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Sample records for repetitive abuse experiences

  1. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

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    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negotiate their sexual selves. The secondary aim of the study was to investigate the function and effects of guilt, shame, desire, fantasies and gender roles in their lives and how, if at all, they connect to the experiences of sexual assault suffered by individuals within this socio-cultural group. The approach that frames this study is a discourse analytic approach and this is seen as central to the methodology of this study and the language used to talk about the findings and implications of this research.

  2. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  3. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  4. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  5. Educators' Experience of Managing Sexually Abused Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The IPJP is a joint project of Rhodes University in South Africa and Edith Cowan University in ... the number of reported child sexual abuse cases ..... tested negative for HIV. ..... Traumatic impact of child sexual abuse: a conceptualization.

  6. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

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    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  7. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

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    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  8. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  9. [Brief analytic essay on unconscious forces facilitating transgenerational repetition of physical or sexual abuse].

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    Papazian, B

    1994-01-01

    Transmission of abusive conduct is mainly determined by unconscious guilt and identification with the aggressor. The abused child is bound to split the parental object. The hostile side is eclipsed due to dependence and regression. Therefore deprived of the hated object, the guilt surges forcefully with the role reversal of the following generation. The former victim, whose identifications with the aggressor are actuated, discharges his guilt by projective identifications with the new victims. The ongoing splitting perpetuates the pathology of the relation.

  10. Exploring the Experiences of Abuse of College Students With Disabilities.

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    Findley, Patricia A; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and sexual assault of college students has garnered increased attention and publicity. Current studies have focused primarily on general campus populations with little to no attention to students with disabilities. While studies suggest the rate of abuse of individuals with disabilities is similar or higher compared to the general population, there remains a lack of focus on this issue. Individuals with disabilities are at particularly high risk for abuse, both through typical forms of violence (physical, sexual, emotional, and economic) and those that target one's disability. In an effort highlight and explore this issue further, an exploratory study was conducted to learn the rates of abuse among university students who have identified as having a disability. This is a cross-sectional survey of 101 students of students with disabilities from a large northeastern public university. Experiences of abuse were measured through the use of the Abuse Assessment Screen- Disability (AAS-D) scale. Students were asked about experiences of physical, sexual, psychological, and disability related abuse within the last year and help seeking behaviors when an incident of abuse occurred. We found that 22 % of participants reported some form of abuse over the last and nearly 62% (n= 63) had experienced some form of physical or sexual abuse before the age of 17. Those who were abused in the past year, 40% reported little or no knowledge of abuse-related resources and only 27% reported the incident. Authors discuss implications results have for programs and policies on campus for individuals with disabilities.

  11. Substance abuse counselors' experiences with victims of incest.

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    Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P

    2001-01-01

    Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.

  12. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

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    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  13. Abuse experiences, perceptions, and associated decisions during the childbearing cycle.

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    Lutz, Kristin F

    2005-11-01

    The study purpose was to generate a theoretical understanding of women's experiences and perceptions of intimate partner abuse during the childbearing cycle. Dimensional analysis, a grounded theory method, was used. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with 12 women who were (a) currently in an abusive relationship with an intimate male partner and pregnant or postpartum (n = 5) or who had (b) experienced abuse by an intimate male partner during a past pregnancy or postpartum (n = 7). Disparities between the two concurrent phenomena of abuse and pregnancy led women to feel as though they were living two separate lives. Pregnancy provided the impetus for reinvesting in the partnered relationship and constructing a family. Leaving an abusive relationship was not considered unless the partner ended the relationship first or the woman perceived an increased risk of danger. Postpartum up to 2 years after birth was a critical transitional time for women.

  14. Sex and Aggression: The Relationship between Gender and Abuse Experience in Youngsters Referred to Residential Treatment

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    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Toscano, Peter F., Jr.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship of gender and different forms of abuse experience on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and IQ in a sample of 397 youngsters who were admitted to a residential treatment program. Three types of abuse experience were examined in this study: sexual abuse only, physical abuse only, and "both" sexual and…

  15. Sex and Aggression: The Relationship between Gender and Abuse Experience in Youngsters Referred to Residential Treatment

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    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Toscano, Peter F., Jr.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship of gender and different forms of abuse experience on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and IQ in a sample of 397 youngsters who were admitted to a residential treatment program. Three types of abuse experience were examined in this study: sexual abuse only, physical abuse only, and "both" sexual and…

  16. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

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    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  17. Nonoffending Caregiver and Youth Experiences with Child Sexual Abuse Investigations

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    Jones, Lisa M.; Atoro, Kathryn E.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Shadoin, Amy L.; Magnuson, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative responses by caregivers (n = 203) and youth (aged 8 and older; n = 65) about their experiences with sexual abuse investigations were analyzed in conjunction with quantitative ratings of satisfaction. Respondents described mostly high levels of satisfaction, although dissatisfaction was reported with some key aspects of investigations.…

  18. Did Kant Appreciate Hume? Perception and Repetition as Separate Aspects of Experience

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    Ilya Bernstein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of experience has two sides: it implies that knowledge is acquired through the senses, and it implies that knowledge is acquired over time. Different traditions of thought have emphasized either one or the other of these two aspects of experience, with epistemology gravitating toward an idea of experience as perception and political philosophy gravitating toward an idea of experience as repetition. In this paper, I argue that Hume's great innovation consisted in taking the notion of experience traditionally associated with political philosophy and applying it to epistemology. Meanwhile, Kant aimed his critique at the traditional epistemological notion of experience and thus failed to appreciate Hume's originality.  

  19. Do Single Experiences of Childhood Abuse Increase Psychopathology Symptoms in Adulthood?

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    Rehan, Wail; Antfolk, Jan; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka

    2016-05-03

    Experiencing emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse in childhood increases the risk (compared with baseline) of developing psychopathological symptoms in adulthood. In the present study, we explored the effects of experiencing only a single abusive event on adulthood psychopathology, and compared this with the risk in individuals with no abusive experiences and with the risk in individuals with several abusive experiences. We used a Finnish population-based sample of 10,980 adult participants (3,766 male and 7,214 female twins and their siblings). The participants reported abuse experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and current psychopathology symptoms using the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). We found that in both men and women even single experiences of emotional and sexual abuse were associated with increased psychopathology symptoms compared with no abuse experiences. Single experiences of physical abuse did not, however, increase the risk in either women or men. As expected, experiences of repeated abuse (of all abuse types) increased the risk of psychopathology symptoms compared with experiences of single abuse. When we isolated individuals who only had a single experience of any type of abuse (i.e., emotional, physical, or sexual) to control for possible co-morbidity, no increased risk was found. This study shows that individuals who report experiencing single events of abuse of a specific abuse type have an increased risk of displaying psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. This increase is, however, mainly due to co-morbidity of abuse types.

  20. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

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    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  1. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any kind of family. Sometimes parents abuse each other, which can be hard for a child to witness. Some parents abuse their kids by using physical or verbal cruelty as a way of discipline. ...

  2. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate neglect. Belittling, threats or other uses of power by spouses, family members or others may indicate verbal or emotional abuse. Strained or tense relationships and frequent arguments between ...

  3. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

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    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  4. Life Experiences of Abused Elderly in Geriatric Care in Iasi, Romania. A Qualitative Study

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    Aliona DRONIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study focused on the life experiences of abused elderly in geriatric care in a Iasi hospital, in Romania. A total of 13 (9 women and 4 men patients were involved in a complimentary, multidisciplinary psycho-social service after been screened for abuse using EASI © (Yaffe et al., 2008. Through thematic network analysis, the texts from the interviews revealed three global themes: 1 the abuse undermines the dignity, 2 the need to find meaning to the lived experience and, 3 the strategies of maintaining dignity. This is the first qualitative study of hospitalized elderly having an experience of abuse in Romania.

  5. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

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    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  6. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  7. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence.

  8. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

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    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Historiography taking issue: analyzing an experiment with heroin abusers.

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    Dehue, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the predicament of historians becoming part of the history they are investigating and illustrates the issue in a particular case. The case is that of the randomized controlled trial (RCT)-more specifically, its use for testing the effects of providing heroin to severe heroin abusers. I counter the established view of the RCT as a matter of timeless logic and argue that this research design was developed in the context of administrative knowledge making under twentieth-century economic liberalism of which it epitomizes some central values. I also argue that the applicability of the RCT depends on the degree to which its advocates can define the issue to be studied according to its inherent values. Next, I demonstrate how advocates of an RCT with heroin provision in the Netherlands steered the political discussion on heroin provision and how the values of economic liberalism also shaped the results of the Dutch maintenance experiment. In addition, I relate how my analysis of this experiment became part of political debates in the Netherlands. Contrary to my intentions, adversaries of heroin maintenance used my critique on the heroin RCT as an argument against heroin maintenance. Such risks are inherent to historiography and sociology of science aiming at practical relevance while challenging treasured scientific beliefs. I conclude that it still seems better to expose arguments on unjustified certainties than to suppress them for strategic reasons. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

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    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  11. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  12. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

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    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  13. Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Air at Atmospheric Pressure -- Experiment and Theory of Regime Transitions

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    Pai, David; Lacoste, Deanna; Laux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and inter-electrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. Notably, there is a minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime that increases with decreasing gas temperature. A theory is developed to describe the Corona-to-Glow (C-G) and Glow-to-Spark (G-S) transitions for NRP discharges. The C-G transition is shown to depend on the Avalanche-to-Streamer Transition (AST) as well as the electric field strength in the positive column. The G-S transition is due to the thermal ionization instability. The minimum gap distance for the existence of the glow regime can be understood by considering that the applied voltage of the AST must be lower than that of the thermal ionization instability. This is a previously unknown criterion for generating glow discharges, as it does not correspond to the Paschen minimum or to the Meek-Raether criterion.

  14. The relation between supervisors’ Big Five personality traits and employees’ experiences of abusive supervision.

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    Jeroen eCamps

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision.

  15. The Relation Between Supervisors' Big Five Personality Traits and Employees' Experiences of Abusive Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the relation between supervisors' personality traits and employees' experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that - to date - remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors' agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors' extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors' conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors' Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees' experiences of abusive supervision.

  16. Psychotherapy Experiences of Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

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    Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth D; Blaine, Susan K

    2015-10-01

    Cynicism about treatment of sex offenders pervades both professional and lay literature. A Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials concluded there is no evidence to support any psychological intervention for sex offenders, but RCT design has limitations for evaluating sex offender treatment. Rarely has a qualitative approach been used to explore perceptions of offenders themselves about their psychotherapy experiences. The purpose of this study was to discover the meaning of therapy experiences to 11 community-dwelling perpetrators of child sexual abuse. They had received therapy during incarceration or after release, or both. Secondary analysis was conducted of phenomenological interviews about participants' early life, during which they spontaneously revealed insights gleaned during therapy in adulthood. Rigor of the analysis was enhanced by reading transcripts aloud and thematizing them in an interdisciplinary interpretive group. Five interrelated themes constituted a gestalt comprising the essence of the therapy experience: "This treatment, it's just totally changed my whole world." Themes included: "It just stripped away all the pretense, all the lies, all the manipulation;" "I didn't understand myself; I found out all about myself through this;" "Nobody knew any of my secrets; that (therapy) was the first time that I got to tell my story;" "The group has become a family for me;" and "I'm very ashamed of what I've done; this treatment has really helped me, gave me a second chance." These findings stand in contrast to cynicism about sex offender therapy and lend support to the increased optimism expressed by several contemporary scholars.

  17. The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of youths who were physically abused.

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    Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types.

  18. Selection and utilization of assessment instruments in substance abuse treatment trials: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network experience

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    Rosa C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Rosa, Udi Ghitza, Betty TaiCenter for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Based on recommendations from a US Institute of Medicine report, the National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN in 1999, to accelerate the translation of science-based addiction treatment research into community-based practice, and to improve the quality of addiction treatment, using science as the vehicle. One of the CTN's primary tasks is to serve as a platform to forge bi-directional communications and collaborations between providers and scientists, to enhance the relevance of research, which generates empirical results that impact practice. Among many obstacles in moving research into real-world settings, this commentary mainly describes challenges and iterative experiences in regard to how the CTN develops its research protocols, with focus on how the CTN study teams select and utilize assessment instruments, which can reasonably balance the interests of both research scientists and practicing providers when applied in CTN trials. This commentary also discusses the process by which the CTN further selects a core set of common assessment instruments that may be applied across all trials, to allow easier cross-study analyses of comparable data.Keywords: addiction, assessment, drug abuse treatment, drug dependence, NIDA Clinical Trials Network, substance use disorder

  19. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  20. Rural-Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural-urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures-migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes-child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants, who moved to Bangkok before the age of 15, being early migrants was independently associated with experiences of physical abuse (OR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and emotional abuse (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) only. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration at an early age may place children at higher risk of physical and emotional abuse. This may have policy implications for the prevention of childhood abuse particularly among young people on the move.

  1. Hispanic women's experiences with substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and risk for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.

  2. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  3. Avoidant/ambivalent attachment style as a mediator between abusive childhood experiences and adult relationship difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Taylor, A

    1999-03-01

    The role of attachment style, self-esteem, and relationship attributions as possible mediators between abusive childhood experiences and difficulties in establishing supportive love relationships in adulthood were investigated in a sample of women known to be at risk of experiencing relationship problems. Measures of child abuse, the quality of love relationships, and the three potential mediators were made concurrently in adulthood. Participants who had experienced child abuse were found to be six times more likely to be experiencing difficulties in the domain of adult love relationships than those who had not. Self-esteem and relationship attributions were not found to be related to child abuse. When both child abuse and avoidant/ambivalent attachment style were considered together avoidant/ambivalent attachment style, but not child abuse, was found to be related to relationship difficulties. These findings indicate that avoidant/ambivalent attachment style, but not self-esteem and relationship attributions, is a mediating factor in the route from child abuse to adult relationship abilities.

  4. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  5. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  6. Spatial Concept Learning in Preschool Children: Motoric Experiences and Verbal Repetition as Adjuncts to Passive Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…

  7. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

  8. Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela

    2015-02-09

    In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = sexual event as a child and subsequently physical violence from their parents, and women who had not undergone either of these events (x(2) = 3.48, df 112/1, p = treatment in these areas during the prison sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses into

  9. Abused women's experiences of a primary care identification and referral intervention: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

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    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  11. Experiences of School Counselors during and after Making Suspected Child Abuse Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…

  12. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  13. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  14. When the woman gets violent: the construction of domestic abuse experience from heterosexual men's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entilli, Lorenza; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    To promote a critical approach on the conceptualisation of domestic violence by investigating the experience of abuse on the part of men who are victims of domestic violence by their female partners. Media attention and prevention programmes relating to domestic violence have mainly focused on women as the victims and men as the perpetrators. The underlying idea is that violence is predominantly physical and a prerogative of men. This conceptualisation of violence reduces the opportunities for the consideration of different modalities of abuse. Discourse analysis within a qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews with 20 Italian men who claimed to have been abused by their female partners were conducted via Skype and analysed with the software atlas.ti. The grounded theory methodology was used to avoid imposing external points of view. Personal data were collected; in particular, their occupational level was compared to their partners' to assess the social power within the couple. Because of their strong endorsement of social and cultural values, participants showed a protective attitude towards their partners and imputed their violent acts to fragility or an external condition. Emotional distress emerged due to the isolation and subsequent inability to seek help. Although the physical violence reported is severe, the psychological violence was indicated as more damaging. Gaining an understanding of how men experience domestic abuse offers an opportunity to provide better prevention and intervention for them and other family members at risk of abuse. The study identifies gaps in service provision generated by a lack of information or perceived prejudice towards abused men. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is discussed, and future applications for treatments and prevention plans are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  16. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal p...

  17. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences......, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period....

  18. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  19. Kinship Care of the Abused Child: The New Zealand Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the experiences of caregivers and their kin children under the 1989 New Zealand Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act. Considers the responsibilities and roles of extended family in Maori culture reflected in the Act's provisions, as well as changes and challenges for the caregiving family. Notes the value of this policy and…

  20. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes.

  1. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  2. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the Management of Alcohol Dependence and other Substance Abuse Disorders – Emerging Data and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Avinash De

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used widely in various psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia. There have been some reports of its usefulness in alcohol dependence and substance use disorders. The present paper reviews the studies done using rTMS in substance use disorders including alcohol and nicotine dependence. Various studies done have been reviewed including the proposed mechanisms of action are outlined with the future research needs and need for further clinical data PMID:25337357

  3. Family Therapy and Young Abusers : Experiences from the multi-agency treatment service TVERS in Vest-Agder County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Søftestad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on young abusers participating in a treatment program for families where one or more children have experienced child sexual abuse and/or have abused other children. TVERS is a multiprofessional team where the treatment is performed within a frame of control ,“care and control hand in hand”. Three trained family therapists from three different agencies come together and form the therapy. The caseworker from the child care protection service (Children`s Service becomes a part of the TVERS-team during their therapeutic work with the young abuser and his family. The therapists are given access to all reports and documents from the police, the court and medical services. The caseworker can follow up the family between appointments as well as initiate child protection procedures if necessary. The article describes our experience of working with families where the son in the family has abused other children outside or inside their own family.

  4. The relationship between traumatic childhood experiences and proclivities towards substance abuse, self-esteem and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Timur; Tiryaki, Ahmet; Özçürümez, Gamze; Iskender, Baykal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare people with substance use disorder with healthy controls in terms of childhood abuse, proclivity towards substance abuse, coping skills and self-esteem as well as the correlation between experiences of abuse in childhood and these variables. The study group included 41 subjects diagnosed with substance use disorder, who had been sentenced under the respective laws as a result of crimes relating to substance use and possession, and the control group. A sociodemographic Data Form, SCID-I, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, COPE, Substance Abuse Proclivity Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to all participants. Childhood trauma history was observed to be more common in the study group than in the control group. When the childhood trauma questionnaire was evaluated, the scores for physical abuse were found to be significantly higher in the study group. COPE subscale scores for mental disengagement, focusing on problems and expressing emotions, active coping, coping through religion and emotional social support usage were significantly lower in the study group. The study group's results on the Substance Abuse Proclivity Scale were found to be higher than those of the control group. On the Rosenberg Self Respect Scale, the study group's scores were higher while the control group was more likely to have high self respect. People with substance use disorder are more likely to have a childhood history of physical abuse, higher proclivity towards substance abuse and lower self esteem. The level of abuse increases the level of emotion-based coping while decreasing levels of problem-based coping. There is support for the view that that traumatic childhood experiences are one of the psychosocial risk factors related to, although not specific to substance use.

  5. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  6. The Experience of Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Hallucinations

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    Priya Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Auditory hallucinations are a common symptom experience of individuals with psychotic disorders and are often experienced as persistent, distressing, and disruptive. This case series examined the lived experiences of four individuals treated (successfully or unsuccessfully with low-frequency (1 Hz rTMS for auditory hallucinations. Methods. A phenomenological approach was used and modified to involve some predetermined data structuring to accommodate for expected cognitive impairments of participants and the impact of rTMS on auditory hallucinations. Data on thoughts and feelings in relation to the helpful, unhelpful, and other effects of rTMS on auditory hallucinations, on well-being, functioning, and the immediate environment were collected using semistructured interviews. Results. All four participants noted some improvements in their well-being following treatment and none reported a worsening of their symptoms. Only two participants noted an improvement in the auditory hallucinations and only one of them reported an improvement that was sustained after treatment completion. Conclusion. We suggest that there are useful findings in the study worth further exploration, specifically in relation to the role of an individual’s acceptance and ownership of the illness process in relation to this biomedical intervention. More mixed methods research is required to examine rTMS for auditory hallucinations.

  7. Repetition and Translation Shifts

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    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  8. Dependence of a rabbit's reaction on the frequency of repetition of an impulse and current exposition in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koklin А.Е.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Now electroshock devices are used as a civilian weapon for self-defense and as a non-lethal weapon in the police. Therefore, medical-biological safety testing of electroshock devices should be carried out. Development of hygienic regulations is relevant as well. The aim of our work is the study of the biological effects of pulsed current depending on the pulse frequency, pulse amplitude and exposure. Material and methods. We compared the biological effects with varying frequency of the current pulse (50, 400, and 600 Hz with varying exposure (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 s.. Average pulse power in all cases was equal, and the pulse energy was different. Experiments were performed on rabbits. Biological effects of stun device were evaluated by clinical lesions, as well as electrophysiological parameters: ECG and electro-pneumogram. Results. Response was observed only in the current period (0.25 s, 0.5 s or 1 s was disorientation, convulsing, dyspnea. The degree of severity of the reaction was determined by a combination of pulse repetition frequency and exposure. Immediately after switching off the current noted vocalization, decreased heart rate and breathing. Heart rate and respiration in 5 minutes back to the normal values. Conclusions. In the results of the research has got a comparative classification organism's response (based on a points system as well as the characteristic of the biological response of the individual systems of the body on the parameters of the current pulse.

  9. A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Human Urine by Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Leonard C.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is described that was developed for a course in Inorganic and Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Rutgers University to provide pharmacy students with practical experience in the thin-layer chromatography used for the analysis of urine to monitor patient compliance with drug abuse treatment programs. (JMD)

  10. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  11. Resiliency experiences of the youth against substance abuse: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Adin Karimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches have been done on the addiction process, but few studies have examined the process of resiliency against addiction. This study was aimed to identify the facilitating and inhibiting factors in the young people’s resiliency process by analyzing their living experiences. Methodology: This qualitative study was based on grounded theory with Strauss and Corbin’s approach. The data underwent open, axial and selective coding. The study focused on Darvaze Ghar neighborhood of Tehran. Data were collected through open unstructured interviews and focus group discussion. In total, 21 interviews were conducted with 12 respondents and a focus group discussion was held with 7 participants. Lincoln and Guba (1985 scales were used to ensure the trustworthiness of the study. Results: The obtained codes were classified into 19 categories, including personal characteristics, family support, culture, spirituality, spiritual beliefs, environment, and social interventions. According to their nature, these categories were facilitating or inhibiting the process of resiliency against substance abuse. Conclusion: The youth with more religious beliefs, awareness, self-confidence, optimism and hatred towards drugs are more resilient against substance abuse. Moreover, the families with a higher sense of responsibility trust and monitor their children’s activities, talk to them about different issues and provide them with good trainings from the very childhood; therefore their children will be more resilient against addiction.

  12. Survey of attitudes toward and experiences with animal abuse encounters in a convenience sample of US veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Rishniw, Mark; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca A

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey. PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation. RESULTS 1,209 completed surveys were received (3.5% response rate); 1,155 (95.5%) surveys were submitted by currently practicing veterinarians. One thousand five (87.0%) practicing veterinarians reported having encountered at least 1 case of animal abuse while in practice; 561 (55.8%) of these veterinarians indicated that they had reported at least 1 case. The most common reasons selected for reporting abuse were to protect the animal, ethical beliefs, and to protect other animals in the household. The most common reasons selected for not reporting the abuse were uncertainty that the animal had been abused, belief that client education would be better, and belief that the injury or illness was accidental versus intentional. Most respondents were unaware of the current status of laws in their state regarding animal abuse reporting. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a need for state and national veterinary and humane-law enforcement organizations to increase communication and education efforts on recognition and reporting by veterinarians of animal abuse and the related laws.

  13. A Case of Treatment Resistant Depression and Alcohol Abuse in a Person with Mental Retardation: Response to Aripiprazole and Fluvoxamine Therapy upon Consideration of a Bipolar Diathesis after Repetitive Failure to Respond to Multiple Antidepressant Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Ciampa, Giovanni; Mosti, Nicola; Del Carlo, Alessandra; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Colicchio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Mental Retardation (MR) is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over) prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for "agitated" TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  14. Gender matters: Experiences and consequences of digital dating abuse victimization in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lauren A; Tolman, Richard M; Ward, L Monique

    2017-08-01

    Digital dating abuse (DDA) behaviors include the use of digital media to monitor, control, threaten, harass, pressure, or coerce a dating partner. In this study, 703 high school students reported on the frequency of DDA victimization, whether they were upset by these incidents, and how they responded. Results suggest that although both girls and boys experienced DDA at similar rates of frequency (with the exception of sexual coercion), girls reported that they were more upset by these behaviors. Girls also expressed more negative emotional responses to DDA victimization than boys. Although DDA is potentially harmful for all youth, gender matters. These findings suggest that the experience and consequences of DDA may be particularly detrimental for girls. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  16. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  17. Serial rapists and their victims: reenactment and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Hazelwood, R R; Rokous, F E; Hartman, C R; Burgess, A G

    1988-01-01

    The major finding in this study of 41 serial rapists is the large numbers of reported and unreported victims. For over 1200 attempted and completed rapes, there were 200 convictions. The hidden rapes or earliest nonreported victims of these men as boys and adolescents were identified from their families, their neighborhood, and their schools. Examining the possible link between childhood sexual abuse and criminal behavior in this sample of 41 serial rapists, 56.1% were judged to have at least one forced or exploitive abuse experience in boyhood, as compared to a study of 2,972 college males reporting 7.3% experiencing boyhood sexual abuse. Looking within the abused samples, 56.1% of the rapists reported forced sex, compared to the college sample's 30.4%. Also, the rapist sample revealed higher rates of family member as abuser (48.4%), compared to 22.2% for the college sample. Retrospective reconstruction of the sexual activities and assertive behaviors of these men as boys reveals that 51% of the boys reenact the abuse as a preadolescent with their earliest victims being known to them (48% as neighborhood girls), family (25% as sisters), or girlfriend (25%). The onset of rape fantasies in midadolescence (mean age 16.9) crystalizes the earlier sexually initiated behaviors into juvenile behaviors of spying, fetish burglaries, molestations, and rapes. Repetition of these juvenile behaviors set their criminal patters on strangers--their next group of victims. To reduce victimization, serial rapists need to be identified early and stopped. This means acknowledging and reporting boy sexual abuse. This includes being sensitive to the reenactment behaviors noted in the initiated activities of abused children, which in turn need to be differentiated from peer play. Closer attention needs to be paid to families with incest behavior to insure that younger children are protected. Adolescents showing early repetitive juvenile delinquent behaviors must be assessed for physical

  18. Children's experiences of domestic violence and abuse: Siblings' accounts of relational coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future.

  19. A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Frederico A; Milne, Christopher J; Amarasinghe, Dimali C V; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; van der Veen, Renske M; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Johnson, Steven L; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus; van Mourik, Frank; Abela, Rafael; Chergui, Majed

    2011-06-01

    We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

  20. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

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    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  1. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  2. Dissociative symptoms as a consequence of traumatic experiences: the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, Ariel; Kaplan, Zeev; Dwolatzky, Tzvi; Perry, Zvi; Witztum, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative symptoms and post-traumatic experiences in an ambulatory setting. The study was conducted in the ambulatory outpatient clinic of the Beersheva Mental Health Center. Over a period of six months new patients over 18 years of age were asked to participate in this survey. Patients completed questionnaires including the Dissociative experience Scale, trauma History Questionnaire, impact of event Scale, and Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. A total of 505 patients were enrolled in the study, and 456 completed questionnaires were analyzed. of these, 442 (97%) participants reported at least one traumatic event during their lifetime. the traumatic events were experienced as meaningful and severe at the time of occurrence. the effects of sexual and childhood emotional abuse remained very intense throughout the victim's life and were viewed as powerful, significant experiences. on the other hand, traumatic experiences such as natural disasters and battle trauma were associated with longterm effects of relatively low intensity. The presence of undiagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder (PtSD) among patients in outpatient mental health clinics suggests that screening and diagnostic procedures for this condition be more carefully defined. our most important finding is the large impact of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, on later life. thus the prevention, early detection and treatment of child abuse in preventing long term psychopathology must be emphasized.

  3. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Geri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  4. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Geri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  5. Pregnant substance-abusing women in involuntary treatment: Attachment experiences with the unborn child

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    Myra Siv Merete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.

  6. Personal resurrection: female childhood sexual abuse survivors' experience of the Wellness-Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Soley S; Agnarsdottir, Guðrun

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors deal with complex mental, physical and relationship problems in adulthood which negatively affects their well-being and health. The aim of the present paper was to present a description of the Wellness-Program for female CSA survivors, the participating women's evaluation of the different therapies in the program as well as a qualitative study on their experience of the program's effects on their life, health and well-being. The Wellness-Program lasted for 10 weeks with organised schedule 20 hours per week. A team of health professionals used a holistic approach and provided traditional and complementary individual and group therapy focusing on both mind and body. In-depth phenomenological interviews with ten women, 22-53 years old, were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the program as well as 15 months later. Data collection and data analysis were guided by the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology. Prior to participating in the program, the women were unable to work or attend school, were on disability allowance, were socially isolated and had complex health problems. After the Wellness-Program, all the women, except one, were back to work, school or in further rehabilitation. Furthermore, the in-depth interviews showed that their health and well-being, personal life and relationship with partners, family and friends improved. They felt empowered, more in control and had developed increased trust towards others. Six themes were constructed from the in-depth interviews. They were: feeling totally lost, releasing experiences, developing trusting relationships, gaining control, experiencing positive changes in physical and mental health and, finally, feeling of empowerment. The overriding theme of the study was personal resurrection. The Wellness-Program contributed considerably to improved health and well-being of the women. However, further assessment of the program is recommended before making it available within

  7. [Experience of Icelandic adults of corporal punishment and abuse in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2013-05-01

    Corporal punishment and abuse of children can have a negative impact on their health and well-being. The aim is to examine on Icelandic adults, experience of corporal punishment as children, its prevalence, justification as victims, and its impact on the assessment of their upbringing. From the national population register, out of 1500 randomly selected adults 18 years and older, 977 (65%) participated. In a telephone interview, they appraised their upbringing, followed by questions regarding 5 specific forms of corporal punishment in addition to an open-ended question about other forms experienced. Out of 968 respondents, 810 (84%) regarded their upbringing as good. In total, 465 (48%) reported at least one form of corporal punishment in childhood, with spanking being the most prevalent one (29%). Respondents 30 years and older were 1.9 times more likely to have experienced corporal punishment compared to those who were younger (95% CI 1.4-2.6) and males were 1.6 times more likely to report it compared to females (95% CI 1.2-2.0). Those who had frequently been punished were significantly more likely to hold of the opinion that it had never been justified (OR=6.5; 95% CI 1.8-22.9) and were more likely to judge their upbringing to have been reasonable or bad (OR=10.2; 95% CI 4.7-21.9) compared to those who had no such experience. The practice of corporal punishment of Icelandic children was significantly less prevalent among respondents born about 1980 and later compared to those born earlier. Increased public debate and awareness of children's rights and changed ideas about their upbringing has facilitated such development.

  8. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

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    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  9. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.

  10. [Use of stimulants and drugs of abuse in sport: the Italian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano Rossi, Sabina; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of the abuse of illicit drugs in sport may be a useful indicator of the extent of the phenomenon among the youth population. Many drugs of abuse are included in the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) Prohibited List, and are therefore routinely tested for in antidoping controls. This study presents the data obtained in tests carried out in the period 2003- 2007 at the Antidoping Laboratory of Rome, on 44781 samples analysed. The methods used are those developed by the Laboratory for routine antidoping analyses. The percentage of positive test results ranges from 1.1 to 2%, with a high incidence of stimulants and drugs of abuse. The substance most frequently found is THC metabolite, which accounts for 0.2-0.4% of the total, followed by cocaine metabolites, accounting for 0.1%. Other stimulants found are ephedrines, carphedon, modafinil, and anorexic compounds such as phendimetrazine and norfenfluramine. No amphetamines or amphetaminelike designer drugs have been detected. These data may be indicative of the widespread incidence of cocaine and cannabis abuse among the young Italian population, bearing in mind that the phenomenon is underestimated in this study, due to the fact that drugs of abuse are investigated only in samples involved in competitive sport, and especially to the fact that people doing such activities take more care of their health and are subject to greater control in their behaviour and habits with respect to the 'normal' population.

  11. Effectiveness of diazepam rectal gel in adults with acute repetitive seizures and prolonged seizures: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhoury, Toufic; Chumley, Amber; Bensalem-Owen, Meriem

    2007-11-01

    Many adults with epilepsy have breakthrough seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), requiring them to have a rescue medication as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of rectal diazepam in the treatment of breakthrough seizures in adult patients with epilepsy. We identified 50 such patients who had used diazepam rectal gel for clusters of seizures defined as acute repetitive seizures, prolonged seizures, or both, in the previous 18 months. Information on diagnoses, dose, frequency of use, reasons for use, safety, and efficacy was collected. Diazepam rectal gel was effective in stopping seizures in 45 patients (90%). Somnolence was reported in most patients, but no other adverse events were reported. Diazepam rectal gel demonstrates efficacy and tolerability as a seizure rescue medication for adult patients with a variety of seizure types, and may help improve quality of life.

  12. Miniaturized two-stack Blumlein pulser with a variable repetition-rate for non-thermal irreversible-electroporation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Jeong, Jin-Young; Hong, Dongpyo; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) to avoid thermal damage to cells during intense DC ns pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a recent modality for medical applications. This mechanism, related to bioelectrical dynamics of the cell, is linked to the effect of a DC electric field and a threshold effect with an electrically stimulated membrane for the charge distribution in the cell. To create the NTIRE condition, the pulse width of the nsPEF should be shorter than the charging time constant of the membrane related to the cell radius, membrane capacitance, cytoplasm resistivity, and medium resistivity. It is necessary to design and fabricate a very intense nanosecond DC electric field pulser that is capable of producing voltages up to the level of 100 kV/cm with an artificial pulse width (˜ns) with controllable repetition rates. Many devices to generate intense DC nsPEF using various pulse-forming line technologies have been introduced thus far. However, the previous Blumlein pulse-generating devices are clearly inefficient due to the energy loss between the input voltage and the output voltage. An improved two-stage stacked Blumlein pulse-forming line can overcome this limitation and decrease the energy loss from a DC power supply. A metal oxide silicon field-effect transistor switch with a fast rise and fall time would enable a high repetition rate (max. 100 kHz) and good endurance against very high voltages (DC ˜ 30 kV). The load is designed to match the sample for exposure to cell suspensions consisting of a 200 Ω resistor matched with a Blumlein circuit and two electrodes without the characteristic RC time effect of the circuit (capacitance =0.174 pF).

  13. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  14. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  15. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  16. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  17. The Link between the Emotional Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse and School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi

    2008-01-01

    The present paper presents findings drawn from a qualitative study that investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on school functioning among young adult survivors in South Africa. Data were obtained by means of in-depth individual interviews with 22 young adults. Analyzing the interviews following procedures aligned to a grounded theory…

  18. Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2007-01-01

    The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

  19. Development and application of a system for monitoring drug abuse: the Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, V; Foong, K

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring systems are useful epidemiological instruments for assessing the problem of drug abuse. The rapid growth of the drug dependence problem in Malaysia led to increased awareness of the need for a system for continuous monitoring of the situation. Preliminary work on the design of an appropriate monitoring system was initiated in 1976. A fully integrated national reporting system was established in 1978, linking all public services and agencies coming into contact with drug-dependent persons, including law enforcement agencies, drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centres, and social and welfare institutions. The information system included a mechanism for systematic gathering, processing, analysing and presenting essential data on the prevention, control and management of drug abuse problems. It also included reporting on drug-related events, such as hospitalizations and arrests, as well as data on known drug-dependent persons and new cases of dependence. The system has been used for routine monitoring of the extent, trends, patterns and other characteristics of drug abuse problems in Malaysia, providing basic information for policy-making and programme planning. On the basis of data generated by the system, it was estimated that the prevalence rate of drug-dependent persons per 100,000 population increased from 84.3 in 1976 to 754.6 in 1986. It was estimated that there were 119,001 drug-dependent persons in Malaysia in 1986.

  20. Methadone Maintenance: The Experience of Four Programs. The Drug Abuse Council Manuscript Series, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaceau, Paul

    Methadone maintenance is a relatively new method for treating heroin addiction. Controversy and questions remain about the drug itself and its use of methadone. The author was engaged by The Drug Abuse Council to prepare these descriptions of four methadone programs and the accompanying summary. The evolution of these programs is examined, and the…

  1. Covert video surveillance of parents suspected of child abuse: the British experience and alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    One million cases of child maltreatment and twelve hundred child deaths due to abuse and neglect occur per year. But since many cases of abuse and neglect remain either unreported or unsubstantiated due to insufficient evidence, the number of children who are abused, neglected, and killed at the hands of family caregivers is probably higher. One approach to combat child abuse in the U.K. has been the employment of hospital-based covert video surveillance (CVS) to monitor parents suspected of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP). The use of CVS, however, raises concerns about voluntary informed consent, research on human subjects, privacy, and the appropriateness of healthcare providers to conduct CVS. More broadly, the use of CVS raises concerns about the ethical life of healthcare institutions and their moral obligations to the families and communities they serve. The U.K. protocol for CVS is examined in light of these concerns. Three alternative CVS protocols and two procedures for selecting a protocol are then proposed for use in the U.S. The paper concludes that any CVS protocol selected for use by hospitals ought to be selected by means of open and democratic processes that permit community input and, subsequently, the possibility of a consensus on the moral status and scope of CVS.

  2. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen

    2010-01-01

    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  3. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  4. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome.

  5. Relationships with clinical staff after a diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with patients' experience of care and abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Holcombe, Christopher; Clark, Louise; Krespi, Rita; Fisher, Jean; Hill, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    Patients experiencing the crisis of the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer need to form trusting and supportive relationships with clinical staff. However, adverse childhood experiences damage the ability to form supportive relationships as adults. We tested the prediction that women recalling childhood abuse and lack of parental care would experience poorer support from clinical staff caring for them around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Two to 4 days after surgery, women with primary breast cancer (N=355) self-reported: childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and parental care; perceived social support; support experienced from the surgeon and breast and ward nurses; and current emotional distress. Logistic regression analyses and covariance structure modeling tested the dependence of perceived professional support on childhood abuse and care and on current social support, controlling for emotional distress and age. Women who reported feeling fully supported by clinical staff were more likely to recall no abuse and good parental care. The influence of parental care, but not abuse, was explained by its association with experiencing good social support generally, which was itself associated with feeling fully supported by clinical staff. These relationships were independent of current emotional distress. Patients' ability to feel fully supported by clinical staff reflects not only how much support staff make available but also patients' experience of close relationships in childhood. We suggest that, whereas lack of parental care compromises adult supportive relationships in general, abuse specifically reduces support from clinical staff.

  6. The Experience of Mothers Exposed to the Abuse of Their Daughters by an Intimate Partner: "There Is No Definition for It".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Gueta, Keren; Sander-Almoznino, Nili

    2016-11-01

    This qualitative study illuminates the experience of mothers exposed to the intimate partner violence (IPV) of their daughters. In-depth interviews with 11 exposed mothers were conducted. The findings reveal four semi-chronological phases in the participants' experiences: pre-disclosure of the daughter's abuse, the first definitive encounter with the daughter's abuse, living with continued exposure to the daughter's IPV, and the aftermath of the daughter's IPV. A recurrent theme in the mothers' experiences was their dual positioning as a forgotten victim of IPV and as a caregiver of their daughter shaped by prevalent motherhood ideologies. Possible implications for intervention are discussed.

  7. Experiences of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth; a qualitative study with women and men in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Chebet, Joy J; Mosha, Idda H; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Winch, Peter J

    2014-08-12

    Interventions to reduce maternal mortality have focused on delivery in facilities, yet in many low-resource settings rates of facility-based birth have remained persistently low. In Tanzania, rates of facility delivery have remained static for more than 20 years. With an aim to advance research and inform policy changes, this paper builds on a growing body of work that explores dimensions of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth in facilities across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research drew on in-depth interviews with 112 respondents including women who delivered in the preceding 14 months, their male partners, public opinion leaders and community health workers to understand experiences with and responses to abuse during childbirth. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis drew on the principles of Grounded Theory. When initially describing birth experiences, women portrayed encounters with providers in a neutral or satisfactory light. Upon probing, women recounted events or circumstances that are described as abusive in maternal health literature: feeling ignored or neglected; monetary demands or discriminatory treatment; verbal abuse; and in rare instances physical abuse. Findings were consistent across respondent groups and districts. As a response to abuse, women described acquiescence or non-confrontational strategies: resigning oneself to abuse, returning home, or bypassing certain facilities or providers. Male respondents described more assertive approaches: requesting better care, paying a bribe, lodging a complaint and in one case assaulting a provider. Many Tanzanian women included in this study experienced unfavorable conditions when delivering in facilities. Providers, women and their families must be made aware of women's rights to respectful care. Recommendations for further research include investigations of the prevalence and dimensions of disrespectful care and

  8. Client Experiences With Shelter and Community Care Services in the Netherlands : Quality of Services for Homeless People, Homeless Youth, and Abused Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services’

  9. Client Experiences With Shelter and Community Care Services in the Netherlands : Quality of Services for Homeless People, Homeless Youth, and Abused Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services’ importance

  10. The relationship between traumatic childhood experiences and proclivities towards substance abuse, self-esteem and coping strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Psk. Timur TOKER; Ahmet TIRYAKI; Gamze ÖZÇÜRÜMEZ; Baykal ISKENDER

    2011-01-01

      The aim of this study was to compare people with substance use disorder with healthy controls in terms of childhood abuse, proclivity towards substance abuse, coping skills and self-esteem as well...

  11. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  12. The role of criminal justice system in treating drug abusers: the Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong; Huang, Kaicheng

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the role of China's criminal justice system in treating drug abusers and provides a preliminary assessment of the mandatory treatment centers administered by police and reeducation-through-labor camps managed by correction agencies in China. The exploration and assessment are conducted using data collected from recent surveys of drug users in several mandatory treatment centers and a reeducation-through-labor camp in a large city of China in 2009. The data reveal that the treatment involvement levels of drug users in these mandatory treatment centers and reeducation-through-labor camps varied and their perceptions of the treatments they had received for their recovery seem fairly positive. The implication of these findings was discussed in the context of Chinese social and legal tradition.

  13. Human rights abuses and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: the experiences of Burmese women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Karen; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Tamm, Ingrid; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2006-01-01

    We investigated human rights concerns related to migration, living and working conditions, and access to HIV/AIDS services and reproductive health services for Burmese women in Thailand. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS for Burmese women stemmed from abuses they experienced: gender and ethnic discrimination, including violence; unsafe migration and trafficking; labor and sexual exploitation; and denial of health care. Despite having bound itself to human rights laws, the Thai government is failing to fulfill its obligations to Burmese women, with particularly devastating impacts for their well-being, including the risk of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, as our documentation shows, this failure to incorporate human rights concerns into its national response to the epidemic virtually guarantees that HIV/AIDS will continue to be a problem in Thailand.

  14. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  15. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  16. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  17. Lifetime physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, depression, and suicide attempts among Native American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Diane K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is preliminary evidence that violence against women and children may be particularly prevalent in some Native American communities, associations between abuse and substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide attempts have rarely been studied in this population. This study examined lifetime and current physical and sexual abuse among 30 Native American women. Nearly half had experienced physical and/or sexual abuse as children, over half were sexually abused at some time in their lives, and over three-fourths were abused by a partner. All but four women (87%) had experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, substance abuse, and adult revictimization, and among cumulative lifetime abuse events, substance abuse, and depression. Further research is needed to examine abuse and relationships between abuse and health sequelae in Native American populations. An accelerated public health and community response is needed to address abuse issues in this community.

  18. The Idealized Cultural Identities Model on Help-Seeking and Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model for Contextualizing Perceptions and Experiences of South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…

  19. The Idealized Cultural Identities Model on Help-Seeking and Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model for Contextualizing Perceptions and Experiences of South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…

  20. [The value of a child abuse observation clinic. Report of an experience in the area of Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, M; Nalpas, D; Menon, M

    1990-01-01

    In France the epidemiology of child abuse is badly known, because of the lack of connexion between different institutions. We present a child abuse observatory set up in Grenoble in May 1987. The social, educational, judicial and medical department's services are working together. In the first 20 months, 87 cases were recorded: 57 physical abuse, 26 sexual abuse and 5 cases of abuses due to negligence. Precise information was collected concerning the victims, their siblings, the family's risk factor and the offenders, the method by which the information was obtained and the prosecution undertaken. A 10 July 1989 law enforced each Department's governor to set up a service for collecting information about child abuse. Our observatory will serve as a model for this law application.

  1. Childhood abuse and the experience of pain in adulthood: the mediating effects of PTSD and emotion dysregulation on pain levels and pain-related functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Fani, Negar; Pallos, Andrew; Stevens, Jennifer; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings suggest a relationship between childhood abuse and pain-related conditions. It is yet to be determined whether adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may mediate the association between the experience of childhood abuse and reported pain in adulthood. We sought to determine if emotion dysregulation may also play a role in mediating PTSD and pain levels. We examined subjects (N = 814) recruited from the primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of an National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of trauma-related risk and resilience. We evaluated childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Severity scale, and emotional dysregulation with the Emotion Dysregulation Scale. Pain and functional limitations of pain were assessed through self-report. We found that both childhood abuse and current PTSD symptoms predicted higher levels of reported pain. Childhood abuse, PTSD symptoms, and emotion dysregulation all predicted higher levels of functional impairment related to pain. Using the Sobel method and bootstrapping techniques and controlling for current level of negative affect, we found that PTSD fully mediated the effect of childhood abuse on pain level and pain-related limitations; emotion dysregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms in predicting higher levels of pain-related limitations. Although causality cannot be determined in the present study, these findings suggest that PTSD may serve as the pathway between exposure to childhood abuse and the development of pain-related conditions in adulthood, and that emotion dysregulation is a significant factor in understanding how PTSD relates to specific pain-related functional impairment. © 2013 Published by Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine on behalf of Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine.

  2. Connections between experience, beliefs, scientific knowledge, and self-evaluated expertise among investigators of child sexual abuse in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnilä-Tuohimaa, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Sainio, Mikael; Niemi, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinicians investigating child sexual abuse (CSA) rely more on scientific knowledge or on clinical experience when evaluating their own expertise. Another goal was to check what kind of pre-trial beliefs the clinicians had. The connections between these different factors were investigated. A questionnaire covering items concerning demographic data, experience, knowledge about CSA, self-evaluated expertise and beliefs about CSA was given to 126 social workers, 60 child psychiatrists and 134 psychologists. The results showed that the clinicians relied more on their clinical experience than on scientific knowledge when evaluating their expertise as investigators of CSA. Furthermore, social workers possessed stronger attitudes in favor of children than the other groups, while child psychiatrists had more negative attitudes towards the criminal justice system. Male participants had less strong beliefs than did the female participants. The findings indicate that the education of CSA investigators should focus more on theoretical knowledge and decision-making processes as well as the role of pre-trial beliefs.

  3. As vivências maternas diante do abuso sexual intrafamiliar The maternal experiences front of the intrafamily sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Azevêdo Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A violência sexual intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes assume na contemporaneidade contornos de problema de ordem pública. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as vivências subjetivas das mães que tiveram suas filhas abusadas sexualmente dentro do contexto familiar. Participaram da pesquisa 13 mães, entre 25 e 50 anos, atendidas no Programa Sentinela, selecionadas por conveniência, com amostra determinada por critério de saturação, submetidas à entrevista semiestruturada, com questões versando sobre dados biossociodemográficos e história de vida e submetidas à técnica de análise de conteúdo temático. As vivências subjetivas diante da situação revelada são experimentadas a partir de sentimentos negativos como culpa, desconfiança, desamparo e embotamento afetivo, associam ainda à sua experiência, quando foram também vitimadas na infância. As mães tornam-se alvos de carga emocional negativa, que leva ao sofrimento subjetivo, o que norteia a forma com que se posicionam e procedem diante do conhecimento do abuso.Intrafamily sexual violence against children and adolescents in contemporary takes on the contours of public order problem. This article aims to analyze the subjective experiences of mothers who had sexually abused their daughters within the family context. 13 mothers, with age between 25 and 50 years old, participated in the survey. They were attended the Sentinel Program and selected by convenience sample measured with the criterion of saturation. Woman were submitted to a semi-structured questions dealing with bio-data on socio-demographic and life history technique and subjected to thematic content analysis. The subjective experiences with the situation revealed are experienced based on negative feelings such as guilt, distrust, helplessness and blunting of affect, even to associate your experience, when they were also victimized in childhood. Mothers become targets of negative emotions, which leads

  4. [Effect of Adolescents' Abuse Experience on Suicidal Ideation: Focused on Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on Depression and Anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyunghee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating mediation effect of self-esteem on the relations among adolescents' abuse experiences, depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The participants were selected using secondary data from a population in the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Survey (KOWEPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SPSS Macro, and bootstrapping and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze multilevel models. First, analysis of the mediating effect of the adolescents' abuse showed that there was significant mediating influence between suicidal ideation and depression and anxiety. Second, hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem had significant mediation effect on depression and anxiety in adolescents' suicidal ideation. Third, SPSS Macro showed that self-esteem also significantly moderated the mediating effect of adolescents' abuse experiences on suicidal ideation through depression and anxiety. The study results suggest that in future research on adolescent's abuse experience, the risk of suicide in depression and anxiety scores should be selected through evaluation of each individual's self-esteem scale. Coping strategies with immediate early intervention should be suggested.

  5. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  6. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  7. The importance of need for cognition and educational experience in enhanced and standard substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuchry, Michael; Dansereau, Donald F

    2004-06-01

    The current study examined the relationship between need for cognition (i.e., cognitive motivation or "will") and educational experience (i.e., cognitive ability or "skill") to perceived improvements during treatment of probationers receiving residential treatment within the criminal justice system. Probationers were randomly assigned to either receive motivational activities developed by the authors (the "enhanced" condition), or treatment as usual (but with access to general reading materials in lieu of the motivational activities). Need for cognition and educational experience were assessed and used as blocking variables, and ratings of progress were assessed midway and toward the end of treatment. The results indicate that both need for cognition and educational experience are important predictors of improvement during treatment, and that the motivational activities developed by the authors were particularly valuable for clients with lower levels of need for cognition.

  8. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  9. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  10. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  11. Development of a brief measure of intimate partner violence experiences: the Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form (CASR-SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen; MacMillan, Harriet L; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Mantler, Tara; Hegarty, Kelsey; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Approaches to measuring intimate partner violence (IPV) in populations often privilege physical violence, with poor assessment of other experiences. This has led to underestimating the scope and impact of IPV. The aim of this study was to develop a brief, reliable and valid self-report measure of IPV that adequately captures its complexity. Design Mixed-methods instrument development and psychometric testing to evolve a brief version of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) using secondary data analysis and expert feedback. Setting Data from 5 Canadian IPV studies; feedback from international IPV experts. Participants 31 international IPV experts including academic researchers, service providers and policy actors rated CAS items via an online survey. Pooled data from 6278 adult Canadian women were used for scale development. Primary/secondary outcome measures Scale reliability and validity; robustness of subscales assessing different IPV experiences. Results A 15-item version of the CAS has been developed (Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form, CASR-SF), including 12 items developed from the original CAS and 3 items suggested through expert consultation and the evolving literature. Items cover 3 abuse domains: physical, sexual and psychological, with questions asked to assess lifetime, recent and current exposure, and abuse frequency. Factor loadings for the final 3-factor solution ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the 6 psychological abuse items, 0.63 to 0.92 for the 4 physical abuse items, and 0.85 and 0.93 for the 2 sexual abuse items. Moderate correlations were observed between the CASR-SF and measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and coercive control. Internal consistency of the CASR-SF was 0.942. These reliability and validity estimates were comparable to those obtained for the original 30-item CAS. Conclusions The CASR-SF is brief self-report measure of IPV experiences among women that has demonstrated initial reliability and validity

  12. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  13. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  14. Strength trapped within weakness/ weakness trapped within strength: the influence of family of origin experiences on the lives of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Birnbaum, Liora

    2010-06-01

    By conceptualizing abused women as victims or survivors, the literature offers two contradictory narratives of abused women. The aim of this article is to show that these two narratives are not mutually exclusive but rather can be used simultaneously to represent battered women's existential experiences. The study sample was comprised of 20 Israeli battered women. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant-twice for data collection purposes and once for validating the themes that emerged from the content analysis. "Strength trapped in weakness/weakness trapped in strength" was found to be a dominant theme in the life narratives of the interviewees. Most interviewees grew up in families of origin in distress; most were abused physically and emotionally. Although this anguish colored their lives with pain and turmoil, their experiences were the key to their ability to overcome difficulties. From the onset, interviewees' lives were marked by a sense of threat and deprivation, but these very difficulties were also the source of a sense of power that emerged from the women's struggle with their past. In their attempts to cope with and transcend the legacies of their past, interviewees' feelings oscillated continuously between past and present, creating a unique powerful sense of simultaneously being victims and survivors. Implications for intervention are suggested.

  15. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  18. GROUNDING ACCESS TO JUSTICE THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN ABUSED BY THEIR INTIMATE PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E Mosher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For women seeking to extricate themselves from the web of entrapment woven together by the multiple threads that make up the coercive control repertoire of their abusive intimate partners, it is often difficult to avoid engagement with legal systems. Yet, the legal systems they encounter—criminal, family, child welfare, immigration among them—are frequently unwelcoming (if not hostile, controlling, demeaning, fragmented and contradictory. While there has been a recent explosion of interest in “access to justice,” little attention has been paid to how we might conceptualize access to justice in a manner that speaks meaningfully to the circumstances of women who experience abuse in their intimate relationships. For such women, access to justice is curtailed not only by lack of representation, delays, costs, and procedural complexities—the obstacles commonly associated with access to justice failings—but by three inter-related phenomena: the enduring hold of an incident-based understanding of domestic violence; the failure of legal actors to curb men’s strategic use of legal systems to further their power; and the host of complications—contradictory expectations, inconsistent orders, repetitious proceedings, sweeping surveillance—that arise when women are compelled to navigate multiple intersecting legal systems. What is required, I argue, is a conceptualization of access to justice that places women’s safety and well-being at its core.   Dans la plupart des cas, les femmes qui veulent se sortir de l’enfer de la violence conjugale et échapper au contrôle de leur conjoint abusif n’ont d’autre choix que de se tourner vers les systèmes judiciaires. Pourtant, ceux qui s’offrent à elles, que ce soit en matière criminelle ou familiale, ou encore en matière d’immigration ou de protection de l’enfance, sont souvent peu accueillants (sinon hostiles, en plus d’être contrôlants, rabaissants, fragmentés et

  19. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also

  20. 大学生虐待经历与创伤后应激障碍关系%Relationship between abuse experience and PTSD symptoms among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静波; 侯艳飞; 杨雪岭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between abuse experience and post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)symptoms among college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 800 freshmen and sophomoric students from a medical university in Guangzhou. The participants were asked to fill the post-traumatic stress disorder selfrating scale(PTSD-SS). Results A total of 757 questionnaires were eligible(97. 2% ). Among the college students,30. 9%reported the experience of abuse. The prevalence of abuse was higher in the boys and in the students with physiological defects. There were no significant differences in the prevalence among the students with different status of age, only child, registered-residence,education of the parents, income of family, and single-parent family. The students with abuse experience showed a higher score in PTSD symptoms and its five factors( P <0. 01 ) and 90% of the students thought they were influenced by the abuse experience,and 80% of them reported their study were affected,and were afraid of the recurrence of the abuse. Conclusion The students with abuse experience have more PTSD symptoms.%目的 了解虐待经历与大学生创伤后应激障碍的关系.方法 随机整群抽样广州某大学大一和大二的学生800名,用创伤后应激障碍自评量表(PTSD-SS)进行调查.结果 回收有效问卷757份,有效率为97.2%.有虐待经历大学生占被调查大学生的30.9%;男生及有生理缺陷的大学生更易受到虐待(P<0.05),虐待经历与年龄、是否独生子女、户籍所在地、父母亲文化程度、家庭经济收入及是否单亲家庭无明显关联;遭受虐待的大学生PTSD总分及5个因子分均高于未遭受虐待者(P<0.01),其中,>90%受虐者认为创伤事件对精神有不同程度的打击,近80%的大学生表现出学习或工作受到影响、注意力不集中、看到或听到与事件有关的事情担心事件再度发生.结论 有虐待经历

  1. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  2. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  3. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  4. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  5. Mom, Why Don’t You Just Look for a New Good Daddy? Women’s Lived Experience in an Abusive Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Nur Hayati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to understand women’s experiences of domestic violence and their decision to terminate the abusive marriage in Yogyakarta. Criterion sampling of three woman survivor of domestic violence was performed. These consented to be interviewed and a semi structure interview guide was used. The women shared their life experiences since the dating time up to the time after divorce. A phenomenological approach was employed to analyze the data, to explore, share, and validate their feelings and insights on their life experiences. From this study numerous factors that facilitated as well as hindered the women to terminate their abusive relationships, and the dynamics of the transition process were identified. The women’s experiences reflect the complexity of domestic violence. The women’s transformation from victims, meaning women living under the authorities, into survivors, meaning woman with self-autonomy, is demonstrated through their stories. The complexity of domestic violence among Indonesia women is only a little known. By comprehending the complexity of domestic violence, a more visible and practical programs to address the national commitment to improve the Indonesian women’s situation can be developed.

  6. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  7. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  8. Analysis on chilhood abuse experience and the influencing factors among 1 762 college students%1762名大专学生童年期虐待经历及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永红; 陈晶琦

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the prevalence of child abuse among college students and to explore the influencing factors, and to provide scientific evidence for intervention measures. METHODS Child abuse experience was surveyed among 1 762 students in a college by anonymous self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS 76.2% of 1 762 college students investigated had abuse experience. Prevalence rate of childhood abuse experience was 59.4% for physical abuse, 76.0% of males and 49.2% of females ever had physical abuse experience. 61.5% for emotional abuse, 69.0% of males and 57.0% of females ever had emotional abuse experience; 10.2% for sexual abuse, 8.1% of males and 11.5% of females ever had sex abuse experience. There was significant difference between gender in prevalence rate of physical abuse (x2 = 124.139, P = 0.000) and emotional abuse (x2 = 25.338, P = 0.000). Compared with the male students, the prevalence rate of sexual abuse was higher in the female students (x2 = 5.387, P = 0.020). Non-conditional Logistic regression analysis indicated that bad parental marital status (OR = 2.407, P= 0.011) were risk factors for the occurrence of child abuse. Girls (OR = 0.409, P = 0.000) and high level of education of mother (OR = 0.718, P= 0.004) were protective factors for child abuse. CONCLUSION The problem of child abuse among college students is common in China. More attention should be paid to child abuse in order to promote students' healthy development.%目的 了解大学生儿童期虐待发生情况及其影响因素,为制定干预策略提供科学依据.方法 用自填式问卷,对1 762名大专学生就有关儿童时期受虐待经历进行不记名回顾性调查.结果 在被调查的1 762名大学生中,76.2%的人在儿童期有遭受虐待经历,儿童期躯体虐待发生率为59.4%,男生为76.0%,女生为49.2%;精神虐待为61.5%,男生为69.0%,女生为57.0%;性虐待为10.2%,男生为8.1%,女生为11.5%.男生躯体虐待(x2

  9. Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Alcohol Abuse - Findings from Adverse Childhood Experience Study in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Filov; Marija Raleva; Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Dinesh Sethi; Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Kadri Hazdi Hamza; Ana Poprizova

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between of the problem of alcohol abuse and child maltreatment.  METHOD: The ACE study was administered by the University Clinic of Psychiatry, Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The ACE study used a representative sample of students in year four of secondary school (aged 18 and above) and first- and second-year university students. The sample consisted of 664 secondary school students (258 males and 406 female...

  10. The role of non-governmental organizations in the prevention and reduction of drug abuse: the Philippine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quejas, S Q

    1983-01-01

    A wide range of non-governmental organizations are involved in the prevention and reduction of drug abuse in the Philippines. The numerous activities and substantive achievements of non-governmental organizations in combating the problems of drug abuse are manifestations of their commitment to and involvement in an avowed partnership with the Government to promote care for young people and quality of life in general. The Dangerous Drugs Board, the Government's policy-making and co-ordinating body, has facilitated and encouraged the development of existing approaches and strategies and, in co-operation with non-governmental organizations, has made drug-abuse prevention programmes more viable and relevant. This co-operation strengthened agency relationships, encouraged resource-sharing and generated a more balanced approach towards programme planning and implementation. The various government services, in co-operation with non-governmental organizations, have adopted the models and strategies that are action-oriented activities, primarily intended to promote positive values, attitudes, self-development, creative productivity and skills of young people.

  11. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners in order to gain power and control over the victim is described in ...

  12. Elder abuse: speak out for justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jenna M; Hoglund, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 older adults experience abuse, but only 1 in 5 to as little as 1 in 24 cases are reported. Elder abuse is expected to increase as the population ages. Nurses are in a prime position to identify, assess, manage, and prevent elder abuse. This article explores elder abuse and its prevalence, potential causes, and risk factors offering case studies, assessment tools, resources, and interventions.

  13. Neuroticism as a risk factor for child abuse in victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Schwab, Nathalie; Stutz, Matthias; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    2017-06-01

    Findings on the relationship of experienced sexual abuse and abuse behavior in adulthood are ambiguous. However, associations between experienced abuse and neuroticism as well as between neuroticism and active child abuse have been reported repeatedly. In our study, we compared pedosexual child abusers with consumers of internet child pornography and control subjects with adult-sexual preference with regard to traumatic childhood experience (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ), personality traits (NEO - Personality Inventory - Revised, NEO-PI-R), and sexual abnormalities (Multiphasic Sex Inventory, MSI). In an initial analysis, sexual abuse experienced in childhood was not directly linked to sexual abuse behavior in adulthood. However, this relationship was mediated by neuroticism. In a second step, the CTQ scales were conflated and, using a structural equation model, direct links between the overall level of abuse experienced in childhood (generally high CTQ levels) and sexual abuse behavior in adulthood revealed again the mediation by neurotic personality. We conclude that the overall level of abuse experienced in childhood in general, and less sexual abuse experience in particular, modulates the tendency for child sexual abuse behavior in adulthood. Data suggest that, depending on the resilience of an individual, abuse experience during childhood increases the likelihood of developing neurotic personality traits in later life, which are in turn considered to increase the risk of child sexual abuse in child sex offenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  15. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  16. Improvement of medical education using web-based lecture repetition and extension: e-learning experiences of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallwiener, Markus

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the education of its medical students, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Tuebingen established e-learning in terms of web-based lecture repetition and extension. Subsequent to lectures, questions are provided online. The participation is voluntary, but requires registration. The results of the analysed period (winter term 2004/2005, summer term 2005 and winter term 2005/2006 including more than 380 e-learning users are encouraging. An average of 45% of the target group used the offered online questions. The students who completed at least 75% of all prepared question units achieved significantly better results than their traditional learning fellow students (p=0.002. Users got more frequent the marks "good" and "very good". Twice as much conventional learning students as e-learning users failed the examination. E-Learning and the technical implementation are repeatedly appreciated by the students. In the future, more medical courses will be supplemented with e-learning, according to the students request.

  17. Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: Verbal Repetition, Mnemonics, and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Jane Lee; Johnson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of using verbal repetition and first-letter acronyms to teach a common marketing framework was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 345 undergraduate students were exposed to the framework using one of four conditions: control, verbal repetition, acronym, and verbal repetition plus acronym in a traditional learning…

  18. Experiment on damage in K9 glass due to repetition rate pulsed CO2 laser radiation%重频脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 卞进田; 李华; 聂劲松; 孙晓泉; 尹学忠; 雷鹏

    2013-01-01

      对脉冲CO2激光在不同重频模式下损伤K9玻璃进行了实验研究。采用输出能量为10 J,脉宽为90 ns,重复频率在100 Hz至300 Hz之间连续可调的脉冲CO2激光器,对K9玻璃样品进行了激光损伤实验,观察到两次不同重频条件下样品的损伤形貌。实验结果表明,重频越高,对样品的损伤程度就越严重;应力损伤成为K9玻璃激光损伤的最主要的原因,在重频强激光的辐照下,K9玻璃表面出现强烈的等离子体闪光,伴随明显的熔融气化破坏,并形成等离子体爆轰波。爆轰波对玻璃材料产生了严重的力学冲击作用,这种应力作用足以对K9玻璃造成毁灭性破坏。运用有限元分析对激光辐照K9玻璃的温度与应力分布进行仿真,其计算结果与实验基本吻合。%  In this paper, the experiment on damage in K9 glass induced by pulsed CO2 laser under different repetition rates was carried out, which had a pulse width of 90 ns. The laser pulse energy was 10 J and the repetition rate was kept within the range of 100 Hz to 300 Hz. The damage morphologies of two kind repetition rates after laser irradiation were characterized. The experimental results indicate that the effect of laser irradiation on samples can be affected considerably by the change of laser repetition rate, and the intensity of damage morphology on the sample increases with the laser repetition rate, and the damage in K9 glass induced by pulsed CO2 laser is dominated by stress. As a result, the plasma detonation wave induced by laser occured, the material was broken result from the melting and evaporation of K9 glass. It is shown that the plasma detonation wave affected stress damage considerably, and this mechanical effect almost destroyed K9 glass sample. A numerical simulation was performed to calculate temperature and stress distributions in K9 glass sample irradiated by pulsed CO2 laser using finite element method. The model

  19. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  20. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  1. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  2. The Childhood Abuse Experience of College Students and Its Relationship with Family Factors%大学生儿童期虐待经历及其与家庭因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛怡; 薛云珍; 李文涛; 曹艳梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:本文通过对2653名大一新生进行儿童期虐待问卷调查,描述大学生儿童期虐待经历的状况,并探究虐待经历与家庭因素的相互关系。方法采用儿童期虐待问卷及一般信息调查表进行调查。结果大学生儿童期情感虐待、躯体虐待、性虐待、情感忽视及躯体忽视的发生率分别为:64.8%、17.38%、22.58%、80.44%及70%。父母婚姻状况稳定是避免儿童期虐待的保护因素,父母虐待经历及父母赌博是儿童期虐待的危险因素。结论儿童期虐待现象是普遍存在的,家庭因素对其有重要预测作用。%Objective To describe the current situation of 2653 freshmen'childhood abuse experience,and explore the relationship between family factors and childhood abuse experience.Methods Collected data through childhood abuse questionnaire and general in-formation questionnaire investigation.Results The incidences of childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect were:64.8%,17.38%,22.58%,80.44%,and 70%.There were significant gender differences on child a-buse,in addition to the emotional abuse,boys scored higher than girls;Parents'marital stability was the protection factor to avoid child a-buse,parental abuse experience and parents gambling were risk factors for child abuse.Conclusion Childhood abuse phenomenon is widespread,and family factors play important role on it.

  3. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  4. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  5. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  6. Women’s Resistance Strategies in Abusive Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Brittany E. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Though abused women are often depicted in the media as passive, women in abusive relationships often resist their partner’s abuse. However, the experience of an abused woman will depend on her position in the social structure. First, an overview of resistance in abusive relationship is presented followed by a series of resistance strategies often used. The goal of this paper is to retell the intimate partner violence s...

  7. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  8. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  9. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  10. “Mom, why don’t you just look for a new good daddy?” Women’s lived experience in an abusive marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Nurhayati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand women’s experiences of domestic violence and their decision to terminate the abusive marriage in Yogyakarta.  Criterion  sampling  of  three  woman  survivor  of  domestic  violence  was  performed.  These consented to be interviewed and a semi structure interview guide was used. The women shared their  life  experiences  since  the  dating  time  up  to the  time  after  divorce.  A  phenomenological approach  was  employed  to  analyze  the  data,  to  explore,  share,  and  validate  their  feelings  and insights on their life experiences. From  this  study  numerous  factors  that  facilitated  as  well  as  hindered  the  women  to  terminate their  abusive  relationships,  and  the  dynamics  of  the  transition  process  were  identified.  The women’s experiences reflect the complexity of domestic violence. The women’s transformation from victims, meaning women living under the authorities, into survivors, meaning woman with self-autonomy, is demonstrated through their stories.  The  complexity  of  domestic  violence  among  Indonesia  women  is  only  a  little  known.  By comprehending  the  complexity  of domestic  violence, a  more  visible  and  practical  programs  to address  the  national  commitment  to  improve  the  Indonesian  women’s  situation  can  be developed. Keywords:  domestic  violence,  phenomenological  approach,  women  survivor  of  domestic violence, Indonesia.

  11. Long repetition time experiments for measurement of concentrations in systems with chemical exchange and undergoing temporal variation-comparison of methods with and without correction for saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbán, Craig J.; Spencer, Richard G. S.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods for quantifying metabolite concentrations using the one-pulse experiment for a sample undergoing chemical exchange and subject to an intervention or other temporal variation. The methods, LATR-C (Long Acquisition TR (interpulse delay); Corrected for partial saturation) and LATR-NC (Long Acquisition TR; Not Corrected), are compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, per unit time and quantitation errors. Parameters relevant to the isolated perfused rat heart are used as a specific application, although the results are general. We assume throughout that spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, do not change. For a given flip angle, θ, TR's are calculated which result in maximal SNR per unit time under 10%, 5%, and 1% constraints on quantitation errors. Additional simulations were performed to demonstrate explicitly the dependence of the quantitation errors on TR for a fixed θ. We find (i) if the allowed error is large, and when both metabolite concentrations and rate constants vary, LATR-C permits use of shorter TR, and hence yields greater SNR per unit time, than LATR-NC; (ii) for small allowed error, the two methods give similar TR's and SNR per unit time, so that the simpler LATR-NC experiment may be preferred; (iii) large values of θ result in similar constrained TR's and hence SNR per unit time for the two methods; (iv) the ratio of concentrations of metabolites with similar T1 exhibit similar errors for the two methods.

  12. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  13. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with cognitive training is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Jose Martin; Dobronevsky, Evgenia

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients. In this article, we present our experience with rTMS-COG treatment, in clinical settings, of 30 mild-to-moderate AD patients that received rTMS-COG commercial treatments in two clinics for 1-h daily sessions, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks (30 sessions). Five patients returned for a second treatment. ADAS-Cog and MMSE scores were measured pre- and post-treatments. The main analyses were conducted on patients who received 1 treatment (n = 30). Data received from the five returning patients were analyzed separately. The effect of rTMS-COG treatment was statistically significant regarding both ADAS-Cog (-2.4 point improvement, PV <0.001) and MMSE (+1.7 points improvement, PV <0.001) scores. About 80 % of patients gained some cognitive improvement following NeuroAD treatment, with more than 60 % improving by more than two points, for a minimum of 9 months. The Neuronix NeuroAD System was shown to be a safe and effective non-invasive modality for cognitive improvement of Alzheimer patients, with measurable outcomes lasting, in some of them, for up to 1 year, following completion of the 6-week daily intervention course (a carryover effect).

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  19. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  20. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S Lo Fo; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  1. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.S.L.; Römkens, R.R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. Methods: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  2. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S Lo Fo; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  3. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  4. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  5. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  6. Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, Number of Perpetrators of CSA, and Current Sexual Satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, and Number of Perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  7. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA.

  8. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  9. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka

    2009-01-01

    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  11. The Effects of Traumatic and Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeck, Tricia L.; Rokach, Ami; Chin, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand what constitutes a traumatic relationship experience for adults in abusive intimate relationships and what effects, losses, and coping strategies were the most salient for these participants. A total of 101 individuals (42 males, 59 females) who reported experiencing an abusive or traumatic relationship…

  12. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  13. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  14. Cognitive and emotional differences between abusive and non-abusive fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J; Wolfe, David A

    2008-12-01

    Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Abusive (n=24) and non-abusive (n=25) fathers completed standard measures assessing their experience and expression of anger, mental health, parenting stress, and their empathy and perceptions of children's socio-emotional signals. Abusive fathers differed from comparisons on almost all constructs. They experienced more anger and were more likely to express that anger aggressively. They reported more mental health concerns (such as depression, hostility, and paranoid ideation), more stress in parenting, and significantly less empathy for their children. They were also more likely to perceive children's emotional expressions as depicting negative emotions, such as anger and disgust. Abusive fathers struggle with a myriad of difficulties that likely contribute to their problematic parenting. These difficulties are both inter- and intra-personal in nature. The findings suggest that abusive fathers require comprehensive assessment that includes mental health screening. Interventions should be selected carefully to target abusive fathers' high levels of negative affect and negative perceptions. Treatment strategies should address problems related to parenting style (e.g., managing stress and interpretation of children's socioemotional signals) as well as their personal adjustment (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies for regulating affect and cognitive distortions).

  15. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    Experience, measured as seniority, is seldom sufficient to explain individual professionals’ abilities to contribute with valuable knowledge to team production. We need to pay attention to professionals’ knowledge and its fit to the project they engage in. In many industries and settings, the cog......Experience, measured as seniority, is seldom sufficient to explain individual professionals’ abilities to contribute with valuable knowledge to team production. We need to pay attention to professionals’ knowledge and its fit to the project they engage in. In many industries and settings...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  16. Screening for child abuse at emergency departments : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Eveline C. F. M.; Affourtit, Marjo J.; Moll, Henriette A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Korfage, Ida J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse is a serious problem worldwide and can be difficult to detect. Although children who experience the consequences of abuse will probably be treated at an emergency department, detection rates of child abuse at emergency departments remain low. Objective To identify effective

  17. Object Relations and Referential Activity in Physically Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Lisa; Bucci, Wilma

    1999-01-01

    Study compares the object relations and language functions of 15 physically abused and 15 non-abused adolescents. Results reveal no significant differences between groups on overall measures. The findings do not support the view that physically abused adolescents experience developmental lags, instead suggesting that they organize and use…

  18. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great ...

  19. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  20. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  1. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  2. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  3. History of child sexual abuse and adult sexual fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S R

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the hypothesis that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse would report different sexual fantasies from women with no childhood sexual abuse. Women with a history of abuse had more force in their fantasies, had more sexually explicit fantasies, began having sexual fantasies at a younger age, and had more fantasies with the theme of being under someone's control. Women with a history of childhood physical abuse did not have a similar pattern. It was suggested that the sexual fantasies may reflect the sexualizing effect of childhood sexual experiences and that fantasies of the abusive experience may become intrusive.

  4. Women’s Resistance Strategies in Abusive Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Hayes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Though abused women are often depicted in the media as passive, women in abusive relationships often resist their partner’s abuse. However, the experience of an abused woman will depend on her position in the social structure. First, an overview of resistance in abusive relationship is presented followed by a series of resistance strategies often used. The goal of this paper is to retell the intimate partner violence story and identify structural reforms that are consistent with the experience of intimate partner violence survivors. The response to intimate partner violence should move beyond criminal justice sanctions by involving the community.

  5. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  6. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse.

  7. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  8. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  10. The informative value of type of repetition: Perceptual and conceptual fluency influences on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf

    2017-05-01

    We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness for contradictory repetitions. In the delayed session, the illusion of falseness disappeared for contradictory statements. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of recollection of stimulus details and of perceptual and conceptual fluency to illusions of truth at different time intervals and judgmental context conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  12. Behavioral and psychological characteristics of canine victims of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Franklin D; Duffy, Deborah L; Zawistowski, Stephen L; Serpell, James A

    2015-01-01

    Abuse is an intentional act that causes harm to an individual. Dogs (Canis familiaris) with a known or suspected history of abuse were solicited for the study. A panel of 5 experts in canine behavior and abuse selected the dogs judged as having a certain or near certain history of being abused for inclusion in the study. Behavioral evaluations of the dogs were obtained using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire, which utilizes ordinal scales to rate either the intensity or frequency of the dog's behaviors. Sixty-nine dogs ultimately met the criteria for inclusion in the study. When compared with a convenience sample of 5,239 companion dogs, abused dogs were reported as displaying significantly higher rates of aggression and fear directed toward unfamiliar humans and dogs, excitability, hyperactivity, attachment and attention-seeking behaviors, persistent barking, and miscellaneous strange or repetitive behaviors. Delineating the behavioral and psychological characteristics of abused dogs provides the first step in identifying and distinguishing the risk factors and sequelae associated with abuse, which may inform the development of preventive and therapeutic programs for nonhuman animal abuse.

  13. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  14. Strength in the midst of pain: Abuse as a predictor of sexual relationship power among substance-abusing Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuama-Jonas, Chizara; Burlew, Kathleen; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this research was to explore the association of abuse experiences (child sexual abuse and adult physical/sexual violence) to sexual relationship power among Black substance-abusing women. The study was a secondary analysis of baseline data collected from 124 Black women in 12 drug treatment programs across the United States who initially participated in an HIV risk reduction trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The findings revealed that adult sexual abuse, but not childhood sexual or adult physical abuse, was associated with lower relationship control and decision-making dominance as measured by the Sexual Relationship Power Scale. The findings suggest that designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions that address adult sexual violence may enhance the relationship power of Black substance-abusing women and in turn may promote safer sex practices.

  15. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Drug Abuse Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... of Abuse Screen Related tests: Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing ; Ethanol ; Nicotine ; Phenobarbital ; Testosterone ; Growth Hormone ; Erythropoietin ; IGF- ...

  16. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  18. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  19. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) What is Elder Abuse? What ... Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention of Elder Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation (Title ...

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  1. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  2. Overlooked and Unheard: Abuse of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Experience with CPS and Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Gabriel I.; Johnson, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are considered a low-incidence disability population, yet abuse among this population is up to 4 times that of children who are typically developing. The needs among this population are significant, but resources in communities across the nation are few. The authors discuss barriers to disclosure, school-based concerns,…

  3. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  4. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  6. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  7. Private Yet Abuse Resistant Open Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, George; Laurie, Ben

    We present the problem of abusive, off-topic or repetitive postings on open publishing websites, and the difficulties associated with filtering them out. We propose a scheme that extracts enough information to allow for filtering, based on users being embedded in a social network. Our system maintains the privacy of the poster, and does not require full identification to work well. We present a concrete realization using constructions based on discrete logarithms, and a sketch of how our scheme could be implemented in a centralized fashion.

  8. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  9. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  10. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  11. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women.

  12. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  13. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempts: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghi M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Massimiliano Beghi,1,2 Jerrold F Rosenbaum,3 Cesare Cerri,1,4 Cesare M Cornaggia1,51Psychiatry Clinic, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Salvini Hospital, Rho, Italy; 3Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zucchi Clinical Institute, Carate Brianza, Italy; 5Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Castiglione delle Stiviere, Mantua, ItalyObjectives: This review aimed to identify the evidence for predictors of repetition of suicide attempts, and more specifically for subsequent completed suicide.Methods: We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2009, and we excluded studies investigating only special populations (eg, male and female only, children and adolescents, elderly, a specific psychiatric disorder and studies with sample size fewer than 50 patients.Results: The strongest predictor of a repeated attempt is a previous attempt, followed by being a victim of sexual abuse, poor global functioning, having a psychiatric disorder, being on psychiatric treatment, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse or dependence. For other variables examined (Caucasian ethnicity, having a criminal record, having any mood disorders, bad family environment, and impulsivity there are indications for a putative correlation as well. For completed suicide, the strongest predictors are older age, suicide ideation, and history of suicide attempt. Living alone, male sex, and alcohol abuse are weakly predictive with a positive correlation (but sustained by very scarce data for poor impulsivity and a somatic diagnosis.Conclusion: It is difficult to find predictors for repetition of nonfatal suicide attempts, and even more difficult to identify predictors of completed suicide. Suicide ideation and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence, which are, along with depression, the most consistent predictors for initial nonfatal

  15. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  16. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  17. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  18. Evidence of 2 populations of mephedrone abusers by hair testing. Application to 4 forensic expertises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2016-10-26

    New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Among these substances, cathinone derivatives have been observed since late in the year 2000. At that time, an increasing use of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) started to be observed, particularly among night clubbers. Although these new psychoactive drugs showed an appearance of safety, a growing amount of experiences on their secondary effects has been reported. Mephedrone for example is known to induce psychosis. Given the potential negative effects of mephedrone, the laboratory was asked to test for the drug in hair, a cumulative matrix that can document single, occasional or repetitive abuse of xenobiotics. Mephedrone was tested in hair by GC/MS, using a standard procedure developed for stimulants such as amphetamine or ecstasy. In the head hair of 24 positive abusers, mephedrone was identified in the range 0.1 to 87 ng/mg, determining 2 populations, one with co-administration of ecstasy and a second without ecstasy. In the first population, mephedrone concentrations were from 0.1 to 5 ng/mg; in the second population, mephedrone concentrations were from 3 to 87 ng/mg. These findings should help in the understanding the addiction pattern of subjects. In 4 separate forensic cases, mephedrone was identified in hair of abusers, including a rape case (0.54 ng/mg), a fatal car crash (0.38 ng/mg), a fatal drowning (1.21 ng/mg), and a fatal overdose involving cocaine and mephedrone (6.99 ng/mg). Hair testing for new psychoactive substances appears as a good complement to standard urine analyses. This study confirms the increasing diffusion of new drugs among population of abusers.

  19. Substance abuse in emergency department patients with unexplained syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Zev; Chiu, David Te-Wei; Shapiro, Nathan Ivan; Grossman, Shamai Aron

    2014-04-01

    Current data suggest that up to 60 % of patients presenting to the ED with syncope leave the hospital without a defined etiology. Although a relationship between syncope and substance abuse has been described, no study to date has looked at the relationship between syncope of unknown etiology and substance abuse in patients presenting to the ED. The objective of the study was to determine whether a history of or current substance abuse is associated with an increased incidence of syncope of unknown etiology in ED patients. A prospective, observational, cohort study of consecutive ED patients aged ≥18 who presented with syncope was conducted between 6/03 and 7/06. Patients were queried in the ED and charts reviewed about a history of or current substance abuse. Substance abuse was defined as consumption of >2 alcoholic beverages nightly, repetitive use of any illicit substances, or documentation by the patient's physician of concern regarding suspected substance abuse. Data were analyzed using SAS with Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. We enrolled 518 patients who presented to the ED after syncope, 161 of whom did not have an identifiable etiology for their syncopal event. 62 patients had a history of, or current substance abuse. Among patients with a history of, or current substance abuse, 45 % had unexplained syncope, as opposed to 29 % of patients without such a history (p = 0.01). Our results suggest that prior and current substance abuse is associated with increased incidence of syncope of unknown etiology. Patients evaluated in the ED or even hospitalized with syncope of unknown etiology may benefit from substance abuse screening and possibly detoxification referral.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse experiences and its associated factors among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town, Gammo Goffa zone, Southern Ethiopia: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Aleme; Nigussie, Aderajew; Abera, Muluemebet

    2015-08-18

    Childhood sexual abuse is a major social problem in Africa including Ethiopia. Moreover, little has been explored about the pattern of childhood sexual abuse in the context of high school students in Ethiopia in general and in Arbaminch town in particular. Thus, the present study aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of childhood sexual abuse among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. A school- based, cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town from 3(rd) to 8(th) March 2014. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used. For the quantitative data, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 369 female students from grade ten of the six high schools. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data and then analysis was made using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. For the qualitative component, fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed based on the thematic areas. The prevalence of life time rape among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town was 11 %. The odds of experiencing life time rape was higher among students who lived alone (AOR = 4.30; 95 % CI: 1.81, 10.24) and among students who lived with their friends (AOR = 3.31; 95 % CI: 1.23, 8.89) than those lived with their parents. The chance of experiencing rape among students who have had no open discussions with their parents about sexuality and reproductive health was higher (AOR = 2.93; 95 % CI: 1.33, 6.45) than those who have had discussions. This study revealed high levels of childhood sexual abuse among the adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. Ever having a discussion about sexuality and reproductive health with parents, living arrangement of the student, and father's educational status had statistically significant association with childhood sexual abuse. Unwanted pregnancy and abortion

  1. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  2. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  3. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Malaysian paramedical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N

    1996-06-01

    There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.

  4. The Temporal Association Between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna

    2016-02-01

    While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.

  5. Solvent abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G E

    1979-01-01

    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  6. Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

    2014-03-15

    Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinnitus after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter Michael; Landgrebe, Michael; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is a frequent symptom of traumatic brain injury, which is difficult to treat. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has shown beneficial effects in some forms of tinnitus. However, traumatic brain injury in the past has been considered as a relative contraindication for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the increased risk of seizures. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient suffering from severe tinnitus after traumatic brain injury with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse, who received 5 treatment series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (1 Hz stimulation protocol over left primary auditory cortex, 10 sessions of 2000 stimuli each, stimulation intensity 110% resting motor threshold). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was tolerated without any side effects and tinnitus complaints (measured by a validated tinnitus questionnaire and numeric rating scales) were improved in a replicable way throughout 5 courses of transcranial magnetic stimulation up to now.

  8. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  9. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  10. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  11. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know Getting Rid of Old Medicines Dealing With Addiction Understanding Medications and What They Do Prescription Drug Abuse Bath Salts Depressants Ketamine MDMA (Ecstasy) Contact Us Print Resources ...

  12. The Impact of Sexual Abuse Committed by a Child on Mental Health in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Tellez, Alexandra; Wevodau, Amy; Woods, Carol L; Percosky, Amy

    2014-08-01

    Numerous research studies document the negative mental health outcomes associated with the experience of childhood sexual abuse. In addition, factors such as one's relationship with the perpetrator and the severity of the abuse predict the likelihood of future mental health problems. Less attention, however, has focused on the age of the perpetrator, and recent years have seen an increased interest in children who display sexual behavior problems. College students completed measures of mental health functioning and retrospective reports of maltreatment histories. Participants were categorized as abused by an adult (n = 48), teenager (n = 39), or another child (n = 37), and non-abused (n = 219). Victims of abuse, regardless of perpetrator age, displayed higher levels of mental health problems than non-abused participants. There were no differences between the abused groups on any of the mental health outcomes; however, individuals who were abused by other children were less likely to label their experiences as abuse.

  13. [The physician, the drug abuser and drug abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størksen, P

    1990-09-20

    Drug abusers have a low tolerance for unpleasant and painful emotions and experience a need for chemical relief through use of narcotics, tranquilizers and analgesics. Physicians may show a tendency to comply with their request for such drugs, partly because they give way under pressure (threats, violence) and partly because of their own unconscious need for acceptance and appreciation from the patients. The use of prescribed drugs may inspire an illusion that drug therapy is a "solution" and withdraw attention from other therapies. The prescription of medicaments may represent an extension of already existing abuse. Physicians must be aware of these problems of prescription and of the problems connected to patients' use of threats and violence.

  14. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  15. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  16. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  17. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  18. Risk factors for repetition of self-harm: a systematic review of prospective hospital-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Larkin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-harm entails high costs to individuals and society in terms of suicide risk, morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Repetition of self-harm confers yet higher risk of suicide and risk assessment of self-harm patients forms a key component of the health care management of self-harm patients. To date, there has been no systematic review published which synthesises the extensive evidence on risk factors for repetition. OBJECTIVE: This review is intended to identify risk factors for prospective repetition of self-harm after an index self-harm presentation, irrespective of suicidal intent. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsychInfo and Scirus were used to search for relevant publications. We included cohort studies which examining factors associated with prospective repetition among those presenting with self-harm to emergency departments. Journal articles, abstracts, letters and theses in any language published up to June 2012 were considered. Studies were quality-assessed and synthesised in narrative form. RESULTS: A total of 129 studies, including 329,001 participants, met our inclusion criteria. Some factors were studied extensively and were found to have a consistent association with repetition. These included previous self-harm, personality disorder, hopelessness, history of psychiatric treatment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and living alone. However, the sensitivity values of these measures varied greatly across studies. Psychological risk factors and protective factors have been relatively under-researched but show emerging associations with repetition. Composite risk scales tended to have high sensitivity but poor specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Many risk factors for repetition of self-harm match risk factors for initiation of self-harm, but the most consistent evidence for increased risk of repetition comes from long-standing psychosocial vulnerabilities, rather than characteristics of an index episode

  19. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  20. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can trigger abuse during pregnancy? For many families, pregnancy can bring about feelings of stress, which is normal. But it's not okay for your partner to react violently to stress. Some partners become abusive during pregnancy because they feel: Upset because this was an ...

  1. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C

    1997-08-01

    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  3. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  4. A referential theory of the repetition-induced truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Rom, Sarah C

    2017-03-01

    People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory truth effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge truth based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced truth effect follows. Five experiments test this theory. Experiment 1-3 show that both the amount and the coherence of references for a repeated statement influence judged truth. Experiment 4 shows that people also judge new statements more likely "true" when they share references with previously presented statements. Experiment 5 realizes theoretically predicted conditions under which repetition should not influence judged truth. Based on these data, we discuss how the theory relates to other explanations of repetition-induced truth and how it may integrate other truth-related phenomena and belief biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  6. The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie

    2016-07-19

    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

  7. Crime scene investigation in child-abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G N

    1986-06-01

    Although child abuse and neglect continue to appear in the medical literature frequently, little regarding scene investigation in such cases has been discussed. Many explanations have been offered for this deficit, the most common one is based on the time delay between infliction of the injury and discovery. At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, child-abuse cases submitted for consultation repeatedly show deficits in the scene investigation and its documentation. Since the discovery of child abuse is dependent on either physical evidence of repetitive punitive measures or an injury pattern not in agreement with the alleged circumstances, it behooves the assigned investigator to make every attempt to document the scene(s) as in any other criminal investigation.

  8. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillia Bouchon

    Full Text Available The repeated presentation of stimuli typically attenuates neural responses (repetition suppression or, less commonly, increases them (repetition enhancement when stimuli are highly complex, degraded or presented under noisy conditions. In adult functional neuroimaging research, these repetition effects are considered as neural correlates of habituation. The development and respective functional significance of these effects in infancy remain largely unknown.This study investigates repetition effects in newborns using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and specifically the role of stimulus complexity in evoking a repetition enhancement vs. a repetition suppression response, following up on Gervain et al. (2008. In that study, abstract rule-learning was found at birth in cortical areas specific to speech processing, as evidenced by a left-lateralized repetition enhancement of the hemodynamic response to highly variable speech sequences conforming to a repetition-based ABB artificial grammar, but not to a random ABC grammar.Here, the same paradigm was used to investigate how simpler stimuli (12 different sequences per condition as opposed to 140, and simpler presentation conditions (blocked rather than interleaved would influence repetition effects at birth.Results revealed that the two grammars elicited different dynamics in the two hemispheres. In left fronto-temporal areas, we reproduce the early perceptual discrimination of the two grammars, with ABB giving rise to a greater response at the beginning of the experiment than ABC. In addition, the ABC grammar evoked a repetition enhancement effect over time, whereas a stable response was found for the ABB grammar. Right fronto-temporal areas showed neither initial discrimination, nor change over time to either pattern.Taken together with Gervain et al. (2008, this is the first evidence that manipulating methodological factors influences the presence or absence of neural repetition enhancement

  9. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  10. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  11. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  12. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  13. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  14. Relationship between Childhood Abuse Experience,Parent Attachment and Depression in Adolescents%儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎黎; 杨峘; 梁炜; 张亚林; 杨世昌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁情绪之间的关系.方法 选取河南省新乡市、济源市城区2所中学的736名第7、8、9级初中生为研究对象进行评估.采用儿童期虐待问卷(CTQ)、青少年依恋问卷(IPPA)和儿童抑郁障碍自评量表(DSRSC)分别评估初中生的儿童期受虐经历、亲子依恋关系和抑郁情绪.采用分层回归进行中介作用分析.结果 男性青少年儿童期受虐总分高于女性(分别为33.29±7.89和31.05±6.01,t=4.343,P=0.000),两性母亲依恋(男:59.89±15.86,女:61.45±16.48,t=-1.303,P=0.193)、父亲依恋(男:59.32±17.17,女:60.28±16.95,t=-0.764,P=0.445)、抑郁总分(男:7.68±5.27,女:7.31±4.21,t=1.057,P=0.291)比较差异均无统计学意义.儿童期虐待与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.408,P=0.000),与母亲依恋(r=-0.544,P=0.000)和父亲依恋(r=-0.417,P=0.000)均呈负相关;母亲依恋与父亲依恋呈正相关(r=0.604,P=0.000),均与抑郁情绪呈负相关(r=-0.426,-0.426,Pa=0.000).男性和女性青少年中,亲子依恋均在儿童期虐待经历和抑郁间起部分中介作用.结论 青少年男性受虐高于女性,两性的亲子依恋和抑郁无显著差异;亲子依恋在儿童期虐待经历和抑郁间起部分中介作用,提示提高亲子依恋质量可部分减少虐待对青少年情绪的影响.%Objective To explore the relationship between childhood abuse experience,parent and peer attachment and depression in adolescents.Methods A total of 736 junior students from the 7th,8th and 9th grades of 2 public schools in Xinxiang City and Jiyuan City Henan province completed the questionnaires.Childhood Trauma Questionnaire(CTQ),Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment(IPPA) and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children(DSRSC) were employed the childhood abuse experience,parent attachment quality and depressive mood in adolescents,respectively.The hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationship

  15. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  16. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  17. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  18. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: emotion, complexity, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli, Laura; Costa, Vincent D; Lang, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing, and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6-s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion and composition were independent, supporting the hypothesis that these oculomotor indices reflect enhanced information seeking. Experiment 2 tested an orienting hypothesis by repeatedly presenting the same pictures. Although repetition altered specific scan patterns, emotional, compared to neutral, picture viewing continued to prompt oculomotor differences, suggesting that motivationally relevant cues enhance information seeking in appetitive and defensive contexts. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  20. Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  1. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change.

  2. Repetition suppression and expectation suppression are dissociable in time in early auditory evoked fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Ana; de Lange, Floris P

    2012-09-26

    Repetition of a stimulus, as well as valid expectation that a stimulus will occur, both attenuate the neural response to it. These effects, repetition suppression and expectation suppression, are typically confounded in paradigms in which the nonrepeated stimulus is also relatively rare (e.g., in oddball blocks of mismatch negativity paradigms, or in repetition suppression paradigms with multiple repetitions before an alternation). However, recent hierarchical models of sensory processing inspire the hypothesis that the two might be separable in time, with repetition suppression occurring earlier, as a consequence of local transition probabilities, and suppression by expectation occurring later, as a consequence of learnt statistical regularities. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory experiment by orthogonally manipulating stimulus repetition and stimulus expectation and, using magnetoencephalography, measuring the neural response over time in human subjects. We found that stimulus repetition (but not stimulus expectation) attenuates the early auditory response (40-60 ms), while stimulus expectation (but not stimulus repetition) attenuates the subsequent, intermediate stage of auditory processing (100-200 ms). These findings are well in line with hierarchical predictive coding models, which posit sequential stages of prediction error resolution, contingent on the level at which the hypothesis is generated.

  3. Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: Emotion, complexity, and repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Houbova, Petra; Miccoli,Laura; Costa, Vincent D.; Lang, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored during picture viewing and effects of hedonic content, perceptual composition, and repetition on scanning assessed. In Experiment 1, emotional and neutral pictures that were figure-ground compositions or more complex scenes were presented for a 6 s free viewing period. Viewing emotional pictures or complex scenes prompted more fixations and broader scanning of the visual array, compared to neutral pictures or simple figure-ground compositions. Effects of emotion a...

  4. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  5. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  6. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  7. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  8. Discussing partner abuse: Does doctor's gender really matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S.H.; Jonge, A. de; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.S.L.; Römkens, R.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are conflicting findings on the influence of gender on responding to partner abuse. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore gender differences in family doctors' views, attitudes, experiences and practices regarding intimate partner abuse against women. METHODS: We used the focus-group

  9. Discussing partner abuse : Does doctor's gender really matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.; de Jonge, A.; Wester, F.; Mol, S.; Römkens, R.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background. There are conflicting findings on the influence of gender on responding to partner abuse. Objectives. We aimed to explore gender differences in family doctors' views, attitudes, experiences and practices regarding intimate partner abuse against women. Methods. We used the focus-group

  10. Is It Abuse? Deaf Female Undergraduates' Labeling of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L.; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the labeling of abuse experiences in a sample of 97 Deaf female undergraduate students, exploring the following questions: What is the prevalence of violent behaviors experienced by Deaf female undergraduates in their past-year relationships, what proportion of these relationships are identified as "abuse," and what…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  12. Young adults’ personal views on child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anne Jernbro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This is a qualitative study based on reports from young adults, both exposed and not exposed to child abuse. The aim of the present study has been to analyse young adults' thoughts and feelings about child abuse. The data consisted of 358 responses to an open-ended question included in a national postal questionnaire study carried out by the Swedish Committee Against Child Abuse (Kommittén mot barnmisshandel. The analysis of data involved qualitative content analysis. Four main categories emerged: children's rights, consequences of child abuse, the role of the society, and causes of child abuse. The respondents who were abused as children wrote about the experience and the psychological long-term consequences of the abuse. The psychological abuse was particularly detrimental. The sexually abused expressed feelings of shame and guilt, in particular the young men. The non-abused respondents reported primarily on more general issues. They expressed children's right to a safe childhood and they strongly believed in stricter penalties for child abusers.

  13. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  14. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  15. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  16. Finite-Repetition threshold for infinite ternary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Badkobeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exponent of a word is the ratio of its length over its smallest period. The repetitive threshold r(a of an a-letter alphabet is the smallest rational number for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most r(a. This notion was introduced in 1972 by Dejean who gave the exact values of r(a for every alphabet size a as it has been eventually proved in 2009. The finite-repetition threshold for an a-letter alphabet refines the above notion. It is the smallest rational number FRt(a for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most FRt(a and that contains a finite number of factors with exponent r(a. It is known from Shallit (2008 that FRt(2=7/3. With each finite-repetition threshold is associated the smallest number of r(a-exponent factors that can be found in the corresponding infinite word. It has been proved by Badkobeh and Crochemore (2010 that this number is 12 for infinite binary words whose maximal exponent is 7/3. We show that FRt(3=r(3=7/4 and that the bound is achieved with an infinite word containing only two 7/4-exponent words, the smallest number. Based on deep experiments we conjecture that FRt(4=r(4=7/5. The question remains open for alphabets with more than four letters. Keywords: combinatorics on words, repetition, repeat, word powers, word exponent, repetition threshold, pattern avoidability, word morphisms.

  17. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  18. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  19. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  20. Substance Abuse Treatment: Critical Issues and Challenges in the Treatment of Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Nieves, Rita; Johannes, Sergut Wolde; Cabeza, Nirzka M. Labault

    1999-01-01

    Among 66 Latina mothers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, 80% reported childhood experiences of abuse. Compared to other female participants, women abused as children were more likely to be predominantly Spanish speakers, to have health problems, to have had children removed from their custody, and to drop out quickly from…

  1. 78 FR 40755 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Summer Research Experience Programs... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC...

  2. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  3. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIH Summer Research Experience Programs... Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive...

  4. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  5. Helping Students with Emotional Abuse: A Critical Area of Competence for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Trevor J.; Buser, Juleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Many school counselors experience difficulties in identifying and reporting suspected cases of emotional abuse. These difficulties are concerning, given the relatively high prevalence rates of emotional abuse. In this article, we discuss the definition of emotional abuse, review research on its prevalence and psychological correlates, and provide…

  6. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  7. The role of reminding in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall: sufficient but not necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Jacoby, Larry L

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared twice in List 2, and between-list repetitions that appeared once in List 1 and once in List 2. Our primary interest was in performance on between-list repetitions. Detection of between-list repetitions was encouraged in an n-back condition by instructing participants to indicate when a presented item was a repetition of any preceding item, including items presented in List 1. In contrast, detection of between-list repetitions was discouraged in a within-list back condition by instructing participants only to indicate repetitions occurring in List 2. Cued recall of between-list repetitions was enhanced when instructions encouraged detection of List 1 presentations. These results accord with those from prior experiments showing a role of study-phase retrieval in effects of spacing repetitions. Past experiments have relied on conditionalized data to draw conclusions, producing the possibility that performance benefits merely reflected effects of item selection. By bringing effects under task control, we avoided that problem. Our results provide evidence that reminding resulting from retrieval of earlier presentations plays a role in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. However, our results also reveal that such retrievals are not necessary to produce an effect of spacing repetitions.

  8. Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body. ... This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/actat.v35i1.11.

  9. Effect of repetition proportion on language-driven anticipatory eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Allison E.; Mirman, Daniel; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Magnuson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous masked priming research in word recognition has demonstrated that repetition priming is influenced by experiment-wise information structure, such as proportion of target repetition. Research using naturalistic tasks and eye-tracking has shown that people use linguistic knowledge to anticipate upcoming words. We examined whether the proportion of target repetition within an experiment can have a similar effect on anticipatory eye movements. We used a word-to-picture matching task (i.e., the visual world paradigm) with target repetition proportion carefully controlled. Participants’ eye movements were tracked starting when the pictures appeared, one second prior to the onset of the target word. Targets repeated from the previous trial were fixated more than other items during this preview period when target repetition proportion was high and less than other items when target repetition proportion was low. These results indicate that linguistic anticipation can be driven by short-term within-experiment trial structure, with implications for the generalization of priming effects, the bases of anticipatory eye movements, and experiment design. PMID:24345674

  10. Who's afraid in Virginia Woolf? Clues to early sexual abuse in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L C

    1990-01-01

    Virginia Woolf, by self-admission, was a victim of repeated sexual abuses. At age 5 or 6 she was sexually mishandled by her older half brother, Gerald Duckworth. In her teenage years another older half brother, George Duckworth, misused her repeatedly. As a result of these abuses, Woolf suffered the special signs and symptoms of long-standing childhood psychic trauma--sexual numbing, emotional distancing, self-hypnosis, splitting, and dissociation. She also suffered some of the more ordinary signs and symptoms common to most childhood traumas--fears, perceptual repetitions, and repetitions in behavior (in this case, in writing). Interestingly, Virginia Woolf's fictional characters manifest the very same signs and symptoms Woolf manifested all of her life. The occasional reader may treat Woolf's fiction, because of these "symptoms," in much the same way that an actual childhood sex abuse victim is often treated--with boredom, disbelief, and failure to respond.

  11. Could the DiversiLab® semi-automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR be an acceptable technique for typing isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa? An answer from our experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Florence; Micaelo, Maïté; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Lu, Qin; Chastre, Jean; Arbelot, Charlotte; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Combes, Alain; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Jarlier, Vincent; Aubry, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Recently the DiversiLab® (DL) system (bioMérieux) was developed as an automated platform that uses repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) technology for standardized, reproducible DNA fingerprinting of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of DL rep-PCR for typing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The performance of DL rep-PCR was compared with that of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in a prospective multicenter study of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, conducted in 3 intensive care units over a 31-month period. In total, 203 P. aeruginosa isolates from 66 patients, from whom at least 2 consecutive respiratory samples each were collected more than 48 h apart, were typed using DL rep-PCR. Forty isolates (corresponding to 20 patients) were also typed using PFGE of SpeI-digested DNA. The typeability was 100% with DL rep-PCR and 95% with PFGE. The discriminatory power was close for DL rep-PCR and for PFGE (Simpson's diversity indices of 0.901 and 0.947, respectively). Insufficient agreement between DL rep-PCR and PFGE typing results was observed for the 40 selected isolates (adjusted Rand coefficient of 0.419), mostly due to isolates of the same DL rep-PCR type but of different PFGE types (adjusted Wallace coefficients of 0.306 for DL rep-PCR with PFGE, and of 0.667 for PFGE with DL rep-PCR). Considered together with published data, DL rep-PCR results should be interpreted with caution for the investigation of outbreaks caused by P. aeruginosa and evaluated in conjunction with epidemiological data.

  12. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  13. Opioid Abuse after TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: " Opioid Abuse after TBI...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE " Opioid Abuse after TBI" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the brain’s reward circuitry which may make an injured brain more susceptible to the rewarding effects of opioids . We are currently conducting

  14. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  15. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  16. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  17. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  18. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  19. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    physical, sexual, psychological, and abuse towards property and pets. Pence. & Paymar's .... experience “lower levels of social competency, lower academic achievement, and a variety of .... the accuracy of prediction of recidivism and improve understanding of the causes of ..... They all played a musical instrument and.

  20. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  1. Hair Analysis as a Diagnostic and Forensic Tool in a Social Support System for Families with Underage Children and Drug Abusing Parents: Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Pragst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2014, 388 hair samples from children (age 1-14 years and 594 hair samples from parents/caregivers were analyzed for methadone, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Hair testing was preferentially performed for parents/ caregivers. Children were included in case of positive parents/caregivers results or in urgent cases after a court decision if the parents/caregivers declined the testing. A follow-up hair test was performed after 6-months (positive results or 12-months (negative results. Results: The children hair appeared to be a sensitive indicator of the handling of drugs in their environment and often showed a similar or the same drug profile as their parents. The annual statistics for the initial test of children were no drugs 22-33%, methadone 9-25%, heroin 7.5-28%, cocaine 46-57%, amphetamines and ecstasy 1.6-7.0%, cannabinoids 21-49% and benzodiazepines 0-5%. As a rule, concentrations in hair of younger children were higher than of their elder siblings. In severe cases and based on the entire information about the case, the children were immediately taken into custody, the family court was appealed, the children were admitted to children's homes or foster families, or the drug consuming adult was separated from the family and a withdrawal treatment was initiated. Follow-up tests showed an improvement in the situation of the children particularly in severe cases. Conclusion: Hair analysis proved to be a very efficient working instrument for social authorities in the systematic improvement of child-welfare in drug abusing environments.

  2. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  3. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  4. The Role of Reminding in the Effects of Spaced Repetitions on Cued Recall: Sufficient but Not Necessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared…

  5. Selective attention modulates visual and haptic repetition priming: effects in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Heller, Morton A

    2008-08-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of selective attention at encoding on repetition priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients for objects presented visually (experiment 1) or haptically (experiment 2). We used a repetition priming paradigm combined with a selective attention procedure at encoding. Reliable priming was found for both young adults and healthy older participants for visually presented pictures (experiment 1) as well as for haptically presented objects (experiment 2). However, this was only found for attended and not for unattended stimuli. The results suggest that independently of the perceptual modality, repetition priming requires attention at encoding and that perceptual facilitation is maintained in normal aging. However, AD patients did not show priming for attended stimuli, or for unattended visual or haptic objects. These findings suggest an early deficit of selective attention in AD. Results are discussed from a cognitive neuroscience approach.

  6. Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N

    2001-10-01

    Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as 'very unhappy'. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children's behavior.

  7. "Death Is Better Than Misery": Elders' Accounts of Abuse and Neglect in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chane, Samson; Adamek, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    As the proportion of elders in developing nations increases and the ability of families to meet their needs is stretched thin, the risk of elder abuse will grow. This study examined the types and nature of abuse and neglect from the perspective of elders in Ethiopia who experienced abuse in noninstitutional settings. A qualitative design guided by hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of abuse and neglect of 15 Ethiopian elders. Nine women and six men ranging in age from 64 to 93 years were interviewed. Most were victims of multiple forms of abuse, especially financial exploitation, emotional abuse, and neglect. Economic vulnerability was a clear underlying factor contributing to elders' risk for encountering abuse. Effective prevention efforts must address the societal level factors that ultimately contribute to elder abuse while also holding individuals responsible for their harmful behaviors against elders.

  8. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such ...

  9. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  11. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  12. Children perception of abuse in family

    OpenAIRE

    Taschyova A.I.

    2013-01-01

    With learning of social stereotypes and common cultural representations of violence during the process of child development, two relatively independent conceptual units of understanding of family abuse are formed. The first one arises on the basis of abstract substantive characteristics that describe violence in terms discharged from the actual experience of family relationships. The second block of domestic violence understanding is based on specific experience of family relationships and ch...

  13. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  14. Workplace abuse narratives from dentistry, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students: a multi-school qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, C E; Monrouxe, L V; Ternan, E; Endacott, R

    2015-05-01

    Previous healthcare student abuse research typically employs quantitative surveys that fail to explore contributory factors for abuse and students' action in the face of abuse. Following a recent qualitative study of medical students' abuse narratives, the current study explores dental, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students' abuse narratives to better understand healthcare workplace abuse. We conducted three individual and 11 group interviews with 69 healthcare students in three Universities to elicit professionalism dilemma narratives. Of 226 professionalism dilemmas elicited, 79 were coded as student abuse. Secondary-level thematic analysis of the abuse narratives addressed the following questions: What types of abuse experiences do healthcare students narrate? What factors do they cite as contributing to abuse and their responses to abuse? Healthcare students reported mostly covert abuse in their narratives. Although narrators described individual, relational, work and organisational factors contributing to abuse, they mostly cited factors relating to perpetrators. Most participants stated that they acted in the face of their abuse, and they mostly cited factors relating to themselves for acting. Students who did nothing in the face of abuse typically cited the perpetrator-recipient relationship as the main contributory factor. There are many similarities across the narratives of the five healthcare student groups, suggesting that complex interactional/organisational factors are all-important when considering how abuse is perpetuated within the healthcare workplace. Although some organisational factors may be difficult to change, we recommend that educational initiatives are a key starting point to tackle healthcare workplace abuse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  16. A report on student abuse during medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Ana Margarita; Vásquez, Alicia; Herskovic, Viviana; Calderón, José Luis; Jacard, Marcela; Pereira, Ana; Widdel, Lars

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, and the consequences, of abusive situations as perceived by students during the course of their medical training. A descriptive study was carried out surveying the entire 2000 fifth-year class of 181 in the Medical School of the University of Chile. The questionnaire was answered by 144 students. Results showed that 91.7% of the students who responded had suffered at least one episode of abuse while enrolled in medical school. The main offenders were teachers and peers. Verbal abuse was the most common (85.4%), followed by psychological (79.9%), sexual(26.4%) and physical (23.6%) abuse. Students reported that abuse had effects on their mental health, social life and the image they had of physicians; 17% considered dropping out of school as a consequence of this experience. Efforts should be addressed to prompt educators to reflect on their role.

  17. Psychological the most common elder abuse in a Havana neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Victoria C; Rousseaux, Elena; García, Teresita C; Arteaga, Emilio; Ramos, Marta; Alfonso, Maritza

    2015-04-01

    Globally, older adults are a population group that often suffers abuse by their caregivers. Along with women and children, they are among those most often reported as victims of abuse of any kind in Cuba. Characterize presence of domestic abuse of older adults in family doctor-and-nurse office No. 28 of the Carlos Manuel Portuondo University Polyclinic in Havana, Cuba, determining the main manifestations of abuse and help-seeking behavior by the older adults identified as victims. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of adults aged ≥ 60 years; all those not diagnosed with dementia and who agreed to participate were interviewed. In a universe of 268 older adults, 29 were living outside the area, 24 declined to participate, and 18 had a diagnosis of dementia, leaving a study population of 197 individuals. Variables included: personal experience of abuse, type of abuse, perpetrator, help sought, and reasons for not seeking help. Statistical analysis was based on percentages. Of 197 older adults interviewed, 88 (44.7%) reported that they were victims of domestic abuse; 50 of these were women. The most common types of abuse were psychological abuse and disrespect for personal space, reported by 69 (78.4%) and 54 (61.4%) individuals, respectively. Sons- and daughters-in-law were identified as the abusers by 68 participants and grandchildren by 65. Of the 88 victims, 67 (76.1%) stated that they did not seek help. The finding that substantial numbers of older adults are victims of domestic abuse brings to light a hitherto insufficiently addressed issue in the community studied. More research is needed to deepen understanding of the scope and causes of the problem to inform prevention and management strategies, not only at the level of the polyclinic catchment area, but in the health system in general.

  18. Repetitive negative thinking and suicide: a burgeoning literature with need for further exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Keyne C; Tucker, Raymond P

    2017-08-24

    Extant research has found a significant overlap between various repetitive negative thinking (RNT) patterns, such as rumination and worry, across different affective disorders implicating that the process of repetitive negative thinking is likely trans-diagnostic. Furthermore, RNT patterns at the core of psychiatric disorders associated with suicide (e.g., rumination and worry) have been found to be associated with suicide even after accounting for the disorder. A synthesis of existing literature on repetitive negative thoughts suggest that following negative emotional experiences, RNTs may lead to a sense of entrapment and hopelessness that may contribute to the onset of suicidal ideation and then facilitate the transition from thinking about suicide to making a suicide attempt by increasing an individual's capability for suicide through repetitive exposure to violent thoughts and imagery associated with suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transduction of Repetitive Mechanical Stimuli by Piezo1 and Piezo2 Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H. Lewis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations. We find that both channels function as pronounced frequency filters whose transduction efficiencies vary with stimulus frequency, waveform, and duration. We then use numerical simulations and human disease-related point mutations to demonstrate that channel inactivation is the molecular mechanism underlying frequency filtering and further show that frequency filtering is conserved in rapidly adapting mouse DRG neurons. Our results give insight into the potential contributions of Piezos in transducing repetitive mechanical stimuli.

  20. Repetition rate tunable ultra-short optical pulse generation based on electrical pattern generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Fu; Hongming Zhang; Meng Yan; Minyu Yao

    2009-01-01

    @@ An actively mode-locked laser with tunable repetition rate is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on a programmable electrical pattern generator.By changing the repetition rate of the electrical patterns applied on the in-cavity modulator, the repetition rate of the output optical pulse sequences changes accordingly while the pulse width of the optical pulse train remains almost constant.In other words, the output ultra-short pulse train has a tunable duty cycle.In a proof-of-principle experiment, optical pulses with repetition rates of 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 GHz are obtained by adjusting the electrical pattern applied on the in-cavity modulator while their pulse widths remain almost unchanged.

  1. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  2. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff training;...

  3. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  4. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAS Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 1 Lifetime prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in the U.S. is approximately 10% and also ...

  6. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  7. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  8. Experiências infantis e risco de abuso físico: mecanismos envolvidos na repetição da violência Child's experiences and risk of physical abuse: mechanisms involved in repeating violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Paula Degobbi Bérgamo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a transmissão geracional do abuso físico, investigando variáveis relacionadas às práticas educativas e de cuidados recebidas na infância e a qualidade de relacionamento com os pais em dois grupos, um formado por cuidadores notificados aos Conselhos Tutelares (G1 e outro sem histórico de violência contra os filhos (G2. Um percentual significativamente maior de G1 avaliou ter sofrido punição física na infância de forma mais grave e mais freqüente que G2, caracterizando abuso físico e/ou psicológico. Ademais, os participantes do G1 avaliaram sua relação com os responsáveis e o ambiente familiar no qual foram criados de modo mais negativo que G2. Os resultados permitiram descrever alguns mecanismos envolvidos na transmissão geracional da violência, oferecendo pistas para a prevenção.This study verified the generational transmission of physical abuse examining variables related to educative and care practices received during childhood and the relationship with the parents. Two groups were formed, one of parents notified by Child Protective Service Agencies for maltreatment (G1 and the other with no violence background against their children (G2, both were compared afterwards. An expressive percentage of G1 participants reported have received more severe physical punishment in the childhood and even more frequent than G2, which characterized the presence of psychological or physical abuse. Furthermore, G1 participants evaluated the relation with their parents and the family environment in which they were raised in a more negative way than G2 participants. The results enabled the illustration of some mechanisms involved in the generational transmission of violence, outlining some ways to prevent the problem.

  9. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  10. Primary Care Pediatricians' Experience, Comfort and Competence in the Evaluation and Management of Child Maltreatment: Do We Need Child Abuse Experts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy G.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the self-reported experience, comfort and competence of primary care pediatricians in evaluating and managing child maltreatment (CM), in rendering opinions regarding the likelihood of CM, and in providing court testimony. We examined pediatricians' need for expert consultation when evaluating possible maltreatment. Methods:…

  11. Language, interactivity and solution probing: repetition without repetition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Nash, Luarina

    2013-01-01

    , action and perception. We trace this to human interactivity or sense-saturated coordination that renders possible language and human forms of cognition: it links human sense-making to historical experience. People play roles with natural and cultural artifacts as they act, animate groups and live through......Recognition of the importance of autopoiesis to biological systems was crucial in building an alternative to the classic view of cognitive science. However, concepts like structural coupling and autonomy are not strong enough to throw light on language and human problem solving. The argument...... relationships drawing on language that is, at once, artificial and natural. Thus, while constrained by wordings, interactivity is able to fine-tune what we do with action-perception loops. Neither language nor human problem solving reduce to biological sense-making....

  12. Sexual and physical abuse: a comparison between lesbians and their heterosexual sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Joel P; Dibble, Suzanne L; Fineman, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate similarities and differences in the incidence and patterns of abuse experienced by lesbians and their heterosexual sisters. In a matched sample of 324 lesbian/heterosexual sister pairs, the lesbians reported a greater incidence than their sisters of childhood physical and sexual abuse, as well as adult sexual abuse. Both groups identified male relatives as the most common perpetrator of both childhood physical and sexual abuse. Male relatives were most commonly identified as perpetrators of adult physical abuse and male strangers were most commonly identified as adult sexual abusers. Our results demonstrate that both sexual and physical abuse are common experiences for lesbian and heterosexual women; however, since the context of these experiences is different, each group will have special needs for services and treatment.

  13. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  14. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  15. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  16. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  17. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  18. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  19. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  20. Sublexical Processing in Visual Recognition of Chinese Characters: Evidence from Repetition Blindness for Subcharacter Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; Li, Jing-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the failure to detect the second occurrence of a repeated item in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). In two experiments using RSVP, the ability to report two critical characters was found to be impaired when these two characters were identical (Experiment 1) or similar by sharing one repeated component…

  1. Interdisciplinary evaluations of alleged sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, P K; Martone, M

    1992-06-01

    Children who are alleged to have been sexually abused often go through gruelling interrogations to relate their experiences to adults and, even then, most are not viewed as reliable sources of information. The Victim Sensitive Interviewing Program (VSIP) was initiated to decrease the number of interviews endured by a child who allegedly had been sexually abused. The program brought together the disciplines involved in the evaluation of these cases: hospital-based social worker and pediatrician, state child protective agency worker, police, and assistant state's attorney. This team established a protocol for an investigative interview to be conducted by a team member. Pre-VSIP sexual abuse evaluations from 1985 and 1986 (38) were compared with VSIP evaluations (226) from 1987 and 1988. There was no significant difference between the two groups in relation to gender or age of victim, physical symptoms, physical findings, sexually transmitted diseases present, age of perpetrator, or length of stay in hospital. However, there were significant differences between the two groups in (1) number of interviews, 11% pre-VSIP vs 79% VSIP receiving only one interview (P less than .001); (2) number of interviewers, 24% pre-VSIP vs 88% VSIP were interviewed by only one interviewer (P less than .001); (3) indicated cases of sexual abuse, 68% pre-VSIP vs 88% VSIP (P less than .006); (4) identification of the perpetrator, 71% pre-VSIP vs 85% VSIP (P less than .035); and (5) charges pressed if perpetrator identified, 33% pre-VSIP vs 60% VSIP (P less than .010). It is concluded that interdisciplinary evaluations of alleged sexual abuse in children not only decreased the number of interviews a child must undergo but also increased the likelihood of indicated cases, identification of the perpetrator, and charges being pressed. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that interdisciplinary teams be formed to assess alleged sexual abuse in children.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...... over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...

  3. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  4. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  5. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for all types of mental health problems. Outcome measures. ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edition, revised). ... children and adolescents receiving treatment for psychological ... fathers and 25% of those abused by other trusted adults exhibited .... development these older children have also acquired the.

  6. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  7. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  8. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  9. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.

    This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…

  10. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OtherDrugsofAbuse_012017.pdf Previous Index Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  11. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  12. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  13. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  14. Childhood Abuse, Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, and Suicide Attempts: An Exploration of Gender Differences in Incarcerated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jenelle; Gobeil, Renee; Beaudette, Janelle N; Ritchie, Mary B; Brown, Shelley L; Smith, Hayden P

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between types of childhood abuse, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) was examined in a sample of 415 incarcerated adults (268 men, 147 women). Men and women were equally likely to experience childhood abuse, although women were more likely to report sexual abuse and men were more likely to report emotional neglect. Sexual abuse was the only type of abuse found to predict NSSI and suicide attempts in women. For men, physical abuse and physical neglect were significant predictors of NSSI and suicide attempts, respectively. Gender differences exist and should be examined in future research in this area.

  15. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwahyuono Agus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network, a nongovernmental organization (NGO based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia.

  16. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....

  17. Self-organization of repetitive spike patterns in developing neuronal networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jyh-Jang; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2010-10-01

    The appearance of spontaneous correlated activity is a fundamental feature of developing neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate whether the ontogeny of correlated activity is paralleled by the appearance of specific spike patterns we used a template-matching algorithm to detect repetitive spike patterns in multi-electrode array recordings from cultures of dissociated mouse neocortical neurons between 6 and 15 days in vitro (div). These experiments demonstrated that the number of spiking neurons increased significantly between 6 and 15 div, while a significantly synchronized network activity appeared at 9 div and became the main discharge pattern in the subsequent div. Repetitive spike patterns with a low complexity were first observed at 8 div. The number of repetitive spike patterns in each dataset as well as their complexity and recurrence increased during development in vitro. The number of links between neurons implicated in repetitive spike patterns, as well as their strength, showed a gradual increase during development. About 8% of the spike sequences contributed to more than one repetitive spike patterns and were classified as core patterns. These results demonstrate for the first time that defined neuronal assemblies, as represented by repetitive spike patterns, appear quite early during development in vitro, around the time synchronized network burst become the dominant network pattern. In summary, these findings suggest that dissociated neurons can self-organize into complex neuronal networks that allow reliable flow and processing of neuronal information already during early phases of development.

  18. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  19. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  20. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  1. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  2. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  3. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  4. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  5. Primed neutrophil infiltrations into multiple organs in child physical abuse cases: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahito; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Ogata, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly induces a massive primed neutrophil infiltration into the lung and liver through chemotaxis by interleukin (IL)-8, similar to cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Here, we used immunohistochemical analyses to investigate this infiltration in cases of physically abused children. In addition, we examined the expression of neutrophil elastase (NE) as the inflammatory mediator and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) as the elastase inhibitor. The number of neutrophils in the abuse cases was increased significantly in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, compared with that of control cases. IL-8-positive cells and NE-positive cells in all organs of abuse cases were significantly greater than those in control cases. Large quantities of oxidized AAT, which fails to inactivate NE and results in tissue damage, was detected in the liver of abuse cases. Neutrophil infiltration showed positive correlation with the degree of systemic accumulation of non-fatal injuries caused by repetitive abusive behavior. Although further investigation using more autopsy samples is necessary, results of our preliminary study indicate that massive neutrophil infiltration induced by IL-8 in multiple organs is a new complementary diagnostic indicator of physical abuse in children. Moreover, the demonstration of NE-positive cells and oxidized AAT provides firm evidence of tissue damage.

  6. The Link: Trauma and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trauma “is categorized as an overwhelming life-changing experience (and is typically a physical and/or emotional shock to the very fiber of one’s being.”It is a priority that those who experience trauma in their lives seek help from a licensed professional to deal with the emotional damage caused by the trauma(s and to be taught necessary coping skills to prevent them from seeking solace in unhealthy ways like abusing drugs and/or alcohol. Research proposes that all types of trauma and the aftermath that follows will likely impact the “exposed population’s behavioral health, resulting in an increase in mental and substance use disorders, along with a decline in perceived quality of life” [1]. Survey results teach us that more than 70% adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse across the country have a history of trauma in their lives.

  7. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  8. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  9. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  10. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  11. [Resilience and child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the resilience concept from a critical review. It prioritizes texts produced by organizations with leading roles in the field of child and adolescent health (PAHO, Pan-American Health Organization; ASBRA, the Brazilian Association for Adolescence). The main definitions of resilience are discussed, along with a debate on the contributions and limitations of the current literature. Furthermore, the conceptual and operative possibilities of resilience when confronted with child abuse are discussed, specifically using intra-familial sexual abuse as an example. The authors conclude that the concept of resilience presents polarization around certain axes: "adaptation/overcoming process", "innate/acquired" "permanent/circumstantial". However, they all point to a common ground: the singularity and delicacy of micro-social health-promoting relationships.

  12. 问题少年儿童受虐待经历调查及影响因素分析%Analysis on childhood abuse experience and influencing factors among troubled juvenile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠青; 戴伏英; 刘华平; 刘瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查了解山西省某未成年教管所学员的儿童期受虐待情况,分析其儿童期虐待经历发生的影响因素.方法 采用现场自填式问卷,对研究对象山西省某未教所89名学员及对照组152名在校初中学生就其儿童期躯体虐待、情感虐待、性虐待、忽视进行无记名调查,应用SPSS 10.0软件进行统计分析.结果 两组儿童在儿童期躯体虐待、情感虐待、性虐待、忽视、心理状况的情况均有差异,而且未教所学员虐待发生率均比初中学生高13.7%.经多元逐步回归分析表明:父母工作变动、婚姻状况是躯体(t值分别为-3.325和0.130,P<0.05)、情感(t值分别为- 2.573和2.604,P<0.05)、性虐(t值分别为- 2.101和3.009,P<0.05)发生的危险因素,与谁生活与忽视、情感、性虐待有关.文化程度高低与性虐待发生有关.结论 儿童虐待影响青少年成长,有关部门应制定针对性的干预措施.%Objective To investigate childhood abuse among 89 students in the Juvenile Cultivation Institution of Shanxi Province, and analyze the influencing factors associated with abuses. Methods With self-administered questionnaires , both 89 children in Juvenile Cultivation Institution and 152 middle school students were investigated for their childhood physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0. Results There were significantly differences between the two groups in different kinds of abuse, and the incidences of childhood abuses in juvenile prison were 13. 7% higher than that of middle school students. Regression analysis showed that work changes of parents and marital status of parents were the risk factors associated with physical abuse (t = - 3. 325 , t = 0. 130, respectively, P<0. 05), emotional abuse (t=2.573, t =2.604, respectively, P < 0. 05), sexual abuse (t= -2.101, t =3. 009,respectively, P<0. 05). The person living together was associated with neglect

  13. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Psychological Association’s addiction syndrome handbook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 35. Najavits, L.M., Highley, J., Dolan, S., Fee...Version (total and criterion D); and the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (sexual abuse trauma index and anxiety subscale); functioning on the Sheehan ...months (scaled 0-4). Functioning. The Sheehan Disability Scale [15] has 5 items assessing functioning in work/school, social life, and family life

  14. Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients' retrospective reports of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Craig, Thomas K; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients' reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: r(s)=0.350-0.737, P<.001; neglect: r(s)=0.688-0.715, P<.001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: κ=0.526, P<.001; physical abuse: κ=0.394, P<.001). Psychosis patients' reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: κ=0.590, P<.01; physical abuse: κ=0.634, P<.001; antipathy: κ=0.492, P<.01; neglect: κ=0.432, P<.05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U=1768.5, P=.998; physical abuse: U=2167.5, P=.815; antipathy: U=2216.5, P=.988; neglect: U=1906.0, P=.835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: χ(2)=0.634, P=.277; physical abuse: χ(2)=0.159, P=.419; antipathy: χ(2)=0.868, P=.229; neglect: χ(2)=0.639, P=.274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders.

  15. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  16. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  17. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  18. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  19. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  20. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  1. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  2. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  3. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  4. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  5. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  6. Multifaceted Glance on Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.

  7. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  8. Mujeres violentadas durante el embarazo y el parto: experiencias de parteras en Jalisco, México / Women abused during pregnancy and childbirth: experiences and views of midwives from Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Villaseñor F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: explorar la experiencia y perspectiva de parteras con mujeres violentadas durante el embarazo y el parto en Jalisco, México. Metodología: se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo en zona rural de Jalisco, México, entre mayo y octubre de 2011 con 24 parteras, utilizando la entrevista individual, modalidad historia de vida pautada y la asamblea participativa regional como técnicas de indagación; posteriormente, los discursos fueron analizados bajo el modelo actancial semiótico. Resultados: familiaridad de las parteras con la violencia hacia la mujer durante el embarazo y el parto, atribuida principalmente a aspectos de género y ruralidad; señalan al binomio violencia-embarazo como factor de riesgo para presentar problemas obstétricos, siendo la violencia física la que más encuentran y a la pareja como principal agresor. Resalta su capacidad de diálogo y escucha activa en identificación de violencia. Refieren posibilidad de ser escuchadas en la generación de acciones frente a este problema. Discusión: necesidad de asumir una postura política estatal sobre la partería, que permita reconocer su papel en la sociedad y la posibilidad de incorporarlas en las acciones que hacen frente al problema de la violencia, y valorar los elementos propios de su ejercicio en la detección y manejo de estas mujeres. Objetive: to explore the experiences and perspectives that a group of midwives from Jalisco, Mexico had with women who were abused during pregnancy and delivery. Methodology: a qualitative study was conducted in a rural zone of Jalisco, Mexico, between May and October 2011 with 24 midwives. The techniques used to obtain the data were: individual interviews, life history, and the participatory regional assembly. After collecting the discourses, these were analyzed using the semiotic actantial model. Results: the midwives are familiar with the violence exercised against women during the pregnancy and birth process; this is mainly

  9. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  10. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood.

  11. Art Therapy with Orphaned Children: Dynamics of Early Relational Trauma and Repetition Compulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakova, Ksenia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of orphaned children's engagement with art therapy in a group of preadolescent children living in a Russian orphanage. The phenomenon of repetition compulsion (i.e., origins in past traumatic experiences, destructive consequences, and protective psychic function) is discussed with respect to the children's…

  12. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2…

  13. New Evidence for the Theory of Chromosome Organization by Repetitive Elements (CORE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shao-Jun

    2017-02-20

    Repetitive DNA elements were proposed to coordinate chromatin folding and interaction in chromosomes by their intrinsic homology-based clustering ability. A recent analysis of the data sets from chromosome-conformation-capture experiments confirms the spatial clustering of DNA repeats of the same family in the nuclear space, and thus provides strong new support for the CORE theory.

  14. Development of a picosecond CO2 laser system for a high-repetition γ-source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyanskiy, M.N.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; Yakimenko, V.E.; Platonenko, V.T.

    2009-04-17

    The concept of a high-repetition-rate, high-average power {gamma}-source is based on Compton backscattering from the relativistic electron beam inside a picosecond CO{sub 2} laser cavity. Proof-of-principle experiments combined with computer simulations allow evaluating the promise of this approach for novel applications in science and technology.

  15. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  16. Towards a Post-Modern Science Education Curriculum-Discourse: Repetition of a Dream Catcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Kierkegaard's idea of repetition as a dynamic conversation between groups that reveals possible changes in a discourse. Describes an instructor's experiences imparting a science education methods course in a Native American school in Saskatchewan, highlighting the conversation between the instructors' past and Native American culture.…

  17. Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist

    OpenAIRE

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica; Tenjović Lazar; Išpanović Veronika; Mitković Marija; Radosavljev-Kirćanski Jelena; Minčić Teodora; Miletić Vladimir; Draganić-Gajić Saveta; Lečić-Toševski Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants ...

  18. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  19. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  20. Dual-Comb Coherent Raman Spectroscopy with Lasers of 1-GHz Pulse Repetition Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate spectra of liquids, which span 1100 cm$^{-1}$ of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6 cm$^{-1}$, their measurement time may be as short as 5 microseconds for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved ten-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  1. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  2. Opportunities for computer abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  3. Opportunities for computer abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  4. Abusing National Privilege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  5. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  6. Transitions between corona, glow, and spark regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, David,; Lacoste, Deanna,; Laux, C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In atmospheric pressure air preheated from 300 to 1000 K, the nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) method has been used to generate corona, glow, and spark discharges. Experiments have been performed to determine the parameter space (applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency, ambient gas temperature, and interelectrode gap distance) of each discharge regime. In particular, the experimental conditions necessary for the glow regime of NRP discharges have been determine...

  7. Connection between classroom abuse and manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents' self-statements in questionnaires about childhood abuse and by the scales of manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism. The frequency analysis has shown that various forms of emotional abuse are more common in schools than physical abuse, and that they are reaching disturbing proportions. For example, more than half of the participants in the study reported facing intimidation and threats in school, and over a third of them have been yelled at. Although less commonplace, physical abuse in school can by no means be ignored. Those students who suffer from frequent physical abuse are more dissatisfied with school (r=0.174, p<0.05), display more aggressiveness (r=0.441, p<0.001), and are more often boys (r=0.324, p<0.01). Those students who are frequently emotionally abused are more anxious (r=0.281, p<0.01), dissatisfied with school (r=0.237, p<0.01), and display more manifest aggressiveness (r=398, p<0.01). The discriminant analysis has shown that the bullied students can be differentiated from their non-abused schoolmates as they are manifestly more anxious and aggressive, regardless of whether they suffer physical or emotional abuse. Instances of different forms of emotional and physical classroom abuse have increased alarmingly. Such traumatic experiences affect children's health and functioning in school, as well as in their private lives. The interdisciplinary studies of this phenomenon and the education of all those who work with young people emerge as the top priority in the prevention of this kind

  8. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  9. Repetition priming of words and nonwords in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Beth A.; Shenaut, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines the magnitude and direction of nonword and word lexical decision repetition priming effects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal aging, focusing specifically on the negative priming effect sometimes observed with repeated nonwords. Method Probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (30), elderly normal controls (34), and young normal controls (49) participated in a repetition priming experiment using low-frequency words and word-like nonwords with a letter-level orthographic orienting task at study followed by a lexical decision test phase. Results Although participants' reaction times were longer in AD compared to elderly normal, and elderly normal compared to young normal, the repetition priming effect and the degree to which the repetition priming effect was reversed for nonwords compared to words was unaffected by AD or normal aging. Conclusion AD patients, like young and elderly normal participants, are able to modify (in the case of words) and create (in the case of nonwords) long-term memory traces for lexical stimuli, based on a single orthographic processing trial. The nonword repetition results are discussed from the perspective of new vocabulary learning commencing with a provisional lexical memory trace created after orthographic encoding of a novel word-like letter string. PMID:25000325

  10. Switchable repetition rate bound solitons passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuqin; Yao, Yong

    2016-11-01

    We present a kind of a switchable repetition rate mode-locked of bound-state solitons in a fiber laser based on Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). In the fiber laser, two forms of the bound-state optical spectrum with central wavelength of 1532 nm are observed. The fiber laser is operate at the abnormal group velocity dispersion and the bound state pulses are equally distributed to the temporal domain. The fundamental cavity repetition-rate is 1.11 MHz with a pulse duration of 2.27 ps. The output average power and the pulse peak energy are 1.53 mW and 607 W respectively, which the pump power is 267 mW. The different repetition-rates are also achieved by changing the pump power or adjusting the angle of polarization controller. In the experiment, the repetition-rate is switched from 1.11 MHz to 41.32 MHz (37th-order, the highest repetition-rate).

  11. A vacuum-sealed, gigawatt-class, repetitively pulsed high-power microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Tao; Fan, Yu-wei; Yang, Han-wu; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Chen, Dong-qun; Zhang, Jian-de

    2017-06-01

    A compact L-band sealed-tube magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) has been developed that does not require bulky external vacuum pump for repetitive operations. This device with a ceramic insulated vacuum interface, a carbon fiber array cathode, and non-evaporable getters has a base vacuum pressure in the low 10-6 Pa range. A dynamic 3-D Monte-Carlo model for the molecular flow movement and collision was setup for the MILO chamber. The pulse desorption, gas evolution, and pressure distribution were exactly simulated. In the 5 Hz repetition rate experiments, using a 600 kV diode voltage and 48 kA beam current, the average radiated microwave power for 25 shots is about 3.4 GW in 45 ns pulse duration. The maximum equilibrium pressure is below 4.0 × 10-2 Pa, and no pulse shortening limitations are observed during the repetitive test in the sealed-tube condition.

  12. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  13. Drug Abuse: The Company Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roy D.

    This paper establishes a uniform drug abuse policy for organizational employees. This policy is modeled after recommendations made by the National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., and deals with alcoholism as an element of the drug abuse problem. Organizational behavior understudy involves the standard of on-the-job-performance. When…

  14. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by those o

  15. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  16. Counseling with the Drug Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, George D.

    Counselors, in the past few years, have had to work with a great many drug abusers. While successes are difficult to evaluate, the failures are glaringly evident. In a search for a more effective method of working with drug abusers, 12 questions were devised. These are self-evaluative and directed at the counselor. If a counselor can openly and…

  17. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  18. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  19. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  20. Child abuse by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  1. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  2. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  3. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  4. Childhood abuse and later marital outcomes: Do partner characteristics moderate the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Teresa P; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-02-01

    Although people with a history of child abuse are known to be at elevated risk for later difficulties in relationships, there is debate over whether these effects are enduring and relatively immutable or are moderated by characteristics and behaviors of the partner. To reconcile these competing perspectives, we conducted a longitudinal study of 414 newlywed couples living in low-income neighborhoods, testing whether the association between abuse history and relationship satisfaction is dependent on the partners' aggression, depression, substance abuse, observed communication, and other demographic risk factors. Spouses who had been abused as children (25% of husbands, 31% of wives) reported more symptoms of depression and substance abuse and, among husbands, displayed more negative communication. Spouses with a history of child abuse were also less satisfied with their marriage, even as newlyweds; abused wives also declined in satisfaction over time compared to those without this history. However, interactions between abuse history and all of the proposed moderators were not significant, indicating that partner and relationship characteristics failed to strengthen or weaken the association between abuse history and relationship satisfaction. Childhood experiences of abuse appear to have lasting and broad effects on individual and relational outcomes, and these effects are neither heightened nor mitigated by the partner's characteristics or behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays.

  6. Relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rostami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is behavior in which child faces physical, sexual, negligence and emotional abuses. This study’s aimed to investigate relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies among women. Statistical population included all of married women in Tehran. The sample contains 182 participants who were selected by convenience sampling method entertainment centers, shopping centers, health centers and cultural centers. The data were collected by Mohammad Khani’s self-report questionnaire, Neff's self-compassion scale and coping strategies of Blings and Mous. The findings showed that emotional abuse with mean of 23.54 was the hisgest and physical abuse with mean of 7.87 was the lowest one. Results showed that there is negative relationship between the abuse’s total score and self-compassion’s total score. All physical abuse's subscales, emotional abuse and negligence can predict the self-compassion except sexual abuse. Also none of the abuse subscales can predict the stress-coping methods. The results have shown that the experience of abuse in childhood injury ,can be affected him in adulthood on self-concept and coping responces to stress and problems.

  7. Repetitive elements dynamics in cell identity programming, maintenance and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Bodega, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The days of \\'junk DNA\\' seem to be over. The rapid progress of genomics technologies has been unveiling unexpected mechanisms by which repetitive DNA and in particular transposable elements (TEs) have evolved, becoming key issues in understanding genome structure and function. Indeed, rather than \\'parasites\\', recent findings strongly suggest that TEs may have a positive function by contributing to tissue specific transcriptional programs, in particular as enhancer-like elements and/or modules for regulation of higher order chromatin structure. Further, it appears that during development and aging genomes experience several waves of TEs activation, and this contributes to individual genome shaping during lifetime. Interestingly, TEs activity is major target of epigenomic regulation. These findings are shedding new light on the genome-phenotype relationship and set the premises to help to explain complex disease manifestation, as consequence of TEs activity deregulation.

  8. Repetition blindness for natural images of objects with viewpoint changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eBuffat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, observers sometimes fail to report the second occurrence of a target. This phenomenon is referred to as repetition blindness (RB. We report an RSVP experiment with photographs in which we manipulated object viewpoints between the first and second occurrences of a target (0-, 45-, or 90-degree changes, and spatial frequency content. Natural images were spatially filtered to produce low, medium, or high spatial-frequency stimuli. RB was observed for all filtering conditions. Surprisingly, for full-spectrum images, RB increased significantly as the viewpoint reached 90 degrees. For filtered images, a similar pattern of results was found for all conditions except for medium spatial-frequency stimuli. These findings suggest that object recognition in RSVP are subtended by viewpoint-specific representations for all spatial frequencies except medium ones.

  9. Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Yu.; Zhirkov, I. S.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10-2 mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

  10. Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  12. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  14. Dissecting the functional anatomy of auditory word repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew Hadley Hope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory word repetition involves many different brain regions, whose functions are still far from fully understood. Here, we use a single, multi-factorial, within-subjects fMRI design to identify those regions, and to functionally distinguish the multiple linguistic and non-linguistic processing areas that are all involved in repeating back heard words. The study compared: (1 auditory to visual inputs; (2 phonological to non-phonological inputs; (3 semantic to non-semantic inputs; and (4 speech production to finger-press responses. The stimuli included words (semantic and phonological inputs, pseudowords (phonological input, pictures and sounds of animals or objects (semantic input, and coloured patterns and hums (non-semantic and non-phonological. The speech production tasks involved auditory repetition, reading and naming while the finger press tasks involved one-back matching.The results from the main effects and interactions were compared to predictions from a previously reported functional anatomical model of language based on a meta-analysis of many different neuroimaging experiments. Although many findings from the current experiment replicated those predicted, our within-subject design also revealed novel results by providing sufficient anatomical precision to distinguish several different regions within: (1 the anterior insula (a dorsal region involved in both covert and overt speech production, and a more ventral region involved in overt speech only; (2 the pars orbitalis (with distinct sub-regions responding to phonological and semantic processing; (3 the anterior cingulate and SMA (whose subregions show differential sensitivity to speech and finger press responses; and (4 the cerebellum (with distinct regions for semantic processing, speech production and domain general processing. We also dissociated four different types of phonological effects in, respectively, the left superior temporal sulcus, left putamen, left ventral premoto

  15. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of...

  16. Disclosure of sexual abuse among youth in residential treatment care: a multiple informant comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Lise; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the child sexual abuse experiences of 53 youth (ages 14-17) in child protective services residential treatment care using three informants: youth (via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), residential treatment workers (via the Child Welfare Trauma Referral Tool), and the child protective services record. Child sexual abuse was self-reported by 38% of youth, with reporting by females almost four times higher. Child sexual abuse co-occurred with physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect in 75% of cases. Agreement between youth and residential treatment worker reports was high, while agreement between youth reports and their child protective services record was low. The study suggests systematic child sexual abuse screening among residential treatment care youth through self-reports and residential treatment worker reports. Case studies are provided, and implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  17. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  18. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  19. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  20. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  1. Factors Associated with the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of 69 girls and 21 boys who had been sexually abused, approximately half were diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD symptoms were related to the nature of the abusive experiences and exacerbated by feelings of guilt. Findings indicate that the impact of the trauma may be mediated (positively or negatively) by the child's…

  2. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  3. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  4. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  5. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  6. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  7. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  8. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat substance use disorders and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasio, Maria I B; da Silva, João P L; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Cruz, Marcelo S

    2015-01-01

    Compulsions, like pathological gambling, binge-eating disorder, alcohol, tobacco or cocaine abuse and compulsive shopping have similar neurophysiological processing. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving patient control over compulsive behavior. The rTMS modulatory role in cortical mesolimbic pathways possibly implies improvement of the inhibitory control system and compulsive consumption drive. Thus, craving reduction would be a component for control achievement. Within this context, 17 studies were found. Most studies applied rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving reduction was observed in 10 studies and was associated with improved control of compulsion in two of them. In one study reduction in consumption was found without reduction in craving. In addition, improvement in decision making was found in one study.

  9. Elder abuse: research, practice, and health policy. The 2012 GSA Maxwell Pollack award lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinqi

    2014-04-01

    Elder abuse, also called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adults experiences some form of elder abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is independently associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with this pervasive issue. In this paper, I review the epidemiology of elder abuse as well as key practical issues in dealing with the cases of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a Congressional Policy Fellow/National Health and Aging Policy Fellow, I highlight key previsions on 2 major federal legislations dealing with the issues of elder abuse: Older Americans Act (OAA) and Elder Justice Act (EJA). Lastly, I highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions to advance the field of elder abuse. Interdisciplinary and community-based efforts are needed to devise effective strategies to detect, treat, and prevent elder abuse in our increasingly diverse aging populations. Collective advocacy and policy advances are needed to create a national infrastructure to protect the vulnerable older adults.

  10. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  11. Women prisoners, mental health, violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Morag

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the specific experiences of women in prison, focusing on previous (and continuing) physical and mental abuse, the consequent health care requirements of women prisoners, the policy response and the availability of suitable health care in prisons across the EU. It draws from an extensive review of the literature on women prisoners across Europe that was part of an on-going European Project funded by the DAPHNE programme of the European Commission, entitled 'DAPHNE Strong'. It also uses the field research from the project collected via surveys and in-depth interviews with key personnel in organisations that work with women prisoners or ex-prisoners and staff with a strategic overview of activity from the ministries of justice, police, prison service and women's support organisations. There are probably many more women prisoners with a history of domestic abuse than is officially recognised. Many of the women prison population who have experienced violence and abuse mask this by problematic drug or alcohol use as well as self-injury. These are key areas that training for prison staff needs to address. The availability of services for this group of women is inconsistent within and between countries of the EU. The political will to address the situation of women in prison, as distinct from the norms applied to men, is variable and it seems to take the determined efforts of active lobby groups to make inroads into an area of latent inertia.

  12. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louwers Eveline CFM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

  13. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Raffa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse.

  14. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  15. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  16. Caveats of bisphosphonate abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Agarwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs are the common drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Short term benefits of the BPs are well known. However, there are concerns regarding their long term use. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between atypical femoral fractures and BP misuse/abuse as well as study the outcome of management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of a prospectively studied patients who presented with atypical femoral fractures between January 2010 and August 2012 and were followed up upto June 2014. The cohort consisted of nine female patients (12 fractures with an average age of 71 years (range 58-85 years. Analysis was done for the indications, duration of BP use, configuration of associated fractures and method of treatment. Results: The mean duration of BP use was 6.6 years (range 4-10 years. BP treatment was initiated without sufficient indication and continued without proper review and followup in most cases. Most patients did not followup and continued to consume BPs without any review by the doctors. All patients had prodromal thigh pain of various duration, which was inadequately investigated and managed before the presentation. Two cases with an incomplete fracture and no thigh pain were managed successfully with conservative treatment. The rest were treated by surgery with intramedullary nailing. The average union time was longer and two fractures went into nonunion which required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Atypical femoral fractures appear to be strongly related to abuse of BPs. Great care is to be exercised at initiation as well as the continuation of BP therapy, and regular review is required. There is a need for improved awareness among physicians about the possibility of such fractures, and interpretation of thigh pain and radiological findings, especially if the patient has been on BPs therapy. Internal fixation for complete

  17. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  18. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  19. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  20. Women and Drugs: The Heroin Abuser and the Prescription Drug Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierres, Sara E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on female drug use/abuse and derived descriptions of the female heroin abuser and the female prescription drug abuser. Researchers suggest that problems of female drug abusers should be viewed in terms of the feminine role as well as the role of drug abuser. (BH)

  1. Drug abuse among the students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  2. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  3. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  4. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  5. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  6. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  7. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  8. The joint contribution of experiencing and witnessing violence during childhood on child abuse in the parent role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan M

    2003-12-01

    This article examines adult respondents' abuse of children as a consequence of their own childhood experiences of abuse, both direct experiences of childhood violence (hitting) and exposure to interparental violence (witnessing). In particular, the study examines the extent to which these factors function interactively: Are both experience and exposure necessary or is either sufficient to increase disproportionately the probability of child abuse? Using data from the Second National Family Violence Survey, results of a logistic regression analysis show that either or both factors produced higher than average and relatively similar rates of child abuse. Only respondents with neither form of family violence reported lower than average rates of abuse of their own children. The analysis controlled for gender, race, family income, and family structure; race was the only control variable to be significantly associated with child abuse. Finally, no control variable modified the interaction between the family violence variables.

  9. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  10. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  11. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  12. The Abuse of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter G.

    1973-01-01

    Today's drug information programs may be responsible for increasing drug abuse. A large percentage of existing materials are inaccurate, moralistic and ineffective. This article discusses these points and recommends materials that avoid them. (40 references) (DH)

  13. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despi...

  14. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...

  15. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  16. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  17. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  18. When I was in my home I suffered a lot: Mexican women's descriptions of abuse in family of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann; Cruz, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    In this descriptive study we employ episodic narrative interviews and narrative analysis to explore experiences of abuse and violence within the families of origin of Mexican women entering adulthood. Twenty-four Mexican women, 18 years of age and about to graduate from a residential school in central Mexico, were interviewed about life in their families of origin. Participants were from several Mexican states and of low socioeconomic status. Nineteen of the participants described either witnessing or experiencing violence or abuse within their families. We present an analysis of the interviews in which violence or abuse was disclosed. Women who witnessed violence against their mothers did not see this as prescriptive of their own future relationships and articulated strategies for avoiding entering an abusive relationship. Women who experienced nonsexual physical violence described physical violence as punishment. Women who experienced sexual abuse did not provide explanations for the abuse and described being silent in response to the abuse.

  19. Spine Injuries in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Julio J; Perfetti, Dean C; Cautela, Frank S; Frumberg, David B; Naziri, Qais; Paulino, Carl B

    2016-09-22

    Although rare, spinal injuries associated with abuse can have potentially devastating implications in the pediatric population. We analyzed the association of pediatric spine injury in abused children and determined the anatomic level of the spine affected, while also focusing on patient demographics, length of stay, and total hospital charges compared with spine patients without a diagnosis of abuse. A retrospective review of the Kids' Inpatient Database was conducted from 2000 to 2012 to identify pediatric patients (below 18 y) who sustained vertebral column fractures or spinal cord injuries. Patients with a documented diagnosis of abuse were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Our statistical models consisted of multivariate linear regressions that were adjusted for age, race, and sex. There were 22,192 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of spinal cord or vertebral column injury during the study period, 116 (0.5%) of whom also had a documented diagnosis of abuse. The most common type of abuse was physical (75.9%). Compared with nonabused patients, abused patients were more likely to be below 2 years of age (OR=133.4; 95% CI, 89.5-198.8), female (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.41), and nonwhite (black: OR=3.86; 95% CI, 2.31-6.45; Hispanic: OR=2.86; 95% CI, 1.68-4.86; other: OR=2.33; 95% CI, 1.11-4.86). Abused patients also presented with an increased risk of thoracic (OR=2.57; 95% CI, 1.67-3.97) and lumbar (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.03-2.72) vertebral column fractures and had a multivariate-adjusted mean length of stay that was 62.2% longer (P<0.001) and mean total charges that were 52.9% higher (P<0.001) compared with nonabused patients. Furthermore, 19.7% of all pediatric spine patients under 2 years of age admitted during the study period belonged to the abused cohort. Spine injuries are rare but can be found in the pediatric population. With an additional documented diagnosis of abuse, these injuries affect younger patients in the thoracolumbar region of the spine

  20. Meth abuse and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Deviprasad Makonahally; Vaibhav Gupta; Pushpanjali Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series o...