for participation and quality of life in both groups. There was no significant group × time effect for any of the outcome measures. Our augmented CBT intervention was not superior to CCT for the treatment of mood disorders after stroke. Future studies should determine whether both interventions are better than natural history. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gjerde, Line C; Eilertsen, Espen Moen; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; McAdams, Tom A; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Zambrana, Imac Maria; Røysamb, Espen; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ystrom, Eivind
Previous studies have found significant associations between maternal prenatal and postpartum depression and child behavior problems (CBP). The present study investigates whether associations remain in a prospective, longitudinal design adjusted for familial confounding. The sample comprised 11,599 families including 17,830 siblings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported depressive symptoms at gestational weeks 17 and 30, as well as 6 months, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Fathers' depression was measured at gestational week 17. At the last three time-points, child internalizing and externalizing problems were concurrently assessed. We performed multilevel analyses for internalizing and externalizing problems separately, using parental depression as predictors. Analyses were repeated using a sibling comparison design to adjust for familial confounding. All parental depressive time-points were significantly and positively associated with child internalizing and externalizing problems. After sibling comparison, however, only concurrent maternal depression was significantly associated with internalizing [estimate = 2.82 (1.91-3.73, 95% CI)] and externalizing problems [estimate = 2.40 (1.56-3.23, 95% CI)]. The effect of concurrent maternal depression on internalizing problems increased with child age. Our findings do not support the notion that perinatal maternal depression is particularly detrimental to children's psychological development, as the most robust effects were found for maternal depression occurring during preschool years. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Bouwman, Leanne; Notermans, Sabine
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition (as an index of anxiety proneness), and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children aged 8-13 years (N = 126), using children's self-report data. Results showed that there were positive and significant correlations between shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms. When controlling for the overlap between shame and guilt, it was found that shame (but not guilt) remained significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety proneness and anxiety symptoms. Further, when controlling for the effect of behavioral inhibition, shame still accounted for a significant proportion of the variance of total anxiety and generalized anxiety scores. For these anxiety problems, support emerged for a model in which shame acted as a partial mediator in the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety. These results indicate that the self-conscious emotion of shame is a robust correlate of anxiety pathology in children.
Place, Skyler; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Rubin, Channah; Gorrostieta, Cristina; Mead, Caroline; Kane, John; Marx, Brian P; Feast, Joshua; Deckersbach, Thilo; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Nierenberg, Andrew; Azarbayejani, Ali
There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial. Behavioral indicators were collected through the noninvasive mobile sensing platform on participants' mobile phones. Clinical symptoms were measured through validated clinical interviews with a licensed clinical social worker. A combination hypothesis and data-driven approach was used to derive key features for modeling symptoms, including the sum of outgoing calls, count of unique numbers texted, absolute distance traveled, dynamic variation of the voice, speaking rate, and voice quality. Participants also reported ease of use and data sharing concerns. Behavioral indicators predicted clinically assessed symptoms of depression and PTSD (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] for depressed mood=.74, fatigue=.56, interest in activities=.75, and social connectedness=.83). Participants reported comfort sharing individual data with physicians (Mean 3.08, SD 1.22), mental health providers (Mean 3.25, SD 1.39), and medical researchers (Mean 3.03, SD 1.36). Behavioral indicators passively collected through a mobile sensing platform predicted symptoms of depression and PTSD. The use of mobile sensing platforms can provide clinically validated behavioral indicators in real time; however, further validation of these models and this platform in large clinical samples is needed. ©Skyler Place, Danielle Blanch-Hartigan, Channah Rubin, Cristina Gorrostieta
Ruwaard, J.; Lange, A.; Broeksteeg, J.; Renteria Agirre, A.; Schrieken, B.; Dolan, C.V.; Emmelkamp, P.
Background: Manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is underutilized in the treatment of bulimic symptoms. Internet-delivered treatment may reduce current barriers. Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new online CBT of bulimic symptoms. Method: Participants with bulimic
Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian
Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…
Andersen, Kristina Vaarst
, the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...
Marcelo Mendes de Souza
Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.
Crow, Scott J; Keel, Pamela K; Thuras, Paul; Mitchell, James E
The current study examined the change in bulimic symptoms as well as alcohol, drug, and tobacco use during pregnancy in subjects with bulimia nervosa. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect retrospective data on eating disorder symptoms and substance use during pregnancy from 129 participants in a long-term study of bulimia nervosa. Follow-up data were collected for a total of 322 pregnancies occurring over a 10-15-year period. Overall, subjects reported that body dissatisfaction worsened, but binge eating and purging improved during pregnancy. However, the number of women completely abstinent from bulimic symptoms did not change significantly with pregnancy. Body esteem often worsened with pregnancy, particularly for women with active bulimia symptoms. Self-reported alcohol use significantly declined with pregnancy. In general, bulimia nervosa symptoms decreased during pregnancy, although the number of women completely abstinent did not change significantly.
Vanina Lima Monteiro
Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric symptoms emerge in the early stages of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and patients often seek treatment in psychiatric departments before visiting any other general medical services. Numerous articles about anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been published in the scientific community worldwide, but few emphasize the role of psychiatry in symptom management.Case description: We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.Comments: Consultation-liaison psychiatry may help the healthcare team adjust the management of neuropsychiatric complications that might affect inpatients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Morgan, Amy J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Jorm, Anthony F
To evaluate whether automated e-mails promoting effective self-help strategies for depressive symptoms were effective in changing self-help behavior, and whether this improved depression outcomes. 568 adults with sub-threshold depression participated in a randomized controlled trial and provided complete data. A series of 12 e-mails promoting the use of evidence-based self-help strategies was compared with e-mails providing non-directive depression information. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and use of self-help strategies was assessed at baseline and post-intervention. We hypothesized that those receiving the self-help e-mails would increase their use of evidence-based self-help and this would be associated with improvements in depression. Mediation analyses were conducted using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Total use of the self-help strategies promoted in the e-mails significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms (B = -0.75, SE = 0.16, 95% CI: -1.06 to -0.48). The direct effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms was much smaller and not significant when the mediation path was included. The majority of the individual strategies also had a significant indirect effect on depressive symptoms. In adults with sub-threshold depression, automated e-mails based on behavior change principles can successfully increase use of self-help strategies, leading to a reduction in depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi
This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881
Brendan F. Andrade; Dillon T. Browne; Rosemary Tannock
Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate), or influence (i.e., moderate), peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female) refer...
Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.
Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea L
Mealtime behavioral symptoms are distressing and frequently interrupt eating for the individual experiencing them and others in the environment. A computer-assisted coding scheme was developed to measure caregiver person-centeredness and behavioral symptoms for nursing home residents with dementia during mealtime interactions. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility, ease of use, and inter-observer reliability of the coding scheme, and to explore the clinical utility of the coding scheme. Trained observers coded 22 observations. Data collection procedures were acceptable to participants. Overall, the coding scheme proved to be feasible, easy to execute and yielded good to very good inter-observer agreement following observer re-training. The coding scheme captured clinically relevant, modifiable antecedents to mealtime behavioral symptoms, but would be enhanced by the inclusion of measures for resident engagement and consolidation of items for measuring caregiver person-centeredness that co-occurred and were difficult for observers to distinguish. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dimitriadis, Dimitrios; Mamplekou, Efterpi; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Komessidou, Vasso; Dimitriadis, George; Papageorgiou, Charalambos
Recent research indicates an association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology, the nature of which remains obscure. This study examined the confounding role of behavioral factors on this association. One hundred and forty-two overweight/obese subjects who sought treatment for obesity, of both genders (51 males and 91 females), 18 to 64 years old and 139 normal-weight controls of both genders (41 males and 98 females), 18 to 63 years old, were enrolled in this study. We measured psychopathology features, using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), dietary habits, using the MedDietScore (MDS) questionnaire, and physical activity, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A series of regression models were used to estimate the mediation of dietary patterns and physical activity on the obesity-psychopathology association. The associations between obesity and depression (β=0.32/β=0.15), obsession-compulsion (β=0.03/β=-0.13), anxiety (β=-0.25/β=-0.12), interpersonal sensitivity (β=0.08/β=-0.04) and psychoticism (β=-0.01/ β=0.025) are accounted for by sedentary behavior and Mediterranean diet. Our data suggest that modifiable behavioral factors such as sedentary time and dietary patterns positively affect the association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology.
Scher, Christine D; Suvak, Michael K; Resick, Patricia A
This study examined (a) relationships between trauma-related cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from pretreatment through a long-term period after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD and (b) whether these relationships were impacted by treatment type. Participants were 171 women randomized into treatment for PTSD after rape. Measures of self-reported trauma-related cognitions and interviewer-assessed PTSD symptoms (i.e., Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale, Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory, and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) were obtained at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month, 9-month, and 5-10 year follow-ups. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine relationships between trauma-related cognitions and PTSD symptoms throughout the study period and whether these relationships differed as a function of treatment type (i.e., Cognitive Processing Therapy or Prolonged Exposure). Initial multilevel regression analyses that examined mean within-participant associations suggested that beliefs regarding Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others, Self-Worth and Judgment, Threat of Harm, and Guilt were related to PTSD symptoms throughout follow-up. Growth curve modeling suggested that patterns of belief change throughout follow-up were similar to those previously observed in PTSD symptoms over the same time period. Finally, multilevel mediation analyses that incorporated time further suggested that change in beliefs was related to change in symptoms throughout follow-up. With 1 minor exception, relationships between beliefs and symptoms were not moderated by treatment type. These data suggest that trauma-related cognitions are a potential mechanism for long-term maintenance of treatment gains after CBT for PTSD. Moreover, these cognitions may be a common, rather than specific, treatment maintenance mechanism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes, with a widely underestimated prevalence between 1 per 2000 and 1 per 6000. Since childhood, patients with 22q11.2DS are described as having difficulties to initiate and maintain peer relationships. This lack of social skills has been linked to attention deficits/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression. A high incidence of psychosis and positive symptoms is observed in patients with 22q11.2DS and remains correlated with poor social functioning, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Because 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia share several major clinical features, 22q11.2DS is sometimes considered as a genetic model for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, almost no study suggests the use of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) in this indication. We reviewed what should be learned from schizophrenia to develop specific intervention for 22q11.2DS. In our opinion, the first step of CBT approach in 22q11.2DS with psychotic symptoms is to identify precisely which tools can be used among the already available ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targets integrated disorders, i.e. reasoning biases and behavior disorders. In 22q11.2DS, CBT-targeted behavior disorders may take the form of social avoidance and withdrawal or, in the contrary, a more unusual disinhibition and aggressiveness. In our experience, other negative symptoms observed in 22q11.2DS, such as motivation deficit or anhedonia, may also be reduced by CBT. Controlled trials have been studying the benefits of CBT in schizophrenia and several meta-analyses proved its effectiveness. Therefore, it is legitimate to propose this tool in 22q11.2DS, considering symptoms similarities. Overall, CBT is the most effective psychosocial intervention on psychotic symptoms and remains a relevant complement to pharmacological treatments such as antipsychotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45 groups and control (n=45 using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in Carroll style while the control group received only methadone and the physical pills. All the participants completed coping strategies questionnaire at the beginning, during (after three months, and three months after treatment (follow-up. As well, they were assessed for the rate of improvement in symptoms of addiction and process of addiction treatment using by Madzly’s addiction profile questionnaire. Findings: The results proved the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its survival. Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is very influential in the boost of coping strategies and the improvement of mental and physical health in drug-dependent patients.
DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Pierpaoli, Christina M; Shah, Avani; Yang, Xin; Scogin, Forrest
We examined the effects of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression on anxiety symptoms in an ethnically diverse, low resource, and medically frail sample of rural, older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized clincial trial with 134 rural-dwelling adults 65 years and older with decreased quality of life and elevated psychological symptomatology. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the anxiety and phobic anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Compared to a minimal support control condition, CBT for depression resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety and phobic anxiety from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Home-delivered CBT for depression can be an effective treatment for anxiety in a hard-to-reach older populations. Additional research should explore integrated anxiety and depression protocols and other treatment modalities, including bibliotherapy or telehealth models of CBT, to reduce costs associated with its in home delivery. Flexibility in administration and adaptations to the CBT protocol may be necessary for use with vulnerable, rural older adults.
Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda
Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.
Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Dretzkat, Alecia
Background About 10% of health-care workers experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); the rate is higher among workers exposed to aggression. Objective We extended this research by examining PTSD and exposure to violence and other disturbing patient behaviors, among nursing and other staff on inpatient psychiatric units (forensic and nonforensic). Method Surveys were completed online or in person by 219 respondents (30% response rate). Participants indicated which disturbing behaviors they had been exposed to and ranked the worst three behaviors in each of three categories: most unpleasant to work with, most disruptive to patient care, and most upsetting. Most ( n = 192) also completed the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Results All but two participants reported exposure to at least one disturbing behavior and ranked violence, feces smearing, and screaming constantly as the worst experiences overall. On the PCL, 24% scored above the cut off for probable PTSD. Nursing staff had the highest scores, with no difference between nursing staff on forensic versus nonforensic units. PCL score showed a small positive correlation with the number of disturbing behaviors experienced. Conclusion PTSD symptoms are common among psychiatric hospital workers, not only nursing staff. Future research using clinical assessment, longitudinal designs, and measurement of nonviolent disturbing behaviors is recommended.
Choi, Scott Seung W; Budhathoki, Chakra; Gitlin, Laura N
To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined relationships of contributory factors to combinations of behaviors. Of 272 persons with dementia (PwDs), 41 (15%) had agitation alone (Agi), 3 (1%) had aggression alone, 5 (2%) had rejection of care alone. For behavioral combinations, 65 (24%) had agitation and aggression (Agi+Aggr), 35 (13%) had agitation and rejection (Agi+Rej), 1 (0%) had aggression and rejection, and 106 (39%) had all three behaviors (All). Four behavioral subgroups (Agi, Agi+Aggr, Agi+Rej, and All) were examined. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that there were significant group differences in PwD cognition, functional dependence, and caregiver frustration. PwDs in Agi+Rej and All were more cognitively impaired than those in Agi and Agi+Aggr. Also, caregivers in All were more frustrated than those in Agi. In logistic regression analyses, compared with Agi, greater cognitive impairment was a significant predictor of Agi+Rej and All, but not Agi+Aggr. In contrast, greater caregiver frustration was a significant predictor of Agi+Aggr and All, but not Agi+Rej. We found that agitation, aggression, and rejection are common but distinct behaviors. Combinations of these behaviors have different relationships with contributory factors, suggesting the need for targeting treatment approaches to clusters. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hughes, David P; Andersen, Sandra B; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L
Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied...... leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected...
Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.
Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Olsen, Else Marie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate infancy predictors of impairing functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at child ages 5-7 years with a focus on problems with feeding, sleep, and tactile reactivity. STUDY DESIGN: This study is part of a longitudinal birth cohort study, Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Child h...
Devaraj, Sheila; Rosian, Samsilah; Noah, Sidek Mohd; Mahyuddin, Rahil
The purpose of this study is to determine whether there was any significant correlation between symptoms of dyslexia in Malaysian students and discipline problems. A total of 197 standard 3 and 4 students from a national primary school were involved in the study. Findings show that there was a significant negative correlation between academic…
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.
The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…
Smith, April R; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph
This meta-analysis addressed whether eating disorders (EDs) are risk factors (i.e., longitudinal predictors) for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We identified 2,611 longitudinal studies published through August 1, 2017. Inclusion required studies include at least one longitudinal analysis predicting suicide ideation, attempt, or death using an ED diagnosis and/or symptom. Fourteen studies (42 prediction cases) met criteria. Results indicated that clinically diagnosed EDs and disordered eating symptoms were significant but weak predictors of suicide attempts but not death. Effects remained weak when moderators were considered. By reviewing the methodological limitations of previous research, these results highlight avenues for future research. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.
Barker, Edward D; Tremblay, Richard E; van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Nagin, Daniel S; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Jean R
There is growing evidence that among the different conduct disorder (CD) behaviors, physical aggression, but not theft, links to low neurocognitive abilities. Specifically, physical aggression has consistently been found to be negatively related to neurocognitive abilities, whereas theft has been shown to be either positively or not related to neurocognition. The specificity of these links needs further examination because attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) links to both physical aggression and neurocognitive variation. The development of self-reported physical aggression and theft, from age 11 to 17 years, was studied in a prospective at-risk male cohort via a dual process latent growth curve model. Seven neurocognitive tests at age 20 were regressed on the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft. The links between neurocognition and the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft were adjusted for ADHD symptoms at ages 11 and 15 (parent, child and teacher reports). Results indicated that verbal abilities were negatively related to physical aggression while they were positively associated with theft. However, inductive reasoning was negatively associated with increases in theft across adolescence. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for part of the neurocognitive test links with physical aggression but did not account for the associations with theft. These differences emphasize the importance of examining specific CD behaviors to better understand their neurodevelopmental mechanisms. They also suggest that youth who engage in different levels of physical aggression or theft behaviors may require different preventive and corrective interventions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
P. Lucas Ramirez
Full Text Available This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.
Ramirez, P. Lucas; Barnhill, Kelly; Gutierrez, Alan; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura
This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.
Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana
Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…
Li, Pan; Zhou, Yu-Ying; Lu, Da; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hui-Hong
Although the neuropathologic changes and diagnostic criteria for the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well-established, the clinical symptoms vary largely. Symptomatically, frontal variant of AD (fv-AD) presents very similarly to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which creates major challenges for differential diagnosis. Here, we report two patients who present with progressive cognitive impairment, early and prominent behavioral features, and significant frontotemporal lobe atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, consistent with an initial diagnosis of probable bvFTD. However, multimodal functional neuroimaging revealed neuropathological data consistent with a diagnosis of probable AD for one patient (pathology distributed in the frontal lobes) and a diagnosis of probable bvFTD for the other patient (hypometabolism in the bilateral frontal lobes). In addition, the fv-AD patient presented with greater executive impairment and milder behavioral symptoms relative to the bvFTD patient. These cases highlight that recognition of these atypical syndromes using detailed neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, and multimodal neuroimaging will lead to greater accuracy in diagnosis and patient management.
Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha
This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…
Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo
Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms
Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Seung-Sup
In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim's help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: 'seeking help' group; 'feeling nothing' group; 'not seeking help' group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the 'not seeking help' (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the 'seeking help' group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the 'feeling nothing' group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims' help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.
Full Text Available Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea, the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23 and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44 among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69, but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28. Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.
Xu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Meng; Huang, Liqun; Wang, Kefang
This study aimed to investigate the relationships among overactive bladder (OAB) symptom severity, bother, help-seeking behavior, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 127 diabetic patients, aged at least 18 years, with overactive bladder from a hospital in Shandong Province, China, were recruited for this study. Symptom severity, bother, and quality of life were assessed using the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form (OAB-q SF), respectively. Help-seeking behavior was assessed by asking patients whether they consulted health care professionals or received treatment for their bladder problems. A two-step path analysis was performed to analyze the data. OAB symptom severity was directly associated with lower levels of QOL, and the strength of this association was no longer significant when taking bother and help-seeking behavior into account. Bother increased with OAB symptom severity, and patients with bothersome OAB tended to have lower levels of QOL. Moreover, bother increased help-seeking behavior; however, patients who sought help tended to have lower levels of QOL. Our findings highlight the role of bother and help-seeking behavior in the relationship between OAB symptom severity and QOL. To improve a patient's QOL, health care providers should focus not only on symptom bother but also on dysfunctional help-seeking patterns.
Kehler, Heather; Austin, Marie-Paule; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Wajid, Abdul; Vermeyden, Lydia; Benzies, Karen; Brown, Stephanie; Stuart, Scott; Giallo, Rebecca
Background Most evidence of the association between maternal depression and children’s development is limited by being cross-sectional. To date, few studies have modelled trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the early postpartum years and examined their association with social emotional and behavior functioning in preschool children. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify distinct groups of women defined by their trajectories of depressive symptoms across four time points from mid-pregnancy to one year postpartum; and 2) examine the associations between these trajectories and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the All Our Families (AOF) study, a large, population based pregnancy cohort of mother-child dyads in Alberta, Canada. The AOF study is an ongoing pregnancy cohort study designed to investigate relationships between the prenatal and early life period and outcomes for children and mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Children’s behavioral functioning at age 3 was assessed using the Behavior Scales developed for the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Longitudinal latent class analysis was conducted to identify trajectories of women’s depressive symptoms across four time points from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationship between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and children’s behavior, while adjusting for other significant maternal, child and psychosocial factors. Results 1983 participants met eligibility criteria. We identified four distinct trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: low level (64.7%); early postpartum (10.9%); subclinical (18.8%); and persistent high (5.6%). In multivariable models, the proportion of children with elevated behavior symptoms was highest for children whose mothers had
Lee, Seulki; Shin, Aesun
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease which has been known to negatively influence the mental health of patients. However, only a few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric problems among AD patients, particularly among adolescents. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of AD with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents by analyzing data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide web-based survey. Data from 72,435 adolescent middle and high school students in Korea were analyzed. Students self-reported AD diagnosed by a doctor and yes-or-no answers to questions about depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Relationships between AD and depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors were tested by logistic regression models after controlling for potential confounding factors. The proportion of adolescents who had AD was 6.8%. The proportion of adolescents reporting depressive feelings was 31.0%, suicide ideation was 16.3%, suicide planning was 5.8%, and suicide attempts was 4.2%. Compared to adolescents without AD, adolescents with AD were significantly more likely to experience depressive feelings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.19-1.36), suicide ideation (OR: 1.34, 95% Cl: 1.24-1.45), suicide planning (OR: 1.46, 95% Cl: 1.32-1.65), and suicide attempts (OR: 1.51, 95% Cl: 1.33-1.72). In the multivariate model, the relationships between AD and suicide ideation (OR: 1.26, 95% Cl:1.16-1.36), suicide planning (OR: 1.28, 95% Cl:1.14-1.44), and suicide attempt (OR: 1.29, 95% Cl:1.13-1.49) were statistically significant. Adolescents who have AD are associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Adolescent AD patients may need interventions from clinicians and caregivers that use a holistic approach to prevent psychological comorbidities, although further research is needed to clarify this
Yoon, Susan; Barnhart, Sheila; Cage, Jamie
The primary aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal effects of ongoing physical abuse on the co-development of externalizing behavior problems and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among child welfare-involved adolescents. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we performed unconditional and conditional parallel process latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling framework. The study sample included 491 adolescents who were between 11 and 13 years of age at baseline. Higher levels of initial PTS symptoms were associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior problems, but the rate of change in PTS symptoms were not significantly associated with the rate of change in externalizing behavior problems over time. Although physical abuse was concurrently associated with both externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms at all assessment points, there were no lagged effects. Additionally, we found that physical abuse indirectly affects subsequent development of externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms through ongoing physical abuse. Findings highlight the comorbidity of externalizing behaviors and PTS symptoms among early adolescents in the child welfare system, underlining the importance of screening for and addressing these problems simultaneously. Findings also point to the need for continued assessment of and protection from ongoing physical abuse during adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.
Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C
While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.
Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases.
Lemieux, AF; Nehl, EJ; Lin, L; Tran, A; Yu, F; Wong, FY
In the present paper, we present a preliminary examination of the association of depression level, internet use, meeting sexual partners online, and unprotected sexual activity among Asian men who have sex with men (MSM). Because depression level has been previously linked to increased levels of sexual risk behavior, and heightened levels of Internet use has been linked to greater depressive symptoms, the present pilot research jointly examines these factors. We found that those with higher levels of depression, measured using the CES-D, spent more time online, met significantly more sexual partners online, and reported a significantly higher number of unprotected sexual acts. Based on this initial evidence, we conclude that incorporating CES-D to screen for depression can serve as an important tool for addressing underlying dynamics of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:24074630
Li, F; Tian, Y P; Liu, X M; Xia, R L; Jin, L M; Sun, X W; Song, X X; Yuan, W; Liang, H
Objective: To explore the associations between maternal and prenatal depressive symptoms and children's behavioral problems at 2 years old. Methods: In the present study, a total of 491 mother-child pairs were selected from the Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study (S-MBCS) which was conducted in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Minhang District in Shanghai between April and December, 2012. Data from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies on Depression was gathered to assess the maternal depressive symptoms in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, as well as at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Neurodevelopment at 2 years was assessed, using the Child Behavior Checklist. We used generalized linear models with a log-link function and a Binomial distribution to estimate the risk ratios ( RR s) and 95% CI s, on children's behavioral problems at 2 years of age. Sensitivity analyses were performed among participants without postpartum depressive symptoms. Results: After adjustment on factors as maternal age, gestation week, average monthly income per person, parental education and children's gender etc ., maternal depression in second trimester of pregnancy was found associated with higher risk of both developing emotional ( RR =2.61, 95% CI : 1.36-4.99) and internalizing problems ( RR =1.94, 95% CI : 1.22-3.08). However, maternal depression in third trimester was found to be associated with higher risks of developing emotional ( RR =6.46, 95% CI : 3.09-13.53), withdrawn ( RR =2.42, 95% CI : 1.16-5.02), aggressive ( RR =2.93, 95% CI : 1.45-5.94), internalizing ( RR =1.79, 95% CI : 1.01-3.16) or externalizing problems ( RR =2.56, 95% CI :1.49-4.42). In sensitivity analysis, antenatal maternal depression was found positively associated with children's emotional, internalizing and externalizing problems and the differences all statistically significant. Conclusions: Maternal depression during pregnancy might increase the risks of children's behavioral problems. In
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites that manipulate host behavior can provide prominent examples of extended phenotypes: parasite genomes controlling host behavior. Here we focus on one of the most dramatic examples of behavioral manipulation, the death grip of ants infected by Ophiocordyceps fungi. We studied the interaction between O. unilateralis s.l. and its host ant Camponotus leonardi in a Thai rainforest, where infected ants descend from their canopy nests down to understory vegetation to bite into abaxial leaf veins before dying. Host mortality is concentrated in patches (graveyards where ants die on sapling leaves ca. 25 cm above the soil surface where conditions for parasite development are optimal. Here we address whether the sequence of ant behaviors leading to the final death grip can also be interpreted as parasite adaptations and describe some of the morphological changes inside the heads of infected workers that mediate the expression of the death grip phenotype. Results We found that infected ants behave as zombies and display predictable stereotypical behaviors of random rather than directional walking, and of repeated convulsions that make them fall down and thus precludes returning to the canopy. Transitions from erratic wandering to death grips on a leaf vein were abrupt and synchronized around solar noon. We show that the mandibles of ants penetrate deeply into vein tissue and that this is accompanied by extensive atrophy of the mandibular muscles. This lock-jaw means the ant will remain attached to the leaf after death. We further present histological data to show that a high density of single celled stages of the parasite within the head capsule of dying ants are likely to be responsible for this muscular atrophy. Conclusions Extended phenotypes in ants induced by fungal infections are a complex example of behavioral manipulation requiring coordinated changes of host behavior and morphology. Future work should address the
Moore, Kelly E; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American). Participants completed measures of BPD symptom severity, CJ contact, diversity of CJ charges, emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, physical aggression, and covariates (substance use severity and antisocial personality disorder symptoms). BPD symptom severity was associated with CJ contact through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors, and with diversity of CJ charges through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression; however, the indirect relations to diversity of CJ charges became non-significant when covariates were included. Results highlight the important role of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors in criminal behaviors among individuals with BPD symptoms, as well as the potential clinical utility of targeting this mechanism to prevent CJ involvement and/or recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xie, Jianfei; He, Guoping; Ding, Siqing; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Zhou, Jianda; Iennaco, Joanne Desanto
To evaluate the effectiveness of a modified behavioral activation treatment (MBAT) intervention on reducing depressive symptoms in rural left-behind elderly. This is a randomized study registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IOR-17011289). Eighty rural left-behind elderly people who had a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score between 11 and 25 were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 40) and control group (n = 40). The intervention group received both MBAT and regular treatment for 8 weeks while the control group received regular treatment. Both groups were assessed with the GDS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and at 3 months post-intervention. There were a total of 73 participants that completed the intervention. The scores of GDS and BAI decreased significantly, but the scores of OHQ increased significantly in the intervention group after 8 sessions of MBAT (P < .01). The reduction in depression symptoms after the intervention was maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Significant differences in GDS, BAI, and OHQ scores were observed between the intervention group and the control group (P < .01). MBAT produced a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than regular care in rural left-behind elderly.
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.
Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate
Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M
This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balducci, Cristian; Alfano, Vincenzo; Fraccaroli, Franco
This study investigates the relationships between the experience of mobbing at work and personality traits and symptom patterns as assessed by means of the revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Participants were 107 workers who had contacted mental health services because they perceived themselves as victims of mobbing. In line with previous research, the results showed that the MMPI-2 mean profile was characterized by a neurotic component as evidenced by elevations of Scales 1, 2, and 3 and a paranoid component as indicated by elevation of Scale 6. Contrary to previous research, a pattern of positive and significant correlations was found between the frequency of exposure to mobbing behaviors and the MMPI-2 clinical, supplementary, and content scales, including the posttraumatic stress scale. Only about half the participants showed a severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms indicative of a posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of exposure to mobbing predicted suicidal ideation and behavior, with depression only partially mediating this relationship.
Full Text Available Background. While behavioral and psychological symptoms are frequent in hospitalized older adults with dementia or delirium, data supporting the off-label use of intramuscular atypical antipsychotics remain scarce. We examined the use of short-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in hospitalized older adults to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods. A retrospective observational study of inpatients 65 years or older with at least one order for olanzapine IM during admission in urban Ontario Canada was conducted. Patient demographics, prescriptions for olanzapine IM, reason for administration, perceived effectiveness, adverse events, concurrently prescribed psychotropics, comorbidities, and patient discharge destination were recorded. Results. Among 82 patients aged 65–96 years (mean ± SD 79.3 ± 7.7 85 cases were identified. Cognitive impairment or dementia affected 63.5% and 50.6% had comorbidities. Olanzapine IM was ordered 102 times and 34 patients (41% received at least one dose. The intended efficacy was achieved in 79.4% of 78 cases of 124 doses given (62.9%. Fourteen (41% patients who received doses experienced adverse events, with sedation and hypotension being the most common. Conclusions. Olanzapine IM appears effective in hospitalized older adults but is associated with potential adverse events. Structured monitoring and documentation are needed to ensure safe use in this high-risk population.
Full Text Available Background: Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Aim: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS, including a parallel six-session parents’ group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13–18 years. STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Methods: Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. Conclusions: The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.
Bicanic, Iva; de Roos, Carlijn; van Wesel, Floryt; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise
Efficacy studies on treatment in adolescent victims of single rape are lacking, even though sexual victimization is most likely to occur during adolescence and despite the fact that adolescents are at risk to develop subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of a nine-session cognitive behavior group therapy (STEPS), including a parallel six-session parents' group on rape-related symptomatology in female adolescents (13-18 years). STEPS includes psychoeducation, exposure in sensu as well as in vivo, cognitive restructuring, and relapse prevention. Fifty-five female adolescents with mental health problems due to single rape, but without prior sexual trauma, received STEPS while their parents participated in a support group. Subjects were assessed on posttraumatic stress (PTS) and comorbid symptoms using self-report questionnaires prior to and directly after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant and large decrease in symptoms of PTS, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, sexual concerns, and behavior problems directly after treatment, which maintained at 12 months follow-up. Time since trauma did not influence the results. Dropout during STEPS was 1.8%. The results potentially suggest that the positive treatment outcomes at short- and long-term may be caused by STEPS. The encouraging findings need confirmation in future controlled studies on the effectiveness of STEPS because it may be possible that the treatment works especially well for more chronic symptoms, while the less chronic part of the sample showed considerable improvement on its own.
Jackson, David A; King, Alan R
H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.
Tutus, Dunja; Keller, Ferdinand; Sachser, Cedric; Pfeiffer, Elisa; Goldbeck, Lutz
Depressive symptoms are frequently described in parents whose children have been exposed to traumatic events. Hence, including nonoffending parents in trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for children and adolescents may help both children and their parents to cope with the trauma. Up to now, three randomized controlled trials have investigated parental depressive symptoms after TF-CBT. Given the ambiguous results, further effectiveness trials are needed to investigate parental benefit from TF-CBT. The aim of this study is to determine whether TF-CBT is superior to waitlist (WL) regarding change in parental depressive symptoms. Parents, N = 84, whose children (age 6-17 years) were randomly assigned to either 12 sessions of TF-CBT (n = 40) or to WL condition (n = 44) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) for pre-post comparison. The group difference was tested through repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA). The change in parental depressive symptoms was additionally categorized using the reliable change index. Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant time effect F(1, 82) = 2.55, p = 0.02, and no significant time-group interaction F(1, 82) = 1.09, p = 0.30, suggesting a similar reduction in parental depressive symptoms in both groups. Across both conditions, most of the parents remained unchanged (n = 62), some of them improved (n = 17), and a few deteriorated (n = 5). There was no significant difference between the conditions (χ 2 (2) = 1.74; p = 0.42). Contrary to findings of several previous studies, our results suggest no superiority of TF-CBT in comparison with WL regarding change in depressive symptoms in parents. This might be due to different types of the child's trauma. Parental benefit from TF-CBT was found in samples of sexually abused, but not in children and adolescents exposed to diverse trauma types.
Barry, John A; Bouloux, Pierre; Hardiman, Paul J
The idea that diet can affect mood and behavior in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by altering blood glucose levels has become popular in recent years. This paper describes an online survey (N=462) of 24 women with PCOS, 299 healthy control women, 47 women who possibly had undiagnosed PCOS, and 92 men. The groups were compared for symptoms of mood and behavioral symptoms typical of reactive (postprandial) hypoglycemia. The outcome measures were two questionnaires that measure states associated with hypoglycemia: the Hypoglycemia Symptom Checklist-7 (HSC-7), which measures behavioral symptoms and the Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), which measures emotional states. Controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) using between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the women with PCOS scored significantly higher than the other three groups (pPCOS compared to twelve healthy control women closely matched for age, BMI, and eating behavior. The findings are suggestive of hypoglycemia-related mood and behavioral problems in PCOS. Future research should test whether blood glucose levels correlate with these symptoms in PCOS, and whether a low glycemic index ('low-GI') diet improves the symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery
Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.
Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.
An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…
Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.
H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…
Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Swart, W.; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.
Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and
Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.
Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…
McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica
The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.
Okello, James; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
The relationship between war-related trauma exposure, depressive symptoms and multiple risk behaviors among adolescents is less clear in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data collected from a sample of school-going adolescents four years postwar. Participants completed interviews assessing various risk behaviors defined by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and a sexual risk behavior survey, and were screened for post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms based on the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR) and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A) respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with multiple risk behaviors. The logistic regression model of Baron and Kenny (1986) was used to evaluate the mediating role of depression in the relationship between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. Of 551 participants, 139 (25%) reported multiple (three or more) risk behaviors in the past year. In the multivariate analyses, depression symptoms remained uniquely associated with multiple risk behavior after adjusting for potential confounders including socio-demographic characteristics, war-related trauma exposure variables, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In mediation analysis, depression symptoms mediated the associations between stressful war events and multiple risk behaviors. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires used in this study are not well established in war affected African samples thus ethno cultural variation may decrease the validity of our measures. Adolescents with depression may be at a greater risk of increased engagement in multiple risk behaviors. Culturally sensitive and integrated interventions to treat and prevent depression among adolescents in post-conflict settings are urgently needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spilt, Jantine L; Vervoort, Eleonora; Koenen, Anne-Katrien; Bosmans, Guy; Verschueren, Karine
Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) have serious socio-behavioral problems and often rely on socially abnormal, aggressive, and manipulative forms of communication. Little is known, however, about the influence of teachers on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD. This longitudinal study examined the influence of teacher sensitivity on the socio-behavioral development of children with symptoms of RAD across one school year. The sample included 85 Belgian children and 70 teachers from special education schools. In the previous school year, teachers rated Inhibited and Disinhibited RAD symptoms. In the next school year, teacher Sensitivity was observed in interactions with individual children in the first trimester. Teacher-rated Overt aggression, Relational aggression, and Prosocial behavior was assessed in the first, second, and third trimester. We found no effects of Sensitivity on Prosocial behavior. Also, no effects were found for children with Disinhibited RAD symptoms. For children with Inhibited RAD symptoms, increases in Overt and Relational aggression were observed when Sensitivity was low, whereas decreases were observed when Sensitivity was high. The results suggest that teacher sensitivity is associated with the socio-behavioral development of children with Inhibited RAD symptoms but not with the socio-behavioral development of children with Disinhibited RAD symptoms. Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) exhibit socio-behavioral problems that hinder their school adjustment. These socio-behavioral problems appear relatively stable and it is not known what influence special education teachers might have on the development of these problems across a school year. This study suggests that teacher sensitivity is associated with changes in the socio-behavioral development of children with Inhibited RAD symptoms. Whereas high sensitivity was associated with improvements, low sensitivity appeared to exaggerate
Andreescu, Carmen; Teverovsky, Esther; Fu, Bo; Hughes, Tiffany F; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary
To disentangle the complex associations of depression and anxiety with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the population level. We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches. We used an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study with an age-stratified, random, population-based sample of 1,982 individuals aged 65 years and over. Three definitions of MCI were used: 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Three depression profiles were identified by factor analysis of the modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: core mood, self-esteem/interpersonal, and apathy/neurovegetative profiles. Three anxiety groups, chronic mild worry, chronic severe anxiety, and recent-onset anxiety, were based on screening questions. Recent-onset anxiety was associated with MCI by nonamnestic and IWG criteria, chronic severe anxiety was associated with MCI by all definitions, and chronic mild worry was associated with none. Of the depression profiles, the core mood profile was associated with CDR-defined MCI, the apathy/neurovegetative profile was associated with MCI by amnestic, IWG, and CDR definitions, and the self-esteem/interpersonal profile was associated with none. In this population-based sample, subgroups with different anxiety and depression profiles had different relationships with cognitive and functional definitions of MCI. Anxiety, depression, and MCI are all multidimensional entities, interacting in complex ways that may shed light on underlying neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy
The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to
Ward, Emily J; Chun, Marvin M; Kuhl, Brice A
Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure--a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.
Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Flatt, Shirley W; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A; Nichols, Jeanne F; Natarajan, Loki
Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms (six-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) with (1) completion of 1- and 4-year study assessments and (2) validated change in dietary behavior in the intervention group. In the comparison group (vs. intervention), depressive symptoms lowered completion of dietary recalls and clinic visits [4 years: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-3.0]. The behaviorally oriented intervention achieved major change in those furthest from study targets, although changes were lower in those with depressive symptoms: fruit/vegetable (+37.2 %), fiber (+49.0 %), and fat (-22.4 %). Behavioral activation in dietary change interventions can overcome the impact of depressive symptoms.
Fagel, Selene; de Sonneville, Leo; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna
How school-associated behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence precede distinctive adult schizotypal symptoms was examined. Gender specific findings were explored. After 11.6 (SD = 3.1) years, 159 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands were reassessed for adult schizotypal symptoms. Severity of behavioral symptoms in childhood and adolescence using Teacher Report Form (TRF; Verhulst et al. 1997) and adult schizotypal symptoms using Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Raine in Schizophrenia Bulletin 17:555-564, 1991) were examined by Spearman's bivariate correlations. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the combined predictive value of significant TRF subscales for schizotypal symptomatology. Moderation was tested by adding the interactions of gender with TRF subscales to the models. Disregarding gender, correlational analyses revealed that TRF Total problems, in specific thought problems, social problems, and attentional problems were associated with disorganized schizotypal symptoms in adult life. TRF thought problems was also associated with future positive schizotypal symptoms. When gender was taken into account, for boys only thought problems was associated with adult positive schizotypal symptoms, whereas for girls externalizing problems, specifically attentional and aggressive problems, were associated with the higher levels of adult disorganized schizotypal symptoms. Moderated regression analyses provided trend significant evidence confirming that in girls externalizing problems were positively associated with general and disorganized schizotypal symptoms. When using teachers as informants, it was found that juvenile behavioral abnormalities were differentially associated with type of adult schizotypal symptoms, with these associations being further modified by gender.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda
To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carvalho, Célia Barreto; da Motta, Carolina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Peixoto, Ermelindo Manuel Bernardo
Paranoia is a disruptive belief that can vary across a continuum, ranging from persecutory delusions presented in clinical settings to paranoid cognitions that are highly prevalent in the general population. The literature suggests that paranoid thoughts derive from the activation of a paranoid schema or information processing biases that can be sensitive to socially ambiguous stimuli and influence the processing of threatening situations. Four groups (schizophrenic participants in active psychotic phases, n=61; stable participants in remission, n=30; participants' relatives, n=32; and, healthy controls, n=64) were assessed with self-report questionnaires to determine how the reactions to paranoia of clinical patients differ from healthy individuals. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions of their reactions to these paranoid thoughts were examined. Paranoid individuals were present in all groups. Most participants referred to the rejection by others as an important trigger of paranoid ideations, while active psychotics were unable to identify triggering situations to their thoughts and reactions. This may be a determinant to the different reactions and the different degree of invalidation caused by paranoid thoughts observed across groups. Clinical and nonclinical expressions of paranoid ideations differ in terms of their cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. It is suggested that, in socially ambiguous situations, paranoid participants (presenting lower thresholds of paranoid schema activation) lose the opportunity to disconfirm their paranoid beliefs by resourcing to more maladaptive coping strategies. Consequently, by dwelling on these thoughts, the amount of time spent thinking about their condition and the disability related to the disease increases.
Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.
Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane
The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levenson, Steven A; Desai, Abhilash K
Despite much attention including national initiatives, concerns remain about the approaches to managing behavior symptoms and psychiatric conditions across all settings, including in long-term care settings such as nursing homes and assisted living facilities. One key reason why problems persist is because most efforts to "reform" and "correct" the situation have failed to explore or address root causes and instead have promoted inadequate piecemeal "solutions." Further improvement requires jumping off the bandwagon and rethinking the entire issue, including recognizing and applying key concepts of clinical reasoning and the care delivery process to every situation. The huge negative impact of cognitive biases and rote approaches on related clinical problem solving and decision making and patient outcomes also must be addressed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella
Recently, interest in nonpharmaceutical interventions in dementia care has increased. Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to be one promising intervention but more knowledge is needed. The present article reports on a pilot study involving an 84-year-old woman with vascular dementia who was systematically trained with a therapy dog team for 8 weeks. A quasi-experimental longitudinal interventional design with pre-post measures was used. Data were collected on 3 occasions. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Some effects on the woman's ability to walk and move were identified. In addition, some effects in the woman's cognitive state were observed. Physical, psychological, and/or social training with certified therapy dog teams can have effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. Further research is needed.
Lam, Raymond W; Lutz, Kevin; Preece, Melady; Cayley, Paula M; Bowen Walker, Anne
To assess the clinical and work productivity effects of a brief intervention using telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clients with depressive symptoms attending an employee assistance program (EAP). Self-referred clients attending the PPC Canada EAP with clinically relevant depressive symptoms at initial assessment were offered an 8-session telephone-administered CBT program. Outcomes before and after intervention were assessed with the 9-item Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and clinician ratings of work absence and performance impairment. Fifty clients were referred to the pilot program; 39 participated and 31 completed the telephone CBT program. Among program participants, there was significant improvement in PHQ-9 and GAF scores. There was also a significant reduction in performance impairment but not work absence. Anecdotal reports indicated high satisfaction ratings among participants. The results of this pilot study, although limited by the absence of a comparison or control group, suggest that a brief telephone-administered CBT program can improve depressive symptomatology, work productivity, and general function in depressed clients attending an EAP. Further controlled studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Visser, Janne C; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Servatius-Oosterling, Iris J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K
The objectives of this study were to model more homogeneous subgroups within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on early trajectories of core symptoms; and to further characterize these subgroups in terms of trajectories of language, cognition, co-occurring (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-related) traits and clinical outcome diagnosis. Children (N = 203) referred for possible ASD at ages 1 to 4 years were assessed at three time points at intervals ranging from 9 months to 3 years. Assessments included standardized measures for ASD (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS]), language (ADOS-language item), nonverbal IQ (NV-IQ; different tests adequate to chronological/mental age), and parent-reported behavioral problems (Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Child Behavior Checklist). Latent-class growth curve analysis with ADOS total scores led to the identification of three main stable and two small improving groups: a severe-stable group (19.5% of sample)-the only group without considerable language improvement-showed persistent low NV-IQ and marked increase in attention problems over time; a moderate-stable group (21.7%) with below-average increasing NV-IQ; and a mild-stable group (48%) with stable-average NV-IQ and the highest scores on ADHD-related traits, whose ASD outcome diagnoses increased despite stable-low ASD scores. Two groups (each 5.4%) improved: one moved from severe to moderate ASD scores, and the other moved from moderate to mild/nonspectrum scores. Both of these groups improved on language, NV-IQ, and ADHD-related traits. Results support the high stability of ASD symptoms into various severity levels, but also highlight the significant contribution of non-ASD domains in defining and explaining the different ASD trajectories. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lichstein, Kenneth L.; Scogin, Forrest; Thomas, S. Justin; DiNapoli, Elizabeth A.; Dillon, Haley R.; McFadden, Anna
Objective Telehealth has proven effective with a wide range of disorders, but there is a paucity of data on the use of telehealth using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) with late-life insomnia and depression. This pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of using telehealth to treat older adults with comorbid insomnia and depression living in rural Alabama. Method Five patients received 10 sessions of CBT for insomnia and depression. Patients were engaged in treatment via Skype from their primary care physician’s office. Assessments were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 2-month follow-up. Results Patients exhibited clinically significant improvement in both insomnia (sleep diaries and Insomnia Severity Index) and depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) at posttreatment, and these gains were well maintained at 2-month follow-up. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that telehealth may be an effective means of providing treatment to older adults, including underserved populations. PMID:24014056
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199
Hall, C R; Buckolz, E
Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael
This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7?11?years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...
Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
symptoms and parenting behaviors may have a significant impact on their children's emotional health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Canitano, Roberto; Scandurra, Valeria
This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.
Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Lemire-Rodger, Sabrina; Bondad, Ashley; Chepesiuk, Alexander
Recency and repetition are two factors that have large effects on human memory performance. One way of viewing the beneficial impact of these variables on recognition memory is to assume that both factors modulate a unidimensional memory trace strength. Although previous functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that recency and repetition may modulate similar brain structures, particularly in the region of the inferior parietal cortex, there is extensive behavioral evidence that human subjects can make independent and accurate recognition memory judgments about both an item's recency and its frequency. In the present study, we used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity during recognition memory for auditory-verbal stimuli that were parametrically and orthogonally manipulated in terms of recency and number of repetitions. We found in a continuous recognition paradigm that the lateral inferior parietal cortex, a region that has previously been associated with recollective forms of memory, is highly sensitive to recency but not repetition. In a multivariate analysis of whole-brain activation patterns, we found orthogonal components that dissociated recency and repetition variables, indicating largely independent neural bases underlying these two factors. The results demonstrate that although both recency and repetition dramatically improve recognition memory performance, the neural bases for this improvement are dissociable, and thus are difficult to explain in terms of access to a unitary memory trace. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353544-11$15.00/0.
Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent
White, Daniela; Tavakoli, Sason
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising results in treating individuals with behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. A number of applications of rTMS to different regions of the left and right prefrontal cortex have been used to treat these disorders, but no study of treatment for MDD with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been conducted with application of rTMS to both the left and right prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that applying low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before applying it to the left DLPFC for the treatment of depression would be anxiolytic in patients with MDD with GAD. Thirteen adult patients with comorbid MDD and GAD received treatment with rTMS in an outpatient setting. The number of treatments ranged from 24 to 36 over 5 to 6 weeks. Response was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in symptoms from baseline, and remission was defined as a score of anxiety symptoms on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale and depressive symptoms on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-21). At the end of the treatment period, for the GAD-7 scale, 11 out of 13 (84.6%) patients' anxiety symptoms were in remission, achieving a score of depressive symptoms. In this small pilot study of 13 patients with comorbid MDD and GAD, significant improvement in anxiety symptoms along with depressive symptoms was achieved in a majority of patients after bilateral rTMS application.
Grabow, Aleksandria Perez; Khurana, Atika; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.
Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother’s trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:29162177
Hickman, Laura J; Jaycox, Lisa H; Setodji, Claude M; Kofner, Aaron; Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Harris, Racine
The study explores whether and how lifetime violence exposure is related to a set of negative symptoms: child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, and parenting stress. Using a large sample of violence-exposed children recruited to participate in intervention research, the study employs different methods of measuring that exposure. These include total frequency of all lifetime exposure, total frequency of lifetime exposure by broad category (i.e., assault, maltreatment, sexual abuse, and witnessing violence), and polyvictimization defined as exposure to multiple violence categories. The results indicate that only polyvictimization, constructed as a dichotomous variable indicating two or more categories of lifetime exposure, emerged as a consistent predictor of negative symptoms. The total lifetime frequency of all violence exposure was not associated with negative symptoms, after controlling for the influence of polyvictimization. Likewise, in the presence of a dichotomous polyvictimization indicator the total lifetime frequency of exposure to a particular violence category was unrelated to symptoms overall, with the exception of trauma symptoms and experiences of sexual abuse. Taken together, these findings suggest that total lifetime exposure is not particularly important to negative symptoms, nor is any particular category of exposure after controlling for polyvictimization, with the single exception of sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. Instead, it is the mix of exposure experiences that predict negative impacts on children in this sample. Further research is needed to continue to explore and test these issues.
Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric; Vu, Minh
The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium. Two hundred and fifty-eight LTC residents aged 65 years and older in seven LTC facilities had monthly assessments (for up to six months) of CAM - defined core symptoms of delirium (fluctuation, inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness) and five outcome measures: Mini-Mental State Exam, Barthel Index, Cornell Scale for Depression, Nursing Home Behavioral Problems Scale, and Burden of Care. Associations between core symptoms and the five outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium among residents with and without dementia were associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems but not increased BOC. The associations appear to be intermediate between those of full delirium and no core symptoms and were greater for residents with than without dementia. CAM-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium appear to be associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in LTC residents with or without dementia. These findings may have implications for the prevention and management of such impairments and problems in LTC settings.
Breyer, Benjamin N; Creasman, Jennifer M; Richter, Holly E; Myers, Deborah; Burgio, Kathryn L; Wing, Rena R; West, Delia Smith; Kusek, John W; Subak, Leslee L
We sought to determine whether a behavioral weight reduction intervention would improve nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms at 6 months, including urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency, compared to a structured education program serving as the control group among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PRIDE (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise) was a randomized clinical trial performed in 338 overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence. Participants were randomized, including 226 to 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention and 112 to the control group. All participants received a self-help behavioral treatment booklet to improve bladder control. On this secondary data analysis we examined changes in nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms from baseline to 6 months and the impact of treatment allocation (intervention vs control), weight loss and physical activity. Nonurinary incontinence lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common at baseline, varying from 48% to 62%. In the 2 groups combined women experienced significant improvement in nocturia, urgency and International Prostate Symptom Score at 6 months (all p urinary tract storage symptom outcomes at 6 months did not differ between the intervention and control groups. Similarly no difference was observed in the amount of weight lost (5% or greater vs less than 5%) or physical activity (1,500 kcal or greater expenditure per week compared to less than 1,500 kcal). Lower urinary tract storage symptoms were common among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. The prevalence decreased significantly after 6 months independent of treatment group assignment, amount of weight lost or physical activity. These improvements may have been due to self-help behavioral educational materials, trial participation or repeat assessment of symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc
Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F
EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong
Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716
Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321
Morgan, Lindee; Wetherby, Amy M; Barber, Angie
The purpose of this study was to examine group differences and relationships with later developmental level and autism symptoms using a new clinical tool developed to measure repetitive and stereotyped movements (RSM) in young children. Videotaped behavior samples using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS; Wetherby & Prizant, 2002) were coded for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 50), developmental delays without ASD (DD; n = 25), and typical development (TD; n = 50) between 18 and 24 months of age. Children with ASD demonstrated significantly higher rate and larger inventory of RSM with objects and body during a systematic behavior sample than both the DD and TD groups. Measures of RSM were related to concurrent measures of social communication and predicted developmental outcomes and autism symptoms in the fourth year for the ASD group. None of the correlations between RSM and autism symptoms remained significant when controlling for CSBS Symbolic level. RSM with objects predicted unique variance in the severity of autism symptoms in the fourth year beyond that predicted by social communication measures alone. This study provides support for the diagnostic significance of RSM in children under 24 months of age and documents the utility of this RSM measurement tool as a companion to the CSBS.
Estate M. Sokhadze
Full Text Available There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i.e., 6, 12, and 18. TMS consisted of trains of 1.0 Hz frequency pulses applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The experimental task was a visual oddball with illusory Kanizsa figures. Behavioral response variables included reaction time and error rate along with such neurophysiological indices such as stimulus and response-locked event-related potentials (ERP. One hundred and twelve patients completed the assigned number of TMS sessions. Results showed significant changes from baseline to posttest period in the following measures: motor responses accuracy [lower percentage of committed errors, slower latency of commission errors and restored normative post-error reaction time slowing in both early and later-stage ERP indices, enhanced magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN, improved error monitoring and post-error correction functions]. In addition, screening surveys showed significant reductions in aberrant behavior ratings and in both repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. These differences increased with the total number of treatment sessions. Our results suggest that rTMS, particularly after 18 sessions, facilitates cognitive control, attention and target stimuli recognition by improving discrimination between task-relevant and task-irrelevant illusory figures in an oddball test. The noted improvement in executive functions of behavioral performance monitoring further suggests that TMS has the
Hsu, Ting-Jung; Tsai, Hui-Te; Hwang, An-Chun; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung
Our previous work showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), while the factors influencing the effect of intervention were less explored. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictors of the non-pharmacological intervention effect for old veterans with dementia and BPSD. A total of 141 old veterans with dementia living in two veterans' homes in northern Taiwan were recruited. The participants received an organized non-pharmacological intervention program of physical activity/exercise, music therapy, reality orientation, art therapy, reminiscence therapy and horticultural therapy once every week for 6 months. All participants were evaluated by the Barthel Index, Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia before and after the intervention. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with improvement/maintenance of cognition (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination), and improvement of BPSD (measured by NPI) and its subdomains during the intervention period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the improvement/maintenance of cognitive function was independently associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, P = 0.008), whereas participants with antipsychotic use were less likely to gain the effect (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.17-1.04, P = 0.061). In addition, the improvement of BPSD was associated with a higher baseline total NPI score (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.55, P < 0.001), and the result was consistent in different NPI subdomains (psychotic domain: OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.83-4.58, P = 0.123; affective domain: OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25-2.13, P < 0.001; behavior domain: OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.53-3.30, P < 0
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.
Hedman, Erik; Ström, Peter; Stünkel, Angela; Mörtberg, Ewa
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I) if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II) if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III) if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67) with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72) and a replication sample (n = 22). Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44). Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.
Hedman, Erik; Ström, Peter; Stünkel, Angela; Mörtberg, Ewa
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I) if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II) if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III) if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67) with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72) and a replication sample (n = 22). Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44). Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD. PMID:23620782
Elias, Cindy V; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley E; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Papaioannou, Maria A; Hughes, Sheryl O
Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families. Three dinnertime observations were conducted over 2 weeks on each family and audio/videotaped for coding. Coding included eating influence attempts and other food- and nonfood-related interactions exhibited by the mother during dinner. Mothers completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty. Linear regressions were conducted, examining associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and coded parent feeding behaviors. Mothers reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms used more verbal pressure to get their child to eat during meals, were more likely to discourage child independence, and less likely to enforce table manners. Mothers reporting higher perceptions of child difficulty were less likely to have nonfood-related discussions during meals and to try to get the child to eat a different food. This study is one of the first to investigate associations between maternal depression, perceptions of child difficulty, and mother's feeding behaviors during meals using observational methodology. These results may help researchers identify specific parental characteristics and feeding practices on which to intervene when developing tailored intervention programs for reducing childhood obesity.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Noll Campbell1, Amir Ayub2, Malaz A Boustani2, Chris Fox3, Martin Farlow4, Ian Maidment3, Robert Howard51Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana; 3University of Kent, Kent, United Kingdom; 4Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; 5King’s College, London, United KingdomObjective: To determine the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs in improving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Registry, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL from 1966 to 2007. We limited our search to English Language, full text, published articles and human studies.Data extraction: We included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in managing BPSD displayed by AD patients. Using the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF guidelines, we critically appraised all studies and included only those with an attrition rate of less than 40%, concealed measurement of the outcomes, and intention to treat analysis of the collected data. All data were imputed into pre-defined evidence based tables and were pooled using the Review Manager 4.2.1 software for data synthesis.Results: We found 12 studies that met our inclusion criteria but only nine of them provided sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Among patients with mild to severe AD and in comparison to placebo, ChEIs as a class had a beneficial effects on reducing BPSD with a standard mean difference (SMD of −0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]; −0.18, −0.01 and a weighted mean difference (WMD of −1.38 neuropsychiatry inventory point (95% CI; −2.30, −0.46. In studies with mild AD patients, the WMD was −1.92 (95% CI; −3.18, −0.66; and in studies
Stéfan, Angélique; Mathé, Jean-François
Behavioral disorders are major sequelae of severe traumatic brain injury. Before considering care management of these disorders, and in the absence of a precise definition for TBI-related behavioral disorder, it is essential to refine, according to the data from the literature, incidence, prevalence, predictive factors of commonly admitted disruptive symptoms. Systematic review of the literature targeting epidemiological data related to behavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury in order to elaborate good practice recommendations according to the methodology established by the French High Authority for Health. Two hundred and ninety-nine articles were identified. The responsibility of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the onset of behavioral disorders is unequivocal. Globally, behavioral disorders are twice more frequent after TBI than orthopedic trauma without TBI (Masson et al., 1996). These disorders are classified into disruptive primary behaviors by excess (agitation 11-70%, aggression 25-39%, irritability 29-71%, alcohol abuse 7-26% drug abuse 2-20%), disruptive primary behaviors by default (apathy 20-71%), affective disorders - anxiety - psychosis (depression 12-76%, anxiety 0.8-24,5%, posttraumatic stress 11-18%, obsessive-compulsive disorders 1.2-30%, psychosis 0.7%), suicide attempts and suicide 1%. The improvement of care management for behavioral disorders goes through a first step of defining a common terminology. Four categories of posttraumatic behavioral clinical symptoms are defined: disruptive primary behaviors by excess, by default, affective disorders-psychosis-anxiety, suicide attempts and suicide. All these symptoms yield a higher prevalence than in the general population. They impact all of life's domains and are sustainable over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762
Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yingli; Liang, Wei; Yang, Shichang; Dai, Ping; Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Changhong
This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hallucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "TMS", "repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation", and "hallucination". Selected studies were randomized controlled trials assessing therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hallucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hallucination item, and Hallucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. All data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overall mean weighted effect size for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistically significant (MD = -0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found between active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sham stimulation for
Tovote, K. Annika; Schroevers, Maya J.; Snippe, Evelien; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Links, Thera P.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke
Objective: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have shown to be effective interventions for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. However, little is known about which intervention works best for whom (i.e., moderators of efficacy). The
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Schrieken, Bart; Emmelkamp, Paul; Lange, Alfred
BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered treatment may reduce barriers to care in those unwilling or unable to access traditional forms of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assesses the efficacy of web-based therapist-assisted cognitive behavioral treatment (web-CBT) of panic symptoms. DESIGN: A randomized
Diehle, Julia; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.
To prevent adverse long-term effects, children who suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) need treatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an established treatment for children with PTSS. However, alternatives are important for non-responders or if TF-CBT trained
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael
This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and…
Wise, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Marcia D.; Rabins, Peter V.
Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features…
Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Jian-Xiong; Huang, Jing-Hui; Huang, Guo-Liang; Gao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ci-Yong
The nature of the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide has not been clearly elucidated. Some studies have suggested that the relationship between substance use and suicidal ideation may be spurious and could be explained by other variables. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed in Guangzhou. A total of 5853 students completed questionnaires and were included in the study. NMUPD, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors were examined using a structural equation model. In the simple model without mediation, a positive relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors in adolescents was found, which was independent of effects from the use of other substances. Both depressive symptoms and sleep quality were significant mediators of this relationship. Public health and educational professionals should survey depressive symptoms and sleep quality and provide interventions when managing suicidal behaviors among adolescents engaging in NMUPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.
This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…
Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...
Karyotaki, E.; Riper, Heleen; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Kleiboer, M.A.; Mira, Adriana; Mackinnon, A.; Meyer, B.; Botella, C.; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Andersson, G.; Christensen, H.; Klein, J.; Schröder, Johanna; Breton-Lopez, Juana; Scheider, Justin; Griffiths, J.; Farrer, L.; Huibers, M. J. H.; Phillips, Rachel; Gilbody, S.; Moritz, S.; Berger, T.; Pop, V.J.M.; Spek, V.R.M.; Cuijpers, P.
Importance: Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has the potential to increase access and availability of evidence-based therapy and reduce the cost of depression treatment. Objectives: To estimate the effect of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms
Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and physical exercise in alleviating treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in patients with breast cancer: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial
Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, M.A.; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Lopes Cardozo, A.M.F.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.
Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality
Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Exercise in Alleviating Treatment-Induced Menopausal Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial
Duijts, S.F.A.; van Beurden, M.; Oldenburg, H.S.; Hunter, M.S.; Kieffer, J.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Gerritsma, MA; Menke-Pluymers, M.B.E.; Plaisier, P.W.; Rijna, H.; Cardozo, A.M.F.L.; Timmers, G.; van der Meij, S.; van der Veen, H.; Bijker, N.; de Widt-Levert, L.M.; Geenen, M.M.; Heuff, G.; van Dulken, E.J.; Boven, E.; Aaronson, N.K.
Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality
Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Exercise in Alleviating Treatment-Induced Menopausal Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Trial
Duijts, Saskia F. A.; van Beurden, Marc; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Hunter, Myra S.; Kieffer, Jacobien M.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Gerritsma, Miranda A.; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B. E.; Plaisier, Peter W.; Rijna, Herman; Lopes Cardozo, Alexander M. F.; Timmers, Gertjan; van der Meij, Suzan; van der Veen, Henk; Bijker, Nina; de Widt-Levert, Louise M.; Geenen, Maud M.; Heuff, Gijsbert; van Dulken, Eric J.; Boven, Epie; Aaronson, Neil K.
Purpose The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical exercise (PE), and of these two interventions combined (CBT/PE) on menopausal symptoms (primary outcome), body image, sexual functioning, psychological well-being, and health-related quality
Blain, Leah M; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has been limited in the literature. The present study aimed to examine the uniqueness of the association of CSA with CSB as compared to other experiences of child maltreatment; the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in CSB symptoms for individuals reporting CSA; and clinical differences between individuals with and without histories of CSA. Hypotheses were tested using data from a sample of 182 gay and bisexual men reporting CSB symptoms. CSA prevalence was high in the tested sample (39%). CSA severity was a unique predictor of CSB symptoms, above child physical and emotional abuse, and poly-victimization status was not significantly related to CSB symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, PTSD symptoms did not significantly mediate the role of CSA severity, although PTSD symptoms explained additional variance in CSB symptoms, with the final model accounting for over a quarter of the variance in CSB symptoms (27%). Finally, men with a history of CSA reported more CSB, depressive, and anxious symptoms than those without a history of CSA. Findings from the present study support the hypothesis that CSA may be uniquely related to CSB symptoms, above other forms of child maltreatment, and indicate that men with a CSA history are likely to present more severe clinical comorbidities. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.
Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…
Zhou, Yan; Sun, Maosheng; Li, Hongjun; Yan, Min; He, Zhanlong; Wang, Wenju; Wang, Wanpu; Lu, Shuaiyao
The use of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) in cellular and genic therapy has attracted considerable attention as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease. However, the effects of gene therapy combined with intracerebral cell transplantation have not been well defined. Recent studies have demonstrated the respective roles of LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha (LMX1A) and Neurturin (NTN) in the commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a midbrain dopaminergic neuronal fate and the commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells to cells supporting the nutrition and protection of neurons. We investigated a novel in vitro neuronal differentiation strategy with the use of LMX1A and Neurturin. We were able to elicit a neural phenotype regarding cell morphology, specific gene/protein expression and physiological function. Neuronal-primed ASCs derived from rhesus monkey (rASCs) combined with adenovirus containing NTN and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Ad-NTN-TH) were implanted into the striatum and substantia nigra of methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Monkeys were monitored with the use of behavioral tests and health measures until the fourth month after implantation. The differentiated cells transcribed and expressed a variety of dopaminergic neuron-specific genes involved in the SHH/LMX1A pathway. Single-photon emission computed tomography analysis and postmortem analysis revealed that the grafting of rASCs combined with Ad-NTN-TH had neuroprotective effects compared with Ad-NTN-TH or rASCs alone. Behavioral measures demonstrated autograft survival and symptom amelioration. These findings may lead to cellular sources for autologous transplantation of Parkinson disease. Combined transplantation of Ad-NTN-TH and induced rASCs expressing LMX1A and NTN may be a better therapy candidate for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2013 International Society
Dekker, Alain D; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G Danielle E; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M W; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving.
Dekker, Alain D.; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G. Danielle E.; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M.W.; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P.
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving. PMID:29689719
Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C
South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be
Williams, Alishia D
The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As a stressful profession, nursing deals with different aspects of human health and illness, and stress can threaten nurses’ health and performance. As a result, using preventive stress management programs seems necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral stress management training in improving psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression and quality of life in nurses. The design of this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population comprised all nurses working in Bandar Abbas Shari'ati Hospital. The study sample included all 30 nurses selected through convenience sampling method. They equally and randomly were divided into experiment and control groups. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale and the Farsi version of WHOQOL-BREF were used to collect data. The results showed there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest of experimental group in the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and quality of life; however, there was no significant difference in depression. Control group mean scores did not show a significant difference between pretest and posttest. There was no significant difference between the control and experimental groups before intervention in stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The findings of this study suggest that, as a useful clinical intervention, stress management skill training is an effective way to improve mental distress and quality of life.
Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel
The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is ex