WorldWideScience

Sample records for repetitive behavior domain

  1. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  2. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  3. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  4. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  5. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  6. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  7. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles.

  8. Characterizing Aciniform Silk Repetitive Domain Backbone Dynamics and Hydrodynamic Modularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laurence Tremblay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spider aciniform (wrapping silk is a remarkable fibrillar biomaterial with outstanding mechanical properties. It is a modular protein consisting, in Argiope trifasciata, of a core repetitive domain of 200 amino acid units (W units. In solution, the W units comprise a globular folded core, with five α-helices, and disordered tails that are linked to form a ~63-residue intrinsically disordered linker in concatemers. Herein, we present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy-based 15N spin relaxation analysis, allowing characterization of backbone dynamics as a function of residue on the ps–ns timescale in the context of the single W unit (W1 and the two unit concatemer (W2. Unambiguous mapping of backbone dynamics throughout W2 was made possible by segmental NMR active isotope-enrichment through split intein-mediated trans-splicing. Spectral density mapping for W1 and W2 reveals a striking disparity in dynamics between the folded core and the disordered linker and tail regions. These data are also consistent with rotational diffusion behaviour where each globular domain tumbles almost independently of its neighbour. At a localized level, helix 5 exhibits elevated high frequency dynamics relative to the proximal helix 4, supporting a model of fibrillogenesis where this helix unfolds as part of the transition to a mixed α-helix/β-sheet fibre.

  9. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  10. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  11. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  12. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

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    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  13. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  14. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  15. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  16. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  17. Perseveration and other repetitive verbal behaviors: functional dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W

    2004-11-01

    This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.

  18. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...

  19. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  20. Code domains in tandem repetitive DNA sequence structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P

    1992-10-01

    Traditionally, many people doing research in molecular biology attribute coding properties to a given DNA sequence if this sequence contains an open reading frame for translation into a sequence of amino acids. This protein coding capability of DNA was detected about 30 years ago. The underlying genetic code is highly conserved and present in every biological species studied so far. Today, it is obvious that DNA has a much larger coding potential for other important tasks. Apart from coding for specific RNA molecules such as rRNA, snRNA and tRNA molecules, specific structural and sequence patterns of the DNA chain itself express distinct codes for the regulation and expression of its genetic activity. A chromatin code has been defined for phasing of the histone-octamer protein complex in the nucleosome. A translation frame code has been shown to exist that determines correct triplet counting at the ribosome during protein synthesis. A loop code seems to organize the single stranded interaction of the nascent RNA chain with proteins during the splicing process, and a splicing code phases successive 5' and 3' splicing sites. Most of these DNA codes are not exclusively based on the primary DNA sequence itself, but also seem to include specific features of the corresponding higher order structures. Based on the view that these various DNA codes are genetically instructive for specific molecular interactions or processes, important in the nucleus during interphase and during cell division, the coding capability of tandem repetitive DNA sequences has recently been reconsidered.

  1. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  2. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. 1. Small angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egelhaaf, SU; van Swieten, E; Bosma, T; de Boef, E; van Dijk, AA; Robillard, GT; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.

    2003-01-01

    The solution structure of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat gluten proteins has been investigated for a range of concentrations and temperatures using mainly small-angle neutron scattering. A representative part of the repetitive domain (dBl) was studied as well as a

  3. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  4. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  5. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  6. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  7. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  8. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  9. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals.

  10. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task

    OpenAIRE

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E.; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M.; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relat...

  11. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Krestin eRadonovich; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Christopher J. Hass

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with...

  12. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  13. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...

  14. Evidence-Based, Parent-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Case of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…

  15. A Real-Time Terahertz Time-Domain Polarization Analyzer with 80-MHz Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Tachizaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer by using 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is based on the spinning electro-optic sensor method, which we recently proposed and demonstrated by using a regenerative amplifier laser system; here we improve the detection scheme in order to be able to use it with a femtosecond laser oscillator with laser pulses of a much higher repetition rate. This improvement brings great advantages for realizing broadband, compact and stable real-time terahertz time-domain polarization measurement systems for scientific and industrial applications.

  16. A real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer with 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Yasumatsu, Naoya; Oguchi, Kenichi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Tachizaki, Takehiro

    2013-03-11

    We have developed a real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer by using 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is based on the spinning electro-optic sensor method, which we recently proposed and demonstrated by using a regenerative amplifier laser system; here we improve the detection scheme in order to be able to use it with a femtosecond laser oscillator with laser pulses of a much higher repetition rate. This improvement brings great advantages for realizing broadband, compact and stable real-time terahertz time-domain polarization measurement systems for scientific and industrial applications.

  17. Reversal learning in C58 mice: Modeling higher order repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Curry-Pochy, Lisa S; Shafer, Robin; Rudy, Joseph; Lewis, Mark H

    2017-08-14

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule. In addition, the effect of environmental enrichment on performance of this task was assessed as this rearing condition markedly reduces repetitive sensory-motor behavior in C58 mice. Little difference was observed between C58 and control mice under a 100% schedule of reinforcement. The 80%/20% probabilistic schedule of reinforcement generated substantial strain differences, however. Importantly, no strain difference was observed in acquisition, but C58 mice were markedly impaired in their ability to reverse their pattern of responding from the previously high density reinforcement side. Environmental enrichment did not impact acquisition under the probabilistic reinforcement schedule, but enriched C58 mice performed significantly better than standard housed C58 mice in reversal learning. Thus, C58 mice exhibit behaviors that reflect both repetitive sensory motor behaviors as well as behavior that reflects resistance to change. Moreover, both clusters of repetitive behavior were attenuated by environmental enrichment. Such findings, along with the reported social deficits in C58 mice, increase the translational value of this mouse model to autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio A. Amodeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.

  19. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  20. Relationship Between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised detected the presence of RSM and IS. RSM behaviors were positively associated with parent-reported sleep problems, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for anxiety symptoms. IS was not significantly associated with sleep problems. Better understanding of the relationship between specific types of repetitive behaviors and sleep problems may allow providers to tailor interventions to the individual presentations of their patients with ASD.

  1. The correlation between the length of repetitive domain and mechanical properties of the recombinant flagelliform spidroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk is an attractive biopolymer with numerous potential applications due to its remarkable characteristics. Among the six categories of spider silks, flagelliform (Flag spider silk possesses longer and more repetitive core domains than others, therefore performing the highest extensibility. To investigate the correlation between the recombinant spidroin size and the synthetic fiber properties, four recombinant proteins with different sizes [N-Scn-C (n=1-4] were constructed and expressed using IMPACT system. Subsequently, different recombinant spidroins were spun into fibers through wet-spinning via a custom-made continuous post-drawing device. Mechanical tests of the synthetic fibers with four parameters (maximum stress, maximum extension, Young's modulus and toughness demonstrated that the extensibility of the fibers showed a positive correlation with spidroin size, consequently resulting in the extensibility of N-Sc4-C fiber ranked the highest (58.76% among four fibers. Raman data revealed the relationship between secondary structure content and mechanical properties. The data here provide a deeper insight into the relationship between the function and structure of Flag silk for future design of artificial fibers.

  2. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  3. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  4. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  5. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

  6. Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were…

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  8. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors as Predictors of Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren; Stevens, Michael C.; Chen, Chi-Ming; Barton, Marianne; Treadwell, Kimberli; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about the significance of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in predicting outcomes of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed findings, but some suggest that the presence of RRBs during preschool years is a negative prognostic indicator for later childhood. This study…

  9. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  10. Autism, DRD3 and repetitive and stereotyped behavior, an overview of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    The SNP rs167771 of the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in samples from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Spain. The DRD3 polymorphisms of rs167771 are significantly associated with a specific type of repetitive and stereotyped behavior,

  11. Structural and Functional Variation within the Alanine-Rich Repetitive Domain of Streptococcal Antigen I/II

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Donald R; Irvine, Douglas C.

    2002-01-01

    Members of the antigen I/II family of cell surface proteins are highly conserved, multifunctional adhesins that mediate interactions of oral streptococci with other oral bacteria, with cell matrix proteins (e.g., type I collagen), and with salivary glycoproteins, e.g., gp340. The interaction of gp340 (formerly designated salivary agglutinin) with Streptococcus mutans requires an alanine-rich repetitive domain (A region) of antigen I/II that is highly conserved in all members of this family of...

  12. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  13. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.

  14. Repetitive behavior profiles: Consistency across autism spectrum disorder cohorts and divergence from Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cindi G; Valcante, Gregory; Guter, Steve; Zaytoun, Annette; Wray, Emily; Bell, Lindsay; Jacob, Suma; Lewis, Mark H; Driscoll, Daniel J; Cook, Edwin H; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a group of heterogeneous maladaptive behaviors. RRB is one of the key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and also commonly observed in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In this study, we assessed RRB using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in two ASD samples (University of Illinois at Chicago [UIC] and University of Florida [UF]) and one PWS sample. We compared the RBS-R item endorsements across three ASD cohorts (UIC, UF and an ASD sample from Lam, The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation and the effect of subject variables, PhD thesis, 2004), and a PWS sample. We also compared the mean RBS-R subscale/sum scores across the UIC, UF and PWS samples; across the combined ASD (UIC + UF), PWS-deletion and PWS-disomy groups; and across the combined ASD sample, PWS subgroup with a Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) score ≥15, and PWS subgroup with a SCQ score samples (UIC, UF and Lam's) showed a similar pattern of the RBS-R endorsements, and the mean RBS-R scores were not different between the UIC and UF samples. However, higher RRB was noted in the ASD sample compared with the PWS sample, as well as in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15 compared with the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score sample size, a wide age range of our participants, and not controlling for potential covariates. A future replication study using a larger sample and further investigation into the genetic bases of overlapping ASD and RRB phenomenology are needed, given the higher RRB in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15.

  15. Relationship Between Postural Control and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestin eRadonovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse

  16. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonovich, K J; Fournier, K A; Hass, C J

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation. Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP) sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls ages 3-16. All subjects had Non-verbal IQ > 70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self-selected stance width for 20 s. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all six subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs. Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this very diverse disorder.

  17. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  18. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  19. High microbial production and characterization of strictly periodic polymers modelled on the repetitive domain of wheat gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourice, Sophie; Nisole, Audrey; Guéguen, Jacques; Popineau, Yves; Elmorjani, Khalil

    2003-12-26

    Primary structures of wheat prolamins contain repetitive domains involved in the mechanical properties of gluten. In order to experience the ability of recombinant strictly periodic polypeptides, modelled on a consensus sequence of wheat gliadins (PQQPY)(8) and (PQQPY)(17) (SPR8 and SPR17 polypeptides, respectively), to be formulated in film solutions, their heterologous expression conditions, in batch culture and low cell densities, were optimized to match the high requirements of this process. A convenient and general purification procedure was also devised. Moreover, FTIR-ATR characterizations indicated that these periodic polypeptides prepared as hydrated doughy state and dried have the tendency to form a protein network through intermolecular beta-sheets, strongly maintained by hydrogen bonds. Accordingly, these recombinant polypeptides are assumed to be a suitable candidate for potential application.

  20. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD.

  1. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  2. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  3. Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

  4. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  6. Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C

    2016-08-20

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat substance use disorders and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasio, Maria I B; da Silva, João P L; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Cruz, Marcelo S

    2015-01-01

    Compulsions, like pathological gambling, binge-eating disorder, alcohol, tobacco or cocaine abuse and compulsive shopping have similar neurophysiological processing. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving patient control over compulsive behavior. The rTMS modulatory role in cortical mesolimbic pathways possibly implies improvement of the inhibitory control system and compulsive consumption drive. Thus, craving reduction would be a component for control achievement. Within this context, 17 studies were found. Most studies applied rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving reduction was observed in 10 studies and was associated with improved control of compulsion in two of them. In one study reduction in consumption was found without reduction in craving. In addition, improvement in decision making was found in one study.

  8. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS.

  9. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  10. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  11. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  12. The impact of caregiver-mediated JASPER on child restricted and repetitive behaviors and caregiver responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-12-02

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili V Mehta

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP, an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

  14. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  15. Brief report: the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with specific repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.; Krom, M. de; Jonge, M.V. de

    2012-01-01

    Recently the DRD3 gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Di

  16. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  17. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  18. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  19. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  20. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  1. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  2. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  3. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  4. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  5. Masked repetition priming hinders subsequent recollection but not familiarity: A behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study used the masked repetition priming paradigm in the study phase and the R/K paradigm in the test phase to investigate whether repetition priming can hinder recognition memory and which recognition process (familiarity or recollection) is hindered. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study and test phase were recorded to explore the temporal course of how repetition priming hinders subsequent recognition memory and which old/new effect (FN400 or LPC) is affected. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that masked repetition priming hindered subsequent recollection but not familiarity. The analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that primed words were associated with less negative N400 and less positive LPC compared to unprimed words. The analysis of the priming effect as a function of subsequent memory revealed that only the LPC priming effect was predictive of priming effect on subsequent memory, which suggested that the "prediction-error" account might be a possible explanation of how repetition priming affects subsequent recognition memory.

  6. P300 Source Localization Contrasts in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors and Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Sauvé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tic disorders (TD and body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB have similar phenotypes that can be challenging to distinguish in clinical settings. Both disorders show high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions, dysfunctional basal ganglia activity, atypical cortical functioning in the prefrontal and motor cortical regions, and cognitive deficits. Clinicians frequently confound the two disorders and it is important to find reliable objective methods to discriminate TD and BFRB. Neuropsychological tests and event-related potential (ERP studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding a possible context updating deficit in TD and BFRB patients. However, most previous studies did not control for the presence of comorbid psychiatric condition and medication status, which might have confounded the findings reported to date. Hence, we aimed to investigate the psychophysiology of working memory using ERP in carefully screened TD and BFRB patients excluding those with psychiatric comorbidity and those taking psychoactive medication. The current study compared 12 TD patients, 12 BRFB patients, and 15 healthy control participants using a motor oddball task (button press. The P300 component was analyzed as an index of working memory functioning. Results showed that BFRB patients had decreased P300 oddball effect amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared to the TD and control groups. Clinical groups presented different scalp distributions compared to controls, which could represent a potential endophenotype candidate of BFRB and TD.

  7. A cysteine in the repetitive domain of a high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit interferes with the mixing properties of wheat dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zhang, Qisen; Newberry, Marcus P; Chalmers, Ken J; Mather, Diane E

    2013-03-01

    The quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for making bread is largely due to the strength and extensibility of wheat dough, which in turn is due to the properties of polymeric glutenin. Polymeric glutenin consists of high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin protein subunits linked by disulphide bonds between cysteine residues. Glutenin subunits differ in their effects on dough mixing properties. The research presented here investigated the effect of a specific, recently discovered, glutenin subunit on dough mixing properties. This subunit, Bx7.1, is unusual in that it has a cysteine in its repetitive domain. With site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding Bx7.1, a guanine in the repetitive domain was replaced by an adenine, to provide a mutant gene encoding a subunit (MutBx7.1) in which the repetitive-domain cysteine was replaced by a tyrosine residue. Bx7.1, MutBx7.1 and other Bx-type glutenin subunits were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. This made it possible to incorporate each individual subunit into wheat flour and evaluate the effect of the cysteine residue on dough properties. The Bx7.1 subunit affected dough mixing properties differently from the other subunits. These differences are due to the extra cysteine residue, which may interfere with glutenin polymerisation through cross-linkage within the Bx7.1 subunit, causing this subunit to act as a chain terminator.

  8. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  9. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  10. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.

  11. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD.

  12. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  13. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  14. Stop and Change : Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, Mandy A L; Staal, Wouter G.; Houben, Renske H.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  15. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning i

  16. Critical behavior of spherically symmetric domain wall collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Critical collapse of a spherically symmetric domain wall is investigated. The domain wall is made of a minimally coupled scalar field with a double well potential. We consider a sequence of the initial data which describe a momentarily static domain wall characterized by its initial radius. The time evolution is performed by a full general relativistic numerical code for spherically symmetric systems. In this paper, we use the maximal slice gauge condition, in which spacelike time slices may penetrate the black hole horizon differently from other widely used procedures. In this paper, we consider two specific shapes of the double well potential, and observe the Type II critical behavior in both cases. The mass scaling, sub-critical curvature scaling, and those fine structures are confirmed. The index of the scaling behavior agrees with the massless scalar case.

  17. Multislice behavioral modeling based on envelope domain for power amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huadong; Bao Jingfu; Wu Zhengde

    2009-01-01

    An envelope domain multislice behavioral modeling is introduced. The tradition AM-AM and AM-PM characteristics of power amplifiers are extended to envelope domain and base-band filter is applied to distortion complex envelope signal for description of the envelope memory effect. Using traditional one and two-tone tests, the coefficients of nonlinear model and the FIR filter can be extracted. At last the model has been applied to a 10 W WCDMA power amplifier to predict its output signal. And simulation results show that the model output conforms very well to the traditional transistor level simulation results.

  18. The Combined Repetitive Oligopeptides of Clostridium difficile Toxin A Counteract Premature Cleavage of the Glucosyl-Transferase Domain by Stabilizing Protein Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Olling

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin A (TcdA and B (TcdB from Clostridium difficile enter host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. A prerequisite for proper toxin action is the intracellular release of the glucosyltransferase domain by an inherent cysteine protease, which is allosterically activated by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6. We found that in in vitro assays, the C-terminally-truncated TcdA1–1065 was more efficient at IP6-induced cleavage compared with full-length TcdA. We hypothesized that the C-terminally-located combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROPs interact with the N-terminal part of the toxin, thereby preventing autoproteolysis. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST pull-down assays and microscale thermophoresis confirmed binding between the CROPs and the glucosyltransferase (TcdA1–542 or intermediate (TcdA1102–1847 domain of TcdA, respectively. This interaction between the N- and C-terminus was not found for TcdB. Functional assays revealed that TcdB was more susceptible to inactivation by extracellular IP6-induced cleavage. In vitro autoprocessing and inactivation of TcdA, however, significantly increased, either by acidification of the surrounding milieu or following exchange of its CROP domain by the homologous CROP domain of TcdB. Thus, TcdA CROPs contribute to the stabilization and protection of toxin conformation in addition to function as the main receptor binding domain.

  19. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Kasper, Lawryn H; Bedford, David C; Lerach, Stephanie; Teubner, Brett J W; Brindle, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  20. Structural Basis of IgE Binding to α- and γ-Gliadins: Contribution of Disulfide Bonds and Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameri, Hamza; Brossard, Chantal; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Gohon, Yann; Paty, Evelyne; Beaudouin, Etienne; Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne; Drouet, Martine; Solé, Véronique; Wien, Frank; Lupi, Roberta; Larré, Colette; Snégaroff, Jacques; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-07-29

    Wheat products cause IgE-mediated allergies. The present study aimed to decipher the molecular basis of α- and γ-gliadin allergenicity. Gliadins and their domains, the repetitive N-terminal and the nonrepetitive C-terminal domains, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Their secondary structures and their IgE binding capacity were compared with those of natural proteins before and after reduction/alkylation. Allergenicity was evaluated with sera from patients who had a wheat food allergy or baker's asthma. The secondary structures of natural and recombinant proteins were slightly different. Compared with natural gliadins, recombinant proteins retained IgE binding but with reduced reactivity. Reduction/alkylation decreased IgE binding for both natural and recombinant gliadins. Although more continuous epitopes were identified in the N-terminal domains of α- and γ-gliadins, both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contributed to IgE binding. As for other members of the prolamin superfamily, disulfide bonds appear to be of high importance for IgE binding.

  1. Application of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised--Italian version--in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulceri, Francesca; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balboni, Giulia; Baldini, Sara; Brocchini, Jenny; Domenici, Ilaria; Cerullo, Sonia; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated. The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored. Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not. This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum.

  2. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  3. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Jeffrey Scott [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, Hc in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd5(Si2Ge2), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, Ms, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected

  4. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and

  5. Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Social Participation, Play, Leisure, and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies.

  6. Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

  7. Relationship between early motor milestones and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Alvares, Gail A; Varcin, Kandice J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2017-03-16

    This study explored the relationships between the later age of achievement of early motor milestones, current motor atypicalities (toe walking), and the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD (Mage  = 8.09 years, SD = 4.28; 119 males) completed an early developmental milestones questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of Insistence on Sameness (IS) and Repetitive Mannerisms (RM). Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test whether RM and IS behaviors were predicted by early motor milestones, or current toe walking. The final model predicting RM accounted for 15% of the variance (F = 3.02, p = .009), with toe walking as a unique and independent predictor of RM scores (t = 3.568, p = .001). The final model predicting IS accounted for 19.1% of variance in IS scores (F = 4.045, p = .001), with chronological age (CA) (t = 2.92, p = .004), age when first standing (t = 2.09, p = .038), and toe walking (t = 2.53, p = .013) as unique independent predictors. Toe walking (t = 2.4, p = .018) and age when first sitting (t = 2.08, p = .04) predicted the severity of RRBs on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (F = 2.334, p = .036). Our study replicates previous findings on the relationship between concurrent motor impairments and RRBs, and provides the first evidence for the association between RRBs and age of attainment of early motor milestones. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Is trichotillomania a stereotypic movement disorder? An analysis of body-focused repetitive behaviors in people with hair-pulling.

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    Stein, Dan J; Flessner, Christopher A; Franklin, Martin; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Woods, Douglas W

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is characterized by nonfunctional repetitive movements, is typically diagnosed in people with intellectual disability, and by definition excludes people with trichotillomania (TTM). Nevertheless, hair-pulling may be one of a number of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) that are seen in the general population. Comorbidity of symptoms might support the idea that they are indicative of an underlying stereotypic disorder, and we therefore explored their frequency in people with hair-pulling. Participants were recruited with the help of the Trichotillomania Learning Center, the largest advocacy group for people with hair-pulling. Participants completed a self-report survey on the Internet, which included questions about the presence of both hair-pulling and other BFRBs. Measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HS), the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A), the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The majority of participants with hair-pulling (70%) report the presence of other BFRBs, most commonly skin-picking and nail-biting. There were particularly strong associations between the total number of BFRBs and increased scores on ratings of focused hair-pulling, depression, anxiety, stress, and functional impairment. Similar results were found in participants who met more rigorous criteria for trichotillomania. This study is limited by its self-report nature, and by the lack of detailed information on the phenomenology of comorbid BFRBs. While further nosological research is needed, the high rates of these behaviors in people with hair-pulling, and their association with increased disability, is consistent with previous clinical observations, and supports the argument that trichotillomania can usefully be conceptualized as a stereotypic disorder. Speculatively, this argument may be especially valid in

  9. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  10. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  11. A framework for understanding the emerging role of corticolimbic-ventral striatal networks in OCD-associated repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eWood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review we discuss this network

  12. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…

  13. Cerebrolysin prevents deficits in social behavior, repetitive conduct, and synaptic inhibition in a rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco

    2017-06-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Park, Isabel K; Neelly, Linda B; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism.

  15. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  17. Excitability and firing behavior of single slow motor axons transmitting natural repetitive firing of human motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-08-01

    Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored. It was shown that axons displayed an early irresponsive period (within the first ~2-5 ms of a target ISI) that was followed by a responsive period (for the next 5-17 ms of the ISI), in which MUs fired axonal doublets, and a later irresponsive period. At the beginning of the responsive period, M-responses showed small latency delays. However, since at that ISI moment, MUs displayed excitability recovery with high firing index, slight latency changes may be considered as a functionally insignificant phenomenon. The duration of axonal doublet ISIs did not depend on motoneuron firing frequencies (range 4.3-14.6 imp/s). The question of whether or not traditionally described axonal recovery excitability cycle is realistic in natural motor control is discussed. In conclusion, the present approach, exploring, for the first time, excitability recovery in single slow axons during motoneuron natural activation, can provide further insight into axonal firing behavior in normal states and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability of single slow axons was estimated by motor unit firing index in response to motor nerve stimulation, and its changes throughout a target interspike interval were explored during transmitting human motoneuron natural firing. It was found that axons exhibited early irresponsive

  18. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Behavioral Recovery during Early Stage of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chung, Pil-Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yul; Chun, Min Ho

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.

  19. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  20. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  1. Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

    2013-07-01

    The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (pfrequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD.

  2. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Stereotyped and Repetitive Behaviors of Pre-school Children With Autism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Salmanian, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Soudeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We examined those articles that addressed non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high-quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A, and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can be used to treat repetitive behaviors in children with autism

  3. The Impact of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Tic Disorders or Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

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    Simon eMorand-Beaulieu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tic disorders (TD are characterized by the presence of non-voluntary contractions of functionally related groups of skeletal muscles in one or multiple body parts. Patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB present frequent and repetitive behaviors, such as nail biting or hair pulling. TD and BFRB can be treated with a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT that regulates the excessive amount of sensorimotor activation and muscular tension. Our CBT, which is called the cognitive-psychophysiological therapy (CoPs, targets motor execution and inhibition, and it was reported to modify brain activity in TD. However, psychophysiological effects of therapy are still poorly understood in TD and BFRB patients. Our goals were to compare the event-related potentials (ERP of TD and BFRB patients to control participants, and to investigate the effects of the CoPs therapy on the P200, N200 and P300 components during a motor and non-motor oddball task.Method: ERP components were compared in 26 TD patients, 27 BFRB patients and 27 control participants. ERP were obtained from 63 EEG electrodes during two oddball tasks. In the non-motor task, participants had to count rare stimuli. In the motor task, participants had to respond with a left or right button press for rare and frequent stimuli, respectively. ERP measures were recorded before and after therapy in both patients groups.Results: CoPs therapy improved symptoms similarly in both clinical groups. Before therapy, TD and BFRB patients had lower P300 oddball effect during the non-motor task, in comparison with controls participants. An increase in the P300 oddball effect was observed post therapy. This increase was distributed over the whole cortex in BFRB patients, but localized in the parietal area in TD patients.Discussion: These results suggest a modification of neural processes following CoPs therapy in TD and BFRB patients. CoPs therapy seems to impact patients’ attentional processes

  4. Limiting behavior of non-autonomous stochastic reaction-diffusion equations on thin domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dingshi; Wang, Bixiang; Wang, Xiaohu

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the limiting behavior of stochastic reaction-diffusion equations driven by multiplicative noise and deterministic non-autonomous terms defined on thin domains. We first prove the existence, uniqueness and periodicity of pullback tempered random attractors for the equations in an (n + 1)-dimensional narrow domain, and then establish the upper semicontinuity of these attractors when a family of (n + 1)-dimensional thin domains collapses onto an n-dimensional domain.

  5. Management of Chronic Tinnitus and Insomnia with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – a Combined Approach

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    Kneginja Richter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 80% of people will experience symptoms of tinnitus over the courses of their lives, with rates of comorbid sleeping problems ranging from 50 to 77%. Because of a potential connection between tinnitus and sleep disorders as well as high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, interdisciplinary approaches to treatment seem to be the most efficient option. In this study, we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient, who started to experience symptoms of tinnitus at the age of 49, most likely caused by work-related stress. Over the course of his illness, the patient developed comorbid insomnia. He consulted us for treatment of both conditions and we developed a treatment plan with ten sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS followed by 10 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. We used the Tinnitus Fragebogen (TF to assess the severity of the tinnitus, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II for depressive symptoms, and the WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5 for subjective well-being. Improvements could be achieved with regard to both diagnoses and the patient went from severe (48 to clinically negligible (12 TF scores, from minimal (BDI-II score 10 to no (0 depressive symptoms, and from just above critical (WHO-5 percentile 52 to above average (84 well-being. The combination of technological and psychological approaches to treat tinnitus and insomnia thus proved successful in this case. One may therefore conclude that rTMS may be considered an effective first therapeutic step for tinnitus treatment prior to CBT. To our knowledge this is the first published case in which rTMS and CBT were combined for tinnitus therapy. The approach proved successful since it led to a considerable increase in well-being and everyday functioning. To gauge the effect on a more general level, large-scale studies are still needed to cancel out potential placebo effects. Likewise, the importance of the order of

  6. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: A systematic review of reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.W.H.; Kok, G.; Ten Dam, G.T.M.; Buijs, G.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements

  7. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  8. A review of similarities between domain-specific determinants of four health behaviors among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.H. Peters; C.H. Wiefferink; F. Hoekstra; G.J. Buijs; G.T.M. ten Dam; T.G.W.M. Paulussen

    2009-01-01

    Schools are overloaded with health promotion programs that, altogether, focus on a broad array of behavioral domains, including substance abuse, sexuality and nutrition. Although the specific content of programs varies according to the domain focus, programs usually address similar concepts: knowled

  9. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  10. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  11. Associations between Major Domains of Personality and Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences 12, 887-898. Cummings, K. M., Jette, A. M., Brock, B. M., & Haefner, D. P. (1979). Psychosocial...behavior. Journal of Personality, 51, 360-392. Eysenck, H.J. (1985). Personality, cancer and cardiovascular diseae: A causal analysis. Personality and Individual Differences , 6

  12. Socio-cognitive influences on the domain-specificity of prosocial behavior in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha; Schuhmacher, Nils; Collard, Jenny

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to explain the domain-specificity of early prosocial behavior in different domains (i.e., helping, comforting, and cooperation) by simultaneously assessing specific socio-cognitive factors (i.e., self-other-differentiation and joint attentional skills) that were hypothesized to be differentially related to the three domains of prosocial behavior. Based on a longitudinal study design, observational and parental report data were collected when toddlers (N=42) from German urban middle-class families were 15 and 18 months of age. At 15 months, regression analyses indicated differential relationships between socio-cognitive development and prosocial behavior (i.e., joint attentional skills were positively related with helping and, as hypothesized, both joint attentional skills and self-other differentiation were positively related with cooperation). Furthermore, self-other differentiation at 15 months predicted increases in coordination between 15 and 18 months. Finally, between 15 and 18 months, parental reports of socio-cognitive measures increased significantly while behavioral measures of both socio-cognitive concepts and prosocial behavior were stable across time. In sum, these results support the theoretical assumption of domain-specific socio-cognitive influences that constitute differential development of prosocial behavior. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed from different perspectives with a focus on an interference interpretation calling for the integration of socialization approaches to the study of prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

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    Kristen C Klemenhagen

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

  14. Critical Behavior of Four-Terminal Junctions of Bilayer Graphene Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Benjamin; Zhang, Fan; Kane, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Bilayer graphene in a perpendicular electric field can host domain walls between regions of reversed field direction or interlayer stacking. The gapless modes propagating along these domain walls, while not strictly topological, nevertheless have interesting physical properties, including valley-momentum locking. A junction where four domain walls meet forms the analogue of a quantum point contact. We study theoretically the critical behavior of this junction near the pinch-off transition, which is controlled by a non-trivial quantum critical point. At low temperatures, the transition sharpens and the conductance is described by a universal scaling function, which we compute.

  15. Integrating cross-scale analysis in the spatial and temporal domains for classification of behavioral movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since various behavioral movement patterns are likely to be valid within different, unique ranges of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., instantaneous, diurnal, or seasonal with the corresponding spatial extents, a cross-scale approach is needed for accurate classification of behaviors expressed in movement. Here, we introduce a methodology for the characterization and classification of behavioral movement data that relies on computing and analyzing movement features jointly in both the spatial and temporal domains. The proposed methodology consists of three stages. In the first stage, focusing on the spatial domain, the underlying movement space is partitioned into several zonings that correspond to different spatial scales, and features related to movement are computed for each partitioning level. In the second stage, concentrating on the temporal domain, several movement parameters are computed from trajectories across a series of temporal windows of increasing sizes, yielding another set of input features for the classification. For both the spatial and the temporal domains, the ``reliable scale'' is determined by an automated procedure. This is the scale at which the best classification accuracy is achieved, using only spatial or temporal input features, respectively. The third stage takes the measures from the spatial and temporal domains of movement, computed at the corresponding reliable scales, as input features for behavioral classification. With a feature selection procedure, the most relevant features contributing to known behavioral states are extracted and used to learn a classification model. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a dataset of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio swimming movements in testing tanks, following exposure to different drug treatments. Our results show that behavioral classification accuracy greatly increases when firstly cross-scale analysis is used to determine the best analysis scale, and

  16. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  17. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  18. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-02-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves behavioral and biochemical deficits in levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Guan, Lina; Yi, Maoli; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-09-13

    Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model. The effect of rTMS on abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) was assessed. After ending the experiments, we further determined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons number by immunohistochemistry, dopamine levels by HPLC, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels by ELISA, NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B with Fyn by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that rTMS obviously attenuated AIMs scores, reduced the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the fluctuations of striatal dopamine levels. Meanwhile, rTMS significantly increased the expression of GDNF, which couldrestore the damage of dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, rTMS also reduced the levels of the NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation andits interactions with Fyn in the lesioned striatum of LID rats model. Thus, these data indicate that rTMS can provide benefit for the therapy of LID by improving the key biochemical deficits related to dyskinesia.

  20. Stability of a Jensen Type Logarithmic Functional Equation on Restricted Domains and Its Asymptotic Behaviors

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    Chung Jae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be the set of positive real numbers, a Banach space, and , with . We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the Jensen type logarithmic functional inequality in restricted domains of the form for fixed with or and . As consequences of the results we obtain asymptotic behaviors of the inequality as .

  1. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

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    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  2. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joshua Sarfaty; Ramsey, Lenny E; Snyder, Abraham Z; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Chacko, Ravi V; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-07-26

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain-behavior relationships in stroke.

  3. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  4. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response.

  5. Removal of FKBP12 enhances mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative/repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffer, Charles A; Tang, Wei; Wong, Helen; Santillan, Arturo; Patterson, Richard J; Martinez, Luis A; Tejada-Simon, Maria V; Paylor, Richard; Hamilton, Susan L; Klann, Eric

    2008-12-10

    FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene in mice altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition test. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors.

  6. Critical behavior of four-terminal conductance of bilayer graphene domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Benjamin J.; Zhang, Fan; Kane, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bilayer graphene in a perpendicular electric field can host domain walls between regions of reversed field direction or interlayer stacking. The gapless modes propagating along these domain walls, while not strictly topological, nevertheless have interesting physical properties, including valley-momentum locking. A junction where two domain walls intersect forms the analog of a quantum point contact. We study theoretically the critical behavior of this junction near the pinch-off transition, which is controlled by two separate classes of nontrivial quantum critical points. For strong interactions, the junction can host phases of unique charge and valley conductances. For weaker interactions, the low-temperature charge conductance can undergo one of two possible quantum phase transitions, each characterized by a specific critical exponent and a collapse to a universal scaling function, which we compute.

  7. Some results on the asymptotic behavior for hyperbolic problems in cylindrical domains becoming unbounded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmia, Senoussi

    2008-05-01

    We study here the asymptotic behavior of the solution of a hyperbolic problem defined on a cylindrical domain when l-->[infinity]. We show that, under very general assumptions, the solution of this problem converges faster than any power of towards the solution of another hyperbolic problem, defined on [0,T]×[omega], in any bounded subdomain. We give both necessary and sufficient conditions for this convergence to occur.

  8. Investigation of the Dispersion Behavior of Inertial Particles within Accelerated Domain

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    Tong ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study of the dynamics dispersion behaviors of inertial particle in solid-air two-phase flow within accelerated domains using both experimental and simulation approaches. In the simulation, a threedimensional model was proposed by means of the combined computational fluid dynamics and a discrete element method (CFD-DEM. The simulation model provides information regarding the particle distribution behaviors and the particle run-away rate from the calculation domain. In the experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV and laser tomography were used to measure the particle velocity and concentration distribution, respectively. The simulation results were than validated by the experimental measurement. And the influence mechanisms of acceleration on the particle flow behavior were discussed in detail. As results, acceleration of the calculation domain affects the particle motion and causes a relative dense particles distribution in the accelerated direction. The particle run-out rate under acceleration was initially the same, but subsequently lower than that of the condition without acceleration. This finding shows that the acceleration adversely affects the particle run-out rate.

  9. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  10. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  11. Unravelling merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli

    2016-08-28

    The presence of grain boundaries is inevitable for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS2 domains owing to various merging behaviors, which greatly limits its potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is therefore of great significance to unravel the merging behaviors of the synthesized polygon shape MoS2 domains. Here we provide systematic investigations of merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown polycrystalline MoS2 crystals by multiple means. Morphological results exhibit various polygon shape features, ascribed to polycrystalline crystals merged with triangle shape MoS2 single crystals. The thickness of triangle and polygon shape MoS2 crystals is identical manifested by Raman intensity and peak position mappings. Three merging behaviors are proposed to illustrate the formation mechanisms of observed various polygon shaped MoS2 crystals. The combined photoemission electron microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy results reveal that the surface potential of perfect merged crystals is identical, which has an important implication for fabricating MoS2-based devices.

  12. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  13. Research Domain Criteria: cognitive systems, neural circuits, and dimensions of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sarah E; Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2012-03-01

    Current diagnostic systems for mental disorders were established before the tools of neuroscience were available, and although they have improved the reliability of psychiatric classification, progress toward the discovery of disease etiologies and novel approaches to treatment and prevention may benefit from alternative conceptualizations of mental disorders. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is the centerpiece of NIMH's effort to achieve its strategic goal of developing new methods to classify mental disorders for research purposes. The RDoC matrix provides a research framework that encourages investigators to reorient their research perspective by taking a dimensional approach to the study of the genetic, neural, and behavioral features of mental disorders, RDoCs integrative approach includes cognition along with social processes, arousal/regulatory systems, and negative and positive valence systems as the major domains, because these neurobehavioral systems have all evolved to serve the motivational and adaptive needs of the organism. With its focus on neural circuits informed by the growing evidence of the neurodevelopmental nature of many disorders and its capacity to capture the patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors and symptoms, the RDoC approach holds promise to advance our understanding of the nature of mental disorders.

  14. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    2015-07-01

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design (e.g., observational versus experimental). Our aim was to scrutinize the domain specificity of exercise effects on cognition, while controlling for the other sources of heterogeneity. In a population based sample consisting of 472 males and 668 females (aged 10-86 years old) we administered the Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB), which provided accuracy and speed measures of abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, memory (verbal, face, and spatial), language and nonverbal reasoning, spatial ability, emotion identification, emotion- and age differentiation, sensorimotor speed, and motor speed. Using univariate and multivariate regression models, CNB scores were associated with participants' average energy expenditure per week (weekly METhours), which were derived from a questionnaire on voluntary regular leisure time exercise behavior. Univariate models yielded generally positive associations between weekly METhours and cognitive accuracy and speed, but multivariate modeling demonstrated that direct relations were small and centered around zero. The largest and only significant effect size (β = 0.11, p effects of voluntary regular leisure time exercise on cognition are limited. Only a relation between exercise and attention inspires confidence.

  15. Spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex revealed by repetition priming and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnepain, Pierre; Chételat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Dayan, Jacques; Eustache, Francis; Lebreton, Karine

    2008-05-14

    Previous neuroimaging studies in the visual domain have shown that neurons along the perceptual processing pathway retain the physical properties of written words, faces, and objects. The aim of this study was to reveal the existence of similar neuronal properties within the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a repetition priming paradigm, with words and pseudowords heard in an acoustically degraded format. Both the amplitude and peak latency of the hemodynamic response (HR) were assessed to determine the nature of the neuronal signature of spoken word priming. A statistically significant stimulus type by repetition interaction was found in various bilateral auditory cortical areas, demonstrating either HR suppression and enhancement for repeated spoken words and pseudowords, respectively, or word-specific repetition suppression without any significant effects for pseudowords. Repetition latency shift only occurred with word-specific repetition suppression in the right middle/posterior superior temporal sulcus. In this region, both repetition suppression and latency shift were related to behavioral priming. Our findings highlight for the first time the existence of long-term spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex. The timescale of auditory information integration and the neuronal mechanisms underlying priming both appear to differ according to the level of representations coded by neurons. Repetition may "sharpen" word-nonspecific representations coding short temporal variations, whereas a complex interaction between the activation strength and temporal integration of neuronal activity may occur in neuronal populations coding word-specific representations within longer temporal windows.

  16. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  17. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  18. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate Behavioral Simulator of All-Digital Time-Domain Smart Temperature Sensors by Using SIMULINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new behavioral simulator that uses SIMULINK for all-digital CMOS time-domain smart temperature sensors (TDSTSs for performing rapid and accurate simulations. Inverter-based TDSTSs offer the benefits of low cost and simple structure for temperature-to-digital conversion and have been developed. Typically, electronic design automation tools, such as HSPICE, are used to simulate TDSTSs for performance evaluations. However, such tools require extremely long simulation time and complex procedures to analyze the results and generate figures. In this paper, we organize simple but accurate equations into a temperature-dependent model (TDM by which the TDSTSs evaluate temperature behavior. Furthermore, temperature-sensing models of a single CMOS NOT gate were devised using HSPICE simulations. Using the TDM and these temperature-sensing models, a novel simulator in SIMULINK environment was developed to substantially accelerate the simulation and simplify the evaluation procedures. Experiments demonstrated that the simulation results of the proposed simulator have favorable agreement with those obtained from HSPICE simulations, showing that the proposed simulator functions successfully. This is the first behavioral simulator addressing the rapid simulation of TDSTSs.

  20. Accurate Behavioral Simulator of All-Digital Time-Domain Smart Temperature Sensors by Using SIMULINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Chao-Lieh; Lin, You-Ting

    2016-08-08

    This study proposes a new behavioral simulator that uses SIMULINK for all-digital CMOS time-domain smart temperature sensors (TDSTSs) for performing rapid and accurate simulations. Inverter-based TDSTSs offer the benefits of low cost and simple structure for temperature-to-digital conversion and have been developed. Typically, electronic design automation tools, such as HSPICE, are used to simulate TDSTSs for performance evaluations. However, such tools require extremely long simulation time and complex procedures to analyze the results and generate figures. In this paper, we organize simple but accurate equations into a temperature-dependent model (TDM) by which the TDSTSs evaluate temperature behavior. Furthermore, temperature-sensing models of a single CMOS NOT gate were devised using HSPICE simulations. Using the TDM and these temperature-sensing models, a novel simulator in SIMULINK environment was developed to substantially accelerate the simulation and simplify the evaluation procedures. Experiments demonstrated that the simulation results of the proposed simulator have favorable agreement with those obtained from HSPICE simulations, showing that the proposed simulator functions successfully. This is the first behavioral simulator addressing the rapid simulation of TDSTSs.

  1. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Grabell, Adam S; Alves, Martha L; Olson, Sheryl L

    2015-06-01

    Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous-unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multimethod data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N = 240; 48% female). Dimensions of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3-6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  3. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  4. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takezawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  5. Existence and asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of a semilinear elliptic system in a bounded domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Chaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(\\Omega\\ be a bounded domain in \\(\\mathbb{R}^{n}\\ (\\(n\\geq 2\\ with a smooth boundary \\(\\partial \\Omega\\. We discuss in this paper the existence and the asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of the following semilinear elliptic system \\[\\begin{aligned} -\\Delta u&=a_{1}(xu^{\\alpha}v^{r}\\quad\\text{in}\\;\\Omega ,\\;\\;\\,u|_{\\partial\\Omega}=0,\\\\ -\\Delta v&=a_{2}(xv^{\\beta}u^{s}\\quad\\text{in}\\;\\Omega ,\\;\\;\\,v|_{\\partial\\Omega }=0.\\end{aligned}\\] Here \\(r,s\\in \\mathbb{R}\\, \\(\\alpha,\\beta \\lt 1\\ such that \\(\\gamma :=(1-\\alpha(1-\\beta-rs\\gt 0\\ and the functions \\(a_{i}\\ (\\(i=1,2\\ are nonnegative and satisfy some appropriate conditions with reference to Karamata regular variation theory.

  6. Direct visualization of the thermomagnetic behavior of pseudo–single-domain magnetite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Kovács, András; Williams, Wyn; Brown, Paul D.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the paleomagnetic signal recorded by rocks allows scientists to understand Earth’s past magnetic field and the formation of the geodynamo. The magnetic recording fidelity of this signal is dependent on the magnetic domain state it adopts. The most prevalent example found in nature is the pseudo–single-domain (PSD) structure, yet its recording fidelity is poorly understood. Here, the thermoremanent behavior of PSD magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, which dominate the magnetic signatures of many rock lithologies, is investigated using electron holography. This study provides spatially resolved magnetic information from individual Fe3O4 grains as a function of temperature, which has been previously inaccessible. A small exemplar Fe3O4 grain (~150 nm) exhibits dynamic movement of its magnetic vortex structure above 400°C, recovering its original state upon cooling, whereas a larger exemplar Fe3O4 grain (~250 nm) is shown to retain its vortex state on heating to 550°C, close to the Curie temperature of 580°C. Hence, we demonstrate that Fe3O4 grains containing vortex structures are indeed reliable recorders of paleodirectional and paleointensity information, and the presence of PSD magnetic signals does not preclude the successful recovery of paleomagnetic signals. PMID:27152353

  7. Direct visualization of the thermomagnetic behavior of pseudo-single-domain magnetite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Trevor P; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Kovács, András; Williams, Wyn; Brown, Paul D; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2016-04-01

    The study of the paleomagnetic signal recorded by rocks allows scientists to understand Earth's past magnetic field and the formation of the geodynamo. The magnetic recording fidelity of this signal is dependent on the magnetic domain state it adopts. The most prevalent example found in nature is the pseudo-single-domain (PSD) structure, yet its recording fidelity is poorly understood. Here, the thermoremanent behavior of PSD magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, which dominate the magnetic signatures of many rock lithologies, is investigated using electron holography. This study provides spatially resolved magnetic information from individual Fe3O4 grains as a function of temperature, which has been previously inaccessible. A small exemplar Fe3O4 grain (~150 nm) exhibits dynamic movement of its magnetic vortex structure above 400°C, recovering its original state upon cooling, whereas a larger exemplar Fe3O4 grain (~250 nm) is shown to retain its vortex state on heating to 550°C, close to the Curie temperature of 580°C. Hence, we demonstrate that Fe3O4 grains containing vortex structures are indeed reliable recorders of paleodirectional and paleointensity information, and the presence of PSD magnetic signals does not preclude the successful recovery of paleomagnetic signals.

  8. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  9. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  10. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ru Zhang; Jing Chen; Zi-Jiao Yang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Yun-Ting Fu; Yun Shen; Pei-Cheng He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment.The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD.Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD;n =42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD;n =32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD;n =15), and healthy controls (HCs;n =36).All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function.The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups.Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis.Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05).During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially.The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively.RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio =5.204, P =0.018).During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors) and

  11. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  12. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  13. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  14. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  15. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  16. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  17. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  18. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  19. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    OpenAIRE

    Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach specifically focuses on temporal variety-seeking behavior and addresses some of the key issues that have received inadequate attention in previous work on temporal variety-seeking behavior. ...

  20. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  1. Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all.

  2. Birth and death of protein domains: A simple model of evolution explains power law behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezovskaya Faina S

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connections of enzymes and metabolites in metabolic networks, the number of interactions partners of a given protein, the number of members in paralogous families, and other quantities. In network analysis, power laws imply evolution of the network with preferential attachment, i.e. a greater likelihood of nodes being added to pre-existing hubs. Exploration of different types of evolutionary models in an attempt to determine which of them lead to power law distributions has the potential of revealing non-trivial aspects of genome evolution. Results A simple model of evolution of the domain composition of proteomes was developed, with the following elementary processes: i domain birth (duplication with divergence, ii death (inactivation and/or deletion, and iii innovation (emergence from non-coding or non-globular sequences or acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. This formalism can be described as a birth, death and innovation model (BDIM. The formulas for equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size and the total number of families at equilibrium are derived for a general BDIM. All asymptotics of equilibrium frequencies of domain families possible for the given type of models are found and their appearance depending on model parameters is investigated. It is proved that the power law asymptotics appears if, and only if, the model is balanced, i.e. domain duplication and deletion rates are asymptotically equal up to the second order. It is further proved that any power asymptotic with the degree not equal to -1 can appear only if the hypothesis of independence of the duplication/deletion rates on the size of a domain family is rejected. Specific cases of BDIMs, namely simple, linear, polynomial and rational

  3. Assessing the influence of health literacy on health information behaviors: A multi-domain skills-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Venkata Ratnadeep; Majid, Shaheen; Chang, Yun-Ke; Foo, Schubert

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between five domain-specific skills of health literacy: Find Health Information (FHI), Appraise Health Information (AHI), Understand Health Information to act (UHI), Actively Manage One's Health (AMH), and E-health literacy (e-Heals), and health information seeking behaviors and three categories of health outcomes. A survey was implemented and data was collected from 1062 college going adults and analyzed using bivariate tests and multiple regression analysis. Among the five domain-specific Health Literacy skills, AHI and e-Heals were significantly associated with the use of traditional sources and the Internet for healthcare information respectively. Similarly and AMH and e-Heals were significantly associated with the use of traditional sources and the Internet for health lifestyle information respectively. Lastly AHI, AMH and e-Heals were significantly associated with the three categories of outcomes, and AFH was significantly associated with cognitive and instrumental outcomes, but not doctor-patient communication outcomes. Consumers' ability to use different health sources for both healthcare and health lifestyle information, and the three categories of health outcomes are associated with different domain-specific health literacy skills. Health literacy initiatives may be improved by focusing on clients to develop domain-specific skills that increase the likelihood of using health information sources and accrue benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SISGR -- Domain Microstructures and Mechanisms for Large, Reversible and Anhysteretic Strain Behaviors in Phase Transforming Ferroelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu U. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2013-12-06

    This four-year project (including one-year no-cost extension) aimed to advance fundamental understanding of field-induced strain behaviors of phase transforming ferroelectrics. We performed meso-scale phase field modeling and computer simulation to study domain evolutions, mechanisms and engineering techniques, and developed computational techniques for nanodomain diffraction analysis; to further support above originally planned tasks, we also carried out preliminary first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defects and domain walls to complement meso-scale computations as well as performed in-situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments to guide theoretical development (both without extra cost to the project thanks to XSEDE supercomputers and DOE user facility Advanced Photon Source).

  5. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  6. Evidence of a Distinct Behavioral Phenotype in Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Bodfish, James W.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.; Piven, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objective: How does the behavioral expression of autism in fragile X syndrome (FXS + Aut) compare with idiopathic autism (iAut)? Although social impairments and restricted, repetitive behaviors are common to these variants of autism, closer examination of these symptom domains may reveal meaningful similarities and differences. To this end, the…

  7. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  8. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present ap

  9. Behavioral and Cognitive Readiness for School: Cross-Domain Associations for Children Attending Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.; Gest, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a diverse sample of 356 four-year-old children attending Head Start, this study examined the degree to which behavioral aspects of school readiness, including classroom participation, prosocial behavior, and aggression control were related to direct assessments of child cognitive readiness (academic knowledge, executive function skills)…

  10. Variety - seeking in product choice behavior : theory with applications in the food domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present

  11. How domain growth is implemented determines the long-term behavior of a cell population through its effect on spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert J. H.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2016-07-01

    Domain growth plays an important role in many biological systems, and so the inclusion of domain growth in models of these biological systems is important to understanding how these systems function. In this work we present methods to include the effects of domain growth on the evolution of spatial correlations in a continuum approximation of a lattice-based model of cell motility and proliferation. We show that, depending on the way in which domain growth is implemented, different steady-state densities are predicted for an agent population. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the way in which domain growth is implemented can result in the evolution of the agent density depending on the size of the domain. Continuum approximations that ignore spatial correlations cannot capture these behaviors, while those that account for spatial correlations do. These results will be of interest to researchers in developmental biology, as they suggest that the nature of domain growth can determine the characteristics of cell populations.

  12. Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslín, Mark; Levy, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Why do comprehenders process repeated stimuli more rapidly than novel stimuli? We consider an adaptive explanation for why such facilitation may be beneficial: priming is a consequence of expectation for repetition due to rational adaptation to the environment. If occurrences of a stimulus cluster in time, given one occurrence it is rational to expect a second occurrence closely following. Leveraging such knowledge may be particularly useful in online processing of language, where pervasive clustering may help comprehenders negotiate the considerable challenge of continual expectation update at multiple levels of linguistic structure and environmental variability. We test this account in the domain of structural priming in syntax, making use of the sentential complement-direct object (SC-DO) ambiguity. We first show that sentences containing SC continuations cluster in natural language, motivating an expectation for repetition of this structure. Second, we show that comprehenders are indeed sensitive to the syntactic clustering properties of their current environment. In a series of between-groups self-paced reading studies, we find that participants who are exposed to clusters of SC sentences subsequently process repetitions of SC structure more rapidly than participants who are exposed to the same number of SCs spaced in time, and attribute the difference to the learned degree of expectation for repetition. We model this behavior through Bayesian belief update, showing that (the optimal degree of) sensitivity to clustering properties of syntactic structures is indeed learnable through experience. Comprehension priming effects are thus consistent with rational expectation for repetition based on adaptation to the linguistic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring determinants of implementation behavior: Psychometric properties of a questionnaire based on the theoretical domains framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijg, J.M.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verheijden, M.W.; Zouwe, N. van der; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Crone, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To be able to design effective strategies to improve healthcare professionals' implementation behaviors, a valid and reliable questionnaire is needed to assess potential implementation determinants. The present study describes the development of the Determinants of Implementation Behavio

  14. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  15. Repetitive exposures to a surrogate nipple providing nutritive and non-nutritive fluids: effects on suckling behavior of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Evgeniy S; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kramskaya, Tatiana A; Spear, Norman E

    2004-10-01

    Responsiveness to a surrogate nipple providing water, 0.1% saccharin, 10% sucrose, pedialyte, or milk was tested in naïve-to-suckling newborn rats during six 10-min exposures, one every 1.5 h over a 7.5 h period. Across a succession of exposures, newborn rats repeatedly attached to and ingested milk from a surrogate nipple, yielding significant body weight gain and increased concentration of blood plasma glucose. Initially, pups ingested considerable amounts of saccharin and sucrose, but then dramatically decreased their consumption of these fluids across the experimental sessions. Intake of milk was significantly higher than that of all other substances. Blood glucose concentration in pups treated with water, saccharin, sucrose, and pedialyte did not differ significantly from that of non-treated pups. The present data suggest a potential contribution of a fluid's palatability and nutritive value in the persistence and efficacy of diet intake for neonatal rats in the context of suckling behavior.

  16. Idiosyncratically tuned switching behavior of riboswitch aptamer domains revealed by comparative small-angle X-ray scattering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Nathan J.; Ferré-D' Amaré, Adrian R. (HHMI)

    2010-05-25

    Riboswitches are structured mRNA elements that regulate gene expression upon binding specific cellular metabolites. It is thought that the highly conserved metabolite-binding domains of riboswitches undergo conformational change upon binding their cognate ligands. To investigate the generality of such a mechanism, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We probed the nature of the global metabolite-induced response of the metabolite-binding domains of four different riboswitches that bind, respectively, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), lysine, and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). We find that each RNA is unique in its global structural response to metabolite. Whereas some RNAs exhibit distinct free and bound conformations, others are globally insensitive to the presence of metabolite. Thus, a global conformational change of the metabolite-binding domain is not a requirement for riboswitch function. It is possible that the range of behaviors observed by SAXS, rather than being a biophysical idiosyncrasy, reflects adaptation of riboswitches to the regulatory requirements of their individual genomic context.

  17. Effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats%香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮元; 高晓平; 李光武; 桑婷婷

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为及脑内5-HT的影响,探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 根据Schneider和Przewlocki的方法制作丙戊酸钠(VPA)自闭症动物模型,SD大鼠怀孕第12.5天腹腔注射600 mg/kg VPA后所产下的子代雄鼠,根据子鼠睁眼时间、断乳时体质量、行为学表现监测,获得24只造模成功的自闭症模型雄鼠,随机分为香草醛组,模型对照组,每组12只;正常对照组为SD孕鼠同期腹腔注射等量9 g/L盐水后所产下的子代雄鼠12只,空白对照为SD孕鼠同期未予以特殊处理所产下的子代雄鼠12只.比较香草醛组,模型对照组、正常对照组、空白对照组在吸嗅前,吸嗅后1周,吸嗅后4周时重复性刻板行为差异,采用免疫组织化学检测各组大鼠杏仁核5-HT表达水平.结果 与治疗前比较,香草醛组治疗4周后重复性刻板行为[刻板时间(113.31±18.45)sw(250.52±13.25)s]明显减少(P<0.01),香草醛吸嗅明显提高大鼠5-HT杏仁核区表达[5-HT阳性神经元数(3.42±1.32)个vs (1.32±1.04)个,P<0.05].结论 香草醛吸嗅可以改善自闭症模型大鼠的重复性刻板行为,提高大鼠5-HT在杏仁核区的表达.%Objective To investigate the effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats and its possible mechanism.Methods The model of autism was established by the single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 of pregnant rats.Twenty-four autism animals were adopted according to the eye opening time,body mass and behavioral test.They were randomly divided into control group and vanillin group with 12 in each group,while the saline group rats as normal control group and the blank group rats as normal blank group.The repetitive stereotyped behavioral were examined in four groups of rats and the concentration of 5-HT in the amygdala was determined by immunohistochemical stainning.Results Compared with

  18. Identifying the Impact of Domain Knowledge and Cognitive Style on Web-Based Information Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young; Black, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Although information searching in hypermedia environments has become a new important problem solving capability, there is not much known about what types of individual characteristics constitute a successful information search behavior. This study mainly investigated which of the 2 factors, 1) natural characteristics (cognitive style), and 2)…

  19. Adolescent Civic and Political Engagement: Associations between Domain-Specific Judgments and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Smetana, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    Judgments and justifications for different forms of civic involvement and their associations with organized and civic behavior were examined in 312 middle-class primarily White adolescents (M = 17.01 years). Adolescents applied moral, conventional, and personal criteria to distinguish involvement in community service, standard political, social…

  20. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  1. The effects of acute aerobic activity on cognition and cross-domain transfer to eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Hall, Peter A; Vincent, Corita M; Luu, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that a single session of aerobic exercise can enhance cognitive functioning; specifically, the inhibition facet of executive function (EF). Additionally, previous research has demonstrated that inhibitory abilities are essential for effective dietary self-control. However, it is currently unknown whether exercise induced enhancements in EF also facilitate self-control in the dietary domain. The present study sought to determine whether a single session of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and whether there is a transfer effect to dietary self-control. Thirty four undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three exercise conditions: (1) minimal exercise; (2) moderate intensity exercise (30% heart rate reserve); (3) vigorous intensity exercise (50% heart rate reserve). After the exercise bout, participants completed three standardized EF tasks followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods (milk chocolate and potato chips) and two control foods (dark chocolate and crackers). The amount of food consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. The results revealed a significant main effect of treatment condition on the Stroop task performance, but not Go-NoGo (GNG) and Stop Signal task performance. Findings with respect to food consumption revealed that EF moderated the treatment effect, such that those with larger exercise effects on Stroop performance in the moderate intensity exercise condition consumed more control foods (but not less appetitive foods). These findings support the contention that a single bout of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and may have transfer effects to the dietary domain, but that such effects may be indirect in nature.

  2. The effects of acute aerobic activity on cognition and cross-domain transfer to eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra eLowe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have demonstrated that a single session of aerobic exercise can enhance cognitive functioning; specifically, the inhibition facet of executive function (EF. Additionally, previous research has demonstrated that inhibitory abilities are essential for effective dietary self-control. However, it is currently unknown whether exercise induced enhancements in EF also facilitate self-control in the dietary domain. The present study sought to determine whether a single session of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and whether there is a transfer effect to dietary self-control. Thirty four undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of three exercise conditions: (1 minimal exercise; (2 moderate intensity exercise (30% heart rate reserve; (3 vigorous intensity exercise (50% heart rate reserve. After the exercise bout, participants completed three standardized EF tasks followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods(milk chocolate and potato chips and two control foods (dark chocolate and crackers. The amount of food consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. The results revealed a significant main effect of treatment condition on the Stroop task, but not the Go-NoGo and Stop Signal task. Findings with respect to food consumption revealed that EF moderated the treatment effect, such that those with larger exercise effects on Stroop performance in the moderate intensity exercise condition consumed more control foods (but not less appetitive foods. These findings support the contention that a single bout of aerobic exercise enhances EF, and may have transfer effects to the dietary domain, but that such effects may be indirect in nature.

  3. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  4. Asymptotic behavior of solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations on unbounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fleckinger

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the asymptotic behavior of positive solutions $u$ of $$ -Delta_p u(x = V(x u(x^{p-1}, quad p>1; x in Omega,$$ and related partial differential inequalities, as well as conditions for existence of such solutions. Here, $Omega$ contains the exterior of a ball in $mathbb{R}^N$ $1

  5. Diffraction from disordered one-dimensional islands with domain boundaries: Intensity behavior for various statistical approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.; Nord, R.S.

    1987-04-15

    We consider the angular distribution of the diffracted intensity, I(q), for systems of disordered one-dimensional double-spaced islands with domain boundaries. Although I(q) is directly determined by the spatial pair correlations, it is often naturally reexpressed in terms of island size and separation distributions. We analyze the effect on I(q) of various approximate specifications of the island statistics. In particular, we highlight the approximations implicit in Guinier (-type) formulations, and provide a new very accurate approximation. Motivated by the scarcity of analysis for kinetically limited island growth (often seen in chemisorption), we consider such an irreversible cooperative filling model for which exact results are available for the (highly nontrivial) island statistics (and thus for I(q)). We find that the (exact) integral-order beam intensity effectively disappears at saturation (where neighboring islands are out of phase) due to a propensity for cancellation of (a sum over) spatial pair correlations. This feature is missing not only in island-size-broadening-model (ISBM) calculations (which neglect the interisland interface), but also in Guinier formations. There is also significant interference at the half-order beams, and again Guinier formulations are inaccurate. Determination of average island size from these beam widths, via the usual ISBM algorithm, results in underestimation by a factor increasing to approx.3 as the coverage increases to saturation.

  6. Diffraction from disordered one-dimensional islands with domain boundaries: Intensity behavior for various statistical approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Nord, R. S.

    1987-04-01

    We consider the angular distribution of the diffracted intensity, I(q), for systems of disordered one-dimensional double-spaced islands with domain boundaries. Although I(q) is directly determined by the spatial pair correlations, it is often naturally reexpressed in terms of island size and separation distributions. We analyze the effect on I(q) of various approximate specifications of the island statistics. In particular, we highlight the approximations implicit in Guinier (-type) formulations, and provide a new very accurate approximation. Motivated by the scarcity of analysis for kinetically limited island growth (often seen in chemisorption), we consider such an irreversible cooperative filling model for which exact results are available for the (highly nontrivial) island statistics [and thus for I(q)]. We find that the (exact) integral-order beam intensity effectively disappears at saturation (where neighboring islands are out of phase) due to a propensity for cancellation of (a sum over) spatial pair correlations. This feature is missing not only in island-size-broadening-model (ISBM) calculations (which neglect the interisland interface), but also in Guinier formations. There is also significant interference at the half-order beams, and again Guinier formulations are inaccurate. Determination of average island size from these beam widths, via the usual ISBM algorithm, results in underestimation by a factor increasing to ~3 as the coverage increases to saturation.

  7. A time domain system identification for nonlinear behaviors of a seismic isolator using the secant stiffness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. W.; Jeon, Y. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    Nonlinear hysteretic behaviors and stiffness changes of a seismic isolator are identified by using a Time Domain System Identification (TDSI) based on the secant stiffness model. A new regularity condition of tangent stiffness used in the current TDSI is proposed instead of that used in the conventional Duhem hysteretic operator. The proposed regularity condition is defined with respect to time while that of Duhem hysteretic operator is defined with respect to displacements and restoring forces. The secant stiffness model for the TDSI is obtained by approximating the tangent stiffness under the proposed regularity condition by the secant stiffness at each time step. A least square method is employed to minimize the difference between the calculated response and measured response for the time domain system identification of the secant stiffness. The regularity condition of the secant stiffness is utilized to alleviate ill-posedness of the TDSI and to yield physically meaningful solutions by means of the regularization technique. An optimal regularization factor determined by Geometric Mean Scheme (GMS) is adopted to yield appropriate regularization effects on the system identification. The validity of the proposed method is presented through two numerical examples.

  8. Numerical Study of Wake Vortex Behavior in Turbulent Domains with Ambient Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional large eddy simulation model is used to investigate the sensitivity of ambient stratification with turbulence on the behavior of aircraft wake vortices. Modeled ambient turbulence levels range from very weak to moderate, and stratification levels range from strongly stable to unstable. The results of profound significance from this study are: 1) very little sensitivity between vortex linking time and the level of stratification, 2) the mean vortex separation remained nearly constant regardless of stratification and turbulence (at least prior to linking), 3) the wake vortices did not rise regardless of the level of stratification, and 4) for very strong stratification, the vortex stopped descending and quickly dissipated even before vortex linking could occur. These results are supported by experimental data and are contrary to conclusions from other numerical studies that assume laminar flow and/or relatively-low Reynolds numbers.

  9. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  10. 基于x域重复控制的磁通切换永磁直线电机定位力抑制方法%A Cogging Force Reduction Method for Linear Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Based on thex-Domain Repetitive Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟高军; 余海涛; 黄磊; 张笑薇

    2015-01-01

    The primary linear flux-switching permanent magnet (LFSPM) machine is a competitive candidate for direct-drive applications in feeding systems of the machine tool which need high force capability. However, the resulting cogging force is serious because of the double salient structure. Based on repetitive control of time-varying periodic signals, a new method of restraining cogging force for LFSPM was proposed, and the principle of the cogging force was analyzed. The idea is to transform the time-varying periodic toque disturbance in thet-domain to the signals defined in the x-domain and moreover to design a repetitive controller, so as to restrain the cogging force and speed vibration. Experimental evaluations of the proposed scheme were carried out on a AD5435-controlled LFSPM drive platform. The simulation and experiment results show that the control scheme is effective.%初级永磁型磁通切换直线电机在推力性能要求较高的机床伺服进给系统应用中具有一定的优势,而初次级双凸极结构会引起较大的定位力,从而限制了磁通切换永磁直线电机的应用。该文首先分析了磁通切换永磁直线(linear flux-switching permanent magnet,LFSPM)电机定位力产生的原理,随后从控制角度出发,提出一种利用时变周期信号的重复控制来抑制定位力的新型控制策略。首先将时变的t域信号,变换为具有固定周期的x域信号,再对其进行重复控制器的设计,从而达到抑制定位力和速度脉动的目的。通过半实物仿真平台AD5435实现了该控制算法,仿真及实验验证了该方法的有效性。

  11. Variation and repetition in the spelling of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury

    2015-04-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those who do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the current study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age∼4 years 8 months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and, thus, should vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  13. Domains of Acculturation and their Effects on Substance Use and Sexual Behavior in Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the immigrant paradox by ascertaining the effects of multiple components of acculturation on substance use and sexual behavior among recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents primarily from Mexico (35%) and Cuba (31%). A sample of 302 adolescents (53% boys; mean age 14.51 years) from Miami (n = 152) and Los Angeles (n = 150) provided data on Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identifications at baseline and provided reports of cigarette use, alcohol use, sexual activity, and unprotected sex approximately one year later. Results indicated strong gender differences, with the majority of significant findings emerging for boys. Supporting the immigrant paradox (i.e., that becoming oriented toward U.S. culture is predictive of increased health risks), individualist values predicted greater numbers of oral sex partners and unprotected sex occasions for boys. However, contrary to the immigrant paradox, for boys, both U.S. practices and U.S. identification predicted less heavy drinking, fewer oral and vaginal/anal sex partners, and less unprotected vaginal/anal sex. Ethnic identity (identification with one’s heritage culture) predicted greater numbers of sexual partners but negatively predicted unprotected sex. Results indicate a need for multidimensional, multi-domain models of acculturation and suggest that more work is needed to determine the most effective ways to culturally inform prevention programs. PMID:23828449

  14. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  15. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Can the emerging domain of behavioral addictions bring a new reflection for the field of addictions, by stressing the issue of the context of addiction development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a commentary to the article entitled: "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research", by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015). In this manuscript, we commented on two aspects developed by the authors. Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent development of propositions of behavioral addiction is driven by an unwise application of an addiction model to excessive behaviors and rests on a confirmatory research strategy that does not question the psychological processes underlying the development of the conduct. They also show that applying a process driven strategy leads to a more appropriate description of the reality of the behavior and conduct, in particular by describing a variety of motivations for the excessive behavior, which is central to understanding the nature of the conduct. We believe that this new approach, which is fruitful to the emerging domain of behavioral addictions, could also apply to the domain of addictions in general. The latter is characterized by the application of a generic biological model, largely influenced by animal models, focusing on neurophysiological determinants of addiction. This approach may have decreased the attention paid to dimensions of addictions that are more specifically human. We will firstly briefly argue on the limitation of this neurophysiological addiction model for the field of excessive behavioral conducts. Secondly, we will argue for an approach centered on the differentiation of motivations and on the adaptive dimension of the behavior when it first developed and on the evocation of a transition where the conduct became independent of its original function. The emerging domain of behavioral addictions, where no animal model has been developed so far, may bring a new reflection that may apply to the domain of addictions in general, with a specific attention to human questions.

  16. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  17. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  18. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  19. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  20. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  1. Dragon pulse information management system (DPIMS): A unique model-based approach to implementing domain agnostic system of systems and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    The Global Information Network Architecture is an information technology based on Vector Relational Data Modeling, a unique computational paradigm, DoD network certified by USARMY as the Dragon Pulse Informa- tion Management System. This network available modeling environment for modeling models, where models are configured using domain relevant semantics and use network available systems, sensors, databases and services as loosely coupled component objects and are executable applications. Solutions are based on mission tactics, techniques, and procedures and subject matter input. Three recent ARMY use cases are discussed a) ISR SoS. b) Modeling and simulation behavior validation. c) Networked digital library with behaviors.

  2. Child abuse and the balance of power in parental relationships: an evolved domain-independent mental mechanism that accounts for behavioral variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerker, W P

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies use zero-order analyses to show a link between child abuse and exposure to "stepfathers." These studies rest on a proposed evolved, domain-specific cognitive mechanism that induces adult males to abuse or kill offspring not their own and, so, contribute directly to reproductive success. However, child abuse may reflect an evolved neurological mechanism that creates behavioral plasticity and adaptability by assigning emotional weights (which in consciousness appear rationalized as costs and benefits) to choice alternatives in all behavioral domains. This mechanism should act as a selective mechanism to create enhanced ability to avoid predation (social exploitation) and to obtain access to resources, given the properties of specific ecosystems, and should control behavioral responses to variation in the balance of power in social relationships. Power equalities should elicit good treatment for both parties; power inequalities, by contrast, should elicit exploitative and coercive behavior on the part of those who hold the balance of power. This paper reports a test of both hypotheses simultaneously, controlling for a standard social science risk factor (growing up in poverty). Once we control for the balance of power in parental relationships, exposure to a stepfather and growing up in poverty show no effect on the intensity of child abuse. Powerful women negotiated affectionate behavior from their partners for both themselves and their children; powerless women's negotiations with partners usually left both themselves and their children open to violence.

  3. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  4. To hit or to pass it over—remarkable transient behavior of first arrivals and passages for Lévy flights in finite domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Chechkin, Aleksei

    2016-12-01

    The term ‘Lévy flights’ was coined by Benoit Mandelbrot, who thus poeticized α-stable Lévy random motion, a Markovian process with stationary independent increments distributed according to the α-stable Lévy probability law. Contrary to the Brownian motion, the trajectories of the α-stable Lévy motion are discontinous, that is exhibit jumps. This feature implies that the process of first passage through the boundary of a given space domain, or the first escape, is different from the process of first arrival (hit) at the boundary. Here we investigate the properties of first escapes and first arrivals for Lévy flights and explore how the asymptotic behavior of the corresponding (passage and hit) probabilities is sensitive to the size of the domain. In particular, we find that the survival probability to stay in a large enough, finite domain has a universal Sparre Andersen temporal scaling {t}-1/2, which is transient and changes to an exponential non-universal decay at longer times. Also, the probability to arrive at a finite domain possesses a similar transient Sparre Andersen universality that turns into a non-universal and slower power-law decay in course of time. Finally, we demonstrate that the probability density of the leapover length ℓ over the boundary, related to overshooting events, has an intermediate asymptotics {{\\ell }}-(1+α /2) (0\\lt α \\lt 2) which is inherent for the escape from a semi-infinite domain. However, for larger leapovers the probability density decays faster according to the {{\\ell }}-(1+α ) law. Thus, we find that the laws derived for the α-stable processes on the semi-infinite domain, manifest themselves as transients for Lévy flights on the finite domain.

  5. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The domain concept, originally suggested by Schmidt-Rohr in the 1930’s (as credited in Fishman’s writings in the 1970s), was an attempt to sort out different areas of language use in multilingual societies, which are relevant for language choice. In Fishman’s version, domains were considered...... not described in terms of domains, and recent research e.g. about the multilingual communities in the Danish-German border area seems to confirm this....

  6. Heart Rate Variability and Skin Conductance During Repetitive TMS Course in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Hensley, Marie K; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder marked by difficulty in social interactions and communication. ASD also often present symptoms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning abnormalities. In individuals with autism the sympathetic branch of the ANS presents an over-activation on a background of the parasympathetic activity deficits, creating an autonomic imbalance, evidenced by a faster heart rate with little variation and increased tonic electrodermal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of 12 sessions of 0.5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic activity in children with ASD. Electrocardiogram and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded and analyzed during each session of rTMS. The measures of interest were time domain (i.e., R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, NN50-cardio-intervals >50 ms different from preceding interval) and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices [i.e., power of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio]. Based on our prior pilot studies it was proposed that the course of 12 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS bilaterally applied to the DLPFC will improve autonomic balance probably through improved frontal inhibition of the ANS activity, and will be manifested in an increased length of cardiointervals and their variability, and in higher frequency-domain HRV in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power, resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and in decreased SCL. Our post-12 TMS results showed significant increases in cardiac intervals variability measures and decrease of tonic SCL indicative of increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. Behavioral evaluations showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings that correlated with several autonomic variables.

  7. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  8. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  9. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  10. Global Regularity and Long-time Behavior of the Solutions to the 2D Boussinesq Equations without Diffusivity in a Bounded Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ning

    2017-03-01

    New results are obtained for global regularity and long-time behavior of the solutions to the 2D Boussinesq equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid with positive viscosity and zero diffusivity in a smooth bounded domain. Our first result for global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H^1} improves considerably the main result of the recent article (Hu et al. in J Math Phys 54(8):081507, 2013). Our second result on global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {V× H^1} for both bounded domain and the whole space R2 is a new one. It has been open and also seems much more challenging than the first result. Global regularity of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H2} is also proved.

  11. Global Regularity and Long-time Behavior of the Solutions to the 2D Boussinesq Equations without Diffusivity in a Bounded Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ning

    2016-07-01

    New results are obtained for global regularity and long-time behavior of the solutions to the 2D Boussinesq equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid with positive viscosity and zero diffusivity in a smooth bounded domain. Our first result for global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H^1} improves considerably the main result of the recent article (Hu et al. in J Math Phys 54(8):081507, 2013). Our second result on global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {V× H^1} for both bounded domain and the whole space {{R}2} is a new one. It has been open and also seems much more challenging than the first result. Global regularity of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H2} is also proved.

  12. Monetary incentives in the loss domain and behavior toward risk : An experimental comparison of three reward schemes including real losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etchart-Vincent, Nathalie; l'Haridon, Olivier

    In the loss domain, both practical and ethical considerations rule out the systematic use of an incentive-compatible procedure involving real losses. The experimental study presented here aims at investigating whether some easier-to-implement procedure could be adequately used. For that purpose, the

  13. The Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on WISC-IV Spanish Domain Scores in Its Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Harris, Josette G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of individually administered measures of intelligence and other cognitive abilities requires clinicians to monitor a client's test behaviors, given the need for a client to be engaged fully, attentive, and cooperative during the testing process. The use of standardized and norm-referenced measures of test-taking behaviors facilitates this…

  14. The Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on WISC-IV Spanish Domain Scores in Its Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Harris, Josette G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of individually administered measures of intelligence and other cognitive abilities requires clinicians to monitor a client's test behaviors, given the need for a client to be engaged fully, attentive, and cooperative during the testing process. The use of standardized and norm-referenced measures of test-taking behaviors facilitates this…

  15. Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Waterston, Michael L.; Pack, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary t...

  16. Experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Dickau, Leanne

    2012-11-01

    Most contemporary theories of physical activity include an intention construct as the proximal determinant of behavior. Support of this premise has been found through correlational research. The purpose of this paper was to appraise the experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship through meta-analysis. Studies were eligible if they included: (1) random assignment of participants to intervention/no intervention groups; (2) an intervention that produced a significant difference in intention between groups; and (3) a measure of behavior was taken after the intention measure. Literature searches were concluded in December 2010 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 1,033 potentially relevant records; of these, 11 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis. The sample-weighted average effect size derived from these studies was d+ = .45 (95% CI .30 to .60) for intention, yet d+ = .15 (95% CI .06 to .23) for behavior. These results demonstrate a weak relationship between intention and behavior that may be below meaningful/practical value. We suggest that prior evidence was probably biased by the limits of correlation coefficients in passive designs. It is recommended that contemporary research apply models featuring intention-behavior mediators or action control variables in order to account for this intention-behavior gap.

  17. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  18. Direct Time Domain Numerical Analysis of Transient Behavior of a VLFS during Unsteady External Loads in Wave Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of the VLFS subjected to arbitrary external load is systematically investigated by a direct time domain modal expansion method, in which the BEM solutions based on time domain Kelvin sources are used for hydrodynamic forces. In the analysis, the time domain free-surface Green functions with sufficient accuracy are rapidly evaluated in finite water depth by the interpolation-tabulation method, and the boundary integral equation with a quarter VLFS model is established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The validity of the present method is verified by comparing with the time histories of vertical displacements of the VLFS during a mass drop and airplane landing and takeoff in still water conditions, respectively. Then the developed numerical scheme is used in wave conditions to study the combined action taking into account the mass drop/airplane landing/takeoff loads as well as incident wave action. It is found that the elevation of structural waves due to mass drop load can be significantly changed near the impact region, while the vertical motion of runway in wave conditions is dominant as compared with that only generated by airplane.

  19. Domain specific innovativeness and frugal behavior: a cross-cultural investigation of their impact on consumer’s behavioral intention in smartphone purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The globally growth of smartphone sales seems inevitable, and it opens new challenges and opportunities for businesses. Understanding consumer behavior in smartphone purchase in a cross cultural context is important for both marketers and consumers. For the development of this research, a theoretical model was proposed and tested in order to understand the impact of consumer’s innovativeness and frugal behavior on smartphone purchase intention in a cross-cultural context. To this end, it was ...

  20. School grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary behaviors among Japanese elementary school children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Mano, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-04-13

    It is vital to reduce the proportion of sedentary behavior in children. Understanding the duration and behavioral context is needed. The present study examined school-grade and sex differences in domain-specific sedentary times and concurrence with screen-time guidelines among Japanese elementary school children. A total of 625 children (330 boys) were surveyed in 2010 and 2014. Using a questionnaire, data regarding participants' grade (first through third grades: lower grades; fourth through six grades: higher grades), sex, weight, and height were collected in addition to the time spent per day engaging in each specific sedentary behavior separately: (1) reading or listening to music, (2) TV or video viewing, (3) TV game use, (4) internet use excluding class, (5) homework, and (6) car travel. Two-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for BMI and moderate to vigorous physical activity, were used to examine school-grade and sex differences in sedentary behaviors and the independent risk of exceeding recommended total daily screen time (children, mean minutes (SD) of sedentary behavior per week in (1) - (6) were 90.3 (123.4), 535.0 (356.6), 167.3 (222.1), 23.9 (70.9), 264.9 (185.3), and 33.4 (61.2) in weekdays and 42.1 (70.0), 323.9 (232.0), 123.0 (96.4), 15.8 (49.9), 74.4 (96.4), and 71.3 (84.9) in weekends, respectively. There were differences in the minutes of sedentary behavior between participants of 2010 and 2014; e.g., TV game use and homework in weekdays and weekdays and car travel in weekends. Boys spent more time in TV game use, and girls spent more time reading, listening to music, doing homework, and car travel. Higher-grade students spent more time reading or listening to music, using a computer, and doing homework. Higher-grade students were 2.09 times (95% CI: 1.32 - 3.30) in whole week, 2.08 times (95% CI: 1.45 - 3.00) in weekday, and 1.88 times (95% CI: 1.29 - 2.74) in weekend more likely to spend ≥2 h per day

  1. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  2. Repetitive sequences in plant nuclear DNA: types, distribution, evolution and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goyal, Vinod

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are a major component of eukaryotic genomes and may account for up to 90% of the genome size. They can be divided into minisatellite, microsatellite and satellite sequences. Satellite DNA sequences are considered to be a fast-evolving component of eukaryotic genomes, comprising tandemly-arrayed, highly-repetitive and highly-conserved monomer sequences. The monomer unit of satellite DNA is 150-400 base pairs (bp) in length. Repetitive sequences may be species- or genus-specific, and may be centromeric or subtelomeric in nature. They exhibit cohesive and concerted evolution caused by molecular drive, leading to high sequence homogeneity. Repetitive sequences accumulate variations in sequence and copy number during evolution, hence they are important tools for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, and are known as "tuning knobs" in the evolution. Therefore, knowledge of repetitive sequences assists our understanding of the organization, evolution and behavior of eukaryotic genomes. Repetitive sequences have cytoplasmic, cellular and developmental effects and play a role in chromosomal recombination. In the post-genomics era, with the introduction of next-generation sequencing technology, it is possible to evaluate complex genomes for analyzing repetitive sequences and deciphering the yet unknown functional potential of repetitive sequences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2017-04-08

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  4. Making sense of behavioral disturbances in persons with dementia: Latino family caregiver attributions of neuropsychiatric inventory domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Chambers, Darin; Velásquez, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and frequency of Latino family caregiver attributions for dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Sacramento, California area. Participants were 30 Latino family caregivers of community-dwelling Latino elderly meeting research criteria for dementia who were selected from an ongoing cohort study of older Latinos (Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging). Open-ended probes were used to elicit caregiver attributions for each symptom domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Across the 30 caregivers, 121 explanations for neuropsychiatric domains were present. Content analysis of these explanations revealed 7 different attribution categories (ie, Alzheimer disease, interpersonal problems, other medical conditions, personality, mental, aging, and genetics). Overall, Alzheimer disease was the most frequent attribution category but accounted for less than 30% of the total attributions. In conclusion, this study found that Latino caregivers were more likely to attribute neuropsychiatric symptoms to causes other than Alzheimer disease or a related dementia.

  5. Behavioral interventions in Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials across multiple outcome domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Daley; S. van der Oord; M. Ferrin; M. Danckaerts; M. Doepfner; S. Cortese; E.J.S. Sonuga-Barke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Behavioral interventions are recommended as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments. However, a recent meta-analysis found no effects on core ADHD symptoms when raters were probably blind to treatment allocation. The present analysis is extended to a broader range of ch

  6. Mindset, Motivation and Metaphor in School and Sport: Bifurcated Beliefs and Behavior in Two Different Achievement Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    The belief that a trait can be cultivated with effort, known as an "incremental theory or growth mindset," promotes behavior that leads to higher levels of achievement, such as the enthusiastic embrace of challenges and resilience to obstacles. Roughly 40% of the general student population in the United States, however, conceptualizes…

  7. Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors among African Americans during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…

  8. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  9. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  10. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  11. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  12. Age-Related Differences in Face Recognition: Neural Correlates of Repetition and Semantic Priming in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Komes, Jessica; Tüttenberg, Simone; Leidinger, Jana; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in person recognition are among the common complaints associated with cognitive ageing. The present series of experiments therefore investigated face and person recognition in young and older adults. The authors examined how within-domain and cross-domain repetition as well as semantic priming affect familiar face recognition and…

  13. High-repetition-rate optical delay line using a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for a terahertz system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hideaki; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We developed a high-repetition-rate optical delay line based on a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The micromirror array is fabricated by using the x-ray lithographic technology. The measurement of terahertz time-domain waveforms with the new optical delay line is demonstrated successfully up to 25 Hz.

  14. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  15. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  16. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  17. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-02-07

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs.

  18. The Clinical Effect of Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression%经颅磁刺激联合认知行为疗法治疗青少年抑郁症的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 杜红兴

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the efficacy of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of adolescent depression.Method:135 patients were selected in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2015,they were randomly divided into three groups,45 cases in each group.A group was given only antidepressant sertraline treatment,B group based on the sertraline treatment combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment,C group based on the use of sertraline treatment combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive behavioral therapy. Result:After treatment 4 weeks,the efficacy in group C was significantly better than that in group A and B (P<0.05),scores of HAMD changed from (28.16±3.95) scores to (17.92±9.86) scores,lower than that in group A and B.Scores of TSCS and PSP in group C were higher than that in other groups.Conclusion:Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive behavior therapy provide an effective and well-tolerant treatment for depression.%目的:研究探讨重复低频经颅磁刺激联合认知行为疗法治疗青少年抑郁症的临床效果。方法:将2010年1月-2015年12月于本院精神科门诊就诊的患者共135例随机分为A、B、C三组,每组45例,其中A组仅用抗抑郁药物舍曲林治疗,B组在使用舍曲林治疗的基础上联合重复低频经颅磁刺激治疗,C组在使用舍曲林治疗的基础上联合重复低频经颅磁刺激和认知行为疗法。结果:治疗4周后,C组的治疗效果明显优于A、B两组(P<0.05)。C组的HAMD评分从(28.16±3.95)分降至(17.92±9.86)分,显著低于A、B两组,TSCS评分和PSP评分均高于A、B两组。结论:重复低频经颅磁刺激联合认知行为疗法是治疗抑郁症的安全有效的方法。

  19. A Case Study of the Reduction of Aberrant, Repetitive Responses of an Adolescent with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Philip L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, music was applied noncontingently and contingently across four settings with an adolescent male with autism, to reduce aberrant, repetitive vocalizations. The intervention was associated with dramatic reductions in the primary aberrant behavior and reductions in two other aberrant behaviors. Task performance was differentially…

  20. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  1. Frequency-Domain Laser Ultrasound (FDLU) Non-destructive Evaluation of Stress-Strain Behavior in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huiting; Mandelis, Andreas; Lashkari, Bahman; Liu, Lixian

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of the stress-strain state of metallic materials is an important problem in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT). Prolonged cyclic loading or overloading will lead to permanent changes of material strength in an inconspicuous manner that poses threat to the safety of structures, components and products. This research focuses on gauging the mechanical strength of metallic alloys through the application of frequency-domain laser ultrasound (FDLU) based on a continuous-wave diode laser source. The goal is to develop industrial NDT procedures for fatigue monitoring in metallic substrates and coatings so that the technique can be used for mechanical strength assessment. A small-scale, non-commercial rig was fabricated to hold the sample and conduct tensile FDLU testing in parallel with an adhesive strain gauge affixed on the tested sample for independent measurement of the applied stress. Harmonic modulation and lock-in detection were used to investigate the LU signal sensitivity to the stress-strain state of ordinary aluminum alloy samples. A 1 MHz focused piezoelectric transducer was used to detect the LU signal. During the tensile procedure, both amplitude and phase signals exhibited good repeatability and sensitivity to the increasing stress-strain within the elastic regime. Signals beyond the elastic limit also revealed significant change patterns.

  2. Panic disorder with agoraphobia from a behavioral neuroscience perspective: Applying the research principles formulated by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O; Richter, Jan; Pané-Farré, Christiane; Westphal, Dorte; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Gerlach, Alexander L; Gloster, Andrew T; Ströhle, Andreas; Lang, Thomas; Kircher, Tilo; Gerdes, Antje B M; Alpers, Georg W; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    In the current review, we reconceptualize a categorical diagnosis-panic disorder and agoraphobia-in terms of two constructs within the domain "negative valence systems" suggested by the Research Domain Criteria initiative. Panic attacks are considered as abrupt and intense fear responses to acute threat arising from inside the body, while anxious apprehension refers to anxiety responses to potential harm and more distant or uncertain threat. Taking a dimensional view, panic disorder with agoraphobia is defined with the threat-imminence model stating that defensive responses are dynamically organized along the dimension of the proximity of the threat. We tested this model within a large group of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (N = 369 and N = 124 in a replication sample) and found evidence that panic attacks are indeed instances of circa strike defense. This component of the defensive reactivity was related to genetic modulators within the serotonergic system. In contrast, anxious apprehension-characterized by attentive freezing during postencounter defense-was related to general distress and depressive mood, as well as to genetic modulations within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Patients with a strong behavioral tendency for active and passive avoidance responded better to exposure treatment if the therapist guides the patient through the exposure exercises. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. On the Network Anomie Behavior and Security of Domain Name%网络失范行为与域名安全刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞克道

    2012-01-01

    作为互联网的入口,域名成为传统违法犯罪行为网络变异的首要关涉要素。着眼于网络域名的技术应用与价值发挥,以观察、描述为主,分析探讨威胁和破坏网络安全的域名失范行为,从宏观方面提出了法律、技术和文化协同治理的建议。%As the entrance of the lnternet, the domain name has to be firstly involved in the variation of the traditional criminal on network. For starters, the network domain of technology application and value is argued. Next it mainly investigates the network anomie behavior, which threats and damages the network security. Finally, legal, technical and cultural countermeasures are roughly recom- mended macroscopically.

  4. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studie....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  5. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  6. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  7. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  8. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to

  9. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  10. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  12. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGlu7) via the Venus flytrap domain (VFTD) inhibits amygdala plasticity, stress, and anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Christine E; Peterlik, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Christoph; Bouhelal, Rochdi; Kaupmann, Klemens; Laue, Grit; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Feuerbach, Dominik; Zimmermann, Kaspar; Ofner, Silvio; Cryan, John F; van der Putten, Herman; Fendt, Markus; Vranesic, Ivo; Glatthar, Ralf; Flor, Peter J

    2014-04-18

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGlu7) is an important presynaptic regulator of neurotransmission in the mammalian CNS. mGlu7 function has been linked to autism, drug abuse, anxiety, and depression. Despite this, it has been difficult to develop specific blockers of native mGlu7 signaling in relevant brain areas such as amygdala and limbic cortex. Here, we present the mGlu7-selective antagonist 7-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenoxy)-4H-chromen-4-one (XAP044), which inhibits lateral amygdala long term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices from wild type mice with a half-maximal blockade at 88 nm. There was no effect of XAP044 on LTP of mGlu7-deficient mice, indicating that this pharmacological effect is mGlu7-dependent. Unexpectedly and in contrast to all previous mGlu7-selective drugs, XAP044 does not act via the seven-transmembrane region but rather via a binding pocket localized in mGlu7's extracellular Venus flytrap domain, a region generally known for orthosteric agonist binding. This was shown by chimeric receptor studies in recombinant cell line assays. XAP044 demonstrates good brain exposure and wide spectrum anti-stress and antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like efficacy in rodent behavioral paradigms. XAP044 reduces freezing during acquisition of Pavlovian fear and reduces innate anxiety, which is consistent with the phenotypes of mGlu7-deficient mice, the results of mGlu7 siRNA knockdown studies, and the inhibition of amygdala LTP by XAP044. Thus, we present an mGlu7 antagonist with a novel molecular mode of pharmacological action, providing significant application potential in psychiatry. Modeling the selective interaction between XAP044 and mGlu7's Venus flytrap domain, whose three-dimensional structure is already known, will facilitate future drug development supported by computer-assisted drug design.

  13. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  14. Improvements in emotion regulation following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Assaf, Michal; Goethe, John W; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Tolin, David F

    2016-10-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotion regulation difficulties, which are associated with abnormalities in neural circuits encompassing fronto-limbic regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to determine whether DLPFC neuromodulation improves emotion regulation in patients with GAD. This is a secondary analysis from a randomized-controlled trial comparing 30 sessions of low-frequency right-sided active (n=13) versus sham (n=12, sham coil) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the right DLPFC in patients with GAD. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in self-reported emotion regulation difficulties at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up in the active group only. Improvements were found primarily in the domains of goal-directed behaviors and impulse control and were significantly associated with a global clinician rating of improvement. These preliminary results support rTMS as a treatment for GAD and suggest improved emotion regulation as a possible mechanism of change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental repetitive quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Philipp; Barreiro, Julio T; Monz, Thomas; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Nigg, Daniel; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

    2011-05-27

    The computational potential of a quantum processor can only be unleashed if errors during a quantum computation can be controlled and corrected for. Quantum error correction works if imperfections of quantum gate operations and measurements are below a certain threshold and corrections can be applied repeatedly. We implement multiple quantum error correction cycles for phase-flip errors on qubits encoded with trapped ions. Errors are corrected by a quantum-feedback algorithm using high-fidelity gate operations and a reset technique for the auxiliary qubits. Up to three consecutive correction cycles are realized, and the behavior of the algorithm for different noise environments is analyzed.

  16. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  17. Optical time-domain mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.

    2010-08-01

    We simulate an optical time-domain mixer that can be used to make a photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or a digital demodulator for high-speed optical communications signals. In the basic mixer, a high frequency RF signal modulates a repetitively chirped optical carrier; this RF/optical waveform then is dispersed in one transverse dimension, and imaged onto a 2-dimensional transparency or spatial light modulator whose pixels are modulated with randomly chosen transmission or reflection coefficients (the optical mixing matrix). Following transmission through or reflection from the mixing matrix, the optical waveform from each row of the matrix is recombined and directed to a photodiode and electronics that integrate over the repetition period of the chirped source. Finally, each of these signals is digitized by an independent ADC sampling at a rate equal to the pulse repetition rate of the chirp source. A digital replica of the input RF signal can be recovered by digital signal processing from the digital output of the ADCs and the values of the transmission or reflection coefficients of the mixing matrix. The effective sampling rate is given by the number of pixels per row of the mixing matrix times the repetition rate of the chirp source while the effective resolution is controlled by the resolution of the electronic ADCs and the distortions introduced by the optical mixing process.

  18. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  19. Repetitive speech elicits widespread deactivation in the human cortex: the “Mantra” effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Wilf, Meytal; Kahana, Roni; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Mantra (prolonged repetitive verbal utterance) is one of the most universal mental practices in human culture. However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms that may explain its powerful emotional and cognitive impact are unknown. In order to try to isolate the effect of silent repetitive speech, which is used in most commonly practiced Mantra meditative practices, on brain activity, we studied the neuronal correlates of simple repetitive speech in nonmeditators – that is, silent repetitive speech devoid of the wider context and spiritual orientations of commonly practiced meditation practices. Methods We compared, using blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a simple task of covertly repeating a single word to resting state activity, in 23 subjects, none of which practiced meditation before. Results We demonstrate that the repetitive speech was sufficient to induce a widespread reduction in BOLD signal compared to resting baseline. The reduction was centered mainly on the default mode network, associated with intrinsic, self-related processes. Importantly, contrary to most cognitive tasks, where cortical-reduced activation in one set of networks is typically complemented by positive BOLD activity of similar magnitude in other cortical networks, the repetitive speech practice resulted in unidirectional negative activity without significant concomitant positive BOLD. A subsequent behavioral study showed a significant reduction in intrinsic thought processes during the repetitive speech condition compared to rest. Conclusions Our results are compatible with a global gating model that can exert a widespread induction of negative BOLD in the absence of a corresponding positive activation. The triggering of a global inhibition by the minimally demanding repetitive speech may account for the long-established psychological calming effect associated with commonly practiced Mantra-related meditative practices. PMID

  20. Inclusive Fitness Affects Both Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Target Gender and Insult Domain Moderate the Link between Genetic Relatedness and Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Gesselman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994, less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011. Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964 and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012, we designed a 2 (participant gender × 2 (target gender × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α= .91 in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression.

  1. Switchable repetition rate bound solitons passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuqin; Yao, Yong

    2016-11-01

    We present a kind of a switchable repetition rate mode-locked of bound-state solitons in a fiber laser based on Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). In the fiber laser, two forms of the bound-state optical spectrum with central wavelength of 1532 nm are observed. The fiber laser is operate at the abnormal group velocity dispersion and the bound state pulses are equally distributed to the temporal domain. The fundamental cavity repetition-rate is 1.11 MHz with a pulse duration of 2.27 ps. The output average power and the pulse peak energy are 1.53 mW and 607 W respectively, which the pump power is 267 mW. The different repetition-rates are also achieved by changing the pump power or adjusting the angle of polarization controller. In the experiment, the repetition-rate is switched from 1.11 MHz to 41.32 MHz (37th-order, the highest repetition-rate).

  2. Sources of Phoneme Errors in Repetition: Perseverative, Neologistic, and Lesion Patterns in Jargon Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pilkington

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia. Lesion-symptom analyses explored the relationship between neurological damage and jargon repetition in a group of 38 aphasia participants. Behavioral results showed that neologisms produced by 23 jargon individuals contained greater degrees of target lexico-phonological information than predicted by chance and that neologistic and perseverative production were closely associated. A significant relationship between jargon production and lesions to temporoparietal regions was identified. Region of interest regression analyses suggested that damage to the posterior superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in combination was best predictive of a Jargon aphasia profile. Taken together, these results suggest that poor phonological encoding, secondary to impairment in sensory-motor integration, alongside impairments in self-monitoring result in jargon repetition. Insights for clinical management and future directions are discussed.

  3. Multiple sessions of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Arora, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to enhance intracortical inhibition has motivated its use as a potential therapeutic intervention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this preliminary investigation, we assessed the physiologic and behavioral...

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  6. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  7. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  8. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  9. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  10. Resistance to change of operant variation and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, A H; Lattal, K A

    2001-09-01

    A multiple chained schedule was used to compare the relative resistance to change of variable and fixed four-peck response sequences in pigeons. In one terminal link, a response sequence produced food only if it occurred infrequently relative to 15 other response sequences (vary). In the other terminal link, a single response sequence produced food (repeat). Identical variable-interval schedules operated in the initial links. During baseline, lower response rates generally occurred in the vary initial link, and similar response and reinforcement rates occurred in each terminal link. Resistance of responding to prefeeding and three rates of response-independent food delivered during the intercomponent intervals then was compared between components. During each disruption condition, initial- and terminal-link response rates generally were more resistant in the vary component than in the repeat component. During the response-independent food conditions, terminal-link response rates were more resistant than initial-link response rates in each component, but this did not occur during prefeeding. Variation (in vary) and repetition (in repeat) both decreased during the response-independent food conditions in the respective components, but with relatively greater disruption in repeat. These results extend earlier findings demonstrating that operant variation is more resistant to disruption than is operant repetition and suggest that theories of response strength, such as behavioral momentum theory, must consider factors other than reinforcement rate. The implications of the results for understanding operant response classes are discussed.

  11. Biosynthesis and characterization of a non-repetitive polypeptide derived from silk fibroin heavy chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gaoqiang; Wu, Mingyang; Yi, Honggen; Wang, Jiannan, E-mail: wangjn@suda.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin heavy chain is the major protein component of Bombyx mori silk fibroin and is composed of 12 repetitive and 11 non-repetitive regions, with the non-repetitive domain consisting of a hydrophilic polypeptide chain. In order to determine the biomedical function of the non-repetitive domain or potentially use it to modify hydrophobic biomaterials, high-purity isolation is necessary. Previously, we cloned and extended a gene motif (f(1)) encoding the non-repetitive domain. Here, this motif and its multimers are inserted into a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion-protein expression vector. Motif f(1) and multimers f(4) and f(8) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells following isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction, purified by GST-affinity chromatography, and single bands of purified fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8), were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Target polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8), were cleaved clearly from the GST-fusion tag following thrombin digestion. Mass spectrometry results indicate that the molecular weights associated with fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8) are 31.5, 43.8, and 59.0 kDa, respectively, and with the cleaved polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8) are 4.8, 16.8, and 32.8 kDa, respectively. The F(1), F(4), and F(8) polypeptide chains are negatively charged with isoelectric points (pI) of 3.3, 3.2, and 3.0, respectively. The molecular weight and pI values of the polypeptide chains are consistent with the predicted values and the amino acid compositions similar to predicted sequences. FTIR and CD results show the molecular conformation of F(1) was mainly random coil, and more stable α-helix structure formed in longer molecular chain. - Highlights: • A non-repetitive domain and its multimers of silk fibroin were expressed by E. coli. • The corresponding target polypeptides F(1), F(4) and F(8) were cleaved clearly. • Their

  12. Correlation between caudate nucleus volume and rePetitive behaviors in 2 to 3 year old children with autism sPectrum disorder%2~3岁孤独谱系障碍儿童尾状核体积与重复刻板行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱婷; 张久平; 柯晓燕; 钱璐; 肖湘; 肖运华; 肖婷; 肖朝勇; 邹冰; 方慧; 储康康

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the caudate nucleus volume between the autism spectrum disorder (ASD)and developmental delay(DD)groups,and determine the relationship between caudate nucleus volume and restricted,repetitive behavior(RRB)in 2-to 3-year old children with ASD. Method:Caudate nucleus volume,quantified by ITK-SNAP,was compared between 66 children with ASD and 36 age,gender and intelli-gence-matched control children with DD aged 2-to 3-years. The relationship between caudate nucleus volume and RRB scores of autism diagnostic interview-revised(ADI-R)was analyzed. Results:The volumes of left (P = 0. 002),right(P ﹤ 0. 001)and total(P = 0. 001)caudate nucleus were significantly larger in the ASD group compared to the DD group. In ASD group,left(r = 0. 329,P = 0. 004)and total(r = 0. 317,P = 0. 013) caudate nucleus volumes were significantly associated with lower order RRB scores. Conclusion:The caudate nucleus volume in 2 to 3 year old children with ASD is incresed and correlated with lower order repetitive behaviors.%目的:对比2~3岁孤独谱系障碍(ASD)与发育迟缓(DD)儿童尾状核体积的差异,并探讨尾状核体积与重复刻板行为严重程度的关系。方法:使用 ITK-SNAP 软件分别计算并比较66例 ASD儿童(ASD 组)和36例年龄、性别、智商与之相匹配的 DD 儿童(DD 组)的尾状核体积,并与由孤独症诊断访谈量表-修订版(ADI-R)所得重复刻板行为分数进行相关分析。结果:ASD 组尾状核左侧(P =0.002)、右侧( P ﹤0.001)以及总体积( P =0.001)较 DD 组显著增大;尾状核左侧( r =0.329,P =0.004)、总体积(r =0.317,P =0.013)与 ADI-R 低水平重复刻板行为分呈显著正相关。结论:2~3岁的 ASD 儿童已表现出尾状核体积的异常增大,且与低水平的重复刻板行为有相关。

  13. Body Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs) and Personality Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    have they been incorporated into psychiatric nosological systems. The relationship between BFRBs and aspects of personality has been scarcely researched. Understanding how formal axis-II personality disorders, questionnaire-based measures of personality, or other putatively enduring traits...... such as cognitive impairment, relate to the BFRBs may advance our understanding of the core characteristics of the BFRBs and subsequently lead to greater understanding of their pathophysiology and treatment. This article reviews the existing literature surrounding BFRBs and aspects of personality, and highlights...

  14. Bergman kernel on generalized exceptional Hua domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; weipng(殷慰萍); ZHAO; zhengang(赵振刚)

    2002-01-01

    We have computed the Bergman kernel functions explicitly for two types of generalized exceptional Hua domains, and also studied the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function of exceptional Hua domain near boundary points, based on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  15. Evolution of magnetic properties and domain structures in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianpeng; Jin, Tianli; Wang, Ying; Ren, Yang; Wang, Lianwen; Bai, Jianmin; Cao, Jiangwei

    2016-11-01

    Co/Ni multilayers with different layer thicknesses and repetition numbers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The films with appropriate Co and Ni layer thicknesses show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The results of magnetic force microscopy indicate that the films show a maze domain in the demagnetization state and that the domain width decreases with increasing layer thickness and repetition number. The magnetostatic and domain wall energies of the film stack were calculated on the basis of an irregular maze domain pattern. The results suggest that the magnetostatic energy is the main reason for the variation of the domain width in Co/Ni multilayers.

  16. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  17. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  18. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  19. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  20. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  1. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  2. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  3. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  4. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  5. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  6. The accumulation of brain injury leads to severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Bai, Ruojing; Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Chen, Fanglian; Lei, Ping

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with long-term neurobehavioral sequela. The evidences have revealed that TBI is a risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative disease and both the single and repetitive brain injury can lead to the neurodegeneration. But whether the effects of accumulation play an important role in the neurodegenerative disease is still unknown. We utilized the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop the animal models of repetitive mild TBI and single mild TBI in order to detect the neurobehavioral changes. The results of neurobehavioral test revealed that the repetitive mild TBI led to more severe behavioral injuries than the single TBI. There were more activated microglia cells and astrocytes in the repetitive mild TBI group than the single TBI group. In consistent with this, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher and the expression of IL-10 was lower in the repetitive mild TBI group compared with the single TBI group. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the repetitive TBI group detected by ELISA and western blot. But the levels of total tau (Tau-5) and P-tau (ser202) seem no different between the two groups in most time point. In conclusion, repetitive mild TBI could lead to more severe neurobehavioral impairments and the effects of accumulation may be associated with the increased inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissecting the functional anatomy of auditory word repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew Hadley Hope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory word repetition involves many different brain regions, whose functions are still far from fully understood. Here, we use a single, multi-factorial, within-subjects fMRI design to identify those regions, and to functionally distinguish the multiple linguistic and non-linguistic processing areas that are all involved in repeating back heard words. The study compared: (1 auditory to visual inputs; (2 phonological to non-phonological inputs; (3 semantic to non-semantic inputs; and (4 speech production to finger-press responses. The stimuli included words (semantic and phonological inputs, pseudowords (phonological input, pictures and sounds of animals or objects (semantic input, and coloured patterns and hums (non-semantic and non-phonological. The speech production tasks involved auditory repetition, reading and naming while the finger press tasks involved one-back matching.The results from the main effects and interactions were compared to predictions from a previously reported functional anatomical model of language based on a meta-analysis of many different neuroimaging experiments. Although many findings from the current experiment replicated those predicted, our within-subject design also revealed novel results by providing sufficient anatomical precision to distinguish several different regions within: (1 the anterior insula (a dorsal region involved in both covert and overt speech production, and a more ventral region involved in overt speech only; (2 the pars orbitalis (with distinct sub-regions responding to phonological and semantic processing; (3 the anterior cingulate and SMA (whose subregions show differential sensitivity to speech and finger press responses; and (4 the cerebellum (with distinct regions for semantic processing, speech production and domain general processing. We also dissociated four different types of phonological effects in, respectively, the left superior temporal sulcus, left putamen, left ventral premoto

  8. 面向内部威胁检测的用户跨域行为模式挖掘%Mining User Cross-Domain Behavior Patterns for Insider Threat Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雨; 王伟平; 孟丹

    2016-01-01

    内部用户行为分析是系统安全领域中一个重要的研究问题。近期的工作主要集中在用户单域行为的单一模式分析技术,同时依赖于领域知识和用户背景,不适用于多检测域场景。文中提出一种新的用户跨域行为模式分析方法。该方法能够分析用户行为的多元模式。此外,该方法是完全数据驱动的方法,不需要依赖相关领域知识和用户背景属性。最后作者基于文中的用户行为模式分析方法设计了一种面向内部攻击的检测方法。在实验中,作者使用文中方法分析了真实场景中的5种用户审计日志,实验结果验证了文中分析方法在多检测域场景中分析用户行为多元模式的有效性,同时文中检测方法优于两种已有方法:单域检测方法和基于单一行为模式的检测方法。%User behavior analysis is an important problem in the system security research filed. Recently existing work mainly focused on the single pattern analysis of user single-domain behavior, which needed to rely on expert’s knowledge and user background knowledge.Thus,these work were not suitable for user behavior pattern analysis in the multi-domain scenarios.In this paper, we proposed a novel method for the user cross-domain behavior analysis.Our method could identify multi-pattern of user cross-domain behavior.Moreover,our method was a completely data driven resolution which did not need any expert’s knowledge and user background knowledge.At last, we also designed an insider attack detection method based on our user behavior analysis approach. In our experiment,we used our methods to analyze and detect five user audit logs in real environ-ment.The experimental results showed that our user behavior analysis method was effective on the multi-pattern analysis of the user cross-domain behavior in the multi-domain scenarios,and our insider attack detection method was better than two existing solutions

  9. Liking and wanting pleasant odors: different effects of repetitive exposure in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal eTriscoli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Odors can enrich the perception of our environment and are commonly used to attract people in marketing situations. However, the perception of an odor changes over repetitions. This study investigated whether repetitive exposition to olfactory stimuli leads to a change in the perceived pleasantness (liking or in the wish to be further exposed to the same olfactory stimulus (wanting, and whether these two mechanisms show gender differences.Three different pleasant odors were each repeatedly presented for 40 times in random order with a mean inter-stimulus interval of 18 s. Eighteen participants rated both liking and wanting for each of the 120 olfactory stimuli. Wanting ratings decreased significantly over repetitions in women and men, with a steeper decrease for men during the initial trials before plateauing. In contrast, liking ratings decreased significantly over repetitions only in men, with a steeper decrease after the initial ratings, but not in women. Additionally, women scored higher in a questionnaire on reward responsiveness than men.We conclude that positive evaluation (liking and the wish to experience more of the same (wanting are different concepts even in the domain of olfaction. The persistence of perceived pleasantness in women may be due to the attribution of a greater subjective value to odors.

  10. Liking and wanting pleasant odors: different effects of repetitive exposure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscoli, Chantal; Croy, Ilona; Olausson, Håkan; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Odors can enrich the perception of our environment and are commonly used to attract people in marketing situations. However, the perception of an odor changes over repetitions. This study investigated whether repetitive exposition to olfactory stimuli leads to a change in the perceived pleasantness ("liking") or in the wish to be further exposed to the same olfactory stimulus ("wanting"), and whether these two mechanisms show gender differences. Three different pleasant odors were each repeatedly presented for 40 times in random order with a mean inter-stimulus interval of 18 s. Eighteen participants rated both "liking" and "wanting" for each of the 120 olfactory stimuli. Wanting ratings decreased significantly over repetitions in women and men, with a steeper decrease for men during the initial trials before plateauing. In contrast, liking ratings decreased significantly over repetitions only in men, with a steeper decrease after the initial ratings, but not in women. Additionally, women scored higher in a questionnaire on reward responsiveness than men. We conclude that positive evaluation (liking) and the wish to experience more of the same (wanting) are different concepts even in the domain of olfaction. The persistence of perceived pleasantness in women may be due to the attribution of a greater subjective value to odors.

  11. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  12. A domain dictionary of trimeric autotransporter adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Jens; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte; Hartmann, Marcus D; Lupas, Andrei N

    2015-02-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are modular, highly repetitive outer membrane proteins that mediate adhesion to external surfaces in many Gram-negative bacteria. In recent years, several TAAs have been investigated in considerable detail, also at the structural level. However, in their vast majority, putative TAAs in prokaryotic genomes remain poorly annotated, due to their sequence diversity and changeable domain architecture. In order to achieve an automated annotation of these proteins that is both detailed and accurate we have taken a domain dictionary approach, in which we identify recurrent domains by sequence comparisons, produce bioinformatic descriptors for each domain type, and connect these to structural information where available. We implemented this approach in a web-based platform, daTAA, in 2008 and demonstrated its applicability by reconstructing the complete fiber structure of a TAA conserved in enterobacteria. Here we review current knowledge on the domain structure of TAAs.

  13. Alterations in the functional neural circuitry supporting flexible choice behavior in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, A-M; Mosconi, M W; Ragozzino, M E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed. When choice outcome after reversal was uncertain, the ASD group demonstrated reduced activation in both frontal cortex and ventral striatum, in the absence of task performance differences. When the outcomes of novel responses were certain, there was no difference in brain activation between groups. Reduced activation in frontal cortex and ventral striatum suggest problems in decision-making and response planning, and in processing reinforcement cues, respectively. These processes, and their integration, are essential for flexible behavior. Alterations in these systems may therefore contribute to a rigid adherence to preferred behavioral patterns in individuals with an ASD. These findings provide an additional impetus for the use of reversal learning paradigms as a translational model for treatment development targeting the domain of restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:27727243

  14. Extracting repetitive transients for rotating machinery diagnosis using multiscale clustered grey infogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Cabrera, Diego; de Oliveira, José Valente; Sanchez, René-Vinicio; Cerrada, Mariela; Zurita, Grover

    2016-08-01

    Local faults of rotating machinery usually result in repetitive transients whose impulsiveness or cyclostationarity can be employed as faulty signatures. However, to simultaneously accommodate the impulsiveness and the cyclostationarity is a challenging task for rotating machinery diagnostics. Inspired by recently-reported infogram that is sensitive to either the impulsiveness or the cyclostationarity using spectral negentropy defined in time domain or frequency domain, a multiscale clustering grey infogram (MCGI) is proposed by combining both negentropies in a grey fashion using multiscale clustering. Fourier spectrum of the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple scales with different initial resolutions. In each scale, fine segments are grouped using hierarchical clustering. Meanwhile, both time-domain and frequency-domain spectral negentropies are taken into account to guide the clustering through grey evaluation of both negentropies. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are carried out for validating the proposed MCGI. For comparison, peer methods are applied to challenge different noises and interferences. The results show that, thanks to the multiscale clustering of the spectrum and the grey evaluation of both negentropies, the present MCGI is robust in extracting the repetitive transients for the rotating machinery diagnosis.

  15. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  16. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the changes of depressive like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress model rats and its possible mechanism%重复经颅磁刺激对抑郁模型大鼠行为的改善作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高华; 陈冠婕; 陈怡环; 杨帆; 张瑞国; 彭正午; 谭庆荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the depressive like behaviors and expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),IL-1β and NF-κB of hippocampal in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats.Methods Thirty-two adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n =8):Control group,Control + rTMS group,CUMS group and CUMS + rTMS group.The sucrose preference test,forced swim test and open field test were used to evaluate depressive like behaviors for each groups.In addition,the expression of BDNF,NF-κB and IL-1 β in hippocampal were detected by western blot and ELISA after behavioral test,respectively.Results 1.The effects of rTMS on depressive like behaviors of CUMS rats:in the sucrose preference test,the sucrose preference rate of CUMS rats (0.67 ± 0.06) was significantly lower than Control group (0.91 ± 0.04),which was higher in the CUMS + rTMS group (0.83 ±0.08).In the forced swim test,the immobility time of CUMS group ((26.88 ± 11.33) s) was longer than Control group ((15.22 ± 6.75) s) and CUMS + rTMS group ((18.41 ± 6.95) s).In the open field test,both the total distance travelled and number of central area entry times of CUMS group((849.165 ± 769.01) cm,(7.42 ± 5.68))were significantly shorter ((6224.81 ± 1403.2) cm) and smaller (22.86 ± 3.72) than Control group,and those of the CUMS + rTMS were longer ((4105.57 ± 1516.92)cm) and larger (21.25 ± 3.45).All the behavioral results were statistically significant (P< 0.05).And of all the aforementioned behavioral parameters,there were no significant differences between Control group and Control + rTMS group(P>0.05).2.The effects of rTMS on the hippocampal expressions of BDNF,NF-κB and IL-1β in CUMS rats:compared with Control group,the hippocampal expression of BDNF in CUMS rats was significantly decreased,while the expressions of NF-κB and IL-1β in the hippocampus were significantly increased (P< 0.05).Compared

  17. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  18. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  19. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  20. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  1. Alternative splicing of repetitive units is responsible for the polydispersities of integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1) from Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joba, W; Hoffmann, W

    1996-10-01

    Frog integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1) represents a polymorphic extracellular mosaic protein which contains tandemly arranged serine/threonine-rich modules as well as cysteine-rich domains. The latter are probably important for oligomerization of FIM-B.1 and have also been found in many proteins of the complement cascade as well as regions homologous to von Willebrand factor. The repetitive modules are targets for extensive O-glycosylation. Previous cDNA cloning experiments clearly established polydispersities within the same individual, which originate from deletions/insertions in the repetitive domain. Here, we analyse part of the corresponding genomic region. Each repetitive unit as well as the cysteine-rich domain is encoded by an individual class 1-1 exon typical of shuffled modules. Alternative splicing of these multiple cassettes creates the polydisperse FIM-B.1 transcripts.

  2. Solution behavior of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of the Retinoid X Receptor alpha in the context of full-length protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso-Iltis, Carole; Kieffer, Bruno; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Rochel, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are transcription factors with important functions in embryonic development, metabolic processes, differentiation and apoptosis. A particular feature of RXRs is their ability to act as obligatory heterodimerisation partners of class II nuclear receptors. At the same time, these receptors are also able to form homodimers that bind to direct repeat (DR1) hormone response elements. Since the discovery of RXRs, most of the studies focused on its ligand binding and DNA-binding domains, while its N-terminal domain (NTD) harboring a ligand-independent activation function remained poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the solution properties of the NTD domain of RXRα alone and in the context of the full-length receptor using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We report the solution structure of the full-length homodimeric RXRα on DNA and show that the NTD remains highly flexible within this complex. PMID:26937780

  3. Relationship between repetitive firing and afterhyperpolarizations in human neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, N M; Foehring, R C

    1992-02-01

    1. Human neocortical neurons fire repetitively in response to long depolarizing current injections. The slope of the relationship between average firing frequency and injected current (f-I slope) was linear or bilinear in these cells. The mean steady-state f-I slope (average of the last 500 ms of a 1-s firing episode) was 57.8 Hz/nA. The instantaneous firing rate decreased with time during a 1-s constant-current injection (spike frequency adaptation). Also, human neurons exhibited habituation in response to a 1-s current stimulus repeated every 2 s. 2. Afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) reflect the active ionic conductances after action potentials. We studied AHPs with the use of intracellular recordings and pharmacological manipulations in the in vitro slice preparation to 1) gain insight into the ionic mechanisms underlying the AHPs and 2) elucidate the role that the underlying currents play in the functional behavior of human cortical neurons. 3. We have classified three AHPs in human neocortical neurons on the basis of their time courses: fast, medium, and slow. The amplitude of the AHPs was dependent on stimulus intensity and duration, number and frequency of spikes, and membrane potential. 4. The fast AHP had a reversal potential of -65 mV and was eliminated in extracellular Co2+, tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine, and intracellular TEA or CsCl. These manipulations also caused an increase in spike width. 5. The medium AHP had a reversal potential of -90 to -93 mV (22-24 mV hyperpolarized from mean resting potential). This AHP was reduced by Co2+, apamin, tubocurare, muscarine, norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT). Pharmacological manipulations suggest that the medium AHP is produced in part by 1) a Ca-dependent K+ current and 2) a time-dependent anomalous rectifier (IH). 6. The slow AHP reversed at -83 to -87 mV (14-18 mV hyperpolarized from mean resting potential). This AHP was diminished by Co2+, muscarine, NE, and 5-HT. The pharmacology of the

  4. Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H, E-mail: fangjuan314@163.com [Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Post Box 3380-86, Huairou Dis. Beijing 101416 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.

  5. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    that enables secure end-to-end communication with home automation devices, and it supports device revocations as well as a structure of intersecting sets of nodes for scalability. Devices in the Trusted Domain are registered in a list that is distributed using a robust epidemic protocol optimized...

  6. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  7. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  9. Needed Research on Interpersonal Behavior Processes. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Donn; And Others

    The task group report presented in this publication is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation-Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and…

  10. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  11. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  12. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  13. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on behaviors and hippocampal GR protein ex-pression in depression model rats%重复经颅磁刺激对抑郁模型大鼠行为学及海马区糖皮质激素受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧聪; 谷世娜; 赵琳; 李文强; 张朝辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on behaviors and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression in chronic stress depression model rats and the possible antidepressant mechanism of rTMS. Method Seventy-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the blank control group (n=15) and the stress-induced group (n=60). Singly housing and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) were used to induce the depression model in stress-induced group. Forty-five CUMS rats were selected and ran⁃domly divided into rTMS group (receiving 10 Hz rTMS intervention for 3 weeks), sham group (receiving pseudo rTMS treatments for 3 weeks) and depression group (with no further treatment). Body weight measurements and performance in the sucrose consumption and forced swimming test (FST) were evaluated before modeling, after modeling and after inter⁃vention. The GR protein and GR mRNA expression level in the hippocampus were examined after intervention. Results Compared with control group, the body weight growth rate and the sugar water preference were significantly lower in stress-induced group (P0.05), were higher than those in sham group and depression group (P<0.01). The immobility times of FST in rTMS group and control group were shorter than sham group and depression group (P<0.01). Compared with rTMS group and control group, GR and GR mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus were significantly reduced in sham group and depression group (P<0.01). Conclusion rTMS can improve depression behavior of CUMS rats, which may be associated with upregulation of GR expression in the hippocampus.%目的:观察重复经颅磁刺激(repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation,rTMS)对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠的抗抑郁作用及对海马区糖皮质激素受体(glucocorticoid receptor,GR)表达的影响,探讨rTMS抗抑郁作用的可能机制。方法75只健康成年雄性

  14. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  15. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  16. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  17. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  18. Global existence and asymptotic behavior for the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations without heat conductivity in a bounded domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guochun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem for the 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations without heat conductivity in a bounded domain with slip boundary. The global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions are obtained when the initial data is near its equilibrium in H2 (Ω). Furthermore, the exponential convergence rates of the pressure and velocity are also proved by delicate energy methods.

  19. The redundancy of NMR restraints can be used to accelerate the unfolding behavior of an SH3 domain during molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclert-Savatier Nathalie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract Background The simulation of protein unfolding usually requires recording long molecular dynamics trajectories. The present work aims to figure out whether NMR restraints data can be used to probe protein conformations in order to accelerate the unfolding simulation. The SH3 domain of nephrocystine (nph SH3 was shown by NMR to be destabilized by point mutations, and was thus chosen to illustrate the proposed method. Results The NMR restraints observed on the WT nph SH3 domain were sorted from the least redundant to the most redundant ones. Protein NMR conformations were then calculated with: (i the set full including all NMR restraints measured on nph SH3, (ii the set reduced where the least redundant restraints with respect to the set full were removed, (iii the sets random where randomly picked-up restraints were removed. From each set of conformations, we recorded series of 5-ns MD trajectories. The β barrel architecture of nph SH3 in the trajectories starting from sets (i and (iii appears to be stable. On the contrary, on trajectories based on the set (ii, a displacement of the hydrophobic core residues and a variation of the β barrel inner cavity profile were observed. The overall nph SH3 destabilization agrees with previous experimental and simulation observations made on other SH3 domains. The destabilizing effect of mutations was also found to be enhanced by the removal of the least redundant restraints. Conclusions We conclude that the NMR restraint redundancy is connected to the instability of the SH3 nph domain. This restraint redundancy generalizes the contact order parameter, which is calculated from the contact map of a folded protein and was shown in the literature to be correlated to the protein folding rate. The relationship between the NMR restraint redundancy and the protein folding is also reminiscent of the previous use of the Gaussian Network Model to predict protein folding parameters.

  20. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  1. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  2. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  3. Nonword repetition as a predictor of long-term speech and language skills in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Elizabeth D; Pisoni, David B

    2013-04-01

    The rapid phonological processing skills of children with cochlear implants early in life (ages 8-10), as measured by nonword repetition performance, will predict their language development 8 years later (ages 16-18). This core processing ability will also correlate with concurrent measures of language at both ages of testing. Understanding the causes of the wide range of performance in pediatric cochlear implant users currently constitutes a major barrier to clinical and research progress in the field. Research into children's neurocognitive abilities such as working memory capacity and verbal rehearsal speed, in addition to conventional demographic variables, has shown that these foundational skills play a key role in determining outcomes. Here, we investigate the impact of rapid phonological processing, an ability which is critical in spoken language use, for children with cochlear implants. Fifty-two deaf children with cochlear implants completed a battery of 14 clinical and research measures of language, neurocognitive, and nonword repetition skills in 2 testing sessions 8 years apart. Performance on the nonword repetition task at both testing sessions correlated significantly with concurrent language abilities. Importantly, nonword repetition accuracy at age 8 to 10 also significantly predicted performance on measures of language ability at age 16 to 18 in a wide range of domains, from speech intelligibility to sentence recognition in noise. These relations were significant even when other neurocognitive measures were controlled. Early nonword repetition performance in children with cochlear implants predicts later language development and, therefore, may identify those children at high risk for poor outcomes.

  4. Brain responses evoked by high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hamidi; H.A. Slagter; G. Tononi; B.R. Postle

    2010-01-01

    Background Many recent studies have used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to study brain-behavior relationships. However, the pulse-to-pulse neural effects of rapid delivery of multiple TMS pulses are unknown largely because of TMS-evoked electrical artifacts limiting recording of

  5. Understanding repetitive travel mode choices in a stable context: A panel study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    of public transport is traced back to attitudes towards doing so, beliefs about whether or not public transportation can cover one's transport needs, and car ownership. The influence of these variables is greatly attenuated when past behavior is accounted for, however. For subjects without a car, behavior......It is argued that most travel mode choices are repetitive and made in a stable context. As an example, the everyday use of public transport is analyzed based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 1300 Danish residents interviewed up to three times in the period 1998-2000. The use...

  6. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  7. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  8. Behavioral Health Providers for Persons Who Are Deaf, Deafblind, or Hard-of-Hearing: A National Survey of the Structural and Process Domains of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathos, Kimberly; Fusco, Laura E; Post, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests higher prevalence of mental health problems for those with hearing problems than in the general population. Despite barriers, mental health services for persons who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (HOH) have developed to meet the cultural and communication needs of this population. The authors conducted a national survey of mental health service providers to persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH, to learn about their structural and process domains of care. Results indicate that services for persons who are deaf, deafblind, or HOH are inadequate for consumers with serious mental illness. Results also uncovered unique pathways to care and practitioners.

  9. Iconicity in Discourse: The Case of Repetition in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minako

    This analysis of repeated utterances in Japanese conversational discourse focuses on repetition as an expression of iconicity. In the analysis of a 30-minute conversation among 4 Japanese speakers, the iconic meanings expressed by both reduplication and conversational repetition are highlighted. The iconicity characteristic of conversational data…

  10. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to t

  11. On the Functions of Lexical Repetition in English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical repetition, as a cohesive device of an English text, can help make up a cohesive and coherent text. Therefore, in English textual learning, it is helpful for students to know about different patterns and functions of lexical repetition to improve their English level and ability.

  12. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  13. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes – translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions amongst professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally-timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  14. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes - translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Prins, Mayumi L; Ferriero, Donna M; Basso, D Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  15. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  16. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  17. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Chengying; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb comprising a single soliton in an anomalous dispersion silicon nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency tuning. The contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and from thermal effects are evaluated both experimentally and theoretically; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in repetition rate. The relationship between the changes in repetition rate and pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ~50 fs.

  18. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2017-02-15

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb composed of a single soliton in an anomalous group velocity dispersion silicon-nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency. By comparing operation in the soliton and non-soliton states, the contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and the thermal effects are evaluated; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in the repetition rate, similar to silica cavities. The relationship between the changes in the repetition rate and the pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ∼50  fs.

  19. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  20. Teacher-student interactions and domain-specific motivation: The relationship between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and motivation in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie Brockman

    2009-11-01

    This study examined interactions between middle school science students' perceptions of teacher-student interactions and their motivation for learning science. Specifically, in order to better understand factors affecting middle school students' motivation for science, this study investigated the interactions between middle school students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in their science classroom and their efficacy, task value, mastery orientations, and goal orientation for learning science. This mixed methods study followed a sequential explanatory model (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases, with quantitative data in the first phase informing the selection of participants for the qualitative phase that followed. The qualitative phase also helped to clarify and explain results from the quantitative phase. Data mixing occurred between Phase One and Phase Two (participant selection) and at the interpretation level (explanatory) after quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Results from Phase One indicated that students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors were predictive of their efficacy for learning science, task value for learning science, mastery orientation, and performance orientation. These results were used to create motivation/perception composites, which were used in order to select students for the qualitative interviews. A total of 24 students with high motivation/high perceptions, low motivation/low perceptions, high motivation/low perceptions, and low motivation/high perceptions were selected in order to represent students whose profiles either supported or refuted the quantitative results. Results from Phase Two revealed themes relating to students' construction of their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and dimensions of their efficacy and task value for science. Students who reported high motivation and high perceptions of teacher

  1. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  2. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  3. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  4. [Rehabilitation Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Various novel stroke rehabilitative methods have been developed based on findings in basic science and clinical research. Recently, many reports have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves function in stroke patients by altering the excitability of the human cortex. The interhemispheric competition model proposes that deficits in stroke patients are due to reduced output from the affected hemisphere and excessive interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected hemisphere to the affected hemisphere. The interhemispheric competition model indicates that improvement in deficits can be achieved either by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere using excitatory rTMS or by decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere using inhibitory rTMS. Recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neural connections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairments. Artificially modulating the neural network by rTMS may induce a more suitable environment for use-dependent plasticity and also may interfere with maladaptive neural activation, which weakens function and limits recovery. There is potential, therefore, for rTMS to be used as an adjuvant therapy for developed neurorehabilitation techniques in stroke patients.

  5. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  7. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  8. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  9. Multi-domain simulation of transient junction temperatures and resulting stress-strain behavior of power switches for long-term mission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drofenik, U.; Kovacevic, I.; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schmidt, R. [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    For lifetime estimation of power converters in traction applications, one method is to calculate numerically the stress-strain hysteresis curves of the interfaces silicon-solder-DCB and/or DCB-solder-baseplate inside the power modules. This can only be achieved if the transient junction temperatures in these layers are known for a defined mission profile. Therefore, one has to couple circuit simulation with thermal simulation and stress-strain computation. The second challenge of this problem is to perform this transient simulation taking into account switching losses in the {mu}s-range for mission profiles over a couple of minutes. In this paper we employ a new multi-domain simulation software to achieve results with reasonable computational effort. (author)

  10. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  11. Repetitive energy transfer from an inductive energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of a research program aimed at finding practical ways to transfer energy repetitively from an inductive energy store to various loads are discussed. The objectives were to investigate and develop the high power opening switches and transfer circuits needed to enable high-repetition-rate operation of such systems, including a feasibility demonstration at a current level near 10 kA and a pulse repetition rate of 1-10 kpps with a 1-ohm load. The requirements of nonlinear, time-varying loads, such as the railgun electromagnetic launcher, were also addressed. Energy storage capability is needed for proper power conditioning in systems where the duty factor of the output pulse train is low. Inductive energy storage is attractive because it has both a high energy storage density and a fast discharge capability. By producing a pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW at a pulse repetition rate of 5 kpps in a one-ohm load system, this research program was the first to demonstrate fully-controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy storage and transfer system with survivable switches. Success was made possible by using triggered vacuum gap switches as repetitive, current-zero opening switches and developing several new repetitive transfer circuits using the counterpulse technique.

  12. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  13. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  14. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  15. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  16. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  18. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  19. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  20. Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2013-01-01

    Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing behavior and has been associated with deleterious unwanted outcomes including forensic contact and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Very few trials have been conducted to investigate pharmacological treatment options for this neglected...

  1. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities.

  2. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain (1)H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using (1)H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic genes specifying periodic polymers modelled on the repetitive domain of wheat gliadins: conception and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmorjani, K; Thiévin, M; Michon, T; Popineau, Y; Hallet, J N; Guéguen, J

    1997-10-09

    In order to optimise new polypeptide based biomaterials, we developed a procedure for producing homoblock polypeptides using recombinant DNA technology. Synthetic genes encoding periodic polypeptides modelled on the consensus sequence of wheat gliadins (a family of wheat storage proteins) were devised to be expressed in Escherichia coli. The construction strategy followed allows the construction of three genes encoding 8, 16, and 32 copies of the PQQPY module. The optimal expression conditions in the enterobacteria were established and a convenient purification procedure was shown to be useful in recovery of sizable amounts of strictly periodic polypeptides. The identities of the synthesized polypeptides were assessed using positive cross reactions to antibodies raised against a synthetic decapeptide (PQQPYPQQPA) and amino acid composition was determined as well.

  4. Nonlinear Evolution of Ferroelectric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiLU; Dai-NingFANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of ferroelectric domains is investigated in the paper and amodel is proposed which can be applied to numerical computation.Numerical results show that the model can accurately predict some nonlinear behavior and consist with those experimental results.

  5. Behavioral coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Holly A; Witts, Benjamin N; Williams, W Larry; Ghezzi, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    The term behavioral coaching has been used inconsistently in and outside the field of behavior analysis. In the sports literature, the term has been used to describe various intervention strategies, and in the organizational behavior management literature it has been used to describe an approach to training management personnel and staff. This inconsistency is problematic in terms of the replication of behavioral coaching across studies and aligning with Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) technological dimension of applied behavior analysis. The current paper will outline and critique the discrepancies in the use of the term and suggest how Martin and Hrycaiko's (1983) characteristics of behavioral coaching in sports may be used to bring us closer to establishing a consistent definition of the term. In addition, we will suggest how these characteristics can also be applicable to the use of the term behavioral coaching in other domains of behavior analysis.

  6. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  7. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  8. The repetition effect in building and construction works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Haugbølle, Kim

    are then applied on the Public Transport Authorities' main account structure of units and costs, and a method for assessing the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition for each account is described. Finally, the report summarises the core conditions necessary to take into consideration in relation......This report summarises the results from the work undertaken for the Public Transport Authority on the effect of learning and repetition in building and construction works. The results are applied by the Public Transport Authority in a new budgeting model, while the agency investigates...... the establishment of a new railway between Copenhagen and Ringsted. Drawing on an extensive literature review, the effect of repetition is determined to be in the range of 6-12 %. Further, the report identifies a series of factors affecting the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition. These factors...

  9. Differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs switch cost (SC and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 minus repeat 5, and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching.

  10. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  11. Emergent structured transition from variation to repetition in a biologically-plausible model of learning in basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Often, when animals encounter an unexpected sensory event, they transition from executing a variety of movements to repeating the movement(s that may have caused the event. According to a recent theory of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006, repetition allows the animal to represent those movements, and the outcome, as an action for later recruitment. The transition from variation to repetition often follows a non-random, structured, pattern. While the structure of the pattern can be explained by sophisticated cognitive mechanisms, simpler mechanisms based on dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia (BG activity are thought to underlie action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney 2006. In this paper we ask the question: can simple BG-mediated mechanisms account for a structured transition from variation to repetition, or are more sophisticated cognitive mechanisms always necessary?To address this question, we present a computational model of BG-mediated biasing of behavior. In our model, unlike most other models of BG function, the BG biases behaviour through modulation of cortical response to excitation; many possible movements are represented by the cortical area; and excitation to the cortical area is topographically-organized. We subject the model to simple reaching tasks, inspired by behavioral studies, in which a location to which to reach must be selected. Locations within a target area elicit a reinforcement signal. A structured transition from variation to repetition emerges from simple BG-mediated biasing of cortical response to excitation. We show how the structured pattern influences behavior in simple and complicated tasks. We also present analyses that describe the structured transition from variation to repetition due to BG-mediated biasing and from biasing that would be expected from a type of cognitive biasing, allowing us to compare behaviour resulting from these types of biasing and make connections with future behavioural

  12. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.

  13. Linear- and Repetitive-Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  14. Linear- and Repetitive Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  15. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  16. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  17. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  18. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective.

  19. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  20. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  1. Chromatin domain boundaries: insulators and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Hong WEI; De Pei LIU; Chih Chuan LIANG

    2005-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome is organized into functionally and structurally distinct domains, representing regulatory units for gene expression and chromosome behavior. DNA sequences that mark the border between adjacent domains are the insulators or boundary elements, which are required in maintenance of the function of different domains. Some insulators need others enable to play insulation activity. Chromatin domains are defined by distinct sets of post-translationally modified histones. Recent studies show that these histone modifications are also involved in establishment of sharp chromatin boundaries in order to prevent the spreading of distinct domains. Additionally, in some loci, the high-order chromatin structures for long-range looping interactions also have boundary activities, suggesting a correlation between insulators and chromatin loop domains. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in the field of chromatin domain boundaries.

  2. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms.

  3. RPERT: Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project with a specified/certain duration including repetitive identical activities by using program evaluation and review technique is the most essential part in construction areas since the activities were had optimistic, most likely and pessimistic durations. This paper focuses on the calculation of expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project within a specified/certain duration (contract duration by using Line Of Balance technique (LOB in case of single or multiple number of crews integrated with Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique (RPERT, which is a simplified software, will generate the expected project completion probability of a specified/certain duration (contract duration. RPERT software is designed by java programming code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Viewing the expected project completion probability according to a set of specified durations per each identical activity (optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic time in the analyzed project; (2 Providing seamless integration with available project time calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of RPERT, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; and (4 A processing module. At the end, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of proposed software (RPERT, by using probabilistic calculations for repetitive construction projects.

  4. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  5. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes spidroin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Stuart; Gaines, William A; Duggan, Brendan M; Marcotte, William R; Hennig, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The building blocks of spider dragline silk are two fibrous proteins secreted from the major ampullate gland named spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1, MaSp2). These proteins consist of a large central domain composed of approximately 100 tandem copies of a 35-40 amino acid repeat sequence. Non-repetitive N and C-terminal domains, of which the C-terminal domain has been implicated to transition from soluble and insoluble states during spinning, flank the repetitive core. The N-terminal domain until recently has been largely unknown due to difficulties in cloning and expression. Here, we report nearly complete assignment for all (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonances in the 14 kDa N-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1-N) of the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes.

  6. The problem of crime repetition risk after early release on parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debolskiy M.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the psychological problems encountered in the implementation of such an important legal institution as release on parole. We show the progressiveness of the measure, its stimulating effect on the law-abiding behavior of the convicts in prison. However, analysis of the practice of parole reveals a number of problems: high level of crime repetition; presence of a large proportion of convicts (60% who did not use their right to parole; a large number of disagreements between the administration of correctional institutions and the courts in assessing the degree of correction and deciding on parole; absence of unambiguous criteria of correction. We paid considerable attention to the analysis of the conceptual approaches that underpin the practice of early release of convicts in Russia and abroad. The advantages of the domestic concept are assessment of the degree of correction, and its humanistic orientation. We also describe the history of development and maintenance of foreign concepts in evaluating risk factors for parole prisoners. The author believes that the domestic and international approaches are interrelated, but the latter is more pragmatic and focused on the prediction of human behavior at large, taking into account his capacity to meet basic needs (both vital and social. The article shows the experience of applied research aimed at understanding the system of recidivism risk assessment and opportunities of repetition risk reduction in parole prisoners.

  7. Repetition Priming Influences Distinct Brain Systems: Evidence From Task-Evoked Data and Resting-State Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S.; Buckner, Randy L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral dissociations suggest that a single experience can separately influence multiple processing components. Here we used a repetition priming functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm that directly contrasted the effects of stimulus and decision changes to identify the underlying brain systems. Direct repetition of stimulus features caused marked reductions in posterior regions of the inferior temporal lobe that were insensitive to whether the decision was held constant or changed between study and test. By contrast, prefrontal cortex showed repetition effects that were sensitive to the exact stimulus-to-decision mapping. Analysis of resting-state functional connectivity revealed that the dissociated repetition effects are embedded within distinct brain systems. Regions that were sensitive to changes in the stimulus correlated with perceptual cortices, whereas the decision changes attenuated activity in regions correlated with middle-temporal regions and a frontoparietal control system. These results thus explain the long-known dissociation between perceptual and conceptual components of priming by revealing how a single experience can separately influence distinct, concurrently active brain systems. PMID:19225167

  8. Clinical specificity of acute versus chronic self-injury: measurement and evaluation of repetitive non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Maura; Presaghi, Fabio; Cerutti, Rita

    2014-01-30

    Overall, previous studies on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors in the general population have stressed the importance of differentiating between occasional and repetitive NSSI, examining different severity levels (e.g., frequency and variety of methods), as well as investigating the diverse psychopathological correlates of NSSI. However, existing NSSI measures have not been explicitly developed by to comply with the NSSI diagnostic criteria proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The purpose of this study is to develop a measure of repetitive NSSI by considering its essential features, as described in the proposed DSM-5 as well as in other clinically relevant aspects emerging from case reports. Two independent samples of participants (N1=383 young adults and 251 adolescents; N2=953 adolescents) belonging to the general population were involved in the present study. The questionnaire showed satisfactory fit statistics and reliably discriminated between occasional and repetitive self-injurers (Area Under Curve, AUC=0.755). The pattern of correlations with psychopathological measures confirmed a more clinically-compromised profile for repetitive rather than occasional self-injurers.

  9. ROBUST REPETITIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVING RATE SMOOTHNESS OF TEST TURNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu; ZENGMing; SUBao-ku

    2005-01-01

    A robust repetitive control scheme is used to improve the rate smoothness of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driven test turntable. The method synthesizes variable structure control (VSC) laws and repetitive control (RC) laws in a complementary manner. The VSC strategy can stabilize the system and suppress uncertainties, such as the aperiodic disturbance and noises, while RC strategy can eliminate the periodic rate fluctuation in a steady state. The convergence of the repetitive learning process is also guaranteed by VSC. A general nonlinear system model is discussed. The model can be considered as an extension of BLDCMs. The stability and asymptotic position tracking performance are validated by using Lyapunov functions. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the rate smoothness.

  10. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  11. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation. E.E. Castrillon W1, 2, Xinwen Zhou 3, P. Svensson1, 2, 4 1 Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Aarhus University, Denmark2 Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... (SCON)3 Department of Dentistry, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 4 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden  Background: Contingent electrical stimulation (CES) of the facial skin has been shown to reduce electromyographic (EMG......) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  12. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  13. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  14. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  15. The C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin given by intramuscular injection causes neuroprotection and improves the motor behavior in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta, Liliana; Bautista, Elizabeth; Sánchez, Alejandra; Guevara, Jorge; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Moran, José; Martínez, Rebeca; Aguilera, José; Limón, Ilhuicamina Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We have previously shown that the intrastriatal injection of the C-terminal domain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) protects the nigrostriatal-dopaminergic pathways and improves motor behavior in hemiparkinsonism-rat models caused by MPP(+) (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium). Here we have investigated the protective effects of the intramuscular application of the Hc-TeTx on motor asymmetry and neurodegeneration in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rats. Adult male rats were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant Hc-TeTx protein (0.1-20μg/kg, daily) 3days before the stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA into the left striatum. Our results showed that the motor-improvement functions were extended for 4weeks in all Hc-TeTx-treated groups, obtaining the maximum performance with the highest dose of Hc-TeTx (20μg/kg). The improvements found were 97%, 87%, and 70% in the turning behavior, stepping test, and cylinder test, respectively. The striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolites did not vary compared to the control group. Moreover, the peripheral treatment with Hc-TeTx in rats prevents, for 30days, the neurodegeneration in the striatum caused by the toxicity of the 6-OHDA. Our results lead us to believe that the Hc-TeTx could be a potential therapeutic agent in pathologies caused by impairment of dopaminergic innervations such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  17. Micromotion feature extraction of radar target using tracking pulses with adaptive pulse repetition frequency adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yijun; Zhang, Qun; Ma, Changzheng; Luo, Ying; Yeo, Tat Soon

    2014-01-01

    In multifunction phased array radar systems, different activities (e.g., tracking, searching, imaging, feature extraction, recognition, etc.) would need to be performed simultaneously. To relieve the conflict of the radar resource distribution, a micromotion feature extraction method using tracking pulses with adaptive pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) is proposed in this paper. In this method, the idea of a varying PRF is utilized to solve the frequency-domain aliasing problem of the micro-Doppler signal. With appropriate atom set construction, the micromotion feature can be extracted and the image of the target can be obtained based on the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. In our algorithm, the micromotion feature of a radar target is extracted from the tracking pulses and the quality of the constructed image is fed back into the radar system to adaptively adjust the PRF of the tracking pulses. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  19. Risk factors for hand-wrist disorders in repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    (wrist pain and palpation tenderness) were determined in 3123 employees in 19 industrial settings. With the use of questionnaires and video recordings of homogenous work tasks number of wrist movements, hand force requirements and wrist position were analysed as risk factors for hand-wrist disorders......OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk of hand-wrist disorders related to repetitive movements, use of hand force and wrist position in repetitive monotonous work. METHODS: Using questionnaires and physical examinations, the prevalence and incidence of hand-wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis...... were less consistent. Working with the hand in a non-neutral position could not be identified as a risk factor...

  20. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  1. Medium Repetition Rate TEA Laser For Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bruno

    1987-09-01

    The design and performance of an inexpensive compact repetitively pulsed TEA CO2 laser is described. The device uses a modified corona preionization technique and a fast transverse gas flow to achieve high repetition rates. An output energy of 500 mJ per pulse and an out-put power of 6.2W at 40Hz have been obtained. Due to the small energy needed for preionization, the efficiency of the device is high, whereas the gas dissociation is low when compared with commercial laser systems. This results in the relatively small fresh laser gas exchange of 20 ltr h-1 for long term operation.

  2. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  3. Convention, Repetition and Abjection: The Way of the Gothic

    OpenAIRE

    Łowczanin Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs Deleuze and Kristeva in an examination of certain Gothic conventions. It argues that repetition of these conventions- which endows Gothicism with formulaic coherence and consistence but might also lead to predictability and stylistic deadlock-is leavened by a novelty that Deleuze would categorize as literary “gift.” This particular kind of “gift” reveals itself in the fiction of successive Gothic writers on the level of plot and is applied to the repetition of the genre’s m...

  4. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...

  5. A Brief Account on the Functions of Rhetorical Repetition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuping

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that using rhetoric devices precisely is of great importance for the English Learners, if they want to write good articles. Repetition is one of the rhetoric devices that is frequently used in English writing. This paper gives a brief account on the four functions of repetition by presenting some typical examples, focusing the reader's attention on the significance of this device in the English writing. The following are the four functions: an effective means of emphasis; making anidea clear and easier; generating emotional force; heightening a certain atmosphere.

  6. Protein domain prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingolfsson, Helgi; Yona, Golan

    2008-01-01

    Domains are considered to be the building blocks of protein structures. A protein can contain a single domain or multiple domains, each one typically associated with a specific function. The combination of domains determines the function of the protein, its subcellular localization and the interacti

  7. Stretching the rules: monocentric chromosomes with multiple centromere domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice; Schroeder-Reiter, Elizabeth; Koblížková, Andrea; Steinbauerová, Veronika; Chocholová, Eva; Novák, Petr; Wanner, Gerhard; Macas, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The centromere is a functional chromosome domain that is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during cell division and that can be reliably identified by the presence of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CenH3. In monocentric chromosomes, the centromere is characterized by a single CenH3-containing region within a morphologically distinct primary constriction. This region usually spans up to a few Mbp composed mainly of centromere-specific satellite DNA common to all chromosomes of a given species. In holocentric chromosomes, there is no primary constriction; the centromere is composed of many CenH3 loci distributed along the entire length of a chromosome. Using correlative fluorescence light microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy, we show that pea (Pisum sativum) chromosomes exhibit remarkably long primary constrictions that contain 3-5 explicit CenH3-containing regions, a novelty in centromere organization. In addition, we estimate that the size of the chromosome segment delimited by two outermost domains varies between 69 Mbp and 107 Mbp, several factors larger than any known centromere length. These domains are almost entirely composed of repetitive DNA sequences belonging to 13 distinct families of satellite DNA and one family of centromeric retrotransposons, all of which are unevenly distributed among pea chromosomes. We present the centromeres of Pisum as novel "meta-polycentric" functional domains. Our results demonstrate that the organization and DNA composition of functional centromere domains can be far more complex than previously thought, do not require single repetitive elements, and do not require single centromere domains in order to segregate properly. Based on these findings, we propose Pisum as a useful model for investigation of centromere architecture and the still poorly understood role of repetitive DNA in centromere evolution, determination, and function.

  8. Membrane binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  9. Shal/K(v4 channels are required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing and normal locomotion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ping

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhythmic behaviors, such as walking and breathing, involve the coordinated activity of central pattern generators in the CNS, sensory feedback from the PNS, to motoneuron output to muscles. Unraveling the intrinsic electrical properties of these cellular components is essential to understanding this coordinated activity. Here, we examine the significance of the transient A-type K(+ current (I(A, encoded by the highly conserved Shal/K(v4 gene, in neuronal firing patterns and repetitive behaviors. While I(A is present in nearly all neurons across species, elimination of I(A has been complicated in mammals because of multiple genes underlying I(A, and/or electrical remodeling that occurs in response to affecting one gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Drosophila, the single Shal/K(v4 gene encodes the predominant I(A current in many neuronal cell bodies. Using a transgenically expressed dominant-negative subunit (DNK(v4, we show that I(A is completely eliminated from cell bodies, with no effect on other currents. Most notably, DNK(v4 neurons display multiple defects during prolonged stimuli. DNK(v4 neurons display shortened latency to firing, a lower threshold for repetitive firing, and a progressive decrement in AP amplitude to an adapted state. We record from identified motoneurons and show that Shal/K(v4 channels are similarly required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing. We then examine larval crawling, and adult climbing and grooming, all behaviors that rely on repetitive firing. We show that all are defective in the absence of Shal/K(v4 function. Further, knock-out of Shal/K(v4 function specifically in motoneurons significantly affects the locomotion behaviors tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our results, Shal/K(v4 channels regulate the initiation of firing, enable neurons to continuously fire throughout a prolonged stimulus, and also influence firing frequency. This study shows that Shal/K(v4

  10. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  11. Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

  12. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS.

  13. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  14. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  15. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  16. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  17. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  18. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  19. Piriform spider silk sequences reveal unique repetitive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David J; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2010-11-08

    Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple, and repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces, has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species: A. trifasciata , N. clavipes , and N. cruentata . The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif, where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6-8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species, with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA is larger than 11 kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the piriform sequences form an ortholog group.

  20. Focus on form through task repetition in TBLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Guchte, M.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Bimmel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners’ attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where

  1. Spierbelasting en RSI [Muscle load and repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Visser, B.; Huysmans, M.A.; Speklé, E.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of theories concerning the development of RSI (repetitive strain injury), related to muscle disorders. Movement is a noisy process. The level of noise is affected by factors such as fatigue and psychosocial stress. In order for precision movements to be made in such

  2. Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  3. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  4. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  5. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  7. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  8. Repetition Priming and Cortical Arousal in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Amy E.; Festa, Elena K.; Salmon, David P.; Heindel, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetition priming refers to a form of implicit memory in which prior exposure to a stimulus facilitates the subsequent processing of the same or a related stimulus. One frequently used repetition priming task is word-stem completion priming. In this task, participants complete a series of beginning word stems with the first word that comes to mind after having viewed, in an unrelated context, words that can complete some of the stems. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibit a significant deficit in word-stem completion priming, but the neural mechanisms underlying this deficit have yet to be identified. The present study examined the possibility that the word-stem completion priming deficit in AD is due to disruption of ascending neuromodulatory systems that mediate cortical arousal by comparing word-stem completion priming and behavioral measures of spatial orienting and phasic alerting. Results showed that in healthy elderly controls higher levels of phasic alerting were associated with a sharpening of the temporal dynamics of priming across two delay intervals: those with higher levels of alerting showed more immediate priming but less delayed priming than those with lesser levels of alerting. In patients with AD, priming was impaired despite intact levels of phasic alerting and spatial orienting, and group status rather than individual levels of alerting or orienting predicted the magnitude of their stem-completion priming. Furthermore, the change in priming across delays they displayed was not related to level of alerting or orienting. These findings support the role of the noradrenergic projection system in modulating the level of steady-state cortical activation (or “cortical tonus”) underlying both phasic alerting and the temporal dynamics of repetition priming. However, impaired priming in patients with AD does not appear to be due to disruption of this neuromodulatory system. PMID:25701794

  9. Repetition priming and cortical arousal in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Amy E; Festa, Elena K; Salmon, David P; Heindel, William C

    2015-04-01

    Repetition priming refers to a form of implicit memory in which prior exposure to a stimulus facilitates the subsequent processing of the same or a related stimulus. One frequently used repetition priming task is word-stem completion priming. In this task, participants complete a series of beginning word stems with the first word that comes to mind after having viewed, in an unrelated context, words that can complete some of the stems. Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a significant deficit in word-stem completion priming, but the neural mechanisms underlying this deficit have yet to be identified. The present study examined the possibility that the word-stem completion priming deficit in AD is due to disruption of ascending neuromodulatory systems that mediate cortical arousal by comparing word-stem completion priming and behavioral measures of spatial orienting and phasic alerting. Results showed that in healthy elderly controls higher levels of phasic alerting were associated with a sharpening of the temporal dynamics of priming across two delay intervals: those with higher levels of alerting showed more immediate priming but less delayed priming than those with lesser levels of alerting. In patients with AD, priming was impaired despite intact levels of phasic alerting and spatial orienting, and group status rather than individual levels of alerting or orienting predicted the magnitude of their stem-completion priming. Furthermore, the change in priming across delays they displayed was not related to level of alerting or orienting. These findings support the role of the noradrenergic projection system in modulating the level of steady-state cortical activation (or "cortical tonus") underlying both phasic alerting and the temporal dynamics of repetition priming. However, impaired priming in patients with AD does not appear to be due to disruption of this neuromodulatory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Finite-Repetition threshold for infinite ternary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Badkobeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exponent of a word is the ratio of its length over its smallest period. The repetitive threshold r(a of an a-letter alphabet is the smallest rational number for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most r(a. This notion was introduced in 1972 by Dejean who gave the exact values of r(a for every alphabet size a as it has been eventually proved in 2009. The finite-repetition threshold for an a-letter alphabet refines the above notion. It is the smallest rational number FRt(a for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most FRt(a and that contains a finite number of factors with exponent r(a. It is known from Shallit (2008 that FRt(2=7/3. With each finite-repetition threshold is associated the smallest number of r(a-exponent factors that can be found in the corresponding infinite word. It has been proved by Badkobeh and Crochemore (2010 that this number is 12 for infinite binary words whose maximal exponent is 7/3. We show that FRt(3=r(3=7/4 and that the bound is achieved with an infinite word containing only two 7/4-exponent words, the smallest number. Based on deep experiments we conjecture that FRt(4=r(4=7/5. The question remains open for alphabets with more than four letters. Keywords: combinatorics on words, repetition, repeat, word powers, word exponent, repetition threshold, pattern avoidability, word morphisms.

  11. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  12. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  13. Domains via Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CHEN Yixiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a concrete and simple introduction to two pillars of domain theory: (1) solving recursive domain equations, and (2) universal and saturated domains. Our exposition combines Larsen and Winskel's idea on solving domain equations using information systems with Girard's idea of stable domain theory in the form of coherence spaces, or graphs.Detailed constructions are given for universal and even homogeneous objects in two categories of graphs: one representing binary complete, prime algebraic domains with complete primes covering the bottom; the other representing ω-algebraic, prime algebraic lattices. The backand-forth argument in model theory helps to enlighten the constructions.

  14. Time- and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability and sympathetic skin response in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Karam, Marie; Berger, Monika Fruhmann; Heger, Tanja; Maetzler, Corina; Ruediger, Heinz; Bronzova, Juliana; Lobo, Patricia Pita; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Berg, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is regularly affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). Information on autonomic dysfunction can be derived from e.g. altered heart rate variability (HRV) and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Such parameters can be quantified easily and measured repeatedly which might be helpful for evaluating disease progression and therapeutic outcome. In this 2-center study, HRV and SSR of 45 PD patients and 26 controls were recorded. HRV was measured during supine metronomic breathing and analyzed in time- and frequency-domains. SSR was evoked by repetitive auditory stimulation. Various ANS parameters were compared (1) between patients and healthy controls, (2) to clinical scales (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Becks Depression Inventory), and (3) to disease duration. Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio differed significantly between PD and controls. Both, HRV and SSR parameters showed low or no association with clinical scores. Time-domain parameters tended to be affected already at early PD stages but did not consistently change with longer disease duration. In contrast, frequency-domain parameters were not altered in early PD phases but tended to be lower (LF, LF/HF ratio), respectively higher (HF) with increasing disease duration. This report confirms previous results of altered ANS parameters in PD. In addition, it suggests that (1) these ANS parameters are not relevantly associated with motor, behavioral, and cognitive changes in PD, (2) time-domain parameters are useful for the assessment of early PD, and (3) frequency-domain parameters are more closely associated with disease duration.

  15. A New Revised DNA Cramp Tool Based Approach of Chopping DNA Repetitive and Non-Repetitive Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Hari Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vogue tremendous amount of data generated day by day by the living organism of genetic sequences and its accumulation in database, their size is growing in an exponential manner. Due to excessive storage of DNA sequences in public databases like NCBI, EMBL and DDBJ archival maintenance is tedious task. Transmission of information from one place to another place in network management systems is also a critical task. So To improve the efficiency and to reduce the overhead of the database need of compression arises in database optimization. In this connection different techniques were bloomed, but achieved results are not bountiful. Many classical algorithms are fails to compress genetic sequences due to the specificity of text encoded in dna and few of the existing techniques achieved positive results. DNA is repetitive and non repetitive in nature. Our proposed technique DNACRAMP is applicable on repetitive and non repetitive sequences of dna and it yields better compression ratio in terms of bits per bases. This is compared with existing techniques and observed that our one is the optimum technique and compression results are on par with existing techniques.

  16. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  17. Behavioral and psychiatric manifestations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A; Alvi, Mustafa H; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic syndrome with clinical manifestations due to multiple affected organ systems including limbs, gastrointestinal, skin, and central nervous systems. Although the genetic basis of CdLS is now uncovered, how behavioral manifestations are associated with genetic and brain differences are less well understood. The current focused review systematically describes the main behavioral observations to date in individuals with CdLS, which have a significant impact on quality of life and adaptive functioning. The CdLS behavioral phenotype includes autistic traits as a prominent feature; however, brain imaging studies, required to understand gene-brain-behavior connections in CdLS, are scarce. Moreover, autistic features in CdLS have a greater emphasis on repetitive behaviors, including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and expressive communication deficits, different that the core social deficit seen in idiopathic autism. Current data strongly support the use of CdLS as a model disease for repetitive behaviors and associated developmental delay manifestations. Behavioral phenotype characteristics in CdLS point to a preponderance of repetitive clinical phenomena as well as expressive verbal deficits that ought to inform specific treatment approaches in CdLS. In particular, repetitive behaviors associated with self-injury are of high negative impact on the quality of life for individuals with CdLS and their families. Treatment approaches geared to manage repetitive behaviors and self-injurious behaviors in CdLS are required in this developmental condition.

  18. Understanding the contribution of target repetition and target expectation to the emergence of the prevalence effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J; Menneer, Tamaryn; Riggs, Charlotte A; Taunton, Dominic; Cave, Kyle R; Donnel, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Behavior in visual search tasks is influenced by the proportion of trials on which a target is presented (the target prevalence). Previous research has shown that when target prevalence is low (2 % prevalence), participants tend to miss targets, as compared with higher prevalence levels (e.g., 50 % prevalence). There is an ongoing debate regarding the relative contributions of target repetition and the expectation that a target will occur in the emergence of prevalence effects. In order to disentangle these two factors, we went beyond previous studies by directly manipulating participants' expectations regarding how likely a target was to appear on a given trial. This we achieved without using cues or feedback. Our results indicated that both target repetition and target expectation contribute to the emergence of the prevalence effect.

  19. Behavioral variability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior is a diagnostic characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To the extent that the behavior of individuals with ASD can be conceptualized as problems of invariance, our understanding of environmental variables that influence restricted and repetitive behavior may be informed by the basic and applied literature on response variability. The purposes of this paper are (a) to describe how restricted and repetitive behavior can be conceptualized as problems of invariance, (b) to consider the implications of a lack of varied responding for individuals with ASD, (c) to review relevant basic and applied research on response variability, (d) to present methods to address invariant responding for individuals with ASD, and (e) to suggest areas for future research.

  20. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  1. The Bergman Kernels on Generalized Exceptional Hua Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷慰萍; 赵振刚

    2001-01-01

    @@Yin Weiping introduce four types of Hua domain which are built on four types of Cartan domain and the Bergman kernels on these four types of Hua domain can be computed in explicit formulas[1]. In this paper, two types of domains defined by (10), (11) (see below) are introduced which are built on two exceptional Cartan domains. And We compute Bergman Kernels explicitly for these two domains. We also study the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function near boundary points, drawing on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  2. Domains of laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, E; Wewer, U M

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules are often very large and made up of several independent domains, frequently with autonomous activities. Laminin is no exception. A number of globular and rod-like domains can be identified in laminin and its isoforms by sequence analysis as well as by electron...... microscopy. Here we present the structure-function relations in laminins by examination of their individual domains. This approach to viewing laminin is based on recent results from several laboratories. First, some mutations in laminin genes that cause disease have affected single laminin domains, and some...... laminin isoforms lack particular domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. Second, laminin-like domains have now been...

  3. Examining thermal transport through a frequency-domain representation of time-domain thermoreflectance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kimberlee C; Maznev, Alexei A; Cuffe, John; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Laser-based time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques are widely used for investigating thermal transport at micro- and nano-scales. We demonstrate that data obtained in TDTR measurements can be represented in a frequency-domain form equivalent to FDTR, i.e., in the form of a surface temperature amplitude and phase response to time-harmonic heating. Such a representation is made possible by using a large TDTR delay time window covering the entire pulse repetition interval. We demonstrate the extraction of frequency-domain data up to 1 GHz from TDTR measurements on a sapphire sample coated with a thin layer of aluminum, and show that the frequency dependencies of both the amplitude and phase responses agree well with theory. The proposed method not only allows a direct comparison of TDTR and FDTR data, but also enables measurements at high frequencies currently not accessible to FDTR. The frequency-domain representation helps uncover aspects of the measurement physics which remain obscured in a traditional TDTR measurement, such as the importance of modeling the details of the heat transport in the metal transducer film for analyzing high frequency responses.

  4. DC-driven plasma gun: self-oscillatory operation mode of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Shashurin, Alexey

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of a series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by pure DC high voltage (self-oscillatory behavior). The repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV cm-1. One type of the helium plasma gun designed using this operational principle is demonstrated. The gun operates on about 3 kV DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at a frequency of about 13 kHz.

  5. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-15

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  6. 76 FR 44489 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) system into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying...; Classification of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic......

  7. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A.; Wang, Xin M.; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Gorrell, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell–collagen interactions in chronic liver injury. PMID:21356365

  8. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  9. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  10. Fine tuning of micropillar cavity modes through repetitive oxidations

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Morten P; Snijders, Henk; Truong, Tuan-Ahn; Petroff, Pierre M; Bouwmeester, Dirk; van Exter, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive wet thermal oxidations of a tapered oxide aperture in a micropillar structure are demonstrated. After each oxidation step the con?fined optical modes are analyzed at room temperature. Three regimes are identi?fied. First, the optical con?finement increases when the aperture oxidizes towards the center. Then, the cavity modes shift by more than 30 nm, when the taper starts to oxidize through the center, leading to a decrease in the optical path length. Finally, the resonance frequency levels o?f, when the aperture is oxidized all the way through the micropillar, but confi?ned optical modes with a high quality factor remain. This repetitive oxidation technique therefore enables precise control of the optical cavity volume or wavelength.

  11. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  12. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text.

  13. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: emotion, complexity, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli, Laura; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing, and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6-s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion and composition were independent, supporting the hypothesis that these oculomotor indices reflect enhanced information seeking. Experiment 2 tested an orienting hypothesis by repeatedly presenting the same pictures. Although repetition altered specific scan patterns, emotional, compared to neutral, picture viewing continued to prompt oculomotor differences, suggesting that motivationally relevant cues enhance information seeking in appetitive and defensive contexts. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Repetitive transients extraction algorithm for detecting bearing faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wangpeng; Ding, Yin; Zi, Yanyang; Selesnick, Ivan W.

    2017-02-01

    Rolling-element bearing vibrations are random cyclostationary. This paper addresses the problem of noise reduction with simultaneous components extraction in vibration signals for faults diagnosis of bearing. The observed vibration signal is modeled as a summation of two components contaminated by noise, and each component composes of repetitive transients. To extract the two components simultaneously, an approach by solving an optimization problem is proposed in this paper. The problem adopts convex sparsity-based regularization scheme for decomposition, and non-convex regularization is used to further promote the sparsity but preserving the global convexity. A synthetic example is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach for repetitive feature extraction. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed method are further demonstrated by applying to compound faults and single fault diagnosis of a locomotive bearing. The results show the proposed approach can effectively extract the features of outer and inner race defects.

  15. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schram Christensen; Jesper Lundbye-Jensen; Michael James Grey; Alexandra Damgaard Vejlby; Bo Belhage; Jens Bo Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was...

  16. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: Emotion, complexity, and repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli,Laura; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6 s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion a...

  17. Route to 100 TW Ti: Sapphire laser at repetitive mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Hao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a 100 TW-class femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser running at repetition rate of 0.1 Hz by adding a stage amplifier in the 20 TW/10 Hz laser facility (XL-II. Pumping the new stage amplifier with the 25 J green Nd:glass laser, we successfully upgraded the laser energy to 3.4 J with duration of 29 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 117 TW.

  18. Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: Verbal Repetition, Mnemonics, and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Jane Lee; Johnson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of using verbal repetition and first-letter acronyms to teach a common marketing framework was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 345 undergraduate students were exposed to the framework using one of four conditions: control, verbal repetition, acronym, and verbal repetition plus acronym in a traditional learning…

  19. On the repetitive operation of a self-switched transversely excited atmosphere CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pallavi Raote; Gautam Patil; J Padma Nilaya; D J Biswas

    2010-11-01

    The repetition rate capability of self-switched transversely excited atmosphere (TEA) CO2 laser was studied for different gas flow configurations. For an optimized gas flow configuration, repetitive operation was achieved at a much smaller gas replenishment factor between two successive pulses when compared with repetitive systems energized by conventional pulsers.

  20. Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

    2010-01-01

    Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

  1. FBFN-based adaptive repetitive control of nonlinearly parameterized systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli Sun; Hong Cai; Fu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive repetitive control scheme is presented for a class of nonlinearly parameterized systems based on the fuzzy ba-sis function network (FBFN). The parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. To attenuate chattering effectively, the discontinuous control term is approximated by an adaptive PI control structure. The bound of the discontinuous control term is assumed to be unknown and estimated by an adaptive mecha-nism. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive repeti-tive control law is proposed to guarantee the closed-loop stability and the tracking performance. By means of FBFNs, which avoid the nonlinear parameterization from entering into the adaptive repetitive control, the control er singularity problem is solved. The proposed approach does not require an exact structure of the sys-tem dynamics, and the proposed control er is utilized to control a model of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor subject to significant disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The simula-tion results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A referential theory of the repetition-induced truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Rom, Sarah C

    2017-03-01

    People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory truth effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge truth based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced truth effect follows. Five experiments test this theory. Experiment 1-3 show that both the amount and the coherence of references for a repeated statement influence judged truth. Experiment 4 shows that people also judge new statements more likely "true" when they share references with previously presented statements. Experiment 5 realizes theoretically predicted conditions under which repetition should not influence judged truth. Based on these data, we discuss how the theory relates to other explanations of repetition-induced truth and how it may integrate other truth-related phenomena and belief biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schram Christensen

    Full Text Available Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, and a control area (posterior parietal cortex. Magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex produced a movement sensation that was significantly greater than stimulation over the control region. Movement sensation after dorsal premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement.

  4. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  5. Repetition suppression: a means to index neural representations using BOLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the human brain gives rise to complex cognitive processes remains one of the biggest challenges of contemporary neuroscience. While invasive recording in animal models can provide insight into neural processes that are conserved across species, our understanding of cognition more broadly relies upon investigation of the human brain itself. There is therefore an imperative to establish non-invasive tools that allow human brain activity to be measured at high spatial and temporal resolution. In recent years, various attempts have been made to refine the coarse signal available in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), providing a means to investigate neural activity at the meso-scale, i.e. at the level of neural populations. The most widely used techniques include repetition suppression and multivariate pattern analysis. Human neuroscience can now use these techniques to investigate how representations are encoded across neural populations and transformed by relevant computations. Here, we review the physiological basis, applications and limitations of fMRI repetition suppression with a brief comparison to multivariate techniques. By doing so, we show how fMRI repetition suppression holds promise as a tool to reveal complex neural mechanisms that underlie human cognitive function. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574308

  6. Effects of repetitive exposure to anesthetics and analgesics in the Tg2576 mouse Alzheimer's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Carolina; Chaparro, Rafael E; Karlnoski, Rachel; Erasso, Diana; Gordon, Marcia; Morgan, David; Bosco, Gerardo; Rubini, Alessandro; Parmagnani, Andrea; Paoli, Antonio; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico M

    2014-11-01

    The use of anesthetics and sedatives has been suggested to be a contributor to Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We wanted to address the in vivo relevance of those substances in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's mouse model. Tg7526 mice were anesthesia-sedated for 90 min once a week for 4 weeks. Y maze, Congo Red, and amyloid beta (Aβ) immunochemistry were performed. We did not find any significant change in the navigation behavior of the exposed mice compared to the controls. Significantly less deposition of Aβ in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice exposed to isoflurane, propofol, diazepam, ketamine, and pentobarbital was observed. In the dentate gyrus, Aβ deposition was significantly greater in the group treated with pentobarbital. Congo Red staining evidenced significantly fewer fibrils in the cortex of mice exposed to diazepam, ketamine, or pentobarbital. The adopted repetitive exposure did not cause a significant detriment in Tg7526 mouse.

  7. Dopamine receptor DOP-4 modulates habituation to repetitive photoactivation of a C. elegans polymodal nociceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L; Giles, Andrew C; Yu, Alex J; Lindsay, Theodore H; Lockery, Shawn R; Rankin, Catharine H

    2016-10-01

    Habituation is a highly conserved phenomenon that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Invertebrate model systems, like Caenorhabditis elegans, can be a powerful tool for investigating this fundamental process. Here we established a high-throughput learning assay that used real-time computer vision software for behavioral tracking and optogenetics for stimulation of the C. elegans polymodal nociceptor, ASH. Photoactivation of ASH with ChR2 elicited backward locomotion and repetitive stimulation altered aspects of the response in a manner consistent with habituation. Recording photocurrents in ASH, we observed no evidence for light adaptation of ChR2. Furthermore, we ruled out fatigue by demonstrating that sensory input from the touch cells could dishabituate the ASH avoidance circuit. Food and dopamine signaling slowed habituation downstream from ASH excitation via D1-like dopamine receptor, DOP-4. This assay allows for large-scale genetic and drug screens investigating mechanisms of nociception modulation.

  8. Cognitive safety of dorsomedial prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Laura; Wheeler, Sarah; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Solomon, Chloe J E; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The most widely used target for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Despite convergent evidence that the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) may be a promising alternative target for rTMS in TRD, its cognitive safety profile has not previously been assessed. Here, we applied 20 sessions of rTMS to the DMPFC in 21 TRD patients. Before and after treatment, a battery of neuropsychological tasks was administered to evaluate changes in cognition across three general cognitive domains: learning and memory, attention and processing speed, and cognitive flexibility. Subjects also completed the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HamD17) prior to and following treatment to measure changes in severity of depressive symptoms, and to assess the relationship between mood and cognitive performance over the course of treatment. No serious adverse effects or significant deterioration in cognitive performance were observed. Overall, subjects improved significantly on Stroop Inhibition/Switching and on Trails B, and this improvement was independent of the degree of improvement in depression symptoms. No domains or items significantly predicted clinical outcome, with the exception of baseline performance on Visual Elevator Accuracy. Clinical improvement correlated to improved performance in the overall domain of attention and processing speed, although this effect was not evident following covariate adjustment. DMPFC-rTMS did not produce any detectable cognitive adverse effects during treatment of TRD. Performance did not deteriorate significantly on any measures. Taken together, the present findings support the tolerability and cognitive safety of DMPFC-rTMS in refractory depression.

  9. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  10. Differential effects of high-temperature stress on nuclear topology and transcription of repetitive noncoding and coding rye sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, D; Brazão, J; Viegas, W; Silva, M

    2013-01-01

    The plant stress response has been extensively characterized at the biochemical and physiological levels. However, knowledge concerning repetitive sequence genome fraction modulation during extreme temperature conditions is scarce. We studied high-temperature effects on subtelomeric repetitive sequences (pSc200) and 45S rDNA in rye seedlings submitted to 40°C during 4 h. Chromatin organization patterns were evaluated through fluorescent in situ hybridization and transcription levels were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, the nucleolar dynamics were evaluated through fibrillarin immunodetection in interphase nuclei. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that the pSc200 sequence organization is not affected by high-temperature stress (HTS) and proved for the first time that this noncoding subtelomeric sequence is stably transcribed. Conversely, it was demonstrated that HTS treatment induces marked rDNA chromatin decondensation along with nucleolar enlargement and a significant increase in ribosomal gene transcription. The role of noncoding and coding repetitive rye sequences in the plant stress response that are suggested by their clearly distinct behaviors is discussed. While the heterochromatic conformation of pSc200 sequences seems to be involved in the stabilization of the interphase chromatin architecture under stress conditions, the dynamic modulation of nucleolar and rDNA topology and transcription suggest their role in plant stress response pathways.

  11. Assessing maladaptive repetitive thought in clinical disorders: A critical review of existing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtani, Suraj; Moulds, Michelle L

    2017-04-01

    Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology. This review highlights problems with the content validity of existing instruments; for example, confounds between repetitive thought and symptomatology, metacognitive beliefs, and affect. This review also builds on previous reviews by including newer transdiagnostic measures of repetitive thinking. We hope that this review will help to expand our understanding of repetitive thinking beyond the mood and anxiety disorders, and suggest ways forward in the measurement of repetitive thinking in individuals with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  13. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  14. Staggered domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoelbling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  15. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  16. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.

  17. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  18. Spectroscopic Investigation of a Repetitively-Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Benjamin T.

    This work reports on an investigation of a repetitively-pulsed nanosecond discharge (RPND) in helium over a range of 0.3-16.0 Torr. The discharge was studied experimentally via laser-absorption spectroscopy and opticals emission spectroscopy measurements. In concert with the experimental campaign, a global model of a helium plasma was developed with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations. The global model was then used to predict the population kinetics and emissions of the RPND. Synthesis of the results provided new data and insights on the development of the RPND. Among the results were direct measurements of the triplet metastable states during the excitation period. This period was found to be unexpectedly long at low pressures (less than or equal to 1.0 Torr), suggesting an excess in high-energy electrons as compared to an equilibrium distribution. Other phenomena such as a prominent return stroke and additional energy deposition by reflections in the transmission line were also identified. Estimates of the electric field and electron temperatures were obtained for several conditions. Furthermore, several optical methods for electron temperature measurement were evaluated for application to the discharge. Based on the global model simulations, the coronal model was found to apply to the line ratio of the 33S-23Po and 31S-2 1Po transitions, however further work is needed to ascertain its applicability to experimental discharges. These results provide new insight on the development of the repetitively-pulsed nanosecond discharge. Specifically, they reveal new information about the excited state dynamics within the discharge, the non-equilibrium nature of its electrons, and several avenues for future studies. This study extends the present understanding of repetitively-pulsed discharges, and advances the knowledge of energy coupling between electric fields and plasmas.

  19. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  20. Student Assessment System. Domain Referenced Tests. Allied Health Occupations/Practical Nursing. Volume II: Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gene, Comp.; Simpson, Bruce, Comp.

    These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of allied health occupations/practical nursing test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a…