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Sample records for repetition time tr

  1. Multiple repetition time balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Tolga; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2009-07-01

    Although balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging yields high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency, the bright lipid signal is often undesirable. The bSSFP spectrum can be shaped to suppress the fat signal with scan-efficient alternating repetition time (ATR) bSSFP. However, the level of suppression is limited, and the pass-band is narrow due to its nonuniform shape. A multiple repetition time (TR) bSSFP scheme is proposed that creates a broad stop-band with a scan efficiency comparable with ATR-SSFP. Furthermore, the pass-band signal uniformity is improved, resulting in fewer shading/banding artifacts. When data acquisition occurs in more than a single TR within the multiple-TR period, the echoes can be combined to significantly improve the level of suppression. The signal characteristics of the proposed technique were compared with bSSFP and ATR-SSFP. The multiple-TR method generates identical contrast to bSSFP, and achieves up to an order of magnitude higher stop-band suppression than ATR-SSFP. In vivo studies at 1.5 T and 3 T demonstrate the superior fat-suppression performance of multiple-TR bSSFP.

  2. Clinical application of gradient echo sequences with prolonged repetition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiling, R.; Fink, U.; Deimling, M.; Bauer, W.M.; Yousry, T.; Krauss, B.

    1988-09-01

    Studies designed to optimise image contrasts of gradient echo sequences showed, that especially repetition times between 250 and 500 ms in combination with adequate echo times and flip angles provide new image contrasts. The clinical purpose of gradient echo sequences with longer TR was systematically evaluated in 450 patients. A major advantage of GE sequences was the low signal intensity of fat and bone tissue. On the other hand differnt pathologic changes showed a high signal intensity in comparison to T/sub 2/ weighted spin echo sequences as well. With the possibility of multiple slices GE sequences were of outstanding diagnostic value especially in MR of soft tissue and of the musculoskeletal system. T/sub 2/ weighted SE sequences provided no additional informations and could therefore be omitted in a great number of examinations.

  3. TR01: Time-continuous Sparse Imputation

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmeke, J F

    2009-01-01

    An effective way to increase the noise robustness of automatic speech recognition is to label noisy speech features as either reliable or unreliable (missing) prior to decoding, and to replace the missing ones by clean speech estimates. We present a novel method to obtain such clean speech estimates. Unlike previous imputation frameworks which work on a frame-by-frame basis, our method focuses on exploiting information from a large time-context. Using a sliding window approach, denoised speech representations are constructed using a sparse representation of the reliable features in an overcomplete basis of fixed-length exemplar fragments. We demonstrate the potential of our approach with experiments on the AURORA-2 connected digit database.

  4. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  5. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2017-04-28

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a timereversal (TR) based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multi-person breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TRBREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 seconds of measurement, a mean accuracy of 99% can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of 98:65% in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight (LOS) scenario and a mean accuracy of 98:07% in breathing rate estimation of 9 people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 seconds of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  6. Variations in Repetition Duration and Repetition Numbers Influence Muscular Activation and Blood Lactate Response in Protocols Equalized by Time Under Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Lucas T; Martins-Costa, Hugo C; Diniz, Rodrigo C R; Lima, Fernando V; Andrade, André G P; Tourino, Frank D; Bemben, Michael G; Chagas, Mauro H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT) but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed 2 training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6-second repetition duration for each repetition, whereas in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3-second repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the 2 protocols, and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and until 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared with Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and were higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses so that performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.

  7. Transit timing, depth, and duration variation in exoplanet TrES-2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaňko M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on our ongoing search for timing, duration, and depth variations in the exoplanet TrES-2. In Raetz et al. (2009 we already presented ten different transits obtained at the University Observatory Jena. Between November 2008 and August 2010 twelve additional transits could be observed. The timing, depth and duration of each individual event was analyzed and is presented here.

  8. Repetition suppression and expectation suppression are dissociable in time in early auditory evoked fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Ana; de Lange, Floris P

    2012-09-26

    Repetition of a stimulus, as well as valid expectation that a stimulus will occur, both attenuate the neural response to it. These effects, repetition suppression and expectation suppression, are typically confounded in paradigms in which the nonrepeated stimulus is also relatively rare (e.g., in oddball blocks of mismatch negativity paradigms, or in repetition suppression paradigms with multiple repetitions before an alternation). However, recent hierarchical models of sensory processing inspire the hypothesis that the two might be separable in time, with repetition suppression occurring earlier, as a consequence of local transition probabilities, and suppression by expectation occurring later, as a consequence of learnt statistical regularities. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory experiment by orthogonally manipulating stimulus repetition and stimulus expectation and, using magnetoencephalography, measuring the neural response over time in human subjects. We found that stimulus repetition (but not stimulus expectation) attenuates the early auditory response (40-60 ms), while stimulus expectation (but not stimulus repetition) attenuates the subsequent, intermediate stage of auditory processing (100-200 ms). These findings are well in line with hierarchical predictive coding models, which posit sequential stages of prediction error resolution, contingent on the level at which the hypothesis is generated.

  9. Symmetrically biased T/R switches for NMR and MRI with microsecond dead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, David O.; Furrer, Lukas; Weiger, Markus; Baumberger, Werner; Schmid, Thomas; Reber, Jonas; Dietrich, Benjamin E.; Wilm, Bertram J.; Froidevaux, Romain; Pruessmann, Klaas P.

    2016-02-01

    For direct NMR detection and imaging of compounds with very short coherence life times the dead time between radio-frequency (RF) pulse and reception of the free induction decay (FID) is a major limiting factor. It is typically dominated by the transient and recovery times of currently available transmit-receive (T/R) switches and amplification chains. A novel PIN diode-based T/R switch topology is introduced allowing for fast switching by high bias transient currents but nevertheless producing a very low video leakage signal and insertion loss (0.5 dB). The low transient spike level in conjunction with the high isolation (75 dB) prevent saturation of the preamplifier entirely which consequently does not require time for recovery. Switching between transmission and reception is demonstrated within less than 1 μs in bench tests as well as in acquisitions of FIDs and zero echo time (ZTE) images with bandwidths up to 500 kHz at 7 T. Thereby the 2 kW switch exhibited a rise-time of 350 ns (10-99%) producing however a total video leakage of below 20 mV peak-to-peak and less than -89 dBm in-band. The achieved switching time renders the RF pulse itself the dominant contribution to the dead time in which a coherence cannot be observed, thus making pulsed NMR experiments almost time-optimal even for compounds with very short signal life times.

  10. Concept mediation in trilingual translation: evidence from response time and repetition priming patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gallard, Sabrina L K

    2005-12-01

    Translation responses to individual words were elicited from 48 English-Spanish-French trilinguals, who translated in six directions at study and two directions at test. Patterns of translation response times and error rates at study reflected the relative proficiency of the trilinguals in comprehension and production of their three languages. At test, repeated items were translated more quickly than new items, with the strongest priming effects occurring for identical repetitions. Repetition priming was also substantial when only the stimulus language or only the response language matched from study to test, implying that repeated comprehension and production processes contribute to priming in translation. Patterns of response times and repetition priming indicate that translation in all directions involved conceptual access. Additive patterns in response time asymmetries and repetition priming were consistent with the treatment of word comprehension and production processes of translation as independent.

  11. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  12. New Parameters and Transit Timing Studies for OGLE2-TR-L9 b

    CERN Document Server

    Lendl, M; Koppenhoefer, J; Nikolov, N; Henning, Th; Swain, M; Greiner, J

    2010-01-01

    Context: Repeated observations of exoplanet transits allow us to refine the planetary parameters and probe them for any time dependent variations. In particular deviations of the period from a strictly linear ephemeris, transit timing variations (TTVs), can indicate the presence of additional bodies in the planetary system. Aims: Our goal was to reexamine the largely unstudied OGLE2-TR-L9 system with high cadence, multi-color photometry in order to refine the planetary parameters and probe the system for TTVs. Methods: We observed five full transits of OGLE2-TR-L9 with the GROND instrument at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla Observatory. GROND is a multichannel imager that allowed us to gather simultaneous light curves in the g', r', i', and z' filters. Results: From our analysis we find that the semi-major axis and the inclination differ from the previously published values. With the newly observed transits, we were able to refine the ephemeris to 2454492.80008(+/- 0.00014) + 2.48553417(+/- 6.4) x 10^...

  13. Effects of inspiratory muscle training upon recovery time during high intensity, repetitive sprint activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, L M; McConnell, A K; Jones, D A

    2002-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon recovery time during repetitive sprint activity, as well as the physiological and perceptual responses to fixed intensity shuttle running. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 male repetitive sprint athletes were assigned randomly to either an IMT (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) group. The self-selected recovery time during a repetitive sprint test and the physiological response to submaximal endurance exercise were determined. Following completion of baseline and pre-intervention measures, the IMT group performed 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily against a resistance equivalent to 50 % maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) for 6 wk. The placebo group performed 60 breaths once daily, for 6 wk, at a resistance equivalent to 15 % MIP, a load known to elicit negligible changes in respiratory muscle function. The IMT group improved total recovery time during the repetitive sprint test by 6.2 +/- 1.1 % (mean +/- SEM) above the changes noted for the placebo group (p = 0.006). Blood lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise were also significantly attenuated following IMT (p attenuates the blood lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal endurance exercise. In addition, the present study provides new evidence that IMT improves recovery time during high intensity, intermittent exercise in repetitive sprint athletes.

  14. Sequential time interleaved random equivalent sampling for repetitive signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijiu; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-12-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) based sampling techniques exhibit many advantages over other existing approaches for sparse signal spectrum sensing; they are also incorporated into non-uniform sampling signal reconstruction to improve the efficiency, such as random equivalent sampling (RES). However, in CS based RES, only one sample of each acquisition is considered in the signal reconstruction stage, and it will result in more acquisition runs and longer sampling time. In this paper, a sampling sequence is taken in each RES acquisition run, and the corresponding block measurement matrix is constructed using a Whittaker-Shannon interpolation formula. All the block matrices are combined into an equivalent measurement matrix with respect to all sampling sequences. We implemented the proposed approach with a multi-cores analog-to-digital converter (ADC), whose ADC cores are time interleaved. A prototype realization of this proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling method has been developed. It is able to capture an analog waveform at an equivalent sampling rate of 40 GHz while sampled at 1 GHz physically. Experiments indicate that, for a sparse signal, the proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling exhibits high efficiency.

  15. A Real-Time Terahertz Time-Domain Polarization Analyzer with 80-MHz Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Tachizaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer by using 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is based on the spinning electro-optic sensor method, which we recently proposed and demonstrated by using a regenerative amplifier laser system; here we improve the detection scheme in order to be able to use it with a femtosecond laser oscillator with laser pulses of a much higher repetition rate. This improvement brings great advantages for realizing broadband, compact and stable real-time terahertz time-domain polarization measurement systems for scientific and industrial applications.

  16. A real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer with 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Yasumatsu, Naoya; Oguchi, Kenichi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Tachizaki, Takehiro

    2013-03-11

    We have developed a real-time terahertz time-domain polarization analyzer by using 80-MHz repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is based on the spinning electro-optic sensor method, which we recently proposed and demonstrated by using a regenerative amplifier laser system; here we improve the detection scheme in order to be able to use it with a femtosecond laser oscillator with laser pulses of a much higher repetition rate. This improvement brings great advantages for realizing broadband, compact and stable real-time terahertz time-domain polarization measurement systems for scientific and industrial applications.

  17. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  18. Efeito de uma e três repetições de 10 segundos de insistência do método estático para o aumento da flexibilidade em homens adultos jovens = Effects of one and three repetitions of tem seconds duration using the static stretching to improvement of flexibility in young adults men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Voigt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou o comportamento da flexibilidade em homens de uma e três repetições de 10 segundos do método estático. Os 91 indivíduos foram divididos em três grupos: controle GC (n = 16 ± 23,5 anos; grupo de uma repetição G1 (n = 38 ± 23,8 anos que foi submetido ao método estático, utilizando uma repetição com duração de 10 segundos de permanência e o grupo de estudo de três repetições G3 (n = 37 ± 22,5 anos que repetia três vezes cada movimento durante 10 segundos com 10 segundos de intervalo entre eles: A flexibilidade de abdução do ombro (AO e a flexão de quadril (FQ foram aferidas por meio da goniometria, respeitando o protocolo do Labifie. Foi utilizado o teste t-Student pareado para verificar as diferenças de média intragrupos. A análise de variância (ANOVA one way, por meiodo modelo matemático do índice de razão (Raz = pós-teste/pré-teste mostrou aumentos significativos para o G3 quando comparado ao G1 e o GC nos movimentos AO e FQ. A AO apresentou diferença significativa entre G1 x G3; G3 x GC não demonstrando diferença entre G1 x GC. Já na FQ, observou-se diferença significativa entre todos os grupos. Conclui-se que o método proposto foi mais eficiente quando repetido três vezes. This study analyzed the flexibility of one and three ten-second repetitions using the static method. Ninety-one men were divided into three groups: CG, control (n = 16 ± 23.5 years of age; G1, one-repetition group (n = 38 ± 23.8 years of age, which was subjected to the static method, doing one repetition with ten seconds of residence; and G3, a study group with three repetitions (n = 37 ±22.5 years of age, repeating each movement three times for ten seconds with a ten-second interval between them: the flexibility of shoulder abduction (SA and hip flexor (HF were measured by goniometry with the protocol of LABIFIE. We used Student’s paired t-test to verify the differences in intragroup average. The analysis

  19. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  20. Effects of Material Emotional Valence on the Time Course of Massive Repetition Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongyan; Zhang, John X.

    2010-01-01

    Learning through repetition is a fundamental form and also an effective method of language learning critical for achieving proficient and automatic language use. Massive repetition priming as a common research paradigm taps into the dynamic processes involved in repetition learning. Research with this paradigm has so far used only emotionally…

  1. An Automatic Framework Using Space-Time Processing and TR-MUSIC for Subsurface and Through-Wall Multitarget Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-hao Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an automatic framework combined space-time signal processing with Time Reversal electromagnetic (EM inversion for subsurface and through-wall multitarget imaging using electromagnetic waves. This framework is composed of a frequency-wavenumber (FK filter to suppress direct wave and medium bounce, a FK migration algorithm to automatically estimate the number of targets and identify target regions, which can be used to reduce the computational complexity of the following imaging algorithm, and a EM inversion algorithm using Time Reversal Multiple Signal Classification (TR-MUSIC to reconstruct hidden objects. The feasibility of the framework is demonstrated with simulated data generated by GPRMAX.

  2. A transit timing analysis of nine RISE light curves of the exoplanet system TrES-3

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, N P; Skillen, I; Simpson, E K; Barros, S; Joshi, Y C; Todd, I; Benn, C; Christian, D; Hrudková, M; Keenan, F P; Steele, I A

    2009-01-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be Rp/Rstar=0.1664^{+0.0011}_{-0.0018} and i = 81.73^{+0.13}_{-0.04} respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving chi^2 = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a con...

  3. System parameters, transit times and secondary eclipse constraints of the exoplanet systems HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3 and WASP-3 from the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jessie L; Charbonneau, David; Deming, Drake; Holman, Matthew J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D; Barry, Richard K; Livengood, Timothy A; Hewagama, Tilak; Hampton, Don L; Lisse, Carey M; A'Hearn, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four "hot-Jupiter systems" with near-solar stars - HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2 and WASP-3. We observe ten transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius Rp = 1.332 \\pm 0.052 RJup, the stellar radius R \\star = 1.602 \\pm 0.061 R \\odot, the inclination i = 89.67 \\pm 0.30 degrees and the transit duration from first to fourth contact T = 255.6 \\pm 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits, and find Rp = 1.320 \\pm 0.057 RJup, R\\star = 0.817 \\pm 0.022 R\\odot, i = 81.99 \\pm 0.30 degrees and T = 81.9 \\pm 1.1 minutes. We also note a long term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2, and find Rp = 1.169 \\pm 0.034 RJup, R\\star = 0.940 \\pm 0.026 R\\odot, i = 84.15 \\pm 0.16 degrees and T = 107.3 \\pm 1.1 minutes. Finally...

  4. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttafava, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.buttafava@polimi.it; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Mora, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.

  5. A novel repetition space-time coding scheme for mobile FSO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cao, Yang; Li, Shu-ming; Yang, Shao-wen

    2015-03-01

    Considering the influence of more random atmospheric turbulence, worse pointing errors and highly dynamic link on the transmission performance of mobile multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optics (FSO) communication systems, this paper establishes a channel model for the mobile platform. Based on the combination of Alamouti space-time code and time hopping ultra-wide band (TH-UWB) communications, a novel repetition space-time coding (RSTC) method for mobile 2×2 free-space optical communications with pulse position modulation (PPM) is developed. In particular, two decoding methods of equal gain combining (EGC) maximum likelihood detection (MLD) and correlation matrix detection (CMD) are derived. When a quasi-static fading and weak turbulence channel model are considered, simulation results show that whether the channel state information (CSI) is known or not, the coding system demonstrates more significant performance of the symbol error rate (SER) than the uncoding. In other words, transmitting diversity can be achieved while conveying the information only through the time delays of the modulated signals transmitted from different antennas. CMD has almost the same effect of signal combining with maximal ratio combining (MRC). However, when the channel correlation increases, SER performance of the coding 2×2 system degrades significantly.

  6. Repetitively sampled time-of-flight mass spectrometry for gas-phase kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fockenberg, Christopher; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Hall, Gregory E.; Muckerman, James T.; Preses, Jack M.; Sears, Trevor J.; Weston, Ralph E.

    1999-08-01

    An apparatus has been constructed to study radical-radical reactions in the gas phase. It consists of a tubular quartz reactor in which radicals are produced by flash photolysis using an excimer laser as light source. The composition of the gas mixture is analyzed in situ by photoionizing sampled gases using the vacuum ultraviolet emission of a hollow cathode lamp and subsequent time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A simple arrangement of grids at the entrance to the flight tube is used to interrupt the constant flux of ions by application of a combination of constant and pulsed voltages. Individual mass spectra can be taken at a repetition rate of around 20 kHz following each photolysis event. Signal counts from a specified number of consecutive mass spectra are fed into a 2 GHz multiscaler and accumulated as a sampling-time-indexed series of mass spectra. This allows simultaneous observation of the concentrations of multiple transient or stable species on a millisecond time scale. To achieve a suitable signal-to-noise ratio, signals were typically accumulated over several tens of thousands of laser shots at a pulse rate of 10-15 Hz.

  7. Transit timing of TrES-2: a combined analysis of ground- and space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Raetz, St; Ginski, Ch; Mugrauer, M; Berndt, A; Eisenbeiss, T; Adam, Ch; Raetz, M; Roell, T; Seeliger, M; Marka, C; Vanko, M; Bukowiecki, L; Errmann, R; Kitze, M; Ohlert, J; Pribulla, T; Schmidt, J G; Sebastian, D; Puchalski, D; Tetzlaff, N; Hohle, M M; Schmidt, T O B; Neuhäuser, R

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous observations and careful analysis of transit light curves can lead to the identification of transit timing variations (TTVs). TrES-2 is one of few exoplanets, which offer the matchless possibility to combine long-term ground-based observations with continuous satellite data. Our research aimed at the search for TTVs that would be indicative of perturbations from additional bodies in the system. We also wanted to refine the system parameters and the orbital elements. We obtained 44 ground-based light curves of 31 individual transit events of TrES-2. Eight 0.2 - 2.2-m telescopes located at six observatories in Germany, Poland and Spain were used. In addition, we analysed 18 quarters (Q0-Q17) of observational data from NASA's space telescope Kepler including 435 individual transit events and 11 publicly available ground-based light curves. Assuming different limb darkening (LD) laws we performed an analysis for all light curves and redetermined the parameters of the system. We also carried out a join...

  8. Effects of preload 4 repetition maximum on 100-m sprint times in collegiate women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Elizabeth E; Prins, Jan H; Murata, Nathan M; Derenne, Coop; Morgan, Charles F; Solomon, John R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on track-sprint performance after a preload set of 4 repetition maximum (4RM) parallel back half-squat exercises in collegiate women. All subjects (n = 12) participated in 2 testing sessions over a 3-week period. During the first testing session, subjects performed the Controlled protocol consisting of a 4-minute standardized warm-up, followed by a 4-minute active rest, a 100-m track sprint, a second 4-minute active rest, finalized with a second 100-m sprint. The second testing session, the Treatment protocol, consisted of a 4-minute standardized warm-up, followed by 4-minute active rest, sprint, a second 4-minute active rest, a warm-up of 4RM parallel back half-squat, a third 9-minute active rest, finalized with a second sprint. The results indicated that there was a significant improvement of 0.19 seconds (p sprint was preceded by a 4RM back-squat protocol during Treatment. The standardized effect size, d, was 0.82, indicating a large effect size. Additionally, the results indicated that it would be expected that mean sprint times would increase 0.04-0.34 seconds (p 0.05). The findings suggest that performing a 4RM parallel back half-squat warm-up before a track sprint will have a positive PAP affect on decreased track-sprint times. Track coaches, looking for the "competitive edge" (PAP effect) may re-warm up their sprinters during meets.

  9. Efeito de uma e três repetições de 10 segundos de insistência do método estático para o aumento da flexibilidade em homens adultos jovens - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.7896 Effects of one and three repetitions of tem seconds duration using the static stretching to improvement of flexibility in young adults men - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v33i1.7896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário Lima

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou o comportamento da flexibilidade em homens de uma e três repetições de 10 segundos do método estático. Os 91 indivíduos foram divididos em três grupos: controle GC (n = 16 ± 23,5 anos; grupo de uma repetição G1 (n = 38 ± 23,8 anos que foi submetido ao método estático, utilizando uma repetição com duração de 10 segundos de permanência e o grupo de estudo de três repetições G3 (n = 37 ± 22,5 anos que repetia três vezes cada movimento durante 10 segundos com 10 segundos de intervalo entre eles: A flexibilidade de abdução do ombro (AO e a flexão de quadril (FQ foram aferidas por meio da goniometria, respeitando o protocolo do Labifie. Foi utilizado o teste t-Student pareado para verificar as diferenças de média intragrupos. A análise de variância (ANOVA one way, por meio do modelo matemático do índice de razão (Raz = pós-teste/pré-teste mostrou aumentos significativos para o G3 quando comparado ao G1 e o GC nos movimentos AO e FQ. A AO apresentou diferença significativa entre G1 x G3; G3 x GC não demonstrando diferença entre G1 x GC. Já na FQ, observou-se diferença significativa entre todos os grupos. Conclui-se que o método proposto foi mais eficiente quando repetido três vezes.This study analyzed the flexibility of one and three ten-second repetitions using the static method. Ninety-one men were divided into three groups: CG, control (n = 16 ± 23.5 years of age; G1, one-repetition group (n = 38 ± 23.8 years of age, which was subjected to the static method, doing one repetition with ten seconds of residence; and G3, a study group with three repetitions (n = 37 ± 22.5 years of age, repeating each movement three times for ten seconds with a ten-second interval between them: the flexibility of shoulder abduction (SA and hip flexor (HF were measured by goniometry with the protocol of LABIFIE. We used Student’s paired t-test to verify the differences in intragroup average. The analysis

  10. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-15

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to {sigma} <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at

  11. TrAVis to Enhance Online Tutoring and Learning Activities: Real-Time Visualization of Students Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Madeth; George, Sebastien; Prevot, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a part of our research work that places an emphasis on Tracking Data Analysis and Visualization (TrAVis) tools, a web-based system, designed to enhance online tutoring and learning activities, supported by computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. TrAVis is particularly dedicated to assist both tutors and students…

  12. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-Jie; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Teng-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  13. Real-time energy measurement of high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses using pulse integration and FPGA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-jie; Yang, Dong-xu; Wang, Jian; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-fei; Chen, Teng-yun

    2016-11-01

    Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA. The test result shows that the method with good linearity (4.770%) and without pulse measurement missing is suitable for ultrashort laser pulses with high repetition rate up to 100 MHz.

  14. Force time-history affects fatigue accumulation during repetitive handgrip tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael W; Hodder, Joanne N; Wells, Ryan; Potvin, Jim R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with a higher risk of workplace injury, in particular during repetitive tasks. This study aimed to identify the effect of a complex force-time history (a task with multiple different submaximal effort levels) on fatigue accumulation and recovery during a handgrip task. We measured surface electromyography of the brachioradialis (BRD) and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) of ten right hand dominant females with no history of upper limb injury while they performed a complex submaximal visually targeted gripping task. The task consisted of 15%, 30%, 45%, 30%, and 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) plateaus. Each plateau was held for 15s, followed by a 3s MVC and 3s of rest. The "pyramid" was repeated until fatigue criteria were met. Grip force, average EMG and mean power frequency (MnPF) for first cycle and fatigued last cycle, were compared. Post-plateau peak grip force was on average 20.5% MVC lower during the last cycle (pMVC after the first 15% MVC plateau (from baseline), by 5.3% MVC after the 30% MVC plateau and 6.8% MVC after the 45% MVC plateau. Further accumulation of fatigue after the second 30% MVC plateau however was minimal, only decreasing by 1.6% MVC. Recovery appeared to occur during the last 15% MVC plateau with an increase in post plateau grip force of 1.6% MVC. Interestingly, MnPF parameters confirmed significant fatigue accumulation during the back end of a force pyramid. We conclude that in a pattern of contractions with ascending, then descending force intensity, voluntary force recovery was present when the preceding force was of a lower intensity. These findings indicate preceding demands play a role in fatigue accumulation during complex tasks.

  15. Responding to emotional scenes: effects of response outcome and picture repetition on reaction times and the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Nina N; Keil, Andreas; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-12-06

    Processing the motivational relevance of a visual scene and reacting accordingly is crucial for survival. Previous work suggests the emotional content of naturalistic scenes affects response speed, such that unpleasant content slows responses whereas pleasant content accelerates responses. It is unclear whether these effects reflect motor-cognitive processes, such as attentional orienting, or vary with the function/outcome of the motor response itself. Four experiments manipulated participants' ability to terminate the picture (offset control) and, thereby, the response's function and motivational value. Attentive orienting was manipulated via picture repetition, which diminishes orienting. A total of N = 81 participants completed versions of a go/no-go task, discriminating between distorted versus intact pictures drawn from six content categories varying in positive, negative, or neutral valence. While all participants responded faster with repetition, only participants without offset control exhibited slower responses to unpleasant and accelerated responses to pleasant content. Emotional engagement, measured by the late positive potential, was not modulated by attentional orienting (repetition), suggesting that the interaction between repetition and offset control is not due to altered emotional engagement. Together, results suggest that response time changes as a function of emotional content and sensitivity to attention orienting depends on the motivational function of the motor response.

  16. Mechanical efficiency and force–time curve variation during repetitive jumping in trained and untrained jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Snyder, James G

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical efficiency (ME), the ratio between work performed and energy expenditure, is a useful criterion in determining the roles of stored elastic energy and chemically deduced energy contributing to concentric performance in stretch-shortening cycle movements. Increased force production during the eccentric phase has been shown to relate to optimal muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length change and thus optimization of usage of stored elastic energy. This phenomenon, as previously reported, is reflected by higher jump heights and ME. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if ME may be different between trained and untrained jumpers and thus be accounted for by variation in force production in the eccentric phase as a reflection of usage of stored elastic energy during various jump types. This investigation involved 9 trained (age 20.7 ± 3.2 years, height 178.6 ± 5.3 cm, body mass 79.0 ± 5.5 kg) and 7 untrained (age 21.43 ± 2.37 years, height 176.17 ± 10.89 cm, body mass 78.8 ± 12.5 kg) male jumpers. Trained subjects were Division I track and field athletes who compete in the horizontal or vertical jumping or running events. Force-time and displacement-time curves were obtained during jumping to determine jump height and to calculate work performed and to observe possible differences in force production in the eccentric phase. Respiratory gases with a metabolic cart were obtained during jumping to calculate energy expenditure. ME was calculated as the ratio between work performed and energy expenditure. The subjects completed four sessions involving 20 repetitions of countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps from 40 cm (DJ40), 60 cm (DJ60) and 80 cm (DJ80). The trained jumpers jumped significantly higher in the CMJ, DJ40, DJ60 and DJ80 conditions than their untrained counterparts (p ≤ 0.05). ME was significantly higher in the trained in comparison to the untrained jumpers during DJ40. The amount of negative work during all jump types was

  17. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  18. Long repetition time experiments for measurement of concentrations in systems with chemical exchange and undergoing temporal variation-comparison of methods with and without correction for saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbán, Craig J.; Spencer, Richard G. S.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods for quantifying metabolite concentrations using the one-pulse experiment for a sample undergoing chemical exchange and subject to an intervention or other temporal variation. The methods, LATR-C (Long Acquisition TR (interpulse delay); Corrected for partial saturation) and LATR-NC (Long Acquisition TR; Not Corrected), are compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, per unit time and quantitation errors. Parameters relevant to the isolated perfused rat heart are used as a specific application, although the results are general. We assume throughout that spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, do not change. For a given flip angle, θ, TR's are calculated which result in maximal SNR per unit time under 10%, 5%, and 1% constraints on quantitation errors. Additional simulations were performed to demonstrate explicitly the dependence of the quantitation errors on TR for a fixed θ. We find (i) if the allowed error is large, and when both metabolite concentrations and rate constants vary, LATR-C permits use of shorter TR, and hence yields greater SNR per unit time, than LATR-NC; (ii) for small allowed error, the two methods give similar TR's and SNR per unit time, so that the simpler LATR-NC experiment may be preferred; (iii) large values of θ result in similar constrained TR's and hence SNR per unit time for the two methods; (iv) the ratio of concentrations of metabolites with similar T1 exhibit similar errors for the two methods.

  19. Time-dependent adaptations to posture and movement characteristics during the development of repetitive reaching induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jason R; Fung, Joyce; Côté, Julie N

    2011-05-01

    Repetitive movements are common to many daily activities but often lead to the development of fatigue. We have previously shown that fatigue leads to changes in tridimensional spatial characteristics of the whole body. However, temporal aspects of these posture and movement adaptations have yet to be investigated. Healthy subjects (N = 14) performed a continuous reaching task by pointing between two targets placed at shoulder height, at 100 and 30% arm's length, anterior to the subject's midline until fatigue (assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale). Whole body kinematics and upper Trapezius EMG were recorded and analyzed at 1-min intervals to document the progression of fatigue on outcome variables. For all upper limb and postural variables analyzed, changes began to occur approximately midway to fatigue and were followed by an increase in Trapezius activity from baseline. Reach-to-reach variability of joint average positions and range of motion (ROM) increased in multiple directions for shoulder and elbow parameters. Reach-to-reach variability of the center-of-mass ROM also increased in several directions. Changes were also observed in within-movement inter-segmental timing. The peak velocities of elbow and endpoint occurred closer together in time during fatigue while the shoulder peak velocity occurrence showed a greater reach-to-reach variability. Our results suggest that the effects of fatigue on repetitive movement kinematics can be observed across three temporal dimensions of the task: (1) within individual movements, (2) from one movement to the next, and (3) as fatigue develops. Each observed change is discussed as a potential contributor to task-specific control strategies to prolong task performance.

  20. Autobiographical Memory Retrieval and Hippocampal Activation as a Function of Repetition and the Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Nadel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple trace theory (MTT predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation.

  1. It's about Time! Repetition, Fantasy, and the Contours of Learning from Feminist Pedagogy Classroom Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores feminist pedagogy classroom conflict through looking at how time, in a psychoanalytic sense, can rupture straightforward interpretations of manifest classroom dynamics. I use the concept of transference to consider how classroom conflict is complicated by the reliving and replaying of past conflicts in the pedagogical arena, a…

  2. What a difference a day makes? The effects of repetitive and competitive news framing over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a "classic" framing experiment (N = 1,324), this study empirically mimics the dynamic nature of framing effects over time. We integrate (a) multiple frame exposures as well as (b) various tests for duration of framing effects into our study design. Our results show that exposure to repetiti

  3. The Effects of Repetitive News Framing on Political Opinions over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Keer, M.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Hänggli, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests how repeated exposure to the same news frame influences political opinions over time. In a survey experiment (N = 296), we repeatedly exposed participants to the same news frame (at the start of the study, after one day, one week, and two weeks) and measured effects on opinions (at

  4. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  5. Twenty-One New Light Curves of OGLE-TR-56b: New System Parameters and Limits on Timing Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, E R; Elliot, J L; Seager, S; Osip, D J; Holman, M J; Winn, J N; Hoyer, S; Rojo, P

    2011-01-01

    Although OGLE-TR-56b was the second transiting exoplanet discovered, only one light curve, observed in 2006, has been published besides the discovery data. We present twenty-one light curves of nineteen different transits observed between July 2003 and July 2009 with the Magellan Telescopes and Gemini South. The combined analysis of the new light curves confirms a slightly inflated planetary radius relative to model predictions, with R_p = 1.378 +/- 0.090 R_J. However, the values found for the transit duration, semimajor axis, and inclination values differ significantly from the previous result, likely due to systematic errors. The new semimajor axis and inclination, a = 0.01942 +/- 0.00015 AU and i = 73.72 +/- 0.18 degrees, are smaller than previously reported, while the total duration, T_14 = 7931 +/- 38 s, is 18 minutes longer. The transit midtimes have errors from 23 s to several minutes, and no evidence is seen for transit midtime or duration variations. Similarly, no change is seen in the orbital period...

  6. NIF-scale re-emission sphere measurements of early-time Tr = 100 eV hohlraum symmetry (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Milovich, J; Edwards, J; Sorce, C; Kirkwood, R; Meeker, D; Jones, O; Izumi, N; Landen, O L

    2008-10-01

    The indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign (NIC) proposes to set the first 2 ns of hohlraum radiation symmetry by observing the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern from a high-Z sphere in place of the ignition capsule. To assess this technique under NIC conditions, we used the Omega Laser Facility to image the re-emission of Bi coated spheres with 200 ps temporal, 50-100 microm spatial, and 30% spectral resolution. The sphere is driven by 70% NIC-scale vacuum Au hohlraums heated to Tr=100 eV using two cones per side laser beam illumination. The experiments have demonstrated the required accuracies of <3%P(2)/P(0) and <3%P(4)/P(0) Legendre mode flux asymmetry at both 900 and 1200 eV re-emission photon energies. The re-emission patterns at 900 and 1200 eV are also consistent with each other and their relative dependence on radiation temperature. We measured the P(2)/P(0) and P(4)/P(0) dependence to laser cone power ratio. View factor calculations are in agreement with the experimentally measured radiation flux and re-emit images when assuming 55% inner beam and 100 % outer beam coupling into x rays at the hohlraum wall.

  7. Time of day does not modulate improvements in motor performance following a repetitive ballistic motor training task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Ridding, Michael C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM) and once in the evening (8 PM) on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  8. Time of Day Does Not Modulate Improvements in Motor Performance following a Repetitive Ballistic Motor Training Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V. Sale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM and once in the evening (8 PM on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  9. Trækonstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H.J.; Riberholt, H.

    Denne anvisning behandler materialer til trækonstruktioner og beregning af sædvanlige elementer og konstruktioner i henhold til Trænormen fra 2003 med tillæg. Forbindelser behandles i SBI-anvisning 194: Trækonstruktioner. Forbindelser. Anvisningen er tænkt anvendt af projekterende og som lærebog ...

  10. Effect of multiple presentations of words on event-related potential and reaction time repetition effects in Alzheimer's patients and young and older controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, V A; Friedman, D

    1997-01-01

    The hallmark symptom in probable Alzheimer's disease (PAD) is dramatic difficulty in storing and/or retrieving new information on tests of explicit or direct memory. However, in many studies of implicit or indirect memory, these same patients show repetition-priming magnitudes (i.e., facilitation of performance on the basis of previous experience) similar to that of normal controls. Recent studies of repetition priming have shown that PAD subjects have an intact event-related potential (ERP) repetition effect, which is thought to index indirect memory functioning. The present study was designed to test the effect of multiple repetitions of verbal stimuli on the ERPs of PAD patients. ERPs were recorded from 8 subjects with PAD, 8 age-matched elderly and 16 young healthy controls. Subjects were asked to make speeded but accurate choice responses to infrequently occurring animal words and frequently occurring nonanimal words, some of which repeated across three blocks of trials. All groups of subjects produced ERP activity that was more positive to repeated (i.e., old) than to new items, with no additional enhancement elicited by the third presentation. ERP enhancement to repeated items was associated with reaction time facilitation, which also showed no additional facilitation to the third presentation. Moreover, the scalp distribution of the repetition effect was similar in the PAD and control groups, suggesting that it emanated from similar brain tissue in the three groups. These results indicate that ERP and reaction time repetition-priming effects are relatively intact in subjects who are aging normally and in those with a diagnosis of "mild" Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Low-timing-jitter, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate and high operation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanshan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guofu; Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jing

    2010-09-01

    We design a low-timing-jitter, repetition-rate-tunable, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser by using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM), a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and a tunable optical delay line in the laser configuration. Low-timing-jitter optical pulses are stably produced when a SESAM and a 0.16 m dispersion compensation fiber are employed in the laser cavity. By inserting a tunable optical delay line between NALM and SESAM, the variable repetition-rate operation of a self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber laser is successfully demonstrated over a range from 49.65 to 50.47 MHz. The experimental results show that the newly designed fiber laser can maintain the mode locking at the pumping power of 160 mW to stably generate periodic optical pulses with width less than 170 fs and timing jitter lower than 75 fs in the 1.55 µm wavelength region, when the fundamental repetition rate of the laser is continuously tuned between 49.65 and 50.47 MHz. Moreover, this fiber laser has a feature of turn-key operation with high repeatability of its fundamental repetition rate in practice.

  12. The RNA-mediated, asymmetric ring regulatory mechanism of the transcription termination Rho helicase decrypted by time-resolved nucleotide analog interference probing (trNAIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Emilie; Schwartz, Annie; Nollmann, Marcello; Margeat, Emmanuel; Boudvillain, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Rho is a ring-shaped, ATP-dependent RNA helicase/translocase that dissociates transcriptional complexes in bacteria. How RNA recognition is coupled to ATP hydrolysis and translocation in Rho is unclear. Here, we develop and use a new combinatorial approach, called time-resolved Nucleotide Analog Interference Probing (trNAIP), to unmask RNA molecular determinants of catalytic Rho function. We identify a regulatory step in the translocation cycle involving recruitment of the 2'-hydroxyl group of the incoming 3'-RNA nucleotide by a Rho subunit. We propose that this step arises from the intrinsic weakness of one of the subunit interfaces caused by asymmetric, split-ring arrangement of primary RNA tethers around the Rho hexamer. Translocation is at highest stake every seventh nucleotide when the weak interface engages the incoming 3'-RNA nucleotide or breaks, depending on RNA threading constraints in the Rho pore. This substrate-governed, 'test to run' iterative mechanism offers a new perspective on how a ring-translocase may function or be regulated. It also illustrates the interest and versatility of the new trNAIP methodology to unveil the molecular mechanisms of complex RNA-based systems.

  13. Implementation of time-resolved step-scan fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using a kHz repetition rate pump laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Donny; Parul, Dzmitry; Dyer, R Brian; Shreve, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    Time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been shown to be invaluable for studying excited-state structures and dynamics in both biological and inorganic systems. Despite the established utility of this method, technical challenges continue to limit the data quality and more wide ranging applications. A critical problem has been the low laser repetition rate and interferometer stepping rate (both are typically 10 Hz) used for data acquisition. Here we demonstrate significant improvement in the quality of time-resolved spectra through the use of a kHz repetition rate laser to achieve kHz excitation and data collection rates while stepping the spectrometer at 200 Hz. We have studied the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state of Ru(bipyridine)(3)Cl(2) in deuterated acetonitrile to test and optimize high repetition rate data collection. Comparison of different interferometer stepping rates reveals an optimum rate of 200 Hz due to minimization of long-term baseline drift. With the improved collection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, better assignments of the MLCT excited-state bands can be made. Using optimized parameters, carbonmonoxy myoglobin in deuterated buffer is also studied by observing the infrared signatures of carbon monoxide photolysis upon excitation of the heme. We conclude from these studies that a substantial increase in performance of ss-FT-IR instrumentation is achieved by coupling commercial infrared benches with kHz repetition rate lasers.

  14. Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects reaction times, but not priming effects, in a masked prime task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaghecken, F.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Rothwell, J.C.; Eimer, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces motor cortex excitability, but it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences in healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined the effects of 1 Hz rTMS (train of 20 min; stimulus intensity 80% of active motor thr

  15. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  16. Gigahertz repetition rate, sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse train directly generated from a mode-locked Yb:KYW laser

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heewon; Shin, Junho; Kim, Chur; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Guang-Hoon; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-01-01

    We show that a 1.13-GHz repetition rate optical pulse train with 0.70 fs high-frequency timing jitter (integration bandwidth of 17.5 kHz - 10 MHz, where the measurement instrument-limited noise floor contributes 0.41 fs in 10 MHz bandwidth) can be directly generated from a free-running, single-mode diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-coated mirrors. To our knowledge, this is the lowest timing jitter optical pulse train with the GHz repetition rate ever measured. If this pulse train is used for direct sampling of 565-MHz signals (Nyquist frequency of the pulse train), the demonstrated jitter level corresponds to the projected effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) of 17.8, which is much higher than the thermal noise limit of 50-ohm load resistance (~14 bits).

  17. Træ!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Callisen Friis, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Bogen sætter fokus på træs potentialer som led i en bæredygtig udvikling af byggeriet. Med udgangspunkt i seks cases belyses det, hvordan træ bruges i byggeriet nu, og hvilke muligheder der er i fremtiden....

  18. Trækonstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H.J.; Riberholt, H.

    Denne anvisning behandler forbindelser i trækonstruktioner i henhold til de normer for bærende konstruktioner, der er udkommet i 1982. Den knytter sig til SBI-anvisning 135: Trækonstruktioner, Beregning. Anvisningen er tænkt anvendt både af projekterende og som lærebog på ingeniørskolerne....

  19. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  20. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  1. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  2. 2D and 3D time-resolved PIV experiments on flow field around vertical and inclined water-exit body%垂直及斜出水流场的二维及三维TR-PIV试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 李英浩; 金朋寿

    2005-01-01

    本文对钝头回转体垂直及斜出水流场采用TR-(Time-Resolved)PIV技术进行测量,并对斜出水流场进行3D-Stereo PIV(三维体视 PIV)测量.文中介绍了测试技术及测量结果,揭示了出水过程中流动结构及其演变,展示了TR-PIV技术对具有瞬态历程特征的出水流场研究的适应性.

  3. How Do Algebra I Course Repetition Rates Vary among English Learner Students by Length of Time to Reclassification as English Proficient? REL 2017-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Karina; Fong, Anthony B.

    2017-01-01

    Research has found high repetition rates for students in Algebra I, with one study finding a repetition rate of 44 percent for students in a large urban high school district. Less is known about how math performance and Algebra I course repetition rates vary among students with different levels of English proficiency. This report examines Algebra…

  4. Saccade-vergence properties remain more stable over short-time repetition under overlap than under gap task: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eLang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under natural circumstances, saccade-vergence eye movements are among the most frequently occurring. This study examines the properties of such movements focusing on short-term repetition effects. Are such movements robust over time or are they subject to tiredness ? Twelve healthy adults performed convergent and divergent combined eye movements either in a gap task (i.e., 200 ms between the end of the fixation stimulus and the beginning of the target stimulus or in an overlap task (i.e., the peripheral target begins 200 ms before the end of the fixation stimulus. Latencies were shorter in the gap task than in the overlap task for both saccade and vergence components. Repetition had no effect on latency, which is a novel result. In both tasks, saccades were initiated later and executed faster (mean and peak velocities than the vergence component. The mean and peak velocities of both components decreased over trials in the gap task but remained constant in the overlap task. This result is also novel and has some clinical implications. Another novel result concerns the accuracy of the saccade component that was better in the gap than in the overlap task. The accuracy also decreased over trials in the gap task but remained constant in the overlap task. The major result of this study is that under a controlled mode of initiation (overlap task properties of combined eye movements are more stable than under automatic triggering (gap task. These results are discussed in terms of saccade-vergence interactions, convergence-divergence specificities and repetition versus adaptation protocols.

  5. High-precision multi-band time-series photometry of exoplanets Qatar-1b and TrES-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Mislis, D; Tregloan-Reed, J; Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; D'Ago, G; Bruni, I; Baştürk, Ö; Alsubai, K A; Bachelet, E; Bramich, D M; Henning, Th; Hinse, T C; Iannella, A L; Parley, N; Schroeder, T

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Qatar-1 and TrES-5 transiting exoplanetary systems, which contain Jupiter-like planets on short-period orbits around K-dwarf stars. Our data comprise a total of 20 transit light curves obtained using five medium-class telescopes, operated using the defocussing technique. The average precision we reach in all our data is $RMS_{Q} = 1.1$ mmag for Qatar-1 ($V = 12.8$) and $RMS_{T} = 1.0$ mmag for TrES-5 ($V = 13.7$). We use these data to refine the orbital ephemeris, photometric parameters, and measured physical properties of the two systems. One transit event for each object was observed simultaneously in three passbands ($gri$) using the BUSCA imager. The QES survey light curve of Qatar-1 has a clear sinusoidal variation on a period of $P_{\\star} = 23.697 \\pm 0.123$\\,d, implying significant starspot activity. We searched for starspot crossing events in our light curves, but did not find clear evidence in any of the new datasets. The planet in the Qatar-1 system did not transit the...

  6. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  7. Time course of pulmonary vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs--an analysis using pulmonary vascular impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobise, K; Tosaka, S; Onodera, S

    1992-05-01

    To understand the mechanism leading to progressive pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the time course of vascular response to an acutely repetitive pulmonary microembolism in dogs by using pulmonary vascular impedance. In a normal state, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was transiently increased by emboli, and the impedance moduli of 0 Hz (= Rin), 1.5 Hz and 3 Hz were slightly increased. A four-element electrical vascular model showed the transient increase in peripheral pulmonary vascular resistance (R2) and inertia, and reduction in compliance (C). In contrast, in a state of a slight pulmonary hypertension, mPAP was continuously increased by the same amount of emboli, and the impedance moduli of both 0 Hz and 3 Hz were significantly increased. By a four-element model, a severe increase in R2 and reduction in C were observed, and these changes continued. Therefore, although the vascular response to pulmonary microembolism basically depends on the degree of mechanical obstruction, this response is thought to be modulated by the responsiveness of pulmonary vessels at that time, which is involved in the alteration in the local characteristics of pulmonary vessels, and/or the recruitment of a new blood flow.

  8. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  9. Demonstration of a time-resolved x-ray scattering instrument utilizing the full-repetition rate of x-ray pulses at the Pohang Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wonhyuk; Eom, Intae; Landahl, Eric C.; Lee, Sooheyong; Yu, Chung-Jong

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of a new experimental instrument for time-resolved x-ray scattering (TRXS) at the Pohang Light Source (PLS-II). It operates with a photon energy ranging from 5 to 18 keV. It is equipped with an amplified Ti:sappahire femtosecond laser, optical diagnostics, and laser beam delivery for pump-probe experiments. A high-speed single-element detector and high trigger-rate oscilloscope are used for rapid data acquisition. While this instrument is capable of measuring sub-nanosecond dynamics using standard laser pump/x-ray probe techniques, it also takes advantage of the dense 500 MHz standard fill pattern in the PLS-II storage ring to efficiently record nano-to-micro-second dynamics simultaneously. We demonstrate this capability by measuring both the (fast) impulsive strain and (slower) thermal recovery dynamics of a crystalline InSb sample following intense ultrafast laser excitation. Exploiting the full repetition rate of the storage ring results in a significant improvement in data collection rates compared to conventional bunch-tagging methods.

  10. A shock tube with a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer for investigations of complex reaction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrstein, Steffen H.; Aghsaee, Mohammad; Jerig, Ludger; Fikri, Mustapha; Schulz, Christof

    2011-08-01

    A conventional membrane-type stainless steel shock tube has been coupled to a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRR-TOF-MS) to be used to study complex reaction systems such as the formation of pollutants in combustion processes or formation of nanoparticles from metal containing organic compounds. Opposed to other TOF-MS shock tubes, our instrument is equipped with a modular sampling unit that allows to sample with or without a skimmer. The skimmer unit can be mounted or removed in less than 10 min. Thus, it is possible to adjust the sampling procedure, namely, the mass flux into the ionization chamber of the HRR-TOF-MS, to the experimental situation imposed by species-specific ionization cross sections and vapor pressures. The whole sampling section was optimized with respect to a minimal distance between the nozzle tip inside the shock tube and the ion source inside the TOF-MS. The design of the apparatus is presented and the influence of the skimmer on the measured spectra is demonstrated by comparing data from both operation modes for conditions typical for chemical kinetics experiments. The well-studied thermal decomposition of acetylene has been used as a test system to validate the new setup against kinetics mechanisms reported in literature.

  11. A shock tube with a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer for investigations of complex reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrstein, Steffen H; Aghsaee, Mohammad; Jerig, Ludger; Fikri, Mustapha; Schulz, Christof

    2011-08-01

    A conventional membrane-type stainless steel shock tube has been coupled to a high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRR-TOF-MS) to be used to study complex reaction systems such as the formation of pollutants in combustion processes or formation of nanoparticles from metal containing organic compounds. Opposed to other TOF-MS shock tubes, our instrument is equipped with a modular sampling unit that allows to sample with or without a skimmer. The skimmer unit can be mounted or removed in less than 10 min. Thus, it is possible to adjust the sampling procedure, namely, the mass flux into the ionization chamber of the HRR-TOF-MS, to the experimental situation imposed by species-specific ionization cross sections and vapor pressures. The whole sampling section was optimized with respect to a minimal distance between the nozzle tip inside the shock tube and the ion source inside the TOF-MS. The design of the apparatus is presented and the influence of the skimmer on the measured spectra is demonstrated by comparing data from both operation modes for conditions typical for chemical kinetics experiments. The well-studied thermal decomposition of acetylene has been used as a test system to validate the new setup against kinetics mechanisms reported in literature.

  12. Effect of the stimulus frequency and pulse number of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the inter-reversal time of perceptual reversal on the right superior parietal lobule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kazuhisa; Ge, Sheng; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ueno, Shoogo; Iramina, Keiji

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the stimulus frequency and pulses number of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the inter-reversal time (IRT) of perceptual reversal on the right superior parietal lobule (SPL). The spinning wheel illusion was used as the ambiguous figures stimulation in this study. To investigate the rTMS effect over the right SPL during perceptual reversal, 0.25 Hz 60 pulse, 1 Hz 60 pulse, 0.5 Hz 120 pulse, 1 Hz 120 pulse, and 1 Hz 240 pulse biphasic rTMS at 90% of resting motor threshold was applied over the right SPL and the right posterior temporal lobe (PTL), respectively. As a control, a no TMS was also conducted. It was found that rTMS on 0.25 Hz 60 pulse and 1 Hz 60 pulse applied over the right SPL caused shorter IRT. In contrast, it was found that rTMS on 1 Hz 240-pulse applied over the right SPL caused longer IRT. On the other hand, there is no significant difference between IRTs when the rTMS on 0.5 Hz 120 pulse and 1 Hz 120 pulse were applied over the right SPL. Therefore, the applying of rTMS over the right SPL suggests that the IRT of perceptual reversal is effected by the rTMS conditions such as the stimulus frequency and the number of pulses.

  13. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  14. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  15. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  16. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  17. Fugtsikre træfacader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hjorslev; Nicolajsen, Asta

    Denne rapport dokumenterer, at det stadig vil være muligt at udføre fugtsikre træfacader, hvis isoleringskravene øges svarende til ca. 300 mm mineraluld. Fugtophobningen i en række træfacadeelementer med forskellige konstruktionsopbygninger, isoleringsmaterialer og -tykkelser er bestemt. Målinger...

  18. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  19. Repetitive Learning Control for Time-varying Robotic Systems: A Hybrid Learning Scheme%时变机器人系统的重复学习控制:一种混合学习方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明轩; 何熊熊; 陈冰玉

    2007-01-01

    Repetitive learning control is presented for finitetime-trajectory tracking of uncertain time-varying robotic systems. A hybrid learning scheme is given to cope with the constant and time-varying unknowns in system dynamics, where the time functions are learned in an iterative learning way, without the aid of Taylor expression, while the conventional differential learning method is suggested for estimating the constant ones.It is distinct that the presented repetitive learning control avoids the requirement for initial repositioning at the beginning of each cycle, and the time-varying unknowns are not necessary to be periodic. It is shown that with the adoption of hybrid learning,the boundedness of state variables of the closed-loop system is guaranteed and the tracking error is ensured to converge to zero as iteration increases. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  20. Ingestão de fibra alimentar e tempo de trânsito colônico em pacientes com constipação funcional Fiber intake and colonic transit time in functional constipated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cruz Lopes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Pacientes com constipação funcional que não melhoram com suplementação de fibras dietéticas, representam importante problema clínico. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as relações entre as quantidades de fibras ingeridas, intensidade da constipação e o tempo de trânsito colônico em pacientes com constipação funcional. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes constipados funcionais, sem melhoras após suplementação dietética com fibras e 18 pessoas controle, sadias, sem queixas digestivas, utilizando inquéritos individuais quanto à ingestão de fibras e a intensidade da constipação e, por meio da técnica dos marcadores radiopaco, o tempo de trânsito colônico, total e segmentar. RESULTADOS: Apesar da maior ingestão diária de fibras (26,3 ± 12,9 g, constipados x 9,3 ± 5,2 g, controles, os sintomas da constipação mostraram-se intensos nos constipados (escore médio = 21,3 ± 4,07. O tempo normal para o trânsito colônico foi de 58,8h. O trânsito colônico total, em média, foi mais lento nos constipados (41,0 ± 22,8h, constipados x 21,8 ± 18,5h, controles. Constipados com trânsito lento (>58,8h apresentaram inércia colônica (oito, obstrução de saída (um e lentificação no cólon esquerdo (um. Constipados com trânsito normal (BACKGROUND: Patients with functional constipation presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement represents important clinical issue. AIMS: To evaluate the relations among the amount of ingested fiber, the constipation intensity and the colonic transit time in patients with functional constipation. METHODS: We evaluated 30 patients, presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement, and 18 healthy volunteers conducting individual inquiry into fibers intake, constipation intensity and the total and segmental colonic transit evaluation using radiopaque markers. RESULTS: In the constipated, despite the good level of fiber intake (26.3 ± 12.9 g, constipated x 9.3 ± 5,2 g

  1. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  2. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  3. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  4. Tr288, a rehydrin with a dehydrin twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, J; Oliver, M J

    2001-04-01

    The rehydrin Tr288, originally isolated from a screen for differentially expressed transcripts during rehydration of desiccated moss (Tortula ruralis), was further characterized. Steady-state mRNA levels for Tr288 increase dramatically during slow drying even though protein synthesis is completely inhibited during this process. Tr288 transcripts do not accumulate during rapid drying of moss gametophytes. Conversely, during rehydration of rapidly dried tissue Tr288 transcript levels increase several-fold, while the relatively high amount of Tr288 mRNA sequestered in slowly dried material declines with time after the addition of water. Steady-state Tr288 mRNA also increases after treatment with salt (NaCl) and elevated temperature (37 degrees C). Genomic Southern analysis and isolation of a genomic clone suggest the presence of a single Tr288 gene containing two introns within the T. ruralis genome. The only sequence homology detected by a BLAST search of GenBank occurred at the 3' end of the Tr288 coding region and indicated a single copy of the K segment common to dehydrins. Computer translation of the Tr288 coding region revealed 15 copies of a protein segment (the GPN segment) that is predicted to form amphipathic alpha-helices.

  5. Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Skeen, A. J.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.; Graves, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach <= 0.9), hot (~500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ~1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time-space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow.

  6. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  7. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  8. Generation of donor-specific Tr1 cells to be used after kidney transplantation and definition of the timing of their in vivo infusion in the presence of immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Mfarrej, Bechara; Tresoldi, Eleonora; Stabilini, Angela; Paganelli, Alessia; Caldara, Rossana; Secchi, Antonio; Battaglia, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Background Operational tolerance is an alternative to lifelong immunosuppression after transplantation. One strategy to achieve tolerance is by T regulatory cells. Safety and feasibility of a T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-cell—based therapy to prevent graft versus host disease in patients with hematological malignancies has been already proven. We are now planning to perform a Tr1-cell—based therapy after kidney transplantation. Methods Upon tailoring the lab-grade protocol to patients on dialysi...

  9. Generation of donor-specific Tr1 cells to be used after kidney transplantation and definition of the timing of their in vivo infusion in the presence of immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Mfarrej, Bechara; Tresoldi, Eleonora; Stabilini, Angela; Paganelli, Alessia; Caldara, Rossana; Secchi, Antonio; Battaglia, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Operational tolerance is an alternative to lifelong immunosuppression after transplantation. One strategy to achieve tolerance is by T regulatory cells. Safety and feasibility of a T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-cell—based therapy to prevent graft versus host disease in patients with hematological malignancies has been already proven. We are now planning to perform a Tr1-cell—based therapy after kidney transplantation.Methods: Upon tailoring the lab-grade protocol to patients on dialys...

  10. Neuralgia trójdzielna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kochanowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuralgia trójdzielna należy do najcięższych bólów w obrębie twarzy. Choć została opisana przez wielu badaczy, dzisiaj nazywa się ją chorobą Fothergilla, co upamiętnia przedstawienie neuralgii trójdzielnej przez tego uczonego w 1773 roku. Zachorowalność jest oceniana na 2–5/100 tys. osób, częściej chorują kobiety. Nerw trójdzielny to nerw czuciowo-ruchowy, który wspólnie z nerwami językowo-gardłowym i błędnym, nerwami podpotylicznym, potylicznymi mniejszymi i większymi oraz nerwem usznym wielkim unerwia skórę głowy. Włókna przewodzące bodźce bólowe przez zwój nerwu trójdzielnego kończą się w jądrze rdzeniowym, skąd przez jądra wzgórza docierają do kory czuciowej, układu limbicznego i wyspy. Przyczyn bólu w neuralgii upatruje się w uszkodzeniu włókien czuciowych grubych Aβ i powstałych ogniskach ektopowego pobudzenia – przenoszonego na uszkodzone strukturalnie włókna cienkie Aδ i C w obrębie połączeń zwanych efapsami. Neuralgię trójdzielną dzieli się na klasyczną i objawową. Obie postacie charakteryzują się napadami bólu o typie rażenia prądem elektrycznym, trwającymi od kilku sekund do dwóch minut. Ból najczęściej dotyczy obszaru unerwionego przez drugą i trzecią gałąź nerwu trójdzielnego, czyli nerw szczękowy i żuchwowy. Cechą charakterystyczną są strefy spustowe, których drażnienie przez bodźce niebólowe wywołuje napad neuralgii. Leczenie neuralgii trójdzielnej obejmuje postępowanie zachowawcze i chirurgiczne. W leczeniu zachowawczym złotym standardem jest stosowanie karbamazepiny lub okskarbazepiny. W przypadku niepowodzenia można włączyć baklofen, lamotryginę albo inny lek używany w leczeniu padaczki. Spośród metod chirurgicznych najczęściej stosuje się: odbarczenie konfliktu naczyniowo-nerwowego, ucisk zwoju troistego balonem, przezskórną blokadę zwoju Gassera glicerolem, przecięcie włókien zazwojowych nerwu tr

  11. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  12. 激光光解自由基的TR-ESR研究%Investigating Laser Photolyzed Radicals Using TR-ESR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季学韩; 许新胜; 崔执凤

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved electron spin resonance (TR-ESR) is a powerful technique which can be used to detect and identify short-lived intermediates in photo-induced reaction. The chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP) signal measured by the TR-ESR technique can provide rich information on the mechanism and dynamics of photochemical reaction. In this review, the four CIDEP mechanisms and the home-made TR-ESR with balance reflection bridge-type circuit and zero difference beat balance mixing frequency model are introduced. The applications of TR-ESR in investigation on laser photolyzed radicals are summarized.%时间分辨电子自旋共振(TR-ESR)技术是探测和鉴定光化学反应过程中顺磁性中间体的强有力工具,利用TR-ESR技术观察到的化学诱导动态电子极化(CIDEP)可以为我们提供丰富的光化学反应机理、反应动力学等信息.该文较为详细地介绍了CIDEP的4种机理和自行研制的一种零差拍平衡混频的时间分辨ESR波谱仪,总结了TR-ESR技术在光解自由基反应方面的应用.

  13. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  14. Effect of Repetitive Square Wave Rise Time on Corona Resistance Life of Inverter-fed Motors%重复方波上升时间对变频电机耐电晕寿命影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪英; 赵莉华; 黄聃喆; 周婉亚; 王鹏; 王剑

    2016-01-01

    为研究重复方波电压上升时间对变频电机绝缘耐电晕寿命的影响规律,搭建了具有不同重复脉冲电压上升时间的耐电晕测试系统.根据IEC TS 60034-18-42,分别测试了Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类电机绝缘模型在不同重复方波电压上升时间下的耐电晕寿命,并对比了相同幅值和频率下正弦电压测试结果.结果表明:脉冲电压上升时间对匝间绝缘耐电晕寿命及局部放电时域和频域统计特性的影响显著.因此,根据相关标准测试变频电机的耐电晕寿命时,应考虑上升时间对电机耐电晕寿命的影响.%In order to study the influence of repetitive square wave rise time on the corona resistance life of the insulation of inverter-fed motors, a corona resistance test system under repetitive impulse volt-age with different rise time was designed. Using this system, the corona resistance life of the interturn insulation models for type Ⅰ motors and type Ⅱ inverter-fed motors was tested under repetitive square wave with different rise time according to IEC TS 60034-18-42, and the test results were compared at the same amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal voltage. The results show that the impulse voltage rise time would significantly affect the corona resistance life of interturn insulation and the partial discharge statistical characteristics at time domain and frequency domain. Accordingly, when we test the corona resistance life of the inverter-fed motor insulation according to the relative test standards, the influence of rise time on the corona resistance life should be taken into consideration.

  15. Impact of orocecal transit time on patient's perception of lactose intolerance Influencia del tiempo de tránsito orocecal en la percepción de los síntomas de intolerancia a la lactosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Casellas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: symptoms attributed to the lactose intolerance are an important public health issue because of their prevalence and social relevance. Also because they may cause undue rejection of dairy products consume with potential health consequences. Transit time is a putative factor implied in the severity of symptoms associated with lactose. Objectives: to elucidate the relation between orocecal transit time (OCTT and lactose intolerance symptoms. Methods: observational study in patients referred to a lactose hydrogen breath test who showed an increase in breath H2 excretion higher than 25 ppm. OCTT was measured with the breath test and symptoms of lactose tolerance with a validated scale. Symptoms were measured twice: before receiving the lactose, inquiring about self perceived symptoms when patients consumed dairy products at home ("home symptoms", and again after completing the lactose breath test ("test symptoms". Results: 161 patients were included. There was no correlation between OCTT and home symptoms (r = -0.1. When OCTT was faster than 60 minutes, intensity of "test symptoms" was similar to "home symptoms". However, in patients with normal or slow OCTT, the "home symptoms" were more intense than the "test symptoms" (p Antecedentes: los síntomas atribuidos a la intolerancia a la lactosa son un importante problema de salud pública. El tiempo de tránsito es un factor implicado en la severidad de los síntomas asociados al consumo de lactosa. Objetivos: elucidar la relación entre el tiempo de tránsito orocecal (TTOC y los síntomas de intolerancia a la lactosa. Métodos: estudio observacional en pacientes con un test del aliento de hidrógeno con lactosa patológico (excreción de hidrógeno superior a 25 ppm. El TTOC se midió mediante el test del aliento y los síntomas mediante una escala previamente validada. Los síntomas se determinaron dos veces: antes de recibir la lactosa, preguntando acerca de los síntomas en casa cuando

  16. Kampen om trætheden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Holm

    2011-01-01

    Trætheden er over os. Og det har den voret lige siden det moderne samfunds fødsel. Men hvad gemmer sig bag det udmattede menneske? Kampen og træthedens diagnose har stået på, lige siden trætheden blev et tema, og der er stadig ikke fundet en vinder....

  17. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  18. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  19. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  20. NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) monitoring in support of XMM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-03-01

    Dr. Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) in support of upcoming XMM Newton observations. The XMM observations will take place 2017 March 13 06:21 through March 14 10:34 UT. Walter writes: "NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) is a compact eclipsing system with a 5.5 hour period. It was a normal Fe II nova that, upon reaching quiescence, took on the appearance of a super-soft source in the optical high state, which suggests an extremely high mass accretion rate. The optical spectrum is dominated by hot permitted lines of O VI, N V, C IV, and He II. Some nova-like variables have similar spectra, though generally without the hot emission lines. Primary eclipse is broad - nearly 40% of the orbit - and deeper at shorter wavelengths, which suggests the eclipse of a hot accretion disk. Primary eclipse depth is about 1 mag at V. There appears to be a shallow secondary eclipse.The primary aim [of the XMM observations] is to detect and characterize the eclipse at X-ray and UV wavelengths. We will obtain low cadence BVRI/JHK observations with SMARTS/Andicam. We request AAVSO support to obtain continuous photometric time series simultaneous with the XMM observation. Any filters are acceptable, but standard Johnson B, V or Cousins R, I are preferred. Clear filters are acceptable. Time resolution better than 5 minutes and uncertainties (outside of eclipse) <0.02 mag are preferred. The best ephemeris I have is: minimum light at JD 55956.822 + 0.219109E. This is based on data from 2013-2015." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  1. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  2. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  3. Friluftsinstallationer i træer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    2015-01-01

    Abebaner, treetop walking, high rope adventure, slackline, træhuse og parkour-baner er alle installationer, som bruger træerne som støtte, enten midlertidigt eller permanent. Den nye sport, turistattraktionen eller team building-redskabet sætter i alle tilfælde træerne på prøve. Der følger positiv...

  4. Radiographic anatomy aspects and gastrointestinal transit time in Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae. = Aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moraes Machado Brito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the radiographic anatomy and determined thegastrointestinal transit time of Podocnemis unifilis. We used ten animals belonging to LAPAS from the Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The animals were orally fed with a barium sulphate suspension at 10 mL kg-1 mixed with mineral oil, at a ratio of 70% of barium sulphate for 30% of mineral oil. Afterwards, the animals underwent radiography in a dorsum ventriloquoal position, with the X-ray device adjusted at 72 Kv and 200 mA, in time intervals to follow the permanency of contrast in the organism. Five minutes after the contrast was supplied, the stomach was filled. After sixteen hours the contrast advanced to the smallintestine. In 48 hours, the whole small intestine and part of the colon were fulfilled. On the 9th day the stomach was empty and the contrast advanced to the colon. On the 11th day, the colon was totally fulfilled, and the contrast was close to cloaca. On the 18th day all contrast was eliminated by the animal. Total time for contrast elimination was, in average, 17.6 ± 2.4 days, with the minimum of 12 and maximum of 22 days, with temperature at 27ºC. The digestion of the food was slower in the duodenum, and faster in the colon-rectum, which presents lower indices of repletion.Avaliou-se aspectos anátomo-radiográficos bem como o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis. Foram utilizados 10 animais pertencentes ao Laboratório de Pesquisas em Animais Silvestres(LAPAS da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Aos animais foi administrada, por via oral, uma suspensão de sulfato de bário 10 mL kg-1 misturada com óleo mineral na proporção de 70% de sulfato de bário para 30% de óleo. Posteriormente, os animais foram radiografados dorso-ventralmente, com o aparelho de raios-X regulado para 72 Kv e 200 mA, em intervalos de tempo pré-estabelecidos. Em média, cinco

  5. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  6. A single-pulse shock tube coupled with high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for high-temperature gas-phase kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, P.; Shu, B.; Aghsaee, M.; Herzler, J.; Welz, O.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2016-10-01

    Shock tubes are frequently used to investigate the kinetics of chemical reactions in the gas phase at high temperatures. Conventionally, two complementary arrangements are used where either time-resolved intermediate species measurements are conducted after the initiation of the reaction or where the product composition is determined after rapid initiation and quenching of the reaction through gas-dynamic processes. This paper presents a facility that combines both approaches to determine comprehensive information. A single-pulse shock tube is combined with high-sensitivity gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for product composition and concentration measurement as well as high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry for time-dependent intermediate concentration determination with 10 μs time resolution. Both methods can be applied simultaneously. The arrangement is validated with investigations of the well-documented thermal unimolecular decomposition of cyclohexene towards ethylene and 1,3-butadiene at temperatures between 1000 and 1500 K and pressures ranging from 0.8 to 2.4 bars. The comparison shows that the experimental results for both detections are in very good agreement with each other and with literature data.

  7. Comparing Diagnostic Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, Elizabeth B; Fogler, Jason; Sideridis, Georgios; Weas, Sarah; Mauras, Carrie; Barbaresi, William J

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This study tested the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 model and determined how well it performed across different gender, IQ, and DSM-IV-TR sub-type, using clinically collected data on 227 subjects (median age = 3.95 years, majority had IQ > 70). DSM-5 was psychometrically superior to the DSM-IV-TR model (Comparative Fit Index of 0.970 vs 0.879, respectively). Measurement invariance revealed good model fit across gender and IQ. Younger children tended to meet fewer diagnostic criteria. Those with autistic disorder were more likely to meet social communication and repetitive behaviors criteria (p < .001) than those with PDD-NOS. DSM-5 is a robust model but will identify a different, albeit overlapping population of individuals compared to DSM-IV-TR.

  8. Repetitively Pulsed Electric Laser Acoustic Studies. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    INGARD ET AL. SEP 83 UNCLASSIFIED APHAL-IR-83-2858-VOL-1 F336i5 86-C 2848 F/ 0/ 8, EEEmohEEEomhiE EohEEmhohEEEEE mhhhmmomhhlm...TR-83-2058, Vol 9, 0 REPETITIVELY PULSED ELECTRIC LASER ACOUSTIC STUDIES Volume I K. U. INGARD , CHARLES F. MCMILLAN uDEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICS AND...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) K.U. Ingard and Charles F. McMillan F33615.80-C-2040 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT

  9. Interested in observing TrES-Her0-07621?

    CERN Document Server

    Creevey, O L; Jiménez-Reyes, S J; Belmonte, J A

    2006-01-01

    TrES-Her0-07621 is a recently discovered detached M Dwarf eclipsing binary system. We present some follow-up observations of this system including new minima times and a refined orbital period. We have also obtained better estimates of the stellar radii and inclination.

  10. Design and implementation of real-time web repetition identification and sorting system%实时Web内容重复识别及排序系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 陈世强; 谢坤武; 向军

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that too much similar contents even the same web pages exist in the retrieved web information results,a method to mine the content and structure information of real-time pages as well as the way to recognize its repeats is given. The comparison of document similarity is accomplished based on the PageRank values obtained from the document content and structure information provided by Google. Thc test implemented thc repetition identification and sorting of the real-time webs, and achieved a higher matching degree.%为了解决现有Web信息检索结果中存在较多内容相似甚至相同页面的问题,给出了实时Web内容和结构信息提取的算法及内容重复识别的方法.利用Google提供的PageRank查询接口取得各个页面的PageRank值,结合特定用户的特征信息、查询请求及提取的各Web页内容及结构信息,完成了文档相似度比较,实现了实时页面的重复识别及二次排序,实验结果表明该方法达到了较好的效果.

  11. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  12. An intermediary role for the tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2 in the biosynthesis of verruculogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingale, J; Perera, K P; Mantle, P G

    1983-09-15

    14C-Labelled compound TR-2, a tremorgenic mycotoxin, was administered to Penicillium raistrickii in submerged fermentation. Half of the added radiolabel was taken up by the fungus during the 60 h incubation period and the secondary metabolites subsequently isolated, principally verruculogen but also fumitremorgin B, were found to be radiolabelled. The efficiency of biosynthetic incorporation of TR-2 into verruculogen within the mycelium was at least 35%, demonstrating for the first time an intermediary role for TR-2. Fumitremorgin B was also TR-2-derived but may not be an important intermediate in verruculogen biosynthesis.

  13. 针刺介入时机对脑梗死大鼠能量代谢和脑源性神经生长因子、酪氨酸激酶受体B的影响%Effect of acupuncture intervention time on energy metabolism and BDNF,TrKB in rats with cerebral infarc-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 赵军; 王洪; 张韧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the effects of acupuncture intervention time on energy metabolism and the expression of BDNF and TrKB in rats after ischemic stroke and explore the mechanism of acupuncture treatment and intervention time .Methods The method of permanent focal cerebral ischemia of middle cerebral artery was estab -lished in rats.Two hundreds of model were selected and divided into 5 groups:sham-operation group,model-group,2 h acupuncture group,3 d acupuncture group,7 d acupuncture group.The sodium,potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+ATPase),calcium and magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+,Mg2+ATPase) and the number of BDNF,TrKB positive nerve cells were measured at 1 d,3 d,7 d and 14 d of postoperation .Results The Na+,K+-ATPase,Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity in brain tissue of rats were sharply decreased after ischemia ,lowest at 1d,along with the changes in the extension first and then drop time .ATPase activity in acupuncture group increased significantly in 1,3,7,14 d than those in the model group (P<0.01,P<0.01).2 h group was higher than 3 d and 7 d groups (P<0.01,P<0.05),the difference was statistically significant.The BDNF,TrKB positive nerve cells were gradually increased with time(P<0.05).The BDNF,TrKB positive neural cells of each acupuncture group were increased gradually with time(P<0.01,P<0.05).The number of TrKB positive cells in 2h acupuncture group was higher than that in 3 d,7 d acupuncture group(P<0.01,P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture can improve energy metabolism of ischemic brain tissue ,increase the positive neurons cell number of BDNF and TrKB ,repair and protecte the brain injury of ischemic ,the better therapeutic effect the earlier acupuncture treatment .%目的:研究针刺介入时机对脑梗死大鼠能量代谢和脑源性神经生长因子( BDNF)、酪氨酸激酶受体B( TrKB)的影响,探讨针刺治疗脑梗死的机制及介入时机。方法采用线栓法制备大鼠局灶性永久性脑缺血模型,分

  14. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  15. Repetitive energy transfer from an inductive energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of a research program aimed at finding practical ways to transfer energy repetitively from an inductive energy store to various loads are discussed. The objectives were to investigate and develop the high power opening switches and transfer circuits needed to enable high-repetition-rate operation of such systems, including a feasibility demonstration at a current level near 10 kA and a pulse repetition rate of 1-10 kpps with a 1-ohm load. The requirements of nonlinear, time-varying loads, such as the railgun electromagnetic launcher, were also addressed. Energy storage capability is needed for proper power conditioning in systems where the duty factor of the output pulse train is low. Inductive energy storage is attractive because it has both a high energy storage density and a fast discharge capability. By producing a pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW at a pulse repetition rate of 5 kpps in a one-ohm load system, this research program was the first to demonstrate fully-controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy storage and transfer system with survivable switches. Success was made possible by using triggered vacuum gap switches as repetitive, current-zero opening switches and developing several new repetitive transfer circuits using the counterpulse technique.

  16. Mice lacking TR4 nuclear receptor develop mitochondrial myopathy with deficiency in complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Lee, Yi-Fen; Chou, Samuel; Uno, Hideo; Li, Gonghui; Brookes, Paul; Massett, Michael P; Wu, Qiao; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-08-01

    The estimated incidence of mitochondrial diseases in humans is approximately 1:5000 to 1:10,000, whereas the molecular mechanisms for more than 50% of human mitochondrial disease cases still remain unclear. Here we report that mice lacking testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4(-/-)) suffered mitochondrial myopathy, and histological examination of TR4(-/-) soleus muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial accumulation. In addition, increased serum lactate levels, decreased mitochondrial ATP production, and decreased electron transport chain complex I activity were found in TR4(-/-) mice. Restoration of TR4 into TR4(-/-) myoblasts rescued mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Further real-time PCR quantification and promoter studies found TR4 could modulate complex I activity via transcriptionally regulating the complex I assembly factor NDUFAF1, and restoration of NDUFAF1 level in TR4(-/-) myoblasts increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity and complex I activity. Together, these results suggest that TR4 plays vital roles in mitochondrial function, which may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of mitochondrial myopathy, and targeting TR4 via its ligands/activators may allow us to develop better therapeutic approaches.

  17. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  18. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  19. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  20. Tarefas repetitivas sob pressão temporal: os distúrbios musculoesqueléticos e o trabalho industrial Repetitive tasks under time pressure: the musculoskeletal disorders and the industrial work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira Fernandes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo ergonômico a fim de caracterizar as tarefas repetitivas e as demandas psicossociais no trabalho industrial em empresa do ramo plástico da Região Metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Realizaram-se observações globais das tarefas nas primeiras visitas à empresa, visando conhecer a organização geral, o funcionamento da produção e os determinantes das tarefas. Observaram-se nesta etapa que as exigências temporais na execução das tarefas implicavam demandas psicossociais e demandas físicas, em especial, os movimentos repetitivos. Na segunda etapa, realizaram-se observações sistemáticas, com entrevistas simultâneas. Mediu-se a duração dos ciclos básicos das tarefas na moldagem/acabamento das embalagens e registrou-se a ocorrência de perturbações que exigiam das trabalhadoras sua regulação. Identificaram-se variabilidades do trabalho, evidenciando como são geradas as demandas extras e como as exigências cognitivas e físicas podem ser exacerbadas pela pressão temporal. A insuficiência dos meios de trabalho, as exigências temporais da gestão da produção e uma organização do trabalho caracterizada pelo baixo controle conformam uma situação em que a continuidade da produção apenas é possível à custa de hipersolicitação do corpo das trabalhadoras.An ergonomic study was carried out to characterize repetitive work and psychosocial demands at work in a plastic industry in The Greater Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. Global observations of tasks were preliminary carried out to investigate work organization, production organization and tasks determinants. Time requirements in tasks development involved psychosocial demands and physical demands, particularly when the latter implied very fast repetitive work. Secondly, those findings led to systematic observations with simultaneous interviews of workers. Work cycles in each task of molding/finishing plastic bags were measured by video analysis. All

  1. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  2. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  3. Characterization of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli by repetitive sequence-based PCR and real-time PCR-based replicon typing of CTX-M-15 plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnberg, Anna; Söderquist, Bo; Persson, Katarina; Mölling, Paula

    2014-11-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a major global concern. CTX-M is the dominating ESBL type worldwide, and CTX-M-15 is the most widespread CTX-M type. The dissemination of CTX-M appears to be in part due to global spread of the Escherichia coli clone O25b-ST131. However, the gene-encoding CTX-M is mainly located on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, that also promote the horizontal dissemination of the CTX-M genes. In this study, 152 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolated in 1999-2008 in Örebro County, Sweden, were typed using a commercial repetitive sequence-based PCR (the DiversiLab system), and the prevalence of ST131 was investigated by pabB PCR. Real-time PCR-based plasmid replicon typing was performed on 82 CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates. In general, the CTX-M-producing E. coli population was genetically diverse; however, ST131 was highly prevalent (27%), and the dominating clone in our area. The blaCTX -M-15 gene was mainly located on IncF plasmids (69%), but a relatively high proportion of IncI1 plasmids (29%) were also detected among E. coli with diverse rep-PCR patterns, indicating that horizontal transmission of IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX -M-15 may have occurred between different E. coli strains.

  4. Curious Repetitions in Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Magnetars, the slowly spinning branch of the pulsar family with extremely high inferred dipole magnetic fields, often display bizarre spin behaviour rarely seen in their more typical rotation-powered cousins. In this talk, I will tell a tale of two magnetars, 1E 1048.1-5937 and 4U 0142+61 -- both of which seem to be repeating themselves. 1E 1048.1-5937 has, three times, shown flux increases of a factor of ~3 which which decayed over hundreds of days, followed months later by unique order of magnitude torque oscillations. 4U 0142+61, on the other hand, has displayed only short-term, i.e. minutes long, flux increases. In 2006, and now again in 2014, 4U 0142+61 has had typical 1E-7 Hz spin-up glitches which then over-recover on a timescale of weeks, leading to a net spin-down event associated with these short-term flux increases. Both of these sources seem to display a coupling between their X-ray flux and spin-down, but at vastly different timescales. By comparing these repeating events, we will try to shed some new light on the physics driving these extreme objects.

  5. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  6. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  7. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  8. RPERT: Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project with a specified/certain duration including repetitive identical activities by using program evaluation and review technique is the most essential part in construction areas since the activities were had optimistic, most likely and pessimistic durations. This paper focuses on the calculation of expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project within a specified/certain duration (contract duration by using Line Of Balance technique (LOB in case of single or multiple number of crews integrated with Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique (RPERT, which is a simplified software, will generate the expected project completion probability of a specified/certain duration (contract duration. RPERT software is designed by java programming code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Viewing the expected project completion probability according to a set of specified durations per each identical activity (optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic time in the analyzed project; (2 Providing seamless integration with available project time calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of RPERT, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; and (4 A processing module. At the end, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of proposed software (RPERT, by using probabilistic calculations for repetitive construction projects.

  9. Efeito do tratamento convencional da constipação crônica funcional no tempo de trânsito orocecal e colônico total e segmentar Effects of conventional treatment of chronic functional constipation on total and segmental colonic and orocecal transit times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Fontenele Soares

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento convencional da constipação crônica funcional no tempo de trânsito colônico total e segmentar e no tempo de trânsito orocecal. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 34 pacientes com constipação funcional atendidos consecutivamente em ambulatório especializado. O tempo de trânsito colônico total e segmentar foi avaliado com marcadores radiopacos. O tempo de trânsito orocecal da lactulose e do feijão foi avaliado com teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado. O tratamento constou de desimpactação, orientações gerais e de consumo de dieta rica em fibra alimentar e administração de óleo mineral. RESULTADOS: Na admissão, dismotilidade colônica foi encontrada em 71,9% (23/32 dos pacientes. Todos os pacientes que realizaram corretamente o tratamento apresentaram melhora clínica na sexta semana do tratamento quando 82,6% (19/23 daqueles com dismotilidade na admissão apresentaram normalização ou diminuição da gravidade no padrão de trânsito colônico. Observou-se redução do tempo de trânsito (medianas entre a admissão e a oitava semana de tratamento: trânsito orocecal da lactulose (de 70 para 50 minutos, p = 0,002, orocecal do feijão (de 240 para 220 minutos, p = 0,002 e colônico total (de 69,5 para 37,0 horas, p = 0,001. A necessidade de uso de óleo mineral para controle da constipação aos 12 meses de tratamento associou-se com persistência de trânsito colônico total superior a 62 horas na oitava semana de tratamento (p = 0,014. CONCLUSÃO: O programa terapêutico convencional proporcionou bons resultados independentemente da presença ou não de dismotilidade colônica na admissão ao estudo. As anormalidades da motilidade digestiva na constipação funcional da criança podem apresentar reversibilidade e ser de natureza secundária.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of conventional treatment of chronic functional constipation on total and segmental colonic transit times and on orocecal

  10. Blog.tr.ee ei anna alla / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Veebikeskkonna blog.tr.ee arengust ja majandamisest räägivad keskkonna looja Andris Reinmann ja firma OÜ Tr.ee osaniku Mobi Solutions'i esindaja Rain Rannu. Vt. samas: Mis on blog.tr.ee; Kaljundi: blog.tr.ee on hobiprojekt. Kommenteerib nagi.ee juhataja Jüri Kaljundi. Lisatud joonis: Blog.tr.ee unikaalsete külastajate arv nädalas

  11. Blog.tr.ee ei anna alla / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Veebikeskkonna blog.tr.ee arengust ja majandamisest räägivad keskkonna looja Andris Reinmann ja firma OÜ Tr.ee osaniku Mobi Solutions'i esindaja Rain Rannu. Vt. samas: Mis on blog.tr.ee; Kaljundi: blog.tr.ee on hobiprojekt. Kommenteerib nagi.ee juhataja Jüri Kaljundi. Lisatud joonis: Blog.tr.ee unikaalsete külastajate arv nädalas

  12. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  13. Movement repetitions in physical and occupational therapy during spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, D; Eng, J J; Miller, W C; Krassioukov, A V; Verrier, M C

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week before discharge. PT and OT time, upper- and lower-extremity repetitions and changes in these outcomes over the course of rehabilitation stay. We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, the median upper-extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower-extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon-signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Repetitions of upper- and lower-extremity movements are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the course of inpatient rehabilitation stay.

  14. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source; Kurzzeit-Roentgenbeugung mit Hilfe einer Effizienz-optimierten, hochrepetierenden Laser-Plasma-Roentgenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehle, Stephan

    2009-04-23

    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K{sub {alpha}} radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K{sub {alpha}} production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K{sub {alpha}} radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density. [German] Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Erzeugung und Anwendung ultrakurzer Roentgenimpulse. Zu Beginn werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur

  15. Impact of orocecal transit time on patient's perception of lactose intolerance Influencia del tiempo de tránsito orocecal en la percepción de los síntomas de intolerancia a la lactosa

    OpenAIRE

    Francesc Casellas; Anna Aparici; Maite Casaus; Purificación Rodríguez; Malagelada, Juan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: symptoms attributed to the lactose intolerance are an important public health issue because of their prevalence and social relevance. Also because they may cause undue rejection of dairy products consume with potential health consequences. Transit time is a putative factor implied in the severity of symptoms associated with lactose. Objectives: to elucidate the relation between orocecal transit time (OCTT) and lactose intolerance symptoms. Methods: observational study in patients ...

  16. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  17. Neuroblastomicose: registro de três casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados três casos de neuroblastomicose de sintomatologia variada (urna forma tumoral cerebelar, urna forma abscedante troncular e cerebral e urna forma granulomatosa difusa. No caso da forma tumoral cerebelar havia associação com cisticercose cerebral. Alterações medulares não foram evidenciadas no único caso em que foi possível examinar êste setor do sistema nervoso central (caso 2.

  18. Nota a Ovidio, Tr. III 2, 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulogio F. Baeza Angulo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at proving the correct reading of quod in Ovid Tr. III 2, 23, basing it on the context and especially in mss. Ei mihi, quod totiens nostri pulsata sepulcri ianua, sub nullo tempore aperta fuit! Cur ego tot gladios fugi totiensque minata obruit infelix nulla procella caput? _______________________________ 23 quod codd. Heinsius def. Housman 1916, 131-132: quo Owen Ehwald-Levy Luck: quam K

  19. The informative value of type of repetition: Perceptual and conceptual fluency influences on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf

    2017-05-01

    We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness for contradictory repetitions. In the delayed session, the illusion of falseness disappeared for contradictory statements. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of recollection of stimulus details and of perceptual and conceptual fluency to illusions of truth at different time intervals and judgmental context conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding work related musculoskeletal pain: does repetitive work cause stress symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2005-01-01

    for development of regional pain in repetitive work, stress symptoms would likely be on the causal path. AIMS: To examine whether objective measures of repetitive monotonous work are related to occurrence and development of stress symptoms. METHODS: In 1994-95, 2033 unskilled workers with continuous repetitive...... work and 813 workers with varied work were enrolled. Measures of repetitiveness and force requirements were quantified using video observations to obtain individual exposure estimates. Stress symptoms were recorded at baseline and after approximately one, two, and three years by the Setterlind Stress...... Profile Inventory. RESULTS: Repetitive work, task cycle time, and quantified measures of repetitive upper extremity movements including force requirements were not related to occurrence of stress symptoms at baseline or development of stress symptoms during three years of follow up. CONCLUSIONS...

  1. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  2. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  3. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  4. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  5. Changes of the Prefrontal EEG (Electroencephalogram) Activities According to the Repetition of Audio-Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Chang, Nam-Kee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the changes of neuronal response according to a four time repetition of audio-visual learning. Obtains EEG data from the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) lobe from 20 subjects at the 8th grade level. Concludes that the habituation of neuronal response shows up in repetitive audio-visual learning and brain hemisphericity can be changed by…

  6. 3rd MeTrApp Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Hüsing, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This volume deals with topics such as mechanism and machine design, biomechanics and medical engineering, gears, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, micromechanisms and microactuators, and history of mechanisms and transmissions. Following MeTrApp 2011 and 2013, held under the auspices of the IFToMM, these proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications offer a platform for original research presentations for researchers, scientists, industry experts and students in the fields of mechanisms and transmissions with special emphasis on industrial applications in order to stimulate the exchange of new and innovative ideas.

  7. Trükikoda Edes (Holland) / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Veenmani trükikoja uus peakontor. Arhitekt Jan Willem Neutelings. Siseõuega kastmaja mahutab administratsiooni ja trükikoja ruumid. Hoone fassaad on kaetud trükitähtedega, mis moodustavad luuletuse. Valge fassaad kujundatakse igal aastal ümber.

  8. Reconstruction of sound source signal by analytical passive TR in the environment with airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Long; Li, Min; Yang, Debin; Niu, Feng; Zeng, Wu

    2017-03-01

    In the acoustic design of air vehicles, the time-domain signals of noise sources on the surface of air vehicles can serve as data support to reveal the noise source generation mechanism, analyze acoustic fatigue, and take measures for noise insulation and reduction. To rapidly reconstruct the time-domain sound source signals in an environment with flow, a method combining the analytical passive time reversal mirror (AP-TR) with a shear flow correction is proposed. In this method, the negative influence of flow on sound wave propagation is suppressed by the shear flow correction, obtaining the corrected acoustic propagation time delay and path. Those corrected time delay and path together with the microphone array signals are then submitted to the AP-TR, reconstructing more accurate sound source signals in the environment with airflow. As an analytical method, AP-TR offers a supplementary way in 3D space to reconstruct the signal of sound source in the environment with airflow instead of the numerical TR. Experiments on the reconstruction of the sound source signals of a pair of loud speakers are conducted in an anechoic wind tunnel with subsonic airflow to validate the effectiveness and priorities of the proposed method. Moreover the comparison by theorem and experiment result between the AP-TR and the time-domain beamforming in reconstructing the sound source signal is also discussed.

  9. Accidentes de tránsito terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramírez Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito terrestres en Costa Rica se han convertido en un serio problema de salud pública, que derivan ya sea en lesiones graves o bien en muertes de personas de todas las edades. Estos eventos incluyen el atropellamiento, las colisiones y choques, y producen cuadros lesionológicos muy diversos de acuerdo a la participación de las personas, el tipo de vehículo y la forma en la que se produce el traumatismo. Así mismo, se debe tener en cuenta la participación de factores coadyuvantes como el uso del casco y el cinturón de seguridad, o bien el consumo de alcohol y el uso del teléfono móvil. La valoración médico legal de las víctimas, vivas o muertas de accidentes de tránsito, está a cargo del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, y se hace por solicitud de una Autoridad Judicial competente.

  10. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  11. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  12. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  13. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillia Bouchon

    Full Text Available The repeated presentation of stimuli typically attenuates neural responses (repetition suppression or, less commonly, increases them (repetition enhancement when stimuli are highly complex, degraded or presented under noisy conditions. In adult functional neuroimaging research, these repetition effects are considered as neural correlates of habituation. The development and respective functional significance of these effects in infancy remain largely unknown.This study investigates repetition effects in newborns using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and specifically the role of stimulus complexity in evoking a repetition enhancement vs. a repetition suppression response, following up on Gervain et al. (2008. In that study, abstract rule-learning was found at birth in cortical areas specific to speech processing, as evidenced by a left-lateralized repetition enhancement of the hemodynamic response to highly variable speech sequences conforming to a repetition-based ABB artificial grammar, but not to a random ABC grammar.Here, the same paradigm was used to investigate how simpler stimuli (12 different sequences per condition as opposed to 140, and simpler presentation conditions (blocked rather than interleaved would influence repetition effects at birth.Results revealed that the two grammars elicited different dynamics in the two hemispheres. In left fronto-temporal areas, we reproduce the early perceptual discrimination of the two grammars, with ABB giving rise to a greater response at the beginning of the experiment than ABC. In addition, the ABC grammar evoked a repetition enhancement effect over time, whereas a stable response was found for the ABB grammar. Right fronto-temporal areas showed neither initial discrimination, nor change over time to either pattern.Taken together with Gervain et al. (2008, this is the first evidence that manipulating methodological factors influences the presence or absence of neural repetition enhancement

  14. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  15. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  16. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  17. Photometric investigation of hot exoplanets: TrES-3b and Qatar-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Erdem, A.; Budding, E.

    2017-08-01

    New photometric follow-up observations of transitting 'hot Jupiters' TrES-3b and Qatar-1b are presented. Weighted mean values of the solutions of light curves in R-filter for both planetary systems are reported and compared with the previous results. The transit light curves were analysed using the WINFITTER code. The physical properties of the planets were estimated. The planet radii are found to be Rp = 1.381 ± 0.033RJ for TrES-3b and Rp = 1.142 ± 0.025RJ for Qatar-1b. Transit times and their uncertainties were also determined and a new linear ephemeris was computed for both systems. Analysis of transit times showed that a significant signal could not be determined for TrES-3b, while weak evidence was found for Qatar-1b, which might be tested using more precise future transit times.

  18. 第三代移动通信中基于TrFO的编解码协商技术及应用%Codec Negotiation Technology and its Applications Based on TrFO in 3G Mobile Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉才利

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the principle and advantage of TrFO, the scheme in which TrFO application are opened to release TC resource load is put forward in the light of the increase of TC resource load after VoIP transformation of current 3G mobile communication system. In the mean time, the corresponding cases of TrFO are discussed in detail to provide domestic core network with a reference to open TrFO function after VoIP transformation.%通过对TrFO的原理和优势进行分析,结合现网VoIP改造后TC资源负荷增加情况,提出了开通TrFO应用来缓解TC资源负荷的方案;同时,还对TrFO相关案例进行详细探讨,为全国核心网VoIP改造后开通TrFO功能提供了参考。

  19. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals.

  20. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  1. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  2. Multipel sklerose og fysisk træning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon

    2005-01-01

    Man har i mange år frarådet patienter med multipel sklerose (MS) at udøve fysisk træning. Som ved en række andre lidelser er det dog blevet stadig mere anerkendt at anbefale fysisk træning til MS-patienter. At der eksisterer et behov for fysisk træning hos MS-patienter understreges af...

  3. Merværdi af dansk træ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, E.(red.)

    Den gældende norm for trækonstruktioner giver mulighed for at anvende træ i styrkeklassen K14 til bærende konstruktioner. Tidligere udgaver af normen har krævet at konstruktionstræ skulle være af styrkeklassen K18 eller højere. Introduktionen af K14-træ til konstruktionsformål giver en merværdi til...

  4. Oligo Tröger's bases--new molecular scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Král, Vladimír

    2012-05-21

    Oligo Tröger's bases are compounds containing two or more Tröger's base subunits (1,5-methanodiareno[b,f][1,5]diazocines) sharing one or more arene parts. Due to their interesting molecular shapes, these compounds are studied as chiral molecular tweezers, clips, cavitands, clefts, calixes, etc. This review includes all available data on oligo Tröger's bases, and introduces their preparation and properties to a wide audience.

  5. Trübungsstabilität von Weizenbier

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Cem

    2012-01-01

    Die Trübungsstabilität als wichtiges Qualitätsmerkmal von Weizenbier wurde in der vorliegenden Arbeit untersucht und lässt sich mittels Streulichtmessung vorhersagen. Partikelmessungen zeigten, dass sich die Partikelfraktion < 1,5 µm über die Zeit quantitativ wenig verändert und für die Trübungsstabilität relevant ist. Die Trübungsstabilität wird maßgeblich durch den Rohstoff Malz beeinflusst; im Vergleich zeigten unterschiedliche Hefestämme die gleichen Eigenschaften in Bezug auf die Trübung...

  6. 桡动脉加压器在经桡动脉行冠状动脉介入治疗术后首次减压时间的系统评价%The first decompression time of TR Band hemostasis after coronary artery intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文贤; 费红; 胡华英; 孙玉连

    2015-01-01

    目的 寻找桡动脉加压器(TR Band止血器)在经桡动脉行冠状动脉介入治疗(TRI)术后首次减压时间的最佳实证,为临床护理实践提供证据支持及指导建议,为进一步制订相应的临床实践指南提供证据支持. 方法 计算机检索Cochrane Library、OVID、PubMed、中国生物医学文献服务系统(CBM)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、维普数据库(VIP)、万方数据库中的文献,并筛选已获文献的参考文献,纳入TRI术后应用TR Band止血器压迫止血的随机对照试验(RCT)、临床对照试验(CCT)及历史性队列研究(HCT).由2名评价员根据Cochrane Handbook 5.0推荐的"偏倚风险评估"工具对纳入研究独立进行方法学质量评价,采用RevMan 5.1.5软件进行Meta分析. 结果 共纳入2项RCT、3项CCT,合计1 881例患者. Meta分析结果显示,术后首次减压时间30 min与1 h比较,患者术侧肢体肿胀、疼痛发生率差异有统计学意义[(OR=2.22,95%CI 1.25~3.93,P0.05)比(OR=2.14,95%CI 0.75~6.12,P>0.05)比(OR=11.73,95%CI 0.64~215.74,P>0.05) ];1 h与2 h比较,患者术侧肢体出血、疼痛的发生率差异有统计学意义[(OR=0.09,95%CI-0.13~-0.05,P0.05)比(OR=0.95,95%CI 0.52~1.75,P>0.05)比(OR=0.96,95%CI 0.54~1.73,P>0.05) ]. 结论 TRI术后30 min开始减压可减低术侧肢体肿胀、疼痛的发生率,对穿刺部位出血、术侧肢体麻木的发生率无明显影响.%Objective To investigate the first decompression time of TR Band hemostasis after transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (TRI), provide evidence to support and guidance for clinical nursing practice. Methods By searching Cochrane Library, OVID, PubMed, Chinese biomedical literature service system(CBM),China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), VIP database(VIP), Wanfang database, the randomized controlled trials (RCTs),controlled clinical trials (CCT) and historical cohort study(HCT) of TR Band hemostasis after coronary artery intervention were collected and

  7. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  8. Træn hårdt når du træner - det betaler sig!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Aagaard, Peter Gjerndrup

    2006-01-01

    Det har længe været kendt, at man opnår det største træningsudbytte ved at træne med en høj træningsintensitet. Dette gælder især, hvis man ønsker en forbedring af den maksimale iltoptagelseshastighed og dermed konditallet. Men meget tyder på, at der i restitutionsperioden efter et hårdt fysisk a...

  9. Transit observations at the observatory in Grossschwabhausen: XO-1b and TrES-1

    CERN Document Server

    Vanko, M; Mugrauer, M; Schmidt, T O B; Roell, T; Eisenbeiss, T; Hohle, M; Seifahrt, A; Koeltzsch, A; Broeg, Ch; Koppenhoefer, J; Neuhäuser, R

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of transit events of the transiting planets XO-1b and TrES-1 with the AIU Jena telescope in Grossschwabhausen. Based on our IR photometry (in March 2007) and available transit timings (SuperWASP, XO and TLC-project-data) we improved the orbital period of XO-1b (P = 3.941497$\\pm$0.000006) and TrES-1 (P = 3.0300737$\\pm$0.000006), respectively. The new ephemeris for the both systems are presented.

  10. All Trützschler Companies on One Stand at ITMA ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 22nd 2010,ITMA ASIA opens its doors in Shanghai.Today,China is by far the most important textile manufacturer.As a result,this trade show is also of particular significance for Trützschler. For the first time,five companies of the Trützschler group will exhibit on a shared stand at the largest and most important textile machinery show in Asia.The 500 m2 stand (W2 C03) in Shanghai provides parallel information in the areas of preparation machines for spinning,nonwoven machinery and clothings for cards and roller cards.

  11. Detection of period variations in extrasolar transiting planet OGLE-TR-111b

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Rodrigo F; Melita, Mario; Hoyer, Sergio; Minniti, Dante; Mauas, Pablo J D; Ruíz, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Two consecutive transits of planetary companion OGLE-TR-111b were observed in the I band. Combining these observations with data from the literature, we find that the timing of the transits cannot be explained by a constant period, and that the observed variations cannot be originated by the presence of a satellite. However, a perturbing planet with the mass of the Earth in an exterior orbit could explain the observations if the orbit of OGLE-TR-111b is eccentric. We also show that the eccentricity needed to explain the observations is not ruled out by the radial velocity data found in the literature.

  12. Skal hovedstaden sande til i trængsel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    Trængselsproblemerne i hovedstadsområdet vil blive markant forværret de næste år. Selv Trængselskommissionens omfattende pakke af forslag er langtfra tilstrækkelig til at løse problemerne. Der skal mere visionære beslutninger til....

  13. Aasta trükise 2000 võitjad selgunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline žürii valis välja 6 raamatut, reklaam- ja väiketrükist ning etiketiseeria. Parimad trükised, trükikojad, kujundajad. Publikuauhinna võitsid üliõpilased Terje Homutov, Monika Eensalu, Tim Kolk

  14. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text.

  15. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  16. O trágico: experiência e conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Puppi

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available O conceito do trágico está de algum modo liga do à violência. O presente estudo pretende estabelecer a relação essencial vigente entre violência institucional e situação trágica, a situação trágica sendo ao mesmo tempo conseqüência e denúncia da violência institucional. Assim entendido, o trágico é primeiramen te expresso sob forma poética, na arte dramática denominada precisamente tragédia; em seguida , por derivação, sob forma conceitual, na análise da própria realidade histórica. A análise da história atual poderá revelar todo o potencial trágico acumulado na violência do poder.

  17. Deploying the Win TR-20 computational engine as a web service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite its simplicity and limitations, the runoff curve number method remains a widely-used hydrologic modeling tool, and its use through the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) computer application WinTR-20 is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. To facilitate timely up...

  18. Sentence repetition is a measure of children's language skills rather than working memory limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Marianne; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Hagtvet, Bente; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Sentence repetition tasks are widely used in the diagnosis and assessment of children with language difficulties. This paper seeks to clarify the nature of sentence repetition tasks and their relationship to other language skills. We present the results from a 2-year longitudinal study of 216 children. Children were assessed on measures of sentence repetition, vocabulary knowledge and grammatical skills three times at approximately yearly intervals starting at age 4. Sentence repetition was not a unique longitudinal predictor of the growth of language skills. A unidimensional language latent factor (defined by sentence repetition, vocabulary knowledge and grammatical skills) provided an excellent fit to the data, and language abilities showed a high degree of longitudinal stability. Sentence repetition is best seen as a reflection of an underlying language ability factor rather than as a measure of a separate construct with a specific role in language processing. Sentence repetition appears to be a valuable tool for language assessment because it draws upon a wide range of language processing skills. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  20. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  1. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of Cepheids in Circinus (AV Cir, BP Cir) and Triangulum Australe (R TrA, S TrA, U TrA, LR TrA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Based on high-resolution spectra taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory, we have determined the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition for three small-amplitude (AV Cir, BP Cir, and LR TrA), two classical (R TrA and S TrA), and one double-mode (U TrA) Cepheids. The averaged atmospheric parameters have been estimated for three Cepheids (AV Cir, BP Cir, and U TrA) observed at various pulsation phases. In all Cepheids, except U TrA, the metallicity has turned out to be higher than the solar one by 0.1-0.2 dex. The abundances of the key elements of the evolution of yellow supergiants (C, O, Na, Mg, Al) show that these objects have already passed the first dredge-up, while those of the remaining elements are nearly solar. Comparison of our results on the Cepheids from the list (except U TrA) with those of other authors shows significant differences in C and O abundance estimates for AV Cir, R TrA, S TrA, and LR TrA. For AV Cir and BP Cir, the H α line profiles are symmetric but with a slight asymmetry in the core at approximately the same phase near 0{·/ P } 7: on the "blue" side for AV Cir and on the "red" one for BP Cir. BP Cir exhibits a distinct asymmetry in the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial first-overtone pulsations. The constancy of the H α absorption line profiles with pulsation phase for AV Cir and BP Cir may suggest the presence of a hydrogen envelope around them. For the double-mode Cepheid U TrA, an asymmetry is observed in the cores of the H α line and the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions at various pulsation phases, which can be explained by nonradial pulsations in the Cepheid's atmosphere. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions of metals in LR TrA closely resemble those in the well-known Cepheid BG Cru: secondary "blue" and "red" components whose line depths vary with pulsation phase are noticeable. This Cepheid

  3. Near-UV and optical observations of the transiting exoplanet TrES-3b

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Jake D; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K; Carleton, Timothy M; Walker-LaFollette, Amanda M; Crawford, Benjamin E; Smith, Carter-Thaxton W; McGraw, Allison M; Small, Lindsay C; Rocchetto, Marco; Cunningham, Kathryn I; Towner, Allison P M; Zellem, Robert; Robertson, Amy N; Guvenen, Blythe C; Schwarz, Kamber R; Hardegree-Ullman, Emily E; Collura, Daniel; Henz, Triana N; Lejoly, Cassandra; Richardson, Logan L; Weinand, Michael A; Taylor, Joanna M; Daugherty, Michael J; Wilson, Ashley A; Austin, Carmen L

    2012-01-01

    We observed nine primary transits of the hot Jupiter TrES-3b in several optical and near-UV photometric bands from 2009 June to 2012 April in an attempt to detect its magnetic field. Vidotto, Jardine and Helling suggest that the magnetic field of TrES-3b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unaffected. Predicted magnetic field strengths of Jupiter-like planets should range between 8 G and 30 G. Using these magnetic field values and an assumed B_star of 100 G, the Vidotto et al. method predicts a timing difference of 5-11 min. We did not detect an early ingress in our three nights of near-UV observations, despite an average cadence of 68 s and an average photometric precision of 3.7 mmag. However, we determined an upper limit of TrES-3b's magnetic field strength to range between 0.013 and 1.3 G (for a 1-100 G magnetic field strength range for the host star, TrES-3) using a timing difference of 138 s derived from the N...

  4. Planetary transit observations at the University Observatory Jena: TrES-2

    CERN Document Server

    Raetz, St; Schmidt, T O B; Roell, T; Eisenbeiss, T; Hohle, M M; Koeltzsch, A; Vanko, M; Ginski, Ch; Marka, C; Moualla, M; Tetzlaff, N; Seifahrt, A; Broeg, Ch; Koppenhoefer, J; Raetz, M; Neuhäuser, R

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of several transit events of the transiting planet TrES-2 obtained with the Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera at the University Observatory Jena. Between March 2007 and November 2008 ten different transits and almost a complete orbital period were observed. Overall, in 40 nights of observation 4291 exposures (in total 71.52 h of observation) of the TrES-2 parent star were taken. With the transit timings for TrES-2 from the 34 events published by the TrES-network, the Transit Light Curve project and the Exoplanet Transit Database plus our own ten transits, we find that the orbital period is P=(2.470614 +/- 0.000001) d, a slight change by ~0.6 s compared to the previously published period. We present new ephemeris for this transiting planet. Furthermore, we found a second dip after the transit which could either be due to a blended variable star or occultation of a second star or even an additional object in the system. Our observations will be useful for future investigations of timing varia...

  5. Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H; Nakai, Y [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama-Kasumi, Taihaku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Mizutani, Y; Inoue, M [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fedyanin, A A, E-mail: uchida_hn@tohtech.ac.jp [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-16

    To prepare garnet (Bi : YIG) composite films with Au particles, we used a repetitive formation method to increase the number density of particles. On increasing the number of repetitions, the diameter distribution of the particles changed. After five repetitions using 5 nm Au films, the diameter distribution separated into two size groups. Shift of wavelength-excited localized surface plasmon resonance is discussed relative to the diameter distribution. In the composite films, enhancement of Faraday rotation associated with surface plasmons was observed. With six repetitions, a maximum enhanced rotation of -1.2{sup 0} was obtained, which is 20 times larger than that of a single Bi : YIG film. The figures of merit for the composite films are discussed. The thickness of a Bi : YIG composite film working for enhanced Faraday rotation was examined using an ion milling method.

  6. Restricted and repetitive behaviours, sensory processing and cognitive style in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Rodgers, Jacqui; McConachie, Helen

    2009-04-01

    Many individuals with autism tend to focus on details. It has been suggested that this cognitive style may underlie the presence of stereotyped routines, repetitive interests and behaviours, and both relate in some way to sensory abnormalities. Twenty-nine children with diagnosis of high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome completed the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and their parents the Short Sensory Profile and Childhood Routines Inventory. Significant correlations were found between degree of sensory abnormalities and amount of restricted and repetitive behaviours reported. Repetitive behaviours, age and IQ significantly predicted completion time on the EFT. The results suggest a cognitive link between an individual's detail-focused cognitive style and their repetitiveness. No such relationship was found with sensory processing abnormalities, which may arise at a more peripheral level of functioning.

  7. Were the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides multi-staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Joshua; Mozzato, Alessandro; Tappin, David; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides originating from active and extinct trough mouth fans are some of the largest single mass movements evident on Earth. These landslides are capable of damaging offshore infrastructure and can also trigger far-reaching tsunamis. For these reasons understanding the timing, dynamics, and triggering mechanisms of large submarine landslides is important for regional geohazard assessment. The Trænadjupet Slide occurred 4,000 ca. years ago and originated from the Trænadjupet paleo-ice stream on the Central Norwegian margin. The Trænadjupet Slide partially buried the deposits of a previous slide originating from the same section of the Norwegian margin; the Nyk Slide, which occurred at 16,000 ca years ago. Although the Trænadjupet Slide had an estimated volume of 900 km3 and originated from a shallow water depth, it does not appear to have triggered a tsunami. This is in contrast to the comparably-sized Storegga Slide, which produced a tsunami that devastated coastal areas as far away as Scotland. The apparent absence of a tsunami suggests that the failure dynamics for the Trænadjupet slide were different to that of other large slides along the Norwegian Margin. The deposits of both the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides consist of several blocky lobes extending out into the Lofoten Basin. The lobate morphology of the deposits may imply that both slides occurred in a number of different and possibly temporally-disparate stages. Importantly, multi-staged failures have a much lower tsunamigenic potential due to the lower initial volume displacement. These staggered failures consisting of smaller sediment volumes might explain why no contemporaneous onshore tsunami deposits are found on nearby coastlines, particularly in the case of the post-glacial Trænadjupet Slide. Here we present a new sediment core dataset collected from the previously un-sampled lobes of the Trænadjupet and Nyk Slides. These cores will help us better characterise the deposit types

  8. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  9. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  10. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  11. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  12. A New Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of the Transiting Planet Systems TrES-3 and TrES-4

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A; Charbonneau, D; Winn, J N; Korzennik, S G; Holman, M J; Latham, D W; Laird, J B; Fernández, J; O'Donovan, F T; Mandushev, G; Dunham, E; Everett, M E; Esquerdo, G A; Rabus, M; Belmonte, J A; Deeg, H J; Brown, T N; Hidas, M G; Baliber, N

    2008-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic and photometric observations of the parent stars of the recently discovered transiting planets TrES-3 and TrES-4. A detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra yields [Fe/H] $= -0.19\\pm 0.08$, $T_\\mathrm{eff} = 5650\\pm 75$ K, and $\\log g = 4.4\\pm 0.1$ for TrES-3, and [Fe/H] $= +0.14\\pm 0.09$, $T_\\mathrm{eff} = 6200\\pm 75$ K, and $\\log g = 4.0\\pm0.1$ for TrES-4. The accuracy of the effective temperatures is supported by a number of independent consistency checks. The spectroscopic orbital solution for TrES-3 is improved with our new radial-velocity measurements of that system, as are the light-curve parameters for both systems based on newly acquired photometry for TrES-3 and a reanalysis of existing photometry for TrES-4. We have redetermined the stellar parameters taking advantage of the strong constraint provided by the light curves in the form of the normalized separation $a/R_\\star$ (related to the stellar density) in conjunction with our new temperatures and m...

  13. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  14. Self-organization of repetitive spike patterns in developing neuronal networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jyh-Jang; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2010-10-01

    The appearance of spontaneous correlated activity is a fundamental feature of developing neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate whether the ontogeny of correlated activity is paralleled by the appearance of specific spike patterns we used a template-matching algorithm to detect repetitive spike patterns in multi-electrode array recordings from cultures of dissociated mouse neocortical neurons between 6 and 15 days in vitro (div). These experiments demonstrated that the number of spiking neurons increased significantly between 6 and 15 div, while a significantly synchronized network activity appeared at 9 div and became the main discharge pattern in the subsequent div. Repetitive spike patterns with a low complexity were first observed at 8 div. The number of repetitive spike patterns in each dataset as well as their complexity and recurrence increased during development in vitro. The number of links between neurons implicated in repetitive spike patterns, as well as their strength, showed a gradual increase during development. About 8% of the spike sequences contributed to more than one repetitive spike patterns and were classified as core patterns. These results demonstrate for the first time that defined neuronal assemblies, as represented by repetitive spike patterns, appear quite early during development in vitro, around the time synchronized network burst become the dominant network pattern. In summary, these findings suggest that dissociated neurons can self-organize into complex neuronal networks that allow reliable flow and processing of neuronal information already during early phases of development.

  15. L and P Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved L and P band T/R modules for use in active microwave surveillance of earth surface and...

  16. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved Ka-band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core...

  17. ExTrA: Exoplanets in Transit and their Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfils, X; Jocou, L; Wunsche, A; Kern, P; Delboulbé, A; Delfosse, X; Feautrier, P; Forveille, T; Gluck, L; Lafrasse, S; Magnard, Y; Maurel, D; Moulin, T; Murgas, F; Rabou, P; Rochat, S; Roux, A; Stadler, E

    2015-01-01

    The ExTrA facility, located at La Silla observatory, will consist of a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph fed by three 60-cm telescopes. ExTrA will add the spectroscopic resolution to the traditional differential photometry method. This shall enable the fine correction of color-dependent systematics that would otherwise hinder ground-based observations. With both this novel method and an infrared-enabled efficiency, ExTrA aims to find transiting telluric planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright nearby M dwarfs. It shall have the versatility to do so by running its own independent survey and also by concurrently following-up on the space candidates unveiled by K2 and TESS. The exoplanets detected by ExTrA will be amenable to atmospheric characterisation with VLTs, JWST, and ELTs and could give our first peek into an exo-life laboratory.

  18. L and P Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved L and P band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core...

  19. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal is presented as the follow on to the Phase I SBIR contract number NNC06CB21C entitled "Ka-band MMIC T/R Module" For active microwave...

  20. Effect of Repetitive Impulse Voltage Rise Time on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Inverter-fed Motor Insulation%重复脉冲上升时间对变频电机绝缘局部放电特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 王燕; 赵世林; 王鹏; 周凯

    2015-01-01

    为研究重复脉冲电压上升时间对变频电机绝缘的局部放电特征影响规律,基于超高频天线、检波技术和宽带、高速数据采集和传输技术设计了重复脉冲电压下变频电机绝缘局部放电检测系统。研究了变频电机匝间绝缘在不同上升时间重复脉冲电压下的局部放电统计特性并对其机理进行了分析。结果表明:在微秒级的上升时间下,脉冲电压极性快速翻转导致变频电机绝缘薄弱处空间电荷电场和外部电场叠加,易超过局部放电起始电压,从而产生次数较多的小幅值放电,且放电幅值随着上升时间的减小而增大,但单个周期放电总量逐渐减少。因此设计耦合传感器时应根据重复脉冲上升时间和局部放电脉冲频域能量分布特点,设计高频响应较好的传感器,避免脉冲电源干扰使测试灵敏度降低,从而得到准确反映电机绝缘水平的PDIV和RPDIV。%To study the effect of repetitive impulse voltage rise time on the partial discharge(PD) characteristics of inverter-fed motor insulation, we designed a PD detection system for inverter-fed motor insulation under repetitive impulse voltage based on ultra-high frequency antenna, detection technology and broadband, and high-speed data acquisition & transmission technology. The PD statistical characteristics of the interturn insulation of inverter-fed motor under different impulse voltage rise time were obtained by the system, and their mechanism was analyzed. The results show that when the voltage rise time is under μs level, the electric field of space charge of the weak insulation caused by the fast reversal of voltage polarity would superpose the external electric field, which would exceed the partial discharge inception voltage(PDIV) and produce many times of PD with low magnitude. The PD magni-tude increases with the decrease of the rise time, but the total discharge amount in one cycle decreases

  1. Performance of repetitive tasks induces decreased grip strength and increased fibrogenic proteins in skeletal muscle: role of force and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study elucidates exposure-response relationships between performance of repetitive tasks, grip strength declines, and fibrogenic-related protein changes in muscles, and their link to inflammation. Specifically, we examined forearm flexor digitorum muscles for changes in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; a matrix protein associated with fibrosis, collagen type I (Col1; a matrix component, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; an upstream modulator of CTGF and collagen, in rats performing one of two repetitive tasks, with or without anti-inflammatory drugs. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To examine the roles of force versus repetition, rats performed either a high repetition negligible force food retrieval task (HRNF, or a high repetition high force handle-pulling task (HRHF, for up to 9 weeks, with results compared to trained only (TR-NF or TR-HF and normal control rats. Grip strength declined with both tasks, with the greatest declines in 9-week HRHF rats. Quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses of HRNF muscles showed increased expression of Col1 in weeks 3-9, and CTGF in weeks 6 and 9. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PCR results, and also showed greater increases of CTGF and collagen matrix in 9-week HRHF rats than 9-week HRNF rats. ELISA, and immunohistochemistry revealed greater increases of TGFB1 in TR-HF and 6-week HRHF, compared to 6-week HRNF rats. To examine the role of inflammation, results from 6-week HRHF rats were compared to rats receiving ibuprofen or anti-TNF-α treatment in HRHF weeks 4-6. Both treatments attenuated HRHF-induced increases in CTGF and fibrosis by 6 weeks of task performance. Ibuprofen attenuated TGFB1 increases and grip strength declines, matching our prior results with anti-TNFα. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Performance of highly repetitive tasks was associated with force-dependent declines in grip strength and increased fibrogenic-related proteins in flexor digitorum muscles. These changes were

  2. Digestibilidade e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta para pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625 Digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time of diets with increasing dietary fiber levels to pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestibilidade e o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal (TTGI de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (FB para pacus. Para avaliar a digestibilidade foram utilizados 288 pacus, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, alimentados em aquários e transferidos para coletores do tipo Guelf Modificado, utilizando-se o método de coleta parcial de fezes. As rações foram marcadas com 1% de óxido de crômio para a determinação da digestibilidade das dietas. No ensaio de TTGI, 288 pacus foram distribuídos em 24 aquários em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados com rações contendo 1% óxido de titânio ou crômio, que apresentam cores diferentes, verde ou branca, respectivamente. Por meio de massagem abdominal foi averiguada periodicamente a cor das fezes, e o TTGI foi estabelecido quando as fezes de todos os peixes apresentaram cor verde. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das dietas e o TTGI foram reduzidos com aumento do nível de FB nas dietas. Conclui-se que em dietas para pacus pode-se empregar até 9% de FB sem efeito negativo na digestibilidade da energia, proteína, matéria seca e estrato etéreo e sem alterar o TTGI.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary fiber levels on the digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time (GTT for pacu. The digestibility trial used 288 pacu in a completely randomized design, fed in aquaria and transferred to a modified Guelf-type feces collector, using the partial sampling method. The inert marker on the diets was chromic oxide (1% to establish the diet digestibility. In the GTT assay, 288 pacu were distributed in 24 aquaria in a completely randomized design. Fish were fed with two colored diets – green and white – and feces color was determined after abdominal pressure. The white and green diets used 1% of titanium and chromic oxides, respectively. Total GTT was determined when all fish showed green

  3. Optimizing drive parameters of a nanosecond, repetitively pulsed microdischarge high power 121.6 nm source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Trienekens, D.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2015-02-01

    Utilizing nanosecond high voltage pulses to drive microdischarges (MDs) at repetition rates in the vicinity of 1 MHz previously enabled increased time-averaged power deposition, peak vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) power yield, as well as time-averaged VUV power yield. Here, various pulse widths (30-250 ns), and pulse repetition rates (100 kHz-5 MHz) are utilized, and the resulting VUV yield is reported. It was observed that the use of a 50 ns pulse width, at a repetition rate of 100 kHz, provided 62 W peak VUV power and 310 mW time-averaged VUV power, with a time-averaged VUV generation efficiency of ˜1.1%. Optimization of the driving parameters resulted in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in peak and time-averaged power when compared to low power, dc-driven MDs.

  4. Enhanced Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Performance of Flexible PVDF-TrFE Bilayer Films with Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanasi, Venkateswarlu; Kumar, Vipin; Parida, Kaushik; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-13

    Ferroelectric materials have attracted interest in recent years due to their application in energy harvesting owing to its piezoelectric nature. Ferroelectric polymers are flexible and can sustain larger strains compared to inorganic counterparts, making them attractive for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations. Herein, we report, for the first time, the enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of the bilayer films of poled poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [PVDF-TrFE] and graphene oxide (GO). The bilayer film exhibits superior energy harvesting performance with a voltage output of 4 V and power output of 4.41 μWcm(-2) compared to poled PVDF-TrFE films alone (voltage output of 1.9 V and power output of 1.77 μWcm(-2)). The enhanced voltage and power output in the presence of GO film is due to the combined effect of electrostatic contribution from graphene oxide, residual tensile stress, enhanced Young's modulus of the bilayer films, and the presence of space charge at the interface of the PVDF-TrFE and GO films, arising from the uncompensated polarization of PVDF-TrFE. Higher Young's modulus and dielectric constant of GO led to the efficient transfer of mechanical and electrical energy.

  5. Investigating the taste in the city : Très très bon, gourmet stroll in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille BRACHET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, will be examined the potential of television regarding the representation of food and taste. The analysis focuses on a particular TV show, Très très bon, a weekend program broadcast on the channel Paris Première. Since the success of many TV programs has already shown that cooking and television can go together, it is interesting to try to understand the terms of staging which are very specific to Très très bon. For this purpose, the apparatus behind this TV program will be analysed in order to understand how the TV show seduces the viewer for whom any form of tasting remains technically impossible.

  6. About the Infinite Repetition of Histories in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alfonseca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two different proposals, one by Ellis and Brundrit, based on classical relativistic cosmology, the other by Garriga and Vilenkin, based on the DH interpretation of quantum mechanics, both concluding that, in an infinite universe, planets and beings must be repeated an infinite number of times. We point to possible shortcomings in these arguments. We conclude that the idea of an infinite repetition of histories in space cannot be considered strictly speaking a consequence of current physics and cosmology. Such ideas should be seen rather as examples of «ironic science» in the terminology of John Horgan.

  7. Superconductivity in Y6Tr4Al43 (Tr = Nb, Mo, Ta) with Peanut-Shaped Cage Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Naoki; Satoh, Ryoh; Nakano, Tomohito; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-10-01

    Superconductivity is discovered in Y6Tr4Al43 (Tr = Nb, Mo, Ta) with a peanut-shaped cage structure at Tc = 0.86, 0.75, and 0.68 K, respectively. The superconducting state is revealed by performing electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements. The upper critical field is obtained to be 0.22 (Nb), 0.175 (Mo), and 0.15 T (Ta). A specific heat jump provides evidence of bulk superconductivity in these compounds.

  8. Facilitating memory for novel characters by reducing neural repetition suppression in the left fusiform cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The left midfusiform and adjacent regions have been implicated in processing and memorizing familiar words, yet its role in memorizing novel characters has not been well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional MRI, the present study examined the hypothesis that the left midfusiform is also involved in memorizing novel characters and spaced learning could enhance the memory by enhancing the left midfusiform activity during learning. Nineteen native Chinese readers were scanned while memorizing the visual form of 120 Korean characters that were novel to the subjects. Each character was repeated four times during learning. Repetition suppression was manipulated by using two different repetition schedules: massed learning and spaced learning, pseudo-randomly mixed within the same scanning session. Under the massed learning condition, the four repetitions were consecutive (with a jittered inter-repetition interval to improve the design efficiency. Under the spaced learning condition, the four repetitions were interleaved with a minimal inter-repetition lag of 6 stimuli. Spaced learning significantly improved participants' performance during the recognition memory test administered one hour after the scan. Stronger left midfusiform and inferior temporal gyrus activities during learning (summed across four repetitions were associated with better memory of the characters, based on both within- and cross-subjects analyses. Compared to massed learning, spaced learning significantly reduced neural repetition suppression and increased the overall activities in these regions, which were associated with better memory for novel characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated a strong link between cortical activity in the left midfusiform and memory for novel characters, and thus challenge the visual word form area (VWFA hypothesis. Our results also shed light on the neural mechanisms of the spacing effect in

  9. Motivational salience modulates hippocampal repetition suppression and functional connectivity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eZweynert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is a rapid decrease of stimulus-related neuronal responses upon repeated presentation of a stimulus. Previous studies have demonstrated that negative emotional salience of stimuli enhances RS. It is, however, unclear how motivational salience of stimuli, such as reward-predicting value, influences RS for complex visual stimuli, and which brain regions might show differences in RS for reward-predicting and neutral stimuli. Here we investigated the influence of motivational salience on RS of complex scenes using event-related fMRI. Thirty young healthy volunteers performed a monetary incentive delay (MID task with complex scenes (indoor vs. outdoor serving as neutral or reward-predicting cue pictures. Each cue picture was presented three times. In line with previous findings, reward anticipation was associated with activations in the ventral striatum, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC. Stimulus repetition was associated with pronounced repetition suppression in ventral visual stream areas like the parahippocampal place area (PPA. An interaction of reward anticipation and repetition suppression was specifically observed in the anterior hippocampus, where a response decrease across repetitions was observed for the reward-predicting scenes only. Functional connectivity analysis further revealed specific activity-dependent connectivity increases of the hippocampus and the PPA and OFC. Our results suggest that hippocampal repetition suppression is sensitive to reward-predicting properties of stimuli and might therefore reflect a rapid, adaptive neural response mechanism for motivationally salient information.

  10. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  11. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  12. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  13. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  14. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  15. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  16. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  17. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  18. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  19. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  20. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-06-21

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  1. A ironia trágica de Machado de Assis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pessoa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto defende, a partir de uma análise das Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, de Machado de Assis, que a ironia do autor deve ser lida como uma espécie de ironia trágica. A fundamentação dessa hipótese é realizada em três etapas: na primeira, apresenta-se o conceito de ironia trágica, como tematizado por Christoph Menke e Wayne Booth; na segunda, mostra-se como a noção de ironia trágica permite compreender a célebre definição de Lukács de que “a ironia é a objetividade do romance”; finalmente, o texto discute como o conceito de ironia trágica ao mesmo tempo esclarece e subverte as interpretações tradicionais da obra de Machado de Assis.

  2. Experimental study of polarity dependence in repetitive nanosecond-pulse breakdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Tao; Sun Guang-Sheng; Yan Ping; Wang Jue; Yuan Wei-Qun; Zhang Shi-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed breakdown of dry air at ambient pressure has been investigated in the point-plane geometry,using repetitive nanosecond pulses with 10 ns risetime,20-30 as duration,and up to 100 kV amplitude.A major concern in this paper is to study the dependence of breakdown strength on the point-electrode polarity.Applied voltage,breakdown current and repetitive stressing time are measured under the experimental conditions of some variables including pulse voltage peak,gap spacing and repetition rate.The results show that increasing the E-field strength can decrease breakdown time lag,repetitive stressing time and the number of applied pulses as expected.However,compared with the traditional polarity dependence it is weakened and not significant in the repetitive nanosecond-pulse breakdown.The ambiguous polaxity dependence in the experimental study is involved with an accumulation effect of residual charges and metastable states.Moreover,it is suggested that the reactions associated with the detachment of negative ions and impact deactivation of metastable specms could provide a source of primary initiating electrons for breakdown.

  3. Efeito da época de colheita no crescimento vegetativo, na produtividade e na qualidade de raízes de três cultivares de mandioca Effect of the harvesting time in the vegetative growth, yield and quality of the storage roots of three cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da época de colheita no crescimento vegetativo, na produtividade e na qualidade de raízes tuberosas de três cultivares de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, desenvolveu-se em Araruna, Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, um experimento em área de Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico, no período de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos principais as cultivares Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14 e os tratamentos secundários, dez épocas de colheita, realizadas mensalmente a partir do início do segundo ciclo de crescimento das plantas. A produção da parte aérea apresentou, no segundo ciclo, aumentos de 50,0% em relação a um único ciclo vegetativo. O bom desenvolvimento da estrutura vegetativa das plantas levou ao acúmulo de material de reserva nas raízes tuberosas, aumentando a sua produtividade. Os maiores índices de colheita ocorreram dos 19 aos 21 meses de idade, com valores, em média, superiores a 54,0%. As cultivares não diferiram entre si quanto à produção de raízes tuberosas, de massa seca e de amido. Para todas as cultivares, a segunda fase de repouso fisiológico das plantas mostrou-se mais propícia à colheita, em face da maior produção de raízes tuberosas (92,5%, de massa seca (125,0% e de amido (144,0%.With the objective of determining the effect of harvesting time in the vegetative growth, yield and quality of storage roots of three cassava cultivars (Manihot esculenta Crantz, an experiment was carried out in an area of red distrophic Red Latosol in Araruna, Northwest of Paraná state, from October, 1997 to May, 1999. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with four replications and treatments arranged in split plots. The main treatments were the cassava cultivars Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 and the secondary treatments were ten

  4. A tríade da atleta: posicionamento oficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Otis

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A tríade da atleta é uma síndrome que ocorre em adolescentes e mulheres fisicamente ativas. Os seus componentes inter-relacionados são distúrbios alimentares, amenorréia e osteoporose. A pressão à qual adolescentes e mulheres jovens são submetidas para atingir ou manter um peso corporal irrealmente baixo está por trás dessa síndrome. Possuem maior risco as adolescentes e mulheres que praticam esportes nos quais um baixo peso corporal é importante para o desempenho ou por razões estéticas. As jovens e mulheres com um dos componentes dessa tríade devem ser investigadas para os outros.

  5. Preaching as Repetition – in Times of Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I present insights from an empirical study of a congregation which consists of a medley of refugees from the Middle East who have recently converted from Islam and ethnic Danes whose families have belonged to the Lutheran Church for generations. The empirical material is analyzed...

  6. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  7. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study of the effect of a synbiotic dairy product on orocecal transit time in healthy adult women Estudio aleatorizado, doble-ciego y controlado por placebo del efecto de un simbiótico sobre el tránsito intestinal en mujeres adultas sanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malpeli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate oro-cecal intestinal transit time (ITT before and after administration of a dairy product containing Bifidobacterium BB12, Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and fiber in healthy women. Methods: A prospective, randomised, double-blind and cross-over study with a 4-phase design (run-in: time 0 [T0], two intervention periods: time 1 [T1] and time 3 [T3] and a wash-out: time 2, [T2] was performed. Participants were asked about bowel movement and fiber consumption. ITT was assessed by the carmine red dye method. Results: Mean age was 40.7 years (n = 102 healthy women; 83 completed the study. In women with initial ITT (IITT > 48 h consuming the synbiotic product, mean IITT and final ITT (FITT was 86.9 ± 38.5 h and 51.2 ± 29.8 h (-40.9%, as compared to women consuming the control yoghurt (IITT, 80.8 ± 31.7 h; FITT, 69.5 ± 31.5 h; -13.8% (p = 0.001. IITT in women with functional constipation consuming the control yoghurt was 57.0 ± 30.0 h; such figure increased 2.8 h after yoghurt consumption (FITT, 59.8 ± 3 0.2 h; +4.9%. Conversely, IITT in women who received the synbiotic yoghurt was 69.0 ± 49.6 h, with a -27.5% decrease 19 h later (FITT, 50.0 ± 27.5 h; p = 0.023. Enteric lactic flora stabilization was significantly higher in women who initially consumed the synbiotic product (p Objetivo: Evaluar el tiempo de tránsito intestinal (TTI antes y después de consumir yogur con Bifidobacterium BB12, Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 y fibra (simbiótico. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, cruzado, aleatorizado y doble-ciego con 4 fases: preparación (tiempo 0; intervención (yogur o simbiótico; tiempo 1 y tiempo 3; sin intervención (tiempo 2. Evaluamos la frecuencia de defecación y el consumo de fibra. El TTI se estimo con rojo carmín. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 40,7 años (n = 102 mujeres sanas; 83 completaron el estudio. En mujeres con TTI inicial (TTII > 48 h que consumieron el simbiótico, el TTII y el TTI final (TTIF fue 86

  8. Dynamics of the TrES-2 system

    CERN Document Server

    Freistetter, Florian; Funk, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The TrES-2 system harbors one planet which was discovered with the transit technique. In this work we investigate the dynamical behavior of possible additional, lower-mass planets. We identify the regions where such planets can move on stable orbits and show how they depend on the initial eccentricity and inclination. We find, that there are stable regions inside and outside the orbit of TrES-2b where additional, smaller planets can move. We also show that those planets can have a large orbital inclination which makes a detection with the transit technique very difficult.

  9. Trópicos tristes y paradisíacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Francisco Torres

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo continúa las indagatorias del autor sobre la visión de la selva que han dado los hombres de letras en Hispanoamérica. Como un estudio de esta naturaleza no estaría completo sin la presencia de los naturalistas, que coincidieron en equiparar el trópico con el paraíso, el presente trabajo entrega una lectura de ellos y le da cita al antropólogo Claude Lévy-Strauss, quien fue una voz discordante en la visión paradisíaca del trópico.

  10. A tríade da atleta: posicionamento oficial

    OpenAIRE

    Otis,Carol L.; Barbara Drinkwater; Mimi Johnson; Anne Loucks; Jack Wilmore

    1999-01-01

    A tríade da atleta é uma síndrome que ocorre em adolescentes e mulheres fisicamente ativas. Os seus componentes inter-relacionados são distúrbios alimentares, amenorréia e osteoporose. A pressão à qual adolescentes e mulheres jovens são submetidas para atingir ou manter um peso corporal irrealmente baixo está por trás dessa síndrome. Possuem maior risco as adolescentes e mulheres que praticam esportes nos quais um baixo peso corporal é importante para o desempenho ou por razões estéticas. As ...

  11. Composição químico-bromatológica de variedades de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp L. com diferentes ciclos de produção (precoce e intermediário em três idades de corte Chemical composition of sugar cane varieties (Saccharum spp L. with different cycles of production in three cut time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram objetivos deste trabalho determinar a composição químico- bromatológica, as frações potencialmente degradável (B2 e indegradável (C da FDN dos carboidratos totais e estimar a repleção ruminal da cana-de-açúcar com diferentes ciclos de produção (precoce e intermediário, em três idades de corte (426, 487 e 549 dias. As análises laboratoriais consistiram na determinação da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica, matéria mineral, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo, lignina, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, FDN corrigida para cinzas e proteína, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína insolúvel em detergente neutro, proteína insolúvel em detergente ácido e proteína solúvel em detergente neutro. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram calculados por intermédio da composição química. As frações B2, C e a taxa de digestão da fibra, bem como a repleção ruminal, foram estimadas através de parâmetros cinéticos obtidos a partir da incubação in situ. O avanço da idade de corte propiciou aumento nos teores de MS em 9,5%. As variedades intermediárias apresentaram NDT superiores às precoces, as quais destacaram-se pelos mais elevados teores de FDN e FDA, cujos respectivos valores foram 487,56 e 471,03, e 287,87 e 247,54 g/kg MS para as variedades precoces e intermediárias, respectivamente. O NDT aumentou linearmente com a idade de corte, variando de 62,45 a 63,50%; contudo, os teores de FDN e FDA apresentaram comportamento quadrático. As variedades precoces apresentaram maior teor de PB que as intermediárias somente na idade ao corte de 549 dias, contrariamente, o teor de brix foi superior para as variedades intermediárias no último corte. As variedades precoces apresentaram maior repleção ruminal total e menor taxa de digestão da fibra. A fração B2 da fibra, foi reduzida e a C foi linearmente aumentada com a idade das plantas.The objectives of this work were to determine the chemical

  12. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  13. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  14. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  15. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  16. Understanding TR binding to pMHC complexes: how does a TR scan many pMHC complexes yet preferentially bind to one.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Mohammed Khan

    Full Text Available Understanding the basis of the binding of a T cell receptor (TR to the peptide-MHC (pMHC complex is essential due to the vital role it plays in adaptive immune response. We describe the use of computed binding (free energy (BE, TR paratope, pMHC epitope, molecular surface electrostatic potential (MSEP and calculated TR docking angle (θ to analyse 61 TR/pMHC crystallographic structures to comprehend TR/pMHC interaction. In doing so, we have successfully demonstrated a novel/rational approach for θ calculation, obtained a linear correlation between BE and θ without any "codon" or amino acid preference, provided an explanation for TR ability to scan many pMHC ligands yet specifically bind one, proposed a mechanism for pMHC recognition by TR leading to T cell activation and illustrated the importance of the peptide in determining TR specificity, challenging the "germline bias" theory.

  17. On Implementation of a Safer C Library, ISO/IEC TR 24731

    CERN Document Server

    Laverdière, Marc-André; Benredjem, Djamel

    2009-01-01

    The functions standardized as part of ISO C 1999 and their addendums improved very little the security options from the previously available library. The largest flaw remained that no function asked for the buffer size of destination buffers for any function copying data into a user-supplied buffer. According to earlier research we performed, we know that error condition handling was the first solution to security vulnerabilities, followed by precondition validation. The standard C functions typically perform little precondition validation and error handling, allowing for a wide range of security issues to be introduced in their use. ISO/IEC TR 24731, titled as "TR 24731: Safer C library functions", defines 41 new library functions for memory copying, string handling (both for normal and wide character strings), time printing, sorting, searching etc. Another innovation it brings is a constraint handling architecture, forcing error handling when certain security-related preconditions are violated when the func...

  18. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M S; Milla, J Madera; De Durana, A López Diaz; Martínez, C A Cordente; Romo, G Rodríguez; Quintana, M Sillero; Molinuevo, J Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  19. Trükitud majad : korterelamu Pariisis / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Tänaste fassaadide keerukusest, paindlikkusest, vastuolulisusest. Trükitud klaasist fassaadi näiteks toodud elamu uue Pariisi Rahvusraamatukogu kõrval. Hoone pinna moodustavad suured värvitrükis klaaspaneelid, molle motiivid on laenatud renessanssmaalidelt. Katkematu lindina jooksevad ümber maja etteulatuvad metallrõdud.

  20. Käsitsi trükitud tapeedid / Kadri Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Kadri, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    Kristiina Ribelusi käsitsi trükitud tapeedid Käsmu kabelile. 1863. aastal ehitatud Käsmu kabeli (kiriku) ajaloost, siseinterjööri restaureerimisest 2012. aastal. Peatöövõtt: OÜ Tartu Restauraator, projektijuht Kristiina Ribelus

  1. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  2. Muinsuskaitseameti rakendusuuringud ja trükised 2005 / Anneli Randla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Muinsuskaitseameti 2005. a. rakendusuuringutest (materiaalse pärandi uuringud, Eesti ajaloo ülduuringud, temaatilised valdkonnauuringud, kaitsekorraldus- ja säilitusalased uuringud) ja trükistest. Muinsuskaitseamet omanda Veljo Ranniku fotokogu, mis sisaldas ule 20000 foto Eesti mõisate kohta

  3. Træernes rolle i et landbrugslandskab i Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Ved at gå ind i et eksisterende projektsamarbejde er det lykkedes Steen Christensen at gennemføre et vellykket feltarbejde i Senegal inden for et 6-måneders speciale. Resultaterne fra projektet vil kunne indgå som grundlag for en lokal forvaltning som tager sigte på at beskytte træerne som er en...

  4. Deconstructing the DSM-IV-TR: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Philip; Holmes, Colin A

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines and offers a critique of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), underlying principles and assumptions, and the nature and consequences of its nosological framework. The reason for this critique is to look at the rationale for some of the diagnostic categories and also why some categories are retained, including some of the long-standing diagnostic groups, such as schizophrenia. It is not the intention here to rehearse the problems of biological psychiatric thinking, nor argue the strengths and weaknesses of the DSM-IV-TR in its definitions and descriptions of particular syndromes and illnesses. The ideas presented here derive from a range of previous research that argued that the DSM-IV-TR colludes in a system of psychiatric care in which all people, by virtue of characteristically human foibles and idiosyncrasies, are potentially classifiable into a variety of diagnostic mental health categories. In the present study, it was argued that because of resource constraints, professional dispute, and public concern, the major criterion for attracting a formal diagnosis is not classifiability according to the DSM-IV-TR, but rather, that of 'social risk', defined in terms of risk to oneself and/or others and embodying obvious social control functions. Here, we expand and develop some of these ideas, and relate them more specifically to insights offered by critical or deconstructive psychology and the development of the forthcoming the DSM-V.

  5. Muinsuskaitseameti rakendusuuringud ja trükised 2005 / Anneli Randla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Muinsuskaitseameti 2005. a. rakendusuuringutest (materiaalse pärandi uuringud, Eesti ajaloo ülduuringud, temaatilised valdkonnauuringud, kaitsekorraldus- ja säilitusalased uuringud) ja trükistest. Muinsuskaitseamet omanda Veljo Ranniku fotokogu, mis sisaldas ule 20000 foto Eesti mõisate kohta

  6. El cuento en Colombia. Viento de trópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arias Ramírez

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available No sería "Viento de Trópico", sino Cuentos Intensos, el nombre del libro que acaba de publicar José Francisco Socarrás. Hay tal dramatismo y tal densidad psicológica, propios de quien ha vivido en continuo y fatigoso indagar de la conciencia.

  7. Integrated L-Band T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this Phase II project is to deliver an integrated L-band transmit/receive (T/R) module which will be fabricated from a GaAs-based combined HBT/PHEMT...

  8. Käsitsi trükitud tapeedid / Kadri Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Kadri, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    Kristiina Ribelusi käsitsi trükitud tapeedid Käsmu kabelile. 1863. aastal ehitatud Käsmu kabeli (kiriku) ajaloost, siseinterjööri restaureerimisest 2012. aastal. Peatöövõtt: OÜ Tartu Restauraator, projektijuht Kristiina Ribelus

  9. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 Using Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +/- 0.021%, 0.230% +/- 0.024%, 0.199% +/- 0.054%, and 0.359% +/- 0.060% at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T(sub eff) = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four lRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet. Key words: eclipses - infrared: stars - planetary systems - stars: individual (OSC 03549-02811) - techniques: photometric

  10. Transport and Fatigue Properties of Ferroelectric Polymer P(VDF-TrFE) For Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Organic ferroelectrics polymers have recently received much interest for use in nonvolatile memory devices. The ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) , P(VDF-TrFE), is a promising candidate due to its relatively high remnant polarization, low coercive field, fast switching times, easy processability, and low Curie transition. However, no detailed study of charge injection and current transport properties in P(VDF-TrFE) have been reported in the literature yet. Charge injection and transport are believed to affect various properties of ferroelectric films such as remnant polarization values and polarization fatigue behavior.. Thus, this thesis aims to study charge injection in P(VDF-TrFE) and its transport properties as a function of electrode material. Injection was studied for Al, Ag, Au and Pt electrodes. Higher work function metals such as Pt have shown less leakage current compared to lower work function metals such as Al for more than an order of magnitude. That implied n-type conduction behavior for P(VDF-TrFE), as well as electrons being the dominant injected carrier type. Charge transport was also studied as a function of temperature, and two major transport regimes were identified: 1) Thermionic emission over a Schottky barrier for low fields (E < 25 MV/m). 2) Space-Charge-Limited regime at higher fields (25 < E <120 MV/m). We have also studied the optical imprint phenomenon, the polarization fatigue resulting from a combination of broad band optical illumination and DC bias near the switching field. A setup was designed for the experiment, and validated by reproducing the reported effect in polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 , PZT, film. On the other hand, P(VDF-TrFE) film showed no polarization fatigue as a result of optical imprint test, which could be attributed to the large band gap of the material, and the low intensity of the UV portion of the arc lamp white light used for the experiment. Results suggest using high work

  11. Decreased microvascular cerebral blood flow assessed by diffuse correlation spectroscopy after repetitive concussions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Erin M; Miller, Benjamin F; Golinski, Julianne M; Sadeghian, Homa; McAllister, Lauren M; Vangel, Mark; Ayata, Cenk; Meehan, William P; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive concussions are associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction that can be attenuated by increasing the time intervals between concussions; however, biomarkers of the safest rest interval between injuries remain undefined. We hypothesize that deranged cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a candidate biomarker for vulnerability to repetitive concussions. Using a mouse model of human concussion, we examined the effect of single and repetitive concussions on cognition and on an index of CBF (CBFi) measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy. After a single mild concussion, CBFi was reduced by 35±4% at 4 hours (Pconcussions spaced 1 day apart, CBFi was also reduced from preinjury levels 4 hours after each concussion but had returned to preinjury levels by 72 hours after the final concussion. Interestingly, in this repetitive concussion model, lower CBFi values measured both preinjury and 4 hours after the third concussion were associated with worse performance on the Morris water maze assessed 72 hours after the final concussion. We conclude that low CBFi measured either before or early on in the evolution of injury caused by repetitive concussions could be a useful predictor of cognitive outcome.

  12. Repetition priming of words and nonwords in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Beth A.; Shenaut, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examines the magnitude and direction of nonword and word lexical decision repetition priming effects in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and normal aging, focusing specifically on the negative priming effect sometimes observed with repeated nonwords. Method Probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (30), elderly normal controls (34), and young normal controls (49) participated in a repetition priming experiment using low-frequency words and word-like nonwords with a letter-level orthographic orienting task at study followed by a lexical decision test phase. Results Although participants' reaction times were longer in AD compared to elderly normal, and elderly normal compared to young normal, the repetition priming effect and the degree to which the repetition priming effect was reversed for nonwords compared to words was unaffected by AD or normal aging. Conclusion AD patients, like young and elderly normal participants, are able to modify (in the case of words) and create (in the case of nonwords) long-term memory traces for lexical stimuli, based on a single orthographic processing trial. The nonword repetition results are discussed from the perspective of new vocabulary learning commencing with a provisional lexical memory trace created after orthographic encoding of a novel word-like letter string. PMID:25000325

  13. The Organization of Repetitive DNA in the Genomes of Amazonian Lizard Species in the Family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Pinheiro, Vanessa S S; Carmo, Edson J; Goll, Leonardo G; Schneider, Carlos H; Gross, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes.

  14. Relationship between repetitive firing and afterhyperpolarizations in human neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, N M; Foehring, R C

    1992-02-01

    1. Human neocortical neurons fire repetitively in response to long depolarizing current injections. The slope of the relationship between average firing frequency and injected current (f-I slope) was linear or bilinear in these cells. The mean steady-state f-I slope (average of the last 500 ms of a 1-s firing episode) was 57.8 Hz/nA. The instantaneous firing rate decreased with time during a 1-s constant-current injection (spike frequency adaptation). Also, human neurons exhibited habituation in response to a 1-s current stimulus repeated every 2 s. 2. Afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) reflect the active ionic conductances after action potentials. We studied AHPs with the use of intracellular recordings and pharmacological manipulations in the in vitro slice preparation to 1) gain insight into the ionic mechanisms underlying the AHPs and 2) elucidate the role that the underlying currents play in the functional behavior of human cortical neurons. 3. We have classified three AHPs in human neocortical neurons on the basis of their time courses: fast, medium, and slow. The amplitude of the AHPs was dependent on stimulus intensity and duration, number and frequency of spikes, and membrane potential. 4. The fast AHP had a reversal potential of -65 mV and was eliminated in extracellular Co2+, tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine, and intracellular TEA or CsCl. These manipulations also caused an increase in spike width. 5. The medium AHP had a reversal potential of -90 to -93 mV (22-24 mV hyperpolarized from mean resting potential). This AHP was reduced by Co2+, apamin, tubocurare, muscarine, norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT). Pharmacological manipulations suggest that the medium AHP is produced in part by 1) a Ca-dependent K+ current and 2) a time-dependent anomalous rectifier (IH). 6. The slow AHP reversed at -83 to -87 mV (14-18 mV hyperpolarized from mean resting potential). This AHP was diminished by Co2+, muscarine, NE, and 5-HT. The pharmacology of the

  15. A contactless microwave-based diagnostic tool for high repetition rate laser systems

    CERN Document Server

    Braggio, C

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel electro-optic device for the diagnostics of high repetition rate laser systems. It is composed of a microwave receiver and of a second order nonlinear crystal, whose irradiation with a train of short laser pulses produces a time-dependent polarization in the crystal itself as a consequence of optical rectification. This process gives rise to the emission of microwave radiation that is detected by a receiver and is analyzed to infer the repetition rate and intensity of the pulses. We believe that this new method may overcome some of the limitations of photodetection techniques.

  16. Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 glass by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Shane M; Ng, Mi Li; Bonse, Jörn; Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre; Zhang, Haibin; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Herman, Peter R

    2008-04-20

    For the first time femtosecond-laser writing has inscribed low-loss optical waveguides in Schott BK7 glass, a commercially important type of borosilicate widely used in optical applications. The use of a variable repetition rate laser enabled the identification of a narrow processing window at 1 MHz repetition rate with optimal waveguides exhibiting propagation losses of 0.3 dB/cm and efficient mode matching to standard optical fibers at a 1550 nm wavelength. The waveguides were characterized by complementary phase contrast and optical transmission microscopy, identifying a micrometer-sized guiding region within a larger complex structure of both positive and negative refractive index variations.

  17. Dual-Comb Coherent Raman Spectroscopy with Lasers of 1-GHz Pulse Repetition Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate spectra of liquids, which span 1100 cm$^{-1}$ of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6 cm$^{-1}$, their measurement time may be as short as 5 microseconds for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved ten-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  18. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  19. Spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex revealed by repetition priming and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnepain, Pierre; Chételat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Dayan, Jacques; Eustache, Francis; Lebreton, Karine

    2008-05-14

    Previous neuroimaging studies in the visual domain have shown that neurons along the perceptual processing pathway retain the physical properties of written words, faces, and objects. The aim of this study was to reveal the existence of similar neuronal properties within the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a repetition priming paradigm, with words and pseudowords heard in an acoustically degraded format. Both the amplitude and peak latency of the hemodynamic response (HR) were assessed to determine the nature of the neuronal signature of spoken word priming. A statistically significant stimulus type by repetition interaction was found in various bilateral auditory cortical areas, demonstrating either HR suppression and enhancement for repeated spoken words and pseudowords, respectively, or word-specific repetition suppression without any significant effects for pseudowords. Repetition latency shift only occurred with word-specific repetition suppression in the right middle/posterior superior temporal sulcus. In this region, both repetition suppression and latency shift were related to behavioral priming. Our findings highlight for the first time the existence of long-term spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex. The timescale of auditory information integration and the neuronal mechanisms underlying priming both appear to differ according to the level of representations coded by neurons. Repetition may "sharpen" word-nonspecific representations coding short temporal variations, whereas a complex interaction between the activation strength and temporal integration of neuronal activity may occur in neuronal populations coding word-specific representations within longer temporal windows.

  20. The accumulation of brain injury leads to severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Bai, Ruojing; Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Chen, Fanglian; Lei, Ping

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with long-term neurobehavioral sequela. The evidences have revealed that TBI is a risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative disease and both the single and repetitive brain injury can lead to the neurodegeneration. But whether the effects of accumulation play an important role in the neurodegenerative disease is still unknown. We utilized the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop the animal models of repetitive mild TBI and single mild TBI in order to detect the neurobehavioral changes. The results of neurobehavioral test revealed that the repetitive mild TBI led to more severe behavioral injuries than the single TBI. There were more activated microglia cells and astrocytes in the repetitive mild TBI group than the single TBI group. In consistent with this, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher and the expression of IL-10 was lower in the repetitive mild TBI group compared with the single TBI group. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the repetitive TBI group detected by ELISA and western blot. But the levels of total tau (Tau-5) and P-tau (ser202) seem no different between the two groups in most time point. In conclusion, repetitive mild TBI could lead to more severe neurobehavioral impairments and the effects of accumulation may be associated with the increased inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Basis Function Repetitive And Feedback Control With Application To A Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Akogyeram, R A

    2002-01-01

    The thesis addresses three problem areas within repetitive control. Firstly, it addresses issues concerning the ability of repetitive control and feedback control systems to eliminate periodic disturbances occurring above the Nyquist frequency of the hardware. Methods are developed for decomposing and unfolding notch filter or comb filter feedback control so that disturbances above Nyquist frequency can be canceled. Phenomena affecting final error levels are discussed, including error in unfolding, coarseness of zero-order hold cancellation, and waterbed effects in the feedback control system frequency response for different sample rates. Secondly, matched basis function repetitive control laws are developed for batch mode and real time implementation to converge to zero tracking error in the presence of periodic disturbances. For both control methods, conditions are given that guarantee asymptotic and monotonic convergence. Stability tests are formulated to examine stability when the period of a disturbance ...

  2. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  3. The Effect of Task Repetition on Fluency and Accuracy of EFL Saudi Female Learners' Oral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashan, Amani K.; Almohaisen, Fahad M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of task repetition on foreign language output. Twenty eight Saudi female students in the Preparatory Year (PY) at King Saud university, were randomly selected to conduct an oral information-gap task. The participants were asked to perform the task two times with two-week interval between the two performances.…

  4. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  5. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Three-Phase PV iInverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    in the presence of practical time-varying grid frequency. This paper explores frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid-interfaced converters, which employs fractional delay filter to adapt to the change of grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of three-phase grid-connected...... converter systems are provided to verify the proposed controller....

  6. Acute Effects of Low-Load/High-Repetition Single-Limb Resistance Training in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, André; Saey, Didier; Martin, Mickaël; Maltais, François

    2016-12-01

    Exercising small muscle groups at a time allows higher muscle specific workloads compared with whole body aerobic exercises in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether similar effects also occur with partitioning exercise during low load/high-repetition resistance exercises is uncertain.

  7. Study on the Repetition Space-Time Codes for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Free-Space Optical Systems%多输入多输出空间光通信中的循环空时编码研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明; 曹阳; 李书明; 杨绍文

    2013-01-01

    多输入多输出(MIMO)技术是消除大气闪烁对空间光通信的影响和降低误码率(SER)的有效手段之一.针对2×2空间光通信系统,将Alamouti空时码与跳时超宽带技术(TH-UWB)结合,提出一种适合脉冲位置调制(PPM)的循环空时编码(RSTC)方法,推导了等增益合并(EGC)最大似然检测(MLD)和相关矩阵检测(CMD)的两种解码算法,最后分析了系统误码性能.在弱湍流和准静态衰落信道条件下仿真,结果表明,无论是在信道信息(CSI)已知还是未知情况下,编码2×2系统的误码率高于未编码的.该编码方法获得了空间和时间分集,相关矩阵检测法取得相似于信道最大比值合并(MRC)的效果,但随信道间相关性增加其误码性能下降明显.%The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technique is one of the effective means to mitigate the effects of atmospheric scintillation and reduce the symbol error rate (SER) for free-space optical communications. Considering the combinatin of Alamouti space-time code and time topping ultra-wide band ( TH-UWB) communications, a novel repetition space-time codes (RSTC) method for 2×2 free-space optical communications with pulse position modulation (PPM) is developed. In particular, two decoding methods of equal gain combining (EGC) maximum likelihood detection (MLD) and correlation matrix detection (CMD) are derived. When a quasi-static fading and weak turbulence channel model is considered, simulation is conducted. Simulation results show that whether the channel state information (CSI) is known or unknown, the coding system demonstrates more significant performance of the SER than the uncoding. In other words, transmitting diversity can be achieved while conveying the information only through the time delays of the modulated signals transmitted from the different antennas. CMD has almost the same effect of signal combing with maximal ratio combining (MRC). However, when the channel correlation increases

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  9. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  10. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  11. OCCUPATION TIMES OF BALLS BYBROWNIAN MOTION WITH DRIFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Let X = {Xt,t 0} be a d-dimensional (d 2) standard Brownian motion with drift c started at a fixed x, and BR = {x ∈ Rd : |x| < R}, the ball centered at 0 with radius R. Consider the distributions of TR(t) and TR(∞), where TR(t) denotes the time spent by X in BR up to time t and TR(∞) the total time of X spent in BR. Explicit formulas for the Laplace transform of TR(∞) and the double Laplace transform of TR(t) are obtained.

  12. Changes in the oral health of adults from Trøndelag, Norway, 1973-1983-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A A; Holst, D

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes in the oral health of adults from Trøndelag, Norway, over two decades (1973-1983-1994), from both a quasi-longitudinal and a time-lag perspective. Study participants were selected by random sampling in 1973, 1983 and 1994 (n=1759, n=3195, n=2341).

  13. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  14. Distribution of repetitions of ancestors in genealogical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Zanette, Damián H.

    2000-06-01

    We calculate the probability distribution of repetitions of ancestors in a genealogical tree for simple neutral models of a closed population with sexual reproduction and non-overlapping generations. Each ancestor at generation g in the past has a weight w which is (up to a normalization) the number of times this ancestor appears in the genealogical tree of an individual at present. The distribution Pg( w) of these weights reaches a stationary shape P∞( w), for large g, i.e., for a large number of generations back in the past. For small w, P ∞(w) is a power law ( P∞( w)∼ wβ), with a non-trivial exponent β which can be computed exactly using a standard procedure of the renormalization group approach. Some extensions of the model are discussed and the effect of these variants on the shape of P∞( w) are analysed.

  15. Trémolo: análise e desenvolvimento

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, José António Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada ao Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Música, área de especialização em Guitarra. O presente estudo incide sobre a análise e desenvolvimento de uma técnica peculiar da guitarra - a execução do Trémolo - e integra a parte performativa do mestrado em Música, área de especialização em Guitarra. Pela importância do Trémolo no repertório para Guitarra, pela quantidade de grand...

  16. Mental träning inom individuella sporter

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Giia

    2012-01-01

    Tidigare forskning inom området har visat att mental träning förbättrar prestationsförmågan. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka faktorer som påverkar effektiviteten av mental träning inom individuella sporter samt faktorer som påverkar flow-känslan inom idrott. Dessa frågeställningar besvarades genom en systematisk litteraturstudie. Litteratursökningen genomfördes på nio olika databaser samt manuellt på fem olika journaler. Denna studie har fokus på undersökningar som är publicerade på...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer: 80 Years of Surgery—Percentage and Repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Gudjonsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The incidence of pancreatic cancer is estimated to be 48,960 in 2015 in the US and projected to become the second and third leading causes of cancer-related deaths by 2030. The mean costs in 2015 may be assumed to be $79,800 per patient and for each resection $164,100. Attempt is made to evaluate the results over the last 80 years, the number of survivors, and the overall survival percentage. Methods. Altogether 1230 papers have been found which deal with resections and reveal survival information. Only 621 of these report 5-year survivors. Reservation about surgery was first expressed in 1964 and five-year survival of nonresected survivors is well documented. Results. The survival percentage depends not only on the number of survivors but also on the subset from which it is calculated. Since the 1980s the papers have mainly reported the number of resections and survival as actuarial percentages, with or without the actual number of survivors being reported. The actuarial percentage is on average 2.75 higher. Detailed information on the original group (TN, number of resections, and actual number of survivors is reported in only 10.6% of the papers. Repetition occurs when the patients from a certain year are reported several times from the same institution or include survivors from many institutions or countries. Each 5-year survivor may be reported several times. Conclusion. Assuming a 10% resection rate and correcting for repetitions and the life table percentage the overall actual survival rate is hardly more than 0.3%.

  18. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  19. Efficient inverse position transformation for TR 4000S robot manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesheng Wang

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method is developed for computing the inverse kinematic position solution with a closed form for the TR 4000S spray painting robot manipulator with five degrees of freedom and non-spherical wrist construction. The inverse kinematic problem is defined as the transformation from Cartesian space to the joint space. The solution is based on the geometrical separation of the arm and wrist of a robot manipulator and shows that it is very systematic, efficient and easily derived.

  20. Fysisk træning på psykomotorikuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flammild, Manja

    2012-01-01

    rolle i sundhedsfremme og forebyggelse, og ønsket er, at viden fra faget kan rettes mod forskellige målgrupper? Problemformuleringen undersøges med fokus på forskellige målgrupper, om end at læringsmålet i fysisk træning primært er rettet mod voksne inden for normalområdet. Der kigges særligt på...

  1. TrSDB: a proteome database of transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Antoni; Aguilar, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Querol, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    TrSDB—TranScout Database—(http://ibb.uab.es/trsdb) is a proteome database of eukaryotic transcription factors based upon predicted motifs by TranScout and data sources such as InterPro and Gene Ontology Annotation. Nine eukaryotic proteomes are included in the current version. Extensive and diverse information for each database entry, different analyses considering TranScout classification and similarity relationships are offered for research on transcription factors or gene expression. PMID:14681387

  2. DW4TR: A Data Warehouse for Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Cervieri Guterres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Informe Setorial: O Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito (Traffic Message Channel - TMC é uma padronização internacional para a distribuição de informações (conteúdo sobre a situação do trânsito urbano local e inter-regional, em tempo real, de forma eletrônica e diretamente aos motoristas. Traz para os cidadãos, em mensagens eletrônicas simples e acessíveis, informações sobre congestionamentos, acidentes, obras na pista, problemas climáticos (alagamentos, asfalto escorregadio, nevoeiro... e desvios de rota, além de muitos outros eventos de trânsito, oferecendo, em linguagem padronizada de fácil compreensão, a descrição do incidente, área de efeito, duração esperada e, quando possível, caminhos alternativos para evitá-lo.

  4. Marinization concept for the TRICEPT TR600 robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.; Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Santos, J.F. dos [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung; Hammerin, R.; Neumann, K.E. [Neos Robotics AB, Taeby (Sweden); Gibson, D. [National Hyperbaric Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    The need for automated welding repair systems of marine structures, ship hulls and nuclear installations had lead to an increasing demand for subsea robots. Considering the application of friction welding to perform underwater repairs, a TRICEPT TR600 robot has been identified as the most suitable system to withstand the high reaction forces characteristic of this process. This study reviews initially the research and development work carried out at GKSS to modify and test a Siemens-MANUTEC robot. After a description of the TRICEPT TR600 robot a marinization concept is presented and discussed in detail. Problems of galvanic corrosion in seawater are addressed in a separate chapter. The deflection of the robot in subsea water currents is estimated with a worst-case calculation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Wunsch, Roboter auch unter Wasser einsetzen zu koennen, waechst mit steigendem Interesse nach automatisierten Schweissverfahren fuer Reparaturen an marinen Bauwerken, Schiffsruempfen und in Kernenergieanlagen. Fuer den Einsatz von Reibschweissverfahren fuer diese Reparaturen wurde der TRICEPT TR600-Roboter ausgewaehlt, da dieser auch den charakteristisch hohen Prozesskraeften widerstehen kann. Die notwendigen Modifikationen und Pruefungen werden beispielhaft anhand des bei der GKSS modifizierten Siemens-MANUTEC-Roboters vorgestellt. Nach einer Beschreibung des TRICEPT-Roboters werden die notwendigen Umbaumassnahmen detailliert dargestellt und diskutiert. Auf die Problematik der galvanischen Korrosion in Seewasser wird in einem gesonderten Kapitel naeher eingegangen. Zusaetzlich wird eine moegliche Ablenkung des Roboters durch Wasserstroemung ueberschlaegig berechnet. (orig.)

  5. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  6. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  7. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  8. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  9. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  10. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA(vTR)-dependent lymphoma formation does not require interaction of vTR with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Benedikt B; Trapp, Sascha; Jarosinski, Keith W; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-08-26

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the maintenance of telomeres, a protective structure at the distal ends of chromosomes. The enzyme complex contains two main components, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit, and telomerase RNA (TR), which serves as a template for the addition of telomeric repeats (TTAGGG)(n). Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic herpesvirus inducing fatal lymphoma in chickens, encodes a TR homologue, viral TR (vTR), which significantly contributes to MDV-induced lymphomagenesis. As recent studies have suggested that TRs possess functions independently of telomerase activity, we investigated if the tumor-promoting properties of MDV vTR are dependent on formation of a functional telomerase complex. The P6.1 stem-loop of TR is known to mediate TR-TERT complex formation and we show here that interaction of vTR with TERT and, consequently, telomerase activity was efficiently abrogated by the disruption of the vTR P6.1 stem-loop (P6.1mut). Recombinant MDV carrying the P6.1mut stem-loop mutation were generated and tested for their behavior in the natural host in vivo. In contrast to viruses lacking vTR, all animals infected with the P6.1mut viruses developed MDV-induced lymphomas, but onset of tumor formation was significantly delayed. P6.1mut viruses induced enhanced metastasis, indicating functionality of non-complexed vTR in tumor dissemination. We discovered that RPL22, a cellular factor involved in T-cell development and virus-induced transformation, directly interacts with wild-type and mutant vTR and is, consequently, relocalized to the nucleoplasm. Our study provides the first evidence that expression of TR, in this case encoded by a herpesvirus, is pro-oncogenic in the absence of telomerase activity.

  11. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA(vTR-dependent lymphoma formation does not require interaction of vTR with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    Full Text Available Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the maintenance of telomeres, a protective structure at the distal ends of chromosomes. The enzyme complex contains two main components, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, the catalytic subunit, and telomerase RNA (TR, which serves as a template for the addition of telomeric repeats (TTAGGG(n. Marek's disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic herpesvirus inducing fatal lymphoma in chickens, encodes a TR homologue, viral TR (vTR, which significantly contributes to MDV-induced lymphomagenesis. As recent studies have suggested that TRs possess functions independently of telomerase activity, we investigated if the tumor-promoting properties of MDV vTR are dependent on formation of a functional telomerase complex. The P6.1 stem-loop of TR is known to mediate TR-TERT complex formation and we show here that interaction of vTR with TERT and, consequently, telomerase activity was efficiently abrogated by the disruption of the vTR P6.1 stem-loop (P6.1mut. Recombinant MDV carrying the P6.1mut stem-loop mutation were generated and tested for their behavior in the natural host in vivo. In contrast to viruses lacking vTR, all animals infected with the P6.1mut viruses developed MDV-induced lymphomas, but onset of tumor formation was significantly delayed. P6.1mut viruses induced enhanced metastasis, indicating functionality of non-complexed vTR in tumor dissemination. We discovered that RPL22, a cellular factor involved in T-cell development and virus-induced transformation, directly interacts with wild-type and mutant vTR and is, consequently, relocalized to the nucleoplasm. Our study provides the first evidence that expression of TR, in this case encoded by a herpesvirus, is pro-oncogenic in the absence of telomerase activity.

  12. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  13. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  14. TR069协议在IPTV终端管理系统中的研究与应用%Research and Application of TR069 Protocol on IPTV Terminal Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭先会; 曾浩; 李致兴

    2011-01-01

    According to the present IPTV service and interactive demand, it has the enormous practical significance to design a set of real time and effective terminal management system. The TR069 protocol and its key technologies are analyed. the IPTV set-top box is researched emphatically, and TR069 protocol in the IPTV set-top box terminal management service application has been realized. The test results show that the IPTV set-top box terminal management system can satisfy the IPTV terminal management's real time and effective demand.%根据目前IPTV业务和互动需求,设计一套实时有效的IPTV终端管理系统具有极大的现实意义.详细分析了TR069协议及其关键技术,着重对IPTV机顶盒进行研究,实现了TR069协议在IPTV机顶盒终端管理业务中的应用.测试结果显示,所设计的IPTV机顶盒终端管理系统能够满足IPTV终端管理的实时性、有效性需求.

  15. Iconicity in Discourse: The Case of Repetition in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minako

    This analysis of repeated utterances in Japanese conversational discourse focuses on repetition as an expression of iconicity. In the analysis of a 30-minute conversation among 4 Japanese speakers, the iconic meanings expressed by both reduplication and conversational repetition are highlighted. The iconicity characteristic of conversational data…

  16. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  17. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to t

  18. On the Functions of Lexical Repetition in English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical repetition, as a cohesive device of an English text, can help make up a cohesive and coherent text. Therefore, in English textual learning, it is helpful for students to know about different patterns and functions of lexical repetition to improve their English level and ability.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism for Rapid Detection of TR34/L98H- and TR46/Y121F/T289A-Positive Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates Obtained from Patients in Iran from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Faezeh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Zoll, Jan; Melchers, Willem J G; Rafati, Haleh; Dehghan, Parvin; Rezaie, Sasan; Tolooe, Ali; Tamadon, Yalda; van der Lee, Henrich A; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2015-11-02

    We employed an endpoint genotyping method to update the prevalence rate of positivity for the TR34/L98H mutation (a 34-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with a substitution at codon L98) and the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation (a 46-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with substitutions at codons Y121 and T289) among clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from different regions of Iran over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014). The antifungal activities of itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against 172 clinical A. fumigatus isolates were investigated using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution method. For the isolates with an azole resistance phenotype, the cyp51A gene and its promoter were amplified and sequenced. In addition, using a LightCycler 480 real-time PCR system, a novel endpoint genotyping analysis method targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms was evaluated to detect the L98H and Y121F mutations in the cyp51A gene of all isolates. Of the 172 A. fumigatus isolates tested, the MIC values of itraconazole (≥16 mg/liter) and voriconazole (>4 mg/liter) were high for 6 (3.5%). Quantitative analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed the TR34/L98H mutation in the cyp51A genes of six isolates. No isolates harboring the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation were detected. DNA sequencing of the cyp51A gene confirmed the results of the novel endpoint genotyping method. By microsatellite typing, all of the azole-resistant isolates had genotypes different from those previously recovered from Iran and from the Dutch TR34/L98H controls. In conclusion, there was not a significant increase in the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates harboring the TR34/L98H resistance mechanism among isolates recovered over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014) in Iran. A quantitative assay detecting a single

  20. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2015-01-01

    A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂) = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis) and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis). The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the understanding of

  1. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez

    Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the

  2. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  3. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  4. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Chengying; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb comprising a single soliton in an anomalous dispersion silicon nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency tuning. The contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and from thermal effects are evaluated both experimentally and theoretically; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in repetition rate. The relationship between the changes in repetition rate and pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ~50 fs.

  5. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  6. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2017-02-15

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb composed of a single soliton in an anomalous group velocity dispersion silicon-nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency. By comparing operation in the soliton and non-soliton states, the contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and the thermal effects are evaluated; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in the repetition rate, similar to silica cavities. The relationship between the changes in the repetition rate and the pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ∼50  fs.

  7. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  8. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  9. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  10. Nietzsche e a jubilosa experiência trágica dos gregos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nunes Bittencourt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 13px;">Neste texto analisamos a interpretação de Nietzsche sobre o sentido existencial da experiência trágica realizada pelos antigos gregos na celebração estética e religiosa da Tragédia Ática, e de que modo tal experiência favorece a compreensão imanente e amoral da vida, suprimindo-se ainda qualquer tipo de depreciação moralista em relação ao real.

  11. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A

    2012-03-01

    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  12. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  13. [Rehabilitation Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Various novel stroke rehabilitative methods have been developed based on findings in basic science and clinical research. Recently, many reports have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves function in stroke patients by altering the excitability of the human cortex. The interhemispheric competition model proposes that deficits in stroke patients are due to reduced output from the affected hemisphere and excessive interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected hemisphere to the affected hemisphere. The interhemispheric competition model indicates that improvement in deficits can be achieved either by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere using excitatory rTMS or by decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere using inhibitory rTMS. Recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neural connections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairments. Artificially modulating the neural network by rTMS may induce a more suitable environment for use-dependent plasticity and also may interfere with maladaptive neural activation, which weakens function and limits recovery. There is potential, therefore, for rTMS to be used as an adjuvant therapy for developed neurorehabilitation techniques in stroke patients.

  14. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  16. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  17. The effects of high resistance-few repetitions and low resistance-high repetitions resistance training on climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Espen; Andersen, Vidar; Saeterbakken, Atle Hole

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different strength training intensities on climbing performance, climbing-specific tests and a general strength test. Thirty lower grade and intermediate-level climbers participated in a 10-week training programme. The participants were randomized into three groups: high resistance-few repetitions training groups (HR-FR), low resistance-high repetitions training groups (LR-HR) and a control group (CON) which continued climbing/training as usual. Post-testing results demonstrated statistical tendencies for climbing performance improvements in the HR-FR and LR-HR (p = 0.088-0.090, effect size = 0.55-0.73), but no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.950). For the climbing-specific tests, no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.507-1.000), but the HR-FR and LR-HR improved their time in both Dead-hang (p = 0.004-0.026) and Bent-arm hang (p training groups reduced their climbing sessions during the intervention compared to the CON group (p = 0.057-0.074). In conclusion, HR-FR and LR-HR training programmes demonstrated an 11% and 12% non-significant improvement in climbing performance despite a 50% reduction in climbing sessions, but improved the results in strength and climbing-specific tests. None of the training intensities was superior compared to the others.

  18. Datasets from an interaction proteomics screen for substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Peng, Mao; Mohammed, Shabaz; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Heck, Albert J R; Low, Teck Yew

    2015-01-01

    An affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) method was employed to identify novel substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. A FLAG-HA tagged version of the F-box protein βTrCP2, the substrate recognition subunit of SCFβTrCP, was used as bait. βTrCP2 wild type and the two mutants

  19. Kinetics of cytochrome c oxidase from R. sphaeroides initiated by direct electron transfer followed by tr-SEIRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Christoph; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Naumann, Renate L C

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved surface-enhanced IR-absorption spectroscopy (tr-SEIRAS) has been performed on cytochrome c oxidase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The enzyme was converted electrochemically into the fully reduced state. Thereafter, in the presence of oxygen, the potential was switched to open circuit potential (OCP). Under these conditions, the enzyme is free to undergo enzymatic oxidation in the absence of an external electric field. Tr-SEIRAS was performed using the step-scan technique, triggered by periodic potential pulses switching between - 800mV and OCP. Single bands were resolved in a broad band in the amide I region using phase sensitive detection. Amplitudes of these bands were analyzed as a function of time. Time constants in the ms time scale were considered in terms of conformational changes of the protein secondary structures associated with the enzymatic turnover of the protein.

  20. The validity of DSM-IV-TR criteria B and C of hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania): evidence from a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas; Pauls, David L; Franklin, Martin E; Loerke, Elizabeth H; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2011-09-30

    In both DSM-IV-TR and the ICD-10, hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, or TTM) is described as hair-pulling, with a rising urge or tension prior to pulling or when attempting to resist, and pleasure, relief or gratification during or after pulling. However, it has been questioned whether all patients with hair-pulling experience these other phenomena, and whether they occur with all pulling episodes. The objective of this study was to examine the DSM-IV-TR requirement of criteria B and C for a diagnosis of TTM in a sample of people with hair-pulling. A multi-site sample of adults with hair-pulling who met both DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria B and C (n=82, 89.13%) were compared to those who failed to satisfy both B and C (n=10, 10.87%) on a number of clinical variables. There were no differences in hair-pulling severity, levels of comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, number of comorbid body-focused repetitive behaviors, or impairment between those patients who did and did not meet criteria B and C. Our study does not provide convincing support for the inclusion of the current diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-5.

  1. Spectral-temporal encoding and decoding of the femtosecond pulses sequences with a THz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcypkin, A. N.; Putilin, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and numerical modeling techniques demonstrated the possibilities of the spectral-time encoding and decoding for time division multiplexing sequence of femtosecond subpulses with a repetition rate of up to 6.4 THz. The sequence was formed as a result of the interference of two phase-modulated pulses. We report the limits of the application of the developed method of controlling formed sequence at the spectral-temporal coding.

  2. Planetary transit observations at the University Observatory Jena: XO-1b and TrES-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raetz, St; Schmidt, T O B; Roell, T; Eisenbeiss, T; Hohle, M M; Tetzlaff, N; Vanko, M; Seifahrt, A; Broeg, Ch; Koppenhoefer, J; Neuhäuser, R

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of transit events of the transiting planets XO-1b and TrES-1 with a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena. With the transit timings for XO-1b from all 50 available XO, SuperWASP, Transit Light Curve (TLC)-Project- and Exoplanet Transit Database (ETD)-data, including our own I-band photometry obtained in March 2007, we find that the orbital period is P= (3.941501 +/- 0.000001) d, a slight change by ~3 s compared to the previously published period. We present new ephemeris for this transiting planet. Furthermore, we present new R-band photometry of two transits of TrES-1. With the help of all available transit times from literature this allows us to refine the estimate of the orbital period: P=(3.0300722 +/- 0.0000002) d. Our observations will be useful for future investigations of timing variations caused by additional perturbing planets and/or stellar spots and/or moons.

  3. The roles of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4 in male fertility-priapism and sexual behavior defects in TR4 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Bo-Ying

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reproductive efforts require the establishment of a situation favorable for reproduction that requires integration of both behavior and internal physiological events. TR4 nuclear receptor is known to be involved in male fertility via controlling spermatogenesis, yet its roles in regulating other biological events related to reproduction have not been completely revealed. Methods Male TR4 knockout (TR4-/- and wild type mice were used for the sexual behavior and penile dysfunction studies. Mice were sacrificed for histological examination and corresponding genes profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Reporter gene assays were performed. Results We describe an unexpected finding of priapism in TR4-/- mice. As a transcriptional factor, we demonstrated that TR4 transcriptionally modulates a key enzyme regulating penis erection and neuronal nitric oxide synthese NOS (nNOS. Thereby, elimination of TR4 results in nNOS reduction in both mRNA and protein levels, consequently may lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, male TR4-/- mice display defects in sexual and social behavior, with increased fear or anxiety, as well as reduced mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Reduction of ER alpha, ER beta, and oxytocin in the hypothalamus may contribute to defects in sexual behavior and stress response. Conclusions Together, these results provide in vivo evidence of important TR4 roles in penile physiology, as well as in male sexual behavior. In conjunction with previous finding, TR4 represents a key factor that controls male fertility via regulating behavior and internal physiological events.

  4. Trængselskommissionen - og hva' så?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann

    2014-01-01

    Trængselskommissionens betænkning udkom for snart et år siden. Den indeholder en masse gode forslag til forbedring af trafiksystemet i Hovedstadsområdet. Den er også på mange måder nytænkende i forhold til mål og midler, der er nødvendige for at mobiliteten i et storbyområde kan opretholdes og ud......, hvad jeg mener, er de vigtigste resultater, og gennem nogle eksempler på, hvordan kommissionen har arbejdet, kommer jeg med mine personlige refleksioner om samspillet mellem politikerne, embedsværket og kommissioner...

  5. Três Tópicos em economia comportamental

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, Florianópolis, 2013. Esta dissertação apresenta três tópicos em economia comportamental. O primeiro trata de verificar se há correlação entre orientação de valor social e escolha intertemporal. Observou-se que indivíduos mais pró-sociais tendem a ser mais pacientes. O segundo trata de alterar o teste conhecido por CRT (Cognitive Reflexion Test), objetivando verifi...

  6. Tráfico de órganos en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco Rozo, Francineth

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo busca determinar los constructos teóricos y jurídicos que existen en Colombia y que orientan la problemática en cuanto a si existe tráfico de órganos, es importante señalar que estas prácticas ilícitas tienden a configurar un mercado negro de órganos, en el marco del desarrollo actual, al conjugarse una serie de factores que inciden sobre esta problemática.

  7. Biogeochemical Transport and Reaction Model (BeTR) v1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-18

    The Biogeochemical Transport and Reaction Model (BeTR) is a F90 code that enables reactive transport modeling in land modules of earth system models (e.g. CESM, ACME). The code adopts the Objective-Oriented-Design, and allows users to plug in their own biogeochemical (BGC) formulations/codes, and compare them to other existing BGC codes in those ESMs. The code takes information of soil physics variables, such as variables, such as temperature, moisture, soil density profile; water flow, etc., from a land model to track the movement of different chemicals in presence of biogeochemical reactions.

  8. Reliability and validity of the five-repetition sit-to-stand test for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tze-Hsuan; Liao, Hua-Fang; Peng, Yi-Chun

    2012-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychometric properties of the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, a functional strength test, in children with spastic diplegia. Methodology study. Hospital, laboratory or home. In total, 108 children with spastic diplegia and 62 with typical development aged from five to 12 years were tested. For test-retest reliability, 22 children with spastic diplegia were tested twice within one week. Not applicable. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test measures time needed to complete five consecutive sit-to-stand cycles as quickly as possible. The higher the rate of five-repetition sit-to-stand (repetitions per second), the more strength a person has. The intraclass correlation coefficients of intra-session reliability and test-retest reliability were 0.95 and 0.99 respectively. The minimal detectable difference was 0.06 rep/sec. The convergent validity of the five-repetition sit-to-stand test was supported by significant correlation with one-repetition maximum of the loaded sit-to-stand test, isometric muscle strength, scores of Gross Motor Function Measure, and gait function (r or rho = 0.40-0.78). For known group validity, children with typical development and children classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System level I performed higher rates of five-repetition sit-to-stand than children classified as level II, and children classified as level II performed higher rates than level III. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was a reliable and valid test to measure functional muscle strength in children with spastic diplegia in clinics.

  9. The effects of laser repetition rate on femtosecond laser ablation of dry bone: a thermal and LIBS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Lee, Changwon; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the effect of varying laser repetition rate on thermal energy accumulation and dissipation as well as femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) signals, which may help create the framework for clinical translation of femtosecond lasers for surgical procedures. We study the effect of repetition rates on ablation widths, sample temperature, and LIBS signal of bone. SEM images were acquired to quantify the morphology of the ablated volume and fsLIBS was performed to characterize changes in signal intensity and background. We also report for the first time experimentally measured temperature distributions of bone irradiated with femtosecond lasers at repetition rates below and above carbonization conditions. While high repetition rates would allow for faster cutting, heat accumulation exceeds heat dissipation and results in carbonization of the sample. At repetition rates where carbonization occurs, the sample temperature increases to a level that is well above the threshold for irreversible cellular damage. These results highlight the importance of the need for careful selection of the repetition rate for a femtosecond laser surgery procedure to minimize the extent of thermal damage to surrounding tissues and prevent misclassification of tissue by fsLIBS analysis.

  10. Træfacader - udvendige bræddebeklædninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn; Thomassen, Thomas

    Bogen vejleder om træbeklædningers opbygning og beskyttelse mod vejrliget, samt om gældende materialekrav og udvalgte træarter egnethed. Bogen handler om de mest anvendte former for bræddebeklædninger både til træskelethuse og som beklædning på huse af andre materialer....

  11. Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslín, Mark; Levy, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Why do comprehenders process repeated stimuli more rapidly than novel stimuli? We consider an adaptive explanation for why such facilitation may be beneficial: priming is a consequence of expectation for repetition due to rational adaptation to the environment. If occurrences of a stimulus cluster in time, given one occurrence it is rational to expect a second occurrence closely following. Leveraging such knowledge may be particularly useful in online processing of language, where pervasive clustering may help comprehenders negotiate the considerable challenge of continual expectation update at multiple levels of linguistic structure and environmental variability. We test this account in the domain of structural priming in syntax, making use of the sentential complement-direct object (SC-DO) ambiguity. We first show that sentences containing SC continuations cluster in natural language, motivating an expectation for repetition of this structure. Second, we show that comprehenders are indeed sensitive to the syntactic clustering properties of their current environment. In a series of between-groups self-paced reading studies, we find that participants who are exposed to clusters of SC sentences subsequently process repetitions of SC structure more rapidly than participants who are exposed to the same number of SCs spaced in time, and attribute the difference to the learned degree of expectation for repetition. We model this behavior through Bayesian belief update, showing that (the optimal degree of) sensitivity to clustering properties of syntactic structures is indeed learnable through experience. Comprehension priming effects are thus consistent with rational expectation for repetition based on adaptation to the linguistic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Task Instructions on Students' Use of Repetition in Argumentative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert, Sandra; Garcia-Mila, Merce; Felton, Mark K.

    2013-11-01

    The reasoning belief of argumentum ad nauseam assumes that when someone repeats something often enough, he or she becomes more convincing. The present paper analyses the use of this strategy by seventh-grade students in an argumentation task. Sixty-five students (mean age: 12.2, SD = 0.4) from a public school in a mid-sized urban environment took part in the study. The students were asked to either argue to convince an opposing partner or argue to reach consensus with an opposing partner on three dilemmas that dealt with energy sources. Data were gathered according to a between-groups design that included one independent variable (argumentative goal: to convince vs. to reach consensus) and one dependent variable (the degree of argumentative repetitions). We predicted that in the condition to convince their partner, the students would use the repetition strategy more often in their attempts to be persuasive. Our findings show that the mean number of argumentative repetitions was significantly higher for the persuasion group for both of the most frequent argumentative structures (claim and claim data). The mean percentage of repeated claims for the persuasion condition was 86.2 vs. 69.0 for the consensus condition. For the claim data, the mean percentage for the persuasion group was 35.2 vs. 24.3 for the consensus group. Also, students in the persuasion group tended to repeat one idea many times rather than repeating many ideas a few times within the same argumentative structure. The results of our study support the hypothesis that the goal of the argumentative task mediates argumentative discourse and, more concretely, the rate of repetitions and the conceptual diversity of the statements. These differences in rates of repetition and conceptual diversity are related to the amount of learning produced by the instructional goal. We apply Mercer's idea that not all classroom argumentation tasks promote learning equally.

  13. Repetition suppression to faces in the fusiform face area: A personal and dynamic journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard N

    2016-07-01

    I review a number of fMRI studies that investigate the effects of repeating faces on responses in the fusiform face area (FFA). These studies show that repetition suppression (RS), as well as repetition enhancement (RE), are sensitive to multiple factors, including pre-existing stimulus representations, cognitive task, lag between repetitions and spatial attention. Parallel EEG studies provide additional constraints on the timing of these repetition effects. Together, the results suggest that RS is not a unitary phenomenon, but likely subsumes multiple mechanisms that operate under different conditions. These mechanisms of course need to relate to single-cell data and known physiological mechanisms; but to make further progress, I believe we need dynamical neural network models that relate these mechanisms to the properties of neural populations that are measured by fMRI and EEG data. One example model is sketched, in which RS reflects an acceleration of neural dynamics, owing to reduced prediction error within a recurrent visual processing hierarchy.

  14. Liking and wanting pleasant odors: different effects of repetitive exposure in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal eTriscoli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Odors can enrich the perception of our environment and are commonly used to attract people in marketing situations. However, the perception of an odor changes over repetitions. This study investigated whether repetitive exposition to olfactory stimuli leads to a change in the perceived pleasantness (liking or in the wish to be further exposed to the same olfactory stimulus (wanting, and whether these two mechanisms show gender differences.Three different pleasant odors were each repeatedly presented for 40 times in random order with a mean inter-stimulus interval of 18 s. Eighteen participants rated both liking and wanting for each of the 120 olfactory stimuli. Wanting ratings decreased significantly over repetitions in women and men, with a steeper decrease for men during the initial trials before plateauing. In contrast, liking ratings decreased significantly over repetitions only in men, with a steeper decrease after the initial ratings, but not in women. Additionally, women scored higher in a questionnaire on reward responsiveness than men.We conclude that positive evaluation (liking and the wish to experience more of the same (wanting are different concepts even in the domain of olfaction. The persistence of perceived pleasantness in women may be due to the attribution of a greater subjective value to odors.

  15. Liking and wanting pleasant odors: different effects of repetitive exposure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscoli, Chantal; Croy, Ilona; Olausson, Håkan; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Odors can enrich the perception of our environment and are commonly used to attract people in marketing situations. However, the perception of an odor changes over repetitions. This study investigated whether repetitive exposition to olfactory stimuli leads to a change in the perceived pleasantness ("liking") or in the wish to be further exposed to the same olfactory stimulus ("wanting"), and whether these two mechanisms show gender differences. Three different pleasant odors were each repeatedly presented for 40 times in random order with a mean inter-stimulus interval of 18 s. Eighteen participants rated both "liking" and "wanting" for each of the 120 olfactory stimuli. Wanting ratings decreased significantly over repetitions in women and men, with a steeper decrease for men during the initial trials before plateauing. In contrast, liking ratings decreased significantly over repetitions only in men, with a steeper decrease after the initial ratings, but not in women. Additionally, women scored higher in a questionnaire on reward responsiveness than men. We conclude that positive evaluation (liking) and the wish to experience more of the same (wanting) are different concepts even in the domain of olfaction. The persistence of perceived pleasantness in women may be due to the attribution of a greater subjective value to odors.

  16. Repetitive cryotherapy attenuates the in vitro and in vivo mononuclear cell activation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Othman, Mohd Izani; Prebble, Hannah; Davies, Sian; Gieseg, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Acute and repetitive cryotherapy are routinely used to accelerate postexercise recovery, although the effect on resident immune cells and repetitive exposure has largely been unexplored and neglected. What is the main finding and its importance? Using blood-derived mononuclear cells and semi-professional mixed martial artists, we show that acute and repetitive cryotherapy reduces the in vitro and in vivo T-cell and monocyte activation response whilst remaining independent of the physical performance of elite athletes. We investigated the effect of repetitive cryotherapy on the in vitro (cold exposure) and in vivo (cold water immersion) activation of blood-derived mononuclear cells following high-intensity exercise. Single and repeated cold exposure (5°C) of a mixed cell culture (T cells and monocytes) was investigated using in vitro tissue culture experimentation for total neopterin production (neopterin plus 7,8-dihydroneopterin). Fourteen elite mixed martial art fighters were also randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (15 min at 10°C) or passive recovery protocol, which they completed three times per week during a 6 week training camp. Urine was collected and analysed for neopterin and total neopterin three times per week, and perceived soreness, fatigue, physical performance (broad jump, push-ups and pull-ups) and training performance were also assessed. Single and repetitive cold exposure significantly (P mixed cell culture, whereas cold water immersion significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated urinary neopterin and total neopterin during the training camp without having any effect on physical performance parameters. Soreness and fatigue showed little variation between the groups, whereas training session performance was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the cold water immersion group. The data suggest that acute and repetitive cryotherapy attenuates in vitro T-cell and monocyte activation. This

  17. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  18. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  19. Ensemble Streamflow Predictions in the Três Marias Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi Fan, Fernando; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Kuwajima, Julio; Assis dos Reis, Alberto; Collischonn, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower is the main electricity source of Brazil. The related hydropower reservoirs are multi-purpose thus besides efficient and reliable energy production, they are relevant for flood control. In this context, the present study shows results of an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) for supporting the operational decision making implemented at Três Marias hydroelectric power project located in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. It is a large tropical river basin with approximately 55,000km² up to the Três Marias dam. The hydrological model used in the study is the MGB-IPH (Modelo de Grandes Bacias from Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas), a large scale distributed hydrological model. Applied in an operational forecasting mode, it uses an empirical data assimilation method to take into account real time streamflow observations to update its state variables. We present results of a hindcast experiment with observed precipitation and streamflow data from the local energy utility, CEMIG (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais), and from the Brazilian water agency, ANA (Agencia Nacional de Água),. Probabilistic Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) from CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos), ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are used to generate the ESP. The data products and the MGB-IPH model are integrated into an open shell forecasting platform based on the software package Delft-FEWS. Inside the forecasting platform a hindcast mode over a forecast lead time of 10-16 days in recent rainfall periods is applied in. The ESP results are compared to deterministic forecasts of the Três Marias reservoir inflow. The results assessment verifies the added value of the ESP in general in comparison to the use of deterministic forecasts by means of different performance indicators. The ESP derived from the ECMWP ensemble shows the best performance. A future

  20. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  1. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  3. OBJETO TR(ANSICIONAL: UMA RELEITURA LACANIANA TR(ANSICIONAL OBJECT: A LACANIAN REREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Aires

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo pretende acompanhar o percurso de construção da noção de objeto a em relação à démarche lacaniana, bem como situar os elementos de aproximação com o objeto transicional winnicottiano. Para tanto, parte da definição de objeto tal como proposta por Freud - (1 como correlativo da pulsão; (2 como correlativo do amor e (3 em relação ao sujeito - e indica a opção lacaniana em enfatizar a dimensão da linguagem, em uma releitura que incide sobre a teoria e técnica freudianas como um todo. Nesse contexto, Winnicott surge como um autor que, ao propor a noção de objeto transicional, permite a Lacan apresentar a distinção entre os registros imaginário, simbólico e real em relação aos conceitos de desejo, demanda e necessidade, ao mesmo tempo em que possibilita a construção de um conceito próprio de objeto. Cabe considerar que, em suas formulações, Lacan faz duras críticas aos pós-freudianos por produzirem um desvio da técnica e da doutrina de Freud ao desconsiderar a fala do sujeito, favorecendo uma prática de interpretação das resistências. Winnicott é, então, saudado como um autor diferenciado, um psicanalista pós-freudiano que não se afasta dos preceitos freudianos, e que toma a clínica como seu principal suporte. As relações teóricas entre Lacan e Winnicott, de aproximação e afastamento, nos permitem, no corpo deste artigo, problematizar a vinculação entre as noções de objeto a e objeto transicional. 

    Times New Roman';">This article intends to follow the path of building the notion of object in relation to the démarche Lacanian, as well as locate elements of rapprochement with Winnicott's transitional object. For accomplish our purpose, we begin with the object definition as proposed by Freud - (1 as the correlate of drive; (2 as the correlate of love and (3 in relation to the

  4. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  5. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  6. Dielectric relaxation of relaxor ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer over broad frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Lanagan, Michael; Zhang, Qiming

    2009-03-01

    Dielectric properties of a relaxor ferroelectric polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] terpolymer, were investigated over a broad range of frequency (from 0.1 kHz to 1 GHz) and a broad range of temperature (-20 degrees C to 76 degrees C). Time-temperature superposition was used to extrapolate the dielectric constant to high frequencies (approximately 1 GHz) from low frequency data (1 MHz). The consistency between the directly measured and the extrapolated data indicate that the time-temperature superposition can be applied at temperature ranging from the glass transition to the broad ferroelectric-paraelectric transition peak of relaxor, indicating that the glass transition is still the dominating relaxation process at room temperature for the ferroelectric relaxor. Compared with the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE] copolymer, the terpolymer shows a higher dielectric constant even at 1 GHz, which is considered to originate from the random defects modification converting the long-chain polar-molecular conformation to short-range molecular microstructures and enhancing the molecular motions in both polar and nonpolar nanodomains.

  7. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: pcubillos@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  8. ReTrOS: a MATLAB toolbox for reconstructing transcriptional activity from gene and protein expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Giorgos; Momiji, Hiroshi; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Costa, Maria J; Rand, David A; Finkenstädt, Bärbel

    2017-06-26

    Given the development of high-throughput experimental techniques, an increasing number of whole genome transcription profiling time series data sets, with good temporal resolution, are becoming available to researchers. The ReTrOS toolbox (Reconstructing Transcription Open Software) provides MATLAB-based implementations of two related methods, namely ReTrOS-Smooth and ReTrOS-Switch, for reconstructing the temporal transcriptional activity profile of a gene from given mRNA expression time series or protein reporter time series. The methods are based on fitting a differential equation model incorporating the processes of transcription, translation and degradation. The toolbox provides a framework for model fitting along with statistical analyses of the model with a graphical interface and model visualisation. We highlight several applications of the toolbox, including the reconstruction of the temporal cascade of transcriptional activity inferred from mRNA expression data and protein reporter data in the core circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, and how such reconstructed transcription profiles can be used to study the effects of different cell lines and conditions. The ReTrOS toolbox allows users to analyse gene and/or protein expression time series where, with appropriate formulation of prior information about a minimum of kinetic parameters, in particular rates of degradation, users are able to infer timings of changes in transcriptional activity. Data from any organism and obtained from a range of technologies can be used as input due to the flexible and generic nature of the model and implementation. The output from this software provides a useful analysis of time series data and can be incorporated into further modelling approaches or in hypothesis generation.

  9. Tallinna linna- ja gümnaasiumi trükikoda ehk 380 aastat trükikunsti Tallinnas / Aija Sakova-Merivee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakova-Merivee, Aija, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Alanud aasta alguses esitlesid Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemiline Raamatukogu ja Tallinna Linnaarhiiv ühist trükist „Tallinna linna- ja gümnaasiumi trükikoda (1634–1828). Näituse kataloog”. Autor annab ülevaate nii näitusest kui selle kataloogist

  10. Tanel Trööbil hea klapp välispartneritega / Tanel Trööp ; interv. Marika Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trööp, Tanel, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Reklaamifirma Jaa Disain juht Tanel Trööp oma senisest karjäärist, juhtimismeetoditest, tegevusest ja eesmärkidest ettevõtte eesotsas. Kommenteerivad Taavi Reigam ja Eno Juul. Lisa: Tanel Trööp

  11. Tallinna linna- ja gümnaasiumi trükikoda ehk 380 aastat trükikunsti Tallinnas / Aija Sakova-Merivee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakova-Merivee, Aija, 1980-

    2015-01-01

    Alanud aasta alguses esitlesid Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemiline Raamatukogu ja Tallinna Linnaarhiiv ühist trükist „Tallinna linna- ja gümnaasiumi trükikoda (1634–1828). Näituse kataloog”. Autor annab ülevaate nii näitusest kui selle kataloogist

  12. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse operating at high repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhui; Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    A short-pulse longitudinally excited CO2 laser operating at a high repetition rate was developed. The discharge tube was made of a 45 cm-long or 60 cm-long dielectric tube with an inner diameter of 16 mm and two metallic electrodes at the ends of the tube. The optical cavity was formed by a ZnSe output coupler with a reflectivity of 85% and a high-reflection mirror. Mixed gas (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2) was flowed into the discharge tube. A high voltage of about 33 kV with a rise time of about 200 ns was applied to the discharge tube. At a repetition rate of 300 Hz and a gas pressure of 3.4 kPa, the 45 cm-long discharge tube produced a short laser pulse with a laser pulse energy of 17.5 mJ, a spike pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, a spike width of 153 ns, and a pulse tail length of 90 μs. The output power was 5.3 W. The laser pulse waveform did not depend on the repetition rate, but the laser beam profile did. At a low repetition rate of less than 50 Hz, the laser beam had a doughnut-like shape. However, at a high repetition rate of more than 150 Hz, the discharge concentrated at the center of the discharge tube, and the intensity at the center of the laser beam was higher. The laser beam profile depended on the distribution of the discharge. An output power of 7.0 W was achieved by using the 60 cm-long tube.

  13. MAXIMUM REPETITION PERFORMANCE AFTER DIFFERENT ANTAGONIST FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES IN THE INTER‐SET REST PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škarabot, Jakob; Vigotsky, Andrew D.; Brown, Amanda Fernandes; Gomes, Thiago Matassoli; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Background Foam rollers, or other similar devices, are a method for acutely increasing range of motion, but in contrast to static stretching, do not appear to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular performance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different volumes (60 and 120 seconds) of foam rolling of the hamstrings during the inter‐set rest period on repetition performance of the knee extension exercise. Methods Twenty‐five recreationally active females were recruited for the study (27.8 ± 3.6 years, 168.4 ± 7.2 cm, 69.1 ± 10.2 kg, 27.2 ± 2.1 m2/kg). Initially, subjects underwent a ten‐repetition maximum testing and retesting, respectively. Thereafter, the experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre‐determined 10 RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions. During the inter‐set rest period, either passive rest or foam rolling of different durations (60 and 120 seconds) in a randomized order was employed. Results Ninety‐five percent confidence intervals revealed dose‐dependent, detrimental effects, with more time spent foam rolling resulting in fewer repetitions (Cohen's d of 2.0 and 1.2 for 120 and 60 seconds, respectively, in comparison with passive rest). Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that more inter‐set foam rolling applied to the antagonist muscle group is detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. The finding that inter‐set foam rolling of the antagonist muscle group decreases maximum repetition performance has implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. Level of evidence 2b PMID:28217418

  14. MAXIMUM REPETITION PERFORMANCE AFTER DIFFERENT ANTAGONIST FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES IN THE INTER-SET REST PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Škarabot, Jakob; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Brown, Amanda Fernandes; Gomes, Thiago Matassoli; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Foam rollers, or other similar devices, are a method for acutely increasing range of motion, but in contrast to static stretching, do not appear to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different volumes (60 and 120 seconds) of foam rolling of the hamstrings during the inter-set rest period on repetition performance of the knee extension exercise. Twenty-five recreationally active females were recruited for the study (27.8 ± 3.6 years, 168.4 ± 7.2 cm, 69.1 ± 10.2 kg, 27.2 ± 2.1 m(2)/kg). Initially, subjects underwent a ten-repetition maximum testing and retesting, respectively. Thereafter, the experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions. During the inter-set rest period, either passive rest or foam rolling of different durations (60 and 120 seconds) in a randomized order was employed. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals revealed dose-dependent, detrimental effects, with more time spent foam rolling resulting in fewer repetitions (Cohen's d of 2.0 and 1.2 for 120 and 60 seconds, respectively, in comparison with passive rest). The results of the present study suggest that more inter-set foam rolling applied to the antagonist muscle group is detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. The finding that inter-set foam rolling of the antagonist muscle group decreases maximum repetition performance has implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. 2b.

  15. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  16. The repetition effect in building and construction works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Haugbølle, Kim

    are then applied on the Public Transport Authorities' main account structure of units and costs, and a method for assessing the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition for each account is described. Finally, the report summarises the core conditions necessary to take into consideration in relation......This report summarises the results from the work undertaken for the Public Transport Authority on the effect of learning and repetition in building and construction works. The results are applied by the Public Transport Authority in a new budgeting model, while the agency investigates...... the establishment of a new railway between Copenhagen and Ringsted. Drawing on an extensive literature review, the effect of repetition is determined to be in the range of 6-12 %. Further, the report identifies a series of factors affecting the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition. These factors...

  17. A repetitive control scheme aiming to compensate the 6k+1 harmonics for three-phase hybrid active filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Zhaoxu; Su, Mei; Yang, Jian;

    2016-01-01

    in stationary reference frame, which only compensates the 6k+1 harmonics (e.g. -5, +7, -11, +13) in three-phase systems and reduces the time delay to T0/6 . So compared with the earlier reduced delay time repetitive controllers, the robustness and transient performance is further improved, the waste of control...

  18. High-repetition-rate optical delay line using a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for a terahertz system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hideaki; Tani, Masahiko; Hangyo, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We developed a high-repetition-rate optical delay line based on a micromirror array and galvanometer mirror for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The micromirror array is fabricated by using the x-ray lithographic technology. The measurement of terahertz time-domain waveforms with the new optical delay line is demonstrated successfully up to 25 Hz.

  19. KAPTURE-2. A picosecond sampling system for individual THz pulses with high repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.-S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data acquisition system for continuous sampling of ultra-short pulses generated by terahertz (THz) detectors. Karlsruhe Pulse Taking Ultra-fast Readout Electronics (KAPTURE) is able to digitize pulse shapes with a sampling time down to 3 ps and pulse repetition rates up to 500 MHz. KAPTURE has been integrated as a permanent diagnostic device at ANKA and is used for investigating the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation in the THz range. A second version of KAPTURE has been developed to improve the performance and flexibility. The new version offers a better sampling accuracy for a pulse repetition rate up to 2 GHz. The higher data rate produced by the sampling system is processed in real-time by a heterogeneous FPGA and GPU architecture operating up to 6.5 GB/s continuously. Results in accelerator physics will be reported and the new design of KAPTURE be discussed.

  20. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  1. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  2. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.

  3. Linear- and Repetitive-Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  4. Linear- and Repetitive Feature Detection Within Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    1.1 Background The Army desires the ability to deliver cargo, equipment, and personnel to harsh locations almost anywhere on the planet . This...because the Hough transform is designed to look for straight linear features, which most real- life fea- tures are not. As mention previously, it is...repetitive features are differentiated based on their appearance in the images of interest; however, real- life repetitive features often corre- spond to

  5. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  6. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  7. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  8. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  9. Colombia: ¿una sociedad trágica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Romero Rey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El texto forma parte de una reflexión sobre las especificidades de las ideas de tragedia y lo trágico dentro del conflicto colombiano contemporáneo. A partir de los elementos esenciales del teatro griego asociados al género y a la dimensión de la fatalidad, el presente texto establece relaciones entre los referentes de los mitos antiguos y sus equivalencias en una sociedad específica de América Latina. Los personajes de la tragedia griega se convierten en una suerte de metáforas vivas que continúan interrogando al hombre más allá de los límites de su tiempo.

  10. Acidentes de trânsito em Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Maria Miana Mattos Paix?o

    2014-01-01

    Os acidentes de trânsito (AT) constituem relevante problema de saúde pública global devido à elevada morbimortalidade, decorrente do número crescente de veículos, precariedade do espaço urbano, alterações de estilos de vida e vulnerabilidade de determinados grupos de usuários de via. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a contribuição de fontes distintas de informação na análise dos AT e suas vítimas, caracterizando o perfil e identificando grupos vulneráveis entre usuários das vias urbanas em...

  11. Thermal distortion and birefringence in repetition-rate plasma electrode Pockels cell for high average power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingxiang Cao; Xiongjun Zhang; Wanguo Zheng; Shaobo He; Zhan Sui

    2007-01-01

    We numerically study thermally induced birefringence and distortion in plasma electrode Pockels cell based on KD*P as the electro-optic material. This device can repetitively operate under the heat capacity mode.Simulation results indicate that the excellent switching performances and low wave-front distortion are achieved within several tens seconds working time at average power in excess of 1 kW.

  12. Displasia fibrosa: relato de três casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Adriana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A displasia fibrosa é lesão pseudo-neoplásica de etiologia desconhecida, caráter benigno e recidivante, caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento de tecido fibroso e traves osteóides que substituem gradualmente o osso normal. O principal diagnóstico diferencial da forma monostótica, no envolvimento dos ossos da cabeça e pescoço, é o fibroma ossificante, que alguns consideram variante desta entidade. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo revisar as principais características clínicas, radiológicas e histopatológicas que auxiliam no diagnóstico diferencial da displasia fibrosa com o fibroma ossificante e discutir o comportamento recidivante da displasia fibrosa, essencial ao planejamento cirúrgico. Relatamos três casos provenientes do ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, avaliados quanto às queixas, exame físico, achados de imagem e tratamentos. Nos três casos o diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame anatomopatológico. Todos apresentaram recidiva após a ressecção cirúrgica, diagnosticada entre o primeiro e o oitavo ano de seguimento. Devido ao comportamento clínico semelhante da displasia fibrosa e do fibroma ossificante, o exame anatomopatológico é essencial para o diagnóstico diferencial. O acompanhamento clínico permanente desses pacientes é necessário para que as possíveis recidivas sejam diagnosticadas precocemente.

  13. On the Apparent Orbital Inclination Change of the Extrasolar Transiting Planet TrES-2b

    CERN Document Server

    Scuderi, Louis J; Males, Jared R; Green, Elizabeth M; Close, Laird M

    2009-01-01

    On June 15, 2009 UT the transit of TrES-2b was detected using the University of Arizona's 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope with 2.0-2.5 millimag RMS accuracy in the I-band. We find a central transit time of T_c = 2454997.76286 +/- 0.00035 HJD, an orbital period of P = 2.4706127 +/- 0.0000009 days, and an inclination angle of i = 83.92 +/- 0.05 degrees, which is consistent with our re-fit of the original I-band light curve of O'Donovan et al. (2006) where we find i = 83.84 +/- 0.05 degrees. We calculate an inclination change of Delta i = -0.08 +/- 0.071 degrees over the last 3 years, and as such, our observations rule out, at the ~11 sigma level, the apparent change of orbital inclination to i_predicted = 83.35 +/- 0.1 degrees as predicted by Mislis & Schmitt (2009) for our epoch. Indeed, we detect no significant changes in any of the orbital parameters of TrES-2b when comparing the original I-band light curve to our recent I-band light curve.

  14. TrES-5: A Massive Jupiter-sized Planet Transiting A Cool G-dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Mandushev, Georgi; Buchhave, Lars A; Dunham, Edward W; Rabus, Markus; Oetiker, Brian; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Brown, Timothy M; Belmonte, Juan A; O'Donovan, Francis T

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of TrES-5, a massive hot Jupiter that transits the star GSC 03949-00967 every 1.48 days. From spectroscopy of the star we estimate a stellar effective temperature of$5171 +/- 36 K, and from high-precision B, R and I photometry of the transit we constrain the ratio of the semi-major axis and the stellar radius to be 6.07 +/- 0.14. We compare these values to model stellar isochrones to obtain a stellar mass of 0.893 +/- 0.024 solar masses. Based on this estimate and the photometric time series, we constrain the stellar radius to be 0.866 +/- 0.013 solar radii, and the planet radius to be 1.209 +/- 0.021 Jupiter radii. We model our radial-velocity data assuming a circular orbit and find a planetary mass of 1.778 +/- 0.063 Jupiter masses. Our radial-velocity observations rule out line-bisector variations that would indicate a specious detection resulting from a blend of an eclipsing binary system. TrES-5 orbits one of the faintest stars with transiting planets found to date from the ground...

  15. The impact of text repetition on content and function words during reading: further evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Cindy; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Légère, Marie-Andrée

    2013-06-01

    There is ample evidence that reading speed increases when participants read the same text more than once. However, less is known about the impact of text repetition as a function of word class. Some authors suggested that text repetition would mostly benefit content words with little or no effect on function words. In the present study, we examined the effect of multiple readings on the processing of content and function words. Participants were asked to read a short text two times in direct succession. Eye movement analyses revealed the typical multiple readings effect: Repetition decreased the time readers spent fixating words and the probability of fixating critical words. Most importantly, we found that the effect of multiple readings was of the same magnitude for content and function words, and for low- and high-frequency words. Such findings suggest that lexical variables have additive effects on eye movement measures in reading.

  16. Temporal evolution of gamma activity in human cortex during an overt and covert word repetition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLeuthardt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models for cortical processing of speech have been proposed. Classically, the regions participating in language were thought to be modular with a linear sequence of activations. More recently, modern theoretical models have posited a more hierarchical and distributed interaction of anatomic areas for the various stages of speech processing. Traditional imaging techniques can only define the location or time of cortical activation, which impedes the further validation and refinement of these models. In this study, we take advantage of recordings from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography ECoG, which can accurately detect the location and timing of cortical activations, to study the time course of ECoG gamma modulations during an overt and covert word repetition task for different cortical areas. For overt word production, our results show substantial perisylvian cortical activations early in the perceptual phase of the task that were maintained through word articulation. However, this broad activation is attenuated during the expressive phase of covert word repetition. Across the different repetition tasks, the utilization of the different cortical sites within the perisylvian region varied dependent on which stimulus was provided (auditory or visual cue and whether the word was to be spoken or imagined. Taken together, the data supports current models of speech that were defined with functional imaging. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the broad perisylvian speech network variably utilizes these cortical resources based on the nature of the cognitive task.

  17. TiTrATE: A Novel Approach to Diagnosing Acute Dizziness and Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E.; Edlow, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing dizziness can be challenging, and the consequences of missing dangerous causes such as stroke can be substantial. Most physicians use a diagnostic paradigm developed over 40 years ago that focuses on the type of dizziness (e.g., vertigo vs. non-vertigo), but this approach is flawed. In this article we propose a new paradigm based on symptom timing, triggers, and targeted bedside eye examinations (‘TiTrATE’). Using timing and triggers, patients with recent-onset dizziness will fall into one of four major ‘syndrome’ categories (triggered episodic, spontaneous episodic, post-exposure acute, and spontaneous acute), each with its own differential diagnosis and set of targeted examination techniques that help clinicians make a specific diagnosis. Following an evidence-based approach such as this could help reduce the frequency of misdiagnosis of serious causes of dizziness. PMID:26231273

  18. The HSP expression of passive repetitive plyometric trained skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Huang, Mao-Shung; Chen, Chuan-Show; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Wang, Chiou-Huey; Chen, Tzuping; Su, Borcherng

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of ten-week passive repetitive plyometric (PRP) training on human skeletal muscle and the application of PRP training for performance. Vastus lateralis of nine candidates were aspirated before (pre) and after (post) PRP training. Histochemical approaches with regular hematoxylene-eosin (HE) and Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) stains were used to demonstrate the changes of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical studies with heat shock protein (anti-hsp72, Stressgen, Canada) were employed to display cellular activities. Each set of slides was quantitatively analyzed by using a modified morphometric method (Russ and Dehoff, 1999) on a Nikon ECLIPSE 80i microscope, equipped with an Evolution VF COOLED color video camera, and the Image-Pro Plus software (5.0 for Win; Media Cybernetics, USA). Finally, hsp72 mRNAs of both pre-PRP and post-PRP specimens were amplified through RT-PCR. Signal intensities were read by a densitometer and analyzed through the SPSS (11.0 for Win) statistically. Post-PRP muscle cells demonstrated hypertrophic change with increased cellular content and a narrowed inter-cellular space according to both HE and PTAH profiles. Post-PRP cellular hsp72 proteins were higher by up to five percent, as measured by a gray-scale reading. Further, after a training period of 10 weeks, hsp72 mRNA expression was several times higher.

  19. Developments of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Shigeru [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Viniar, I.

    1997-05-01

    A pellet injector of repetitive pneumatic pipe-gun type has been designed for advanced plasma fueling applications. This new concept is estimated to be able to reduce the time for pellet formation by an in situ technique from 3 - 5 minutes to 2 - 10 seconds. The basic idea of the new approach to pellet formation is to supply a hydrogen isotope pellet through a copper porous unit into a pipe-gun-type barrel. Two modes are possible: (1) to push liquid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit and re-freezing inside of the barrel, (2) to push solid hydrogen isotope through a porous unit to the inside of the barrel. This principle provides a continuous injection of an unlimited amount of pellets. For demonstration of the proof-of-principle, several experiments have been carried out. Hydrogen pellets of 3 mm in diameter and 3 to 10 mm in length were accelerated to 1.2 km/s at a rate of 1 pellet per 10 - 34 s with a manually controlled injector operation. (author)

  20. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  1. Designing a Repetitive Group Sampling Plan for Weibull Distributed Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance sampling plans are useful tools to determine whether the submitted lots should be accepted or rejected. An efficient and economic sampling plan is very desirable for the high quality levels required by the production processes. The process capability index CL is an important quality parameter to measure the product quality. Utilizing the relationship between the CL index and the nonconforming rate, a repetitive group sampling (RGS plan based on CL index is developed in this paper when the quality characteristic follows the Weibull distribution. The optimal plan parameters of the proposed RGS plan are determined by satisfying the commonly used producer’s risk and consumer’s risk at the same time by minimizing the average sample number (ASN and then tabulated for different combinations of acceptance quality level (AQL and limiting quality level (LQL. The results show that the proposed plan has better performance than the single sampling plan in terms of ASN. Finally, the proposed RGS plan is illustrated with an industrial example.

  2. Repetition Priming Effects in Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin Bidialectals: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong

    2017-05-29

    The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.

  3. "Oh no, not again": representability and a repetitive remark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Tierney

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Times New Roman;">Abstract (E: In their most repetitive moments, literature and film can help us respond to common critical assumptions about the temporality of trauma. Rather than posit trauma's latency, anteriority, or unrepresentability, I raise questions about its obviousness, interchangeability, and cliché. Moving past trauma theory, and into general questions about repetition and representation, I therefore turn to a phrase that has often been repeated in texts across a range of forms and genres: "Oh no, not again!"

    Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> 

    Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: FR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="FR">Abstract (F:Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: FR; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="FR"> Lorsqu’ils se font intensément répétitifs, cinéma et littérature  peuvent nous aider à revoir certaines hypoth

  4. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  5. Nanomanufacturing and analysis of novel continuous ferroelectric PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xi

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF copolymers are well known for their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Currently, they are mainly used in applications in the form of films. Thin PVDF films have been shown to possess unique ferroelectric properties in the nanoscale range. However, their two-dimensional nature limits their applicability in active engineering materials and structures. One-dimensional PVDF nanofibers can be expected to combine ferroelectric behavior with enhanced mechanical properties and ultrahigh flexibility providing critical advantages for applications. In this work, novel continuous PVDF nanofibers were nanomanufactured and systematically studied for the first time. Nanofibers from PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer with several molecular weights and co-polymer compositions were manufactured by electrospinning. The method consists of spinning polymer solutions in high electric fields. Effects of process parameters on nanofiber diameters and morphology were studied. Resulting nanofibers were characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, DSC and TGA. Effects of annealing on copolymer nanofibers were analyzed. Nanofiber-reinforced composites were manufactured and their polarization behavior studied using a specially designed experimental device. A number of pioneering observations and discoveries were made as a result of this analysis. For example, analysis of crystalline structure of PVDF nanofibers showed that the initial a phase of the PVDF raw material was converted to beta phase during electrospinning. This result is very encouraging as the beta phase is primarily responsible for the piezo- and ferroelectric behavior of PVDF polymers. It was also shown for the first time that nanofabricated P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers exhibited distinct Curie points and different structures than their raw materials. Annealing was shown to be an effective way to modify properties of P(VDF-TrFE) co-polymer nanofibers. Overall, the results demonstrated for the

  6. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, M. P.; López, A. J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Rivas, T.

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  7. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, M.P., E-mail: m.p.fiorucci@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); López, A.J., E-mail: ana.xesus.lopez@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ramil, A., E-mail: alberto.ramil@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Pozo, S., E-mail: ipozo@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  8. Repetitive ERTS-1 observations of surface water variability along rivers and low-lying areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, provides an 18 day repetitive coverage capability and observations in the 0.8-1.1 micron spectral region where the contrast between water and adjacent surfaces is relatively large. Using these capabilities, observations in Virginia, Iowa, Missouri, and California have been acquired showing distinct patterns of flooding. Repetitive views of these areas before and after flooding have been examined, and flood mapping was performed. Sloughs in California can be seen to expand in terms of the area covered by standing water as time extends from summer to autumn. The results indicate that ERTS-1 imagery can be a valuable adjunct to conventional and aircraft survey methods for ascertaining the amount of area covered by water or affected by flooding.

  9. A High Power and High Repetition Rate Modelocked Ti-Sapphire Laser for Photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker

    2001-07-01

    A high power cw mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser has been constructed to drive the Jefferson Lab polarized photoinjector and provide > 500 mW average power with 50 ps pulsewidths at 499 MHz or 1497 MHz pulse repetition rates. This laser allows efficient, high current synchronous photoinjection for extended periods of time before intrusive steps must be taken to restore the quantum efficiency of the strained layer GaAs photocathode. The use of this laser has greatly enhanced the maximum high polarization beam current capability and operating lifetime of the Jefferson Lab photoinjector compared with previous performance using diode laser systems. A novel modelocking technique provides a simple means to phase-lock the optical pulse train of the laser to the accelerator and allows for operation at higher pulse repetition rates to {approx} 3 GHz without modification of the laser cavity. The laser design and characteristics are described below.

  10. Group velocity locked vector dissipative solitons in a high repetition rate fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yiyang; Li, Lei; Sun, Qizhen; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming

    2016-01-01

    Vectorial nature of dissipative solitons (DSs) with high repetition rates is studied for the first time in a normal-dispersion fiber laser. Despite the fact that the formed DSs are strongly chirped and the repetition rate is greater than 100 MHz, polarization locked and polarization rotating group velocity locked vector DSs can be formed under 129.3 MHz fundamental mode-locking and 258.6 MHz harmonic mode-locking of the fiber laser, respectively. The two orthogonally polarized components of these vector DSs possess distinctly different central wavelengths and travel together at the same group velocity in the laser cavity, resulting in a gradual spectral edge and small steps on the optical spectra, which can be considered as an auxiliary indicator of the group velocity locked vector DSs.

  11. Fastgørelse af friluftsinstallationer i træer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    2015-01-01

    Når installationer som klatrebaner, træhuse, platforme og andre anlæg fastgøres i træer, kan det gøre perma- nent skade og medføre, at træernes livsfunktioner forstyrres. Det værste er metoder, som klemmer om stammen og dræber barken. En stang tværs gennem stammen er bedst.......Når installationer som klatrebaner, træhuse, platforme og andre anlæg fastgøres i træer, kan det gøre perma- nent skade og medføre, at træernes livsfunktioner forstyrres. Det værste er metoder, som klemmer om stammen og dræber barken. En stang tværs gennem stammen er bedst....

  12. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  13. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes – translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions amongst professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally-timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  14. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes - translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Prins, Mayumi L; Ferriero, Donna M; Basso, D Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  15. Effect of Repetition Lag on Priming of Unfamiliar Visual Objects in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Leamarie T.; Soldan, Anja; Thomas, Ayanna K.; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Across three experiments, we examined the effect of repetition lag on priming of unfamiliar visual objects in healthy young and older adults. Multiple levels of lag were examined, ranging from short (one to four intervening stimuli) to long (50+ intervening stimuli). In each experiment, subjects viewed a series of new and repeated line drawings of objects and decided whether they depicted structurally possible or impossible figures. Experiment 1 and 2 found similar levels of priming in young and older adults at short and medium lags. At the longer repetition lags (∼20+ intervening stimuli), older adults showed less overall priming, as measured by reaction time facilitation, than young adults. This indicates that older adults can rapidly encode unfamiliar three-dimensional objects to support priming at shorter lags; however, they cannot maintain these representations over longer intervals. In addition to repetition lag, we also explored the relationship between priming and cognitive reserve, as measured by education and verbal intelligence. In the older adults, higher levels of cognitive reserve were associated with greater reaction time priming, suggesting that cognitive reserve may mediate the relationship between aging and priming. PMID:23276220

  16. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  17. Xylan oligosaccharides and cellobiohydrolase I (TrCeI7A) interaction and effect on activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Martin Johannes; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background The well-studied cellulase mixture secreted by Trichoderma reesei (anamorph to Hypocrea jecorina) contains two cellobiohydolases (CBHs), cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) and cellobiohydrolase II (TrCeI6A), that are core enzymes for the solubilisation of cellulose. This has attracted...... towards, respectively, soluble and insoluble substrates, we propose a competitive mechanism for XOS inhibition of TrCel7A with phosphoric swollen cellulose as a substrate....

  18. Reduced osteoblast activity in the mice lacking TR4 nuclear receptor leads to osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shin-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early studies suggested that TR4 nuclear receptor might play important roles in the skeletal development, yet its detailed mechanism remains unclear. Methods We generated TR4 knockout mice and compared skeletal development with their wild type littermates. Primary bone marrow cells were cultured and we assayed bone differentiation by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. Primary calvaria were cultured and osteoblastic marker genes were detected by quantitative PCR. Luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA were performed to demonstrate TR4 can directly regulate bone differentiation marker osteocalcin. Results We first found mice lacking TR4 might develop osteoporosis. We then found that osteoblast progenitor cells isolated from bone marrow of TR4 knockout mice displayed reduced osteoblast differentiation capacity and calcification. Osteoblast primary cultures from TR4 knockout mice calvaria also showed higher proliferation rates indicating lower osteoblast differentiation ability in mice after loss of TR4. Mechanism dissection found the expression of osteoblast markers genes, such as ALP, type I collagen alpha 1, osteocalcin, PTH, and PTHR was dramatically reduced in osteoblasts from TR4 knockout mice as compared to those from TR4 wild type mice. In vitro cell line studies with luciferase reporter assay, ChIP assay, and EMSA further demonstrated TR4 could bind directly to the promoter region of osteocalcin gene and induce its gene expression at the transcriptional level in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions Together, these results demonstrate TR4 may function as a novel transcriptional factor to play pathophysiological roles in maintaining normal osteoblast activity during the bone development and remodeling, and disruption of TR4 function may result in multiple skeletal abnormalities.

  19. Evolution of Nova TrA 2008 into a High Mass-Accretion Rate Post-Nova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    2015-06-01

    NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) was a normal slow Fe II novae for its first year of evolution. During its third year eclipses appeared, and optical spectra revealed the presence of hot permitted lines of C IV, N V, and O VI in addition to the usual nebular lines. The light curve and spectra resemble those of the V Sge stars. The orbital period is 5.25 hours. The time-resolved spectra show a prominent S-wave in the hot lines with an amplitude of about 100 km/s. We conclude that the system is a CV with a high mass accretion rate that has persisted for some 6 years after the explosion.

  20. Measurement of the Rossiter--McLaughlin Effect in the Transiting Exoplanetary System TrES-1

    CERN Document Server

    Narita, N; Sato, B; Ohta, Y; Winn, J N; Suto, Y; Taruya, A; Turner, E L; Aoki, W; Tamura, M; Yamada, T; Yoshii, Y; Narita, Norio; Enya, Keigo; Sato, Bun'ei; Ohta, Yasuhiro; Winn, Joshua N.; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Turner, Edwin L.; Aoki, Wako; Tamura, Motohide; Yamada, Toru; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect in the transiting extrasolar planetary system TrES-1, via simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations with the Subaru and MAGNUM telescopes. By modeling the radial velocity anomaly that was observed during a transit, we determine the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis to be $\\lambda = 30 \\pm 21$ [deg]. This is the third case for which $\\lambda$ has been measured in a transiting exoplanetary system, and the first demonstration that such measurements are possible for relatively faint host stars ($V \\sim 12$, as compared to $V \\sim 8$ for the other systems). We also derive a time of mid-transit and upper limits on the eccentricity of the TrES-1b orbit.

  1. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  2. Quantifying repetitive speech in autism spectrum disorders and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Jan P H; Sproat, Richard W; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-10-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child's echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult's original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child's utterances.

  3. Time-resolved spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for depth analysis of diffusely scattering layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iping Petterson, Ingeborg E; Dvořák, Patrick; Buijs, Joost B; Gooijer, Cees; Ariese, Freek

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to use time-resolved (TR) Raman spectroscopy, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), and a combination of these approaches to obtain high quality Raman spectra from materials hidden underneath an opaque layer. Both TR Raman and SORS are advanced techniques that allow for an increased relative selectivity of photons from deeper layers within a sample. Time-resolved detection reduces fluorescence background, and the selectivity for the second layer is improved. By combining this with spatially offset excitation we additionally increased selectivity for deeper layers. Test samples were opaque white polymer blocks of several mm thicknesses. Excitation was carried out with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser at 460 nm, 3 ps pulse width and 76 MHz repetition rate. Detection was either with a continuous-wave CCD camera or in time-resolved mode using an intensified CCD camera with a 250 ps gate width. The Raman photons were collected in backscatter mode, with or without lateral offset. By measuring the delay of the Raman signal from the second layer (polyethylene terephthalate/PET/Arnite), the net photon migration speeds through Teflon, polythene, Delrin and Nylon were determined. Raman spectra could be obtained from a second layer of PET through Teflon layers up to 7 mm of thickness. The ability to obtain chemical information through layers of diffusely scattering materials has powerful potential for biomedical applications.

  4. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  5. Compact and high repetition rate Kerr-lens mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuohan; Peng, Jiying; Yuan, Ruixia; Wang, Tongtong; Yao, Jianquan; Zheng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    A compact and feasible CW Kerr-lens-induced mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser system was experimentally demonstrated for the first time with theoretical analysis. Kerr-lens mode locking with intracavity second harmonic generation provides a promising method to generate a high-repetition-rate picosecond green laser. With an incident pump power of 6 W, the average output power of mode locking was 258 mW at a high repetition rate of 1.1 GHz.

  6. Dynamics of dissipative solitons in a high repetition rate normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yiyang; Zhao, Luming; Sun, Qizhen; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of dissipative solitons (DSs) are explored in a high repetition rate normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser for the first time. Despite of the high fundamental repetition rate of 129 MHz and thus the low pulse energy, a DS train with a dechirped pulse width of 418 fs, period-doubling of single and dual DSs, as well as 258 MHz 2nd-order harmonic mode-locking of DSs can be observed in the fiber laser with increasing pump power and appropriate settings. A transmitted semiconductor saturable absorber and a wavelength division multiplexer/isolator/tap hybrid module are employed to simplify the laser configuration, thus not only increasing the repetition rate, but also enhancing the stability and robustness of the fiber laser due to the commercial availability of all the components.

  7. The Transit Light Curve Project. III. Tres Transits of TrES-1

    CERN Document Server

    Winn, J N; Roussanova, A; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Roussanova, Anna

    2006-01-01

    We present z band photometry of three consecutive transits of the exoplanet TrES-1, with an accuracy of 0.15% and a cadence of 40 seconds. We improve upon estimates of the system parameters, finding in particular that the planetary radius is 1.081 +/- 0.029 Jupiter radii, and the stellar radius is 0.811 +/- 0.020 solar radii. The uncertainties include both the statistical error and the systematic error arising from the uncertainty in the stellar mass. The transit times are determined to within about 15 seconds, and allow us to refine the estimate of the mean orbital period: P = 3.0300737 +/- 0.0000026 days. We find no evidence for star spots or other irregularities that have been previously reported.

  8. Três caminhos para a servidão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tunes da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em O Caminho para a Servidão, F. A. Hayek argumenta que a planificação econômica defendida em algumas doutrinas socialistas gera o mesmo tipo de servidão presente nos Estados totalitários. Baseado nisso, ele conclui que a única forma de se garantir a liberdade é implementar o liberalismo econômico. Hayek identifica algumas características dos sistemas totalitários, mostrando que os Estados socialistas têm essas mesmas características. Este artigo pretende mostrar que a caracterização que Hayek faz dos estados totalitários aplica-se aos Estados Unidos. Assim, o liberalismo econômico gera o mesmo tipo de servidão encontrado nos sistemas totalitários. Polanyi nos mostra que a servidão não advém da centralização do poder ou da planificação da economia, mas sim da submissão da vida das pessoas a sistemas frios e impessoais. Pode-se concluir, então, que existem inúmeros caminhos possíveis para a servidão, e a humanidade já experimentou três deles: o totalitarismo, o comunismo e o liberalismo.

  9. Nietzsche e o renascimento do trágico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é expor como a proposta de renascimento do trágico existente em O nascimento da tragédia insere o primeiro livro de Nietzsche no projeto cultural iniciado por Winckelmann, Goethe e Schiller, na segunda metade do século XVIII, que privilegia a arte grega como modelo da arte alemã. Destacarei, para isso, tanto as continuidades entre os dois momentos quanto as descontinuidades que Nietzsche introduz nesse projeto clássico da intelectualidade alemã ao pensar a cultura grega a partir da filosofia de Schopenhauer e da música de Wagner.The purpose of this article is to discuss Nietzsche's theory on the rebirth of the tragic presented in his early writings as part of the German cultural project introduced by Winckelmann, Goethe and Schiller in the second half of the 18th century. Departing from the idea that this project established Greece as a model to be followed by Germany, I will point out Nietzsche's supporting views to it as well as his innovative idea of bringing together the philosophy of Schopenhauer and the music of Wagner to think the Greek culture.

  10. Georges et les trésors du cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Les voisins excentriques de Georges, Annie et Eric, ont déménagé en Floride à l'agence Spatiale Globale. Là-bas, Eric s'occupe de son nouveau robot, Homer, qui doit détécter les signes de vie sur Mars. Mais bientôt, Georges reçoit un e-mail : Annie lui demande de la rejoindre au plus vite pour une " mission cosmique " secrète. La jeune fille est persuadée qu'il se passe de drôles de choses sur Mars, car Homer vient de recevoir un message extraterrestre ! Georges et Anne (avec l'aide d'Emmett, un petit garçon bizarre) décident de réparer Cosmos, leur super-ordinateur, et d'aller voir par eux-mêmes... Emmaillotés dans des combinaisons spéciales, ils se lancent alors dans une fabuleuse chasse aux trésors sur Mars, sur les lunes de Saturne, puis sur Titan, avant de se perdre en orbite autour d'Alpha Centauri B... Mais avant de pouvoir élucider le mystère du message extraterrestre, Georges et Annie devront se livrer à une bataille spatiale acharnée qui mettra leur vie en danger, ainsi que ce...

  11. Verbatim pieredze Latvijas teātrī

    OpenAIRE

    Mežaraupe, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darbā Verbatim pieredze Latvijas teātrī apskatīta un analizēta teorētiskā literatūra, definējot verbatim jēdzienu kā teātra estētiku, kas dramaturģiskā materiāla izveidē izmanto intervijas ar reāliem cilvēkiem, un izpētot verbatim rašanās cēloņus, ietekmes avotus un iezīmes (1. nodaļa). Apskatīta atšķirīga verbatim pieredze pasaules teātra kontekstā (Makss Stafords – Klarks, Jevgeņijs Griškovecs, Spoldings Grejs u.c.), galvenokārt pievēršot uzmanību teksta un izpildītāja attiecību da...

  12. TR-EDB: Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB) is a collection of results from irradiation in materials test reactors. It complements the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB), whose data are restricted to the results from the analysis of surveillance capsules in commercial power reactors. The rationale behind their restriction was the assumption that the results of test reactor experiments may not be applicable to power reactors and could, therefore, be challenged if such data were included. For this very reason the embrittlement predictions in the Reg. Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, were based exclusively on power reactor data. However, test reactor experiments are able to cover a much wider range of materials and irradiation conditions that are needed to explore more fully a variety of models for the prediction of irradiation embrittlement. These data are also needed for the study of effects of annealing for life extension of reactor pressure vessels that are difficult to obtain from surveillance capsule results.

  13. Três biografias quinhentistas da Rainha Santa Isabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Costa Toipa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade aos esforços de canonização de D. Isabel de Aragão, D. João III obteve do Papa, em 1556, a autorização para alargar o culto da já beata D. Isabel a todo o reino. Solicitou, então, aos responsáveis dos mosteiros portugueses, nomeadamente à abadessa do mosteiro de Santa Clara, a composição de uma biografia da rainha, a partir de documentos existentes nesse mosteiro. Surgiram, então, três biografias, todas inspiradas nos referidos documentos: De Vita et Moribus Beatae Elisabethae Lusitaniae Reginae do padre jesuíta Pedro João Perpinhão; Vida e milagres da gloriosa Raynha sancta Ysabel, molher do catholico Rey dom Dinis sexto de Portugal, editada pelos mordomos da Confraria da Rainha Santa Isabel, e “ Vida da Bemaventurada sancta Isabel Raynha de Portugal”, de Frei Marcos de Lisboa, inclusa na Segunda Parte das suas Chronicas da Ordemdos Frades Menores.

  14. TR Band止血器应用于桡动脉径路冠脉介入术后的效果评价%Effectiveness of TR Band hemostat in trans-radial coronary intervention patients :A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费红; 葛文贤; 朱翠清; 胡华英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of TR Band hemostat in trans-radial coronary intervention patients.Methods The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the application of TR Band hemostat in trans-radial coronary intervention patients were collected through the databases such as the Cochrane Library,OVID,PubMed,CBM,VIP and Wanfang Data.The quality of studies was critically appraised and data were extracted by two reviewers independently,and Meta-analysis was conducted for the included studies.Results Five RCTs involving 5 028 patients were included.Meta-analysis showed that the application of TR Band hemostat in trans-radial coronary intervention patients could shorten the time of hemostasis by compression,reduce the incidence rate of skin lesions,improve the postoperative patients with comfort,but the efficacy was not significant in puncture site bleeding,hematoma and incidence of radial artery occlusion (RAO).Conclusions The application of TR Band hemostat in trans-radial coronary intervention patients can significantly decrease the incidence of oppression hemostasis time and reduce the incidence rate of skin lesions,improve the postoperative patients with comfort.It is worth being popularized.%目的 评价TR Band压迫止血器在经桡动脉穿刺行冠脉介入治疗(TRI)术后应用的效果.方法 计算机检索Cochrane Library、OVID、PubMed、中国生物医学文献服务系统(CBM)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、维普数据库(VIP)、万方数据库中的文献,并筛选已获文献的参考文献,纳入TRI术后应用TR Band压迫止血器压迫止血的随机对照试验(RCT).由2名研究员独立检索文献,对纳入研究独立进行方法学质量评价,对符合标准的研究行Meta分析.结果 共纳入5项RCT,合计5 028例患者.Meta分析结果显示,TR Band止血器用于TRI术后可缩短压迫止血时间,减少皮损及纤维硬结的发生率,提高患者术后的舒适度,而在穿刺部位渗血、血肿及桡动脉

  15. ROBUST REPETITIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVING RATE SMOOTHNESS OF TEST TURNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu; ZENGMing; SUBao-ku

    2005-01-01

    A robust repetitive control scheme is used to improve the rate smoothness of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driven test turntable. The method synthesizes variable structure control (VSC) laws and repetitive control (RC) laws in a complementary manner. The VSC strategy can stabilize the system and suppress uncertainties, such as the aperiodic disturbance and noises, while RC strategy can eliminate the periodic rate fluctuation in a steady state. The convergence of the repetitive learning process is also guaranteed by VSC. A general nonlinear system model is discussed. The model can be considered as an extension of BLDCMs. The stability and asymptotic position tracking performance are validated by using Lyapunov functions. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the rate smoothness.

  16. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  17. Repeated text in unrelated passages: Repetition versus meaning selection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Celia M; Drumm, April M; Ralano, Angela S

    2009-07-01

    Despite previous findings, Klin, Ralano, and Weingartner (2007) found transfer benefits across unrelated passages. After processing an ambiguous phrase in Story A that was biased toward its sarcastic meaning, readers were more likely to interpret the identical phrase in Story B as sarcastic, even though it contained no disambiguating information. In the present experiments, we found both repetition effects (a benefit for the lexical items) and meaning selection effects (a benefit for the selected meaning of the phrase) with short delays between Stories A and B; with longer delays, only repetition effects were found. Whereas decreasing the elaboration of the phrase eliminated both effects, moving the disambiguating context from before to after the phrase eliminated meaning selection effects only. We conclude that meaning selection effects, which are based on conceptual overlap, are more sensitive to context changes and less robust than repetition effects, which are based on both perceptual and conceptual overlap.

  18. Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo E.; Zhou, Xinwen; Svensson, Peter

    Effects of repetition and temperature on Contingent Electrical Stimulation. E.E. Castrillon W1, 2, Xinwen Zhou 3, P. Svensson1, 2, 4 1 Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Aarhus University, Denmark2 Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... (SCON)3 Department of Dentistry, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. 4 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden  Background: Contingent electrical stimulation (CES) of the facial skin has been shown to reduce electromyographic (EMG......) activity associated with bruxism. Repetition of the electrical stimulus and skin surface temperature (ST) may affect the perception of CES and possibly also the inhibitory EMG effects.Objectives: To determine the effects of stimulus repetition and skin ST on the perception of CES.  Methods: Healthy...

  19. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  20. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  1. Oral Language Skills Moderate Nonword Repetition Skills in Children with Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis of the Role of Nonword Repetition Skills in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2012-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies…

  2. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  3. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in cervical dystonia: effect of site and repetition in a randomized pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pirio Richardson

    Full Text Available Dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing due to sustained muscle contraction, which leads to pain and significant disability. New therapeutic targets are needed in this disorder. The objective of this randomized, sham-controlled, blinded exploratory study is to identify a specific motor system target for non-invasive neuromodulation and to evaluate this target in terms of safety and tolerability in the cervical dystonia (CD population. Eight CD subjects were given 15-minute sessions of low-frequency (0.2 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the primary motor cortex (MC, dorsal premotor cortex (dPM, supplementary motor area (SMA, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and a sham condition with each session separated by at least two days. The Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS score was rated in a blinded fashion immediately pre- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes included physiology and tolerability ratings. The mean change in TWSTRS severity score by site was 0.25 ± 1.7 (ACC, -2.9 ± 3.4 (dPM, -3.0 ± 4.8 (MC, -0.5 ± 1.1 (SHAM, and -1.5 ± 3.2 (SMA with negative numbers indicating improvement in symptom control. TWSTRS scores decreased from Session 1 (15.1 ± 5.1 to Session 5 (11.0 ± 7.6. The treatment was tolerable and safe. Physiology data were acquired on 6 of 8 subjects and showed no change over time. These results suggest rTMS can modulate CD symptoms. Both dPM and MC are areas to be targeted in further rTMS studies. The improvement in TWSTRS scores over time with multiple rTMS sessions deserves further evaluation.

  5. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats = Uso do mesmo CIDR por até três vezes para sincronização do estro e inseminação artificial de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 ƒÝg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, thesame hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 „b 1.1h vs. 13.8 „b 2.6h vs. 13.3 „b 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 „b 7.3h vs. 29.6 „b 3.2h vs. 32.8 „b 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times waseffective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilizacao do mesmo dispositivo de liberacao controlada de drogas (CIDR por ate tres vezes sobre odesempenho reprodutivo de cabras leiterias exploradas no semiarido do Nordeste Brasileiro. Foram utilizadas 45 cabras divididas em tres tratamentos de sincronizacao do estro, sendo: CIDR1x, tratadas com CIDR novo durante nove dias. Dois dias antes da retirada do dispositivo, foram aplicados 75 ƒÝg de d-cloprostenol e 300 UI de gonadotrofina corionica equina (eCG. Para os demais tratamentos, foi utilizado o mesmo protocolo hormonal, diferindo apenas pelo uso do mesmo CIDR pela segunda vez no grupo CIDR2x e uso pela terceira vez no grupo CIDR3x. O intervalo entre

  6. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  7. Risk factors for hand-wrist disorders in repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    (wrist pain and palpation tenderness) were determined in 3123 employees in 19 industrial settings. With the use of questionnaires and video recordings of homogenous work tasks number of wrist movements, hand force requirements and wrist position were analysed as risk factors for hand-wrist disorders......OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk of hand-wrist disorders related to repetitive movements, use of hand force and wrist position in repetitive monotonous work. METHODS: Using questionnaires and physical examinations, the prevalence and incidence of hand-wrist pain and possible extensor tendonitis...... were less consistent. Working with the hand in a non-neutral position could not be identified as a risk factor...

  8. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  9. Medium Repetition Rate TEA Laser For Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bruno

    1987-09-01

    The design and performance of an inexpensive compact repetitively pulsed TEA CO2 laser is described. The device uses a modified corona preionization technique and a fast transverse gas flow to achieve high repetition rates. An output energy of 500 mJ per pulse and an out-put power of 6.2W at 40Hz have been obtained. Due to the small energy needed for preionization, the efficiency of the device is high, whereas the gas dissociation is low when compared with commercial laser systems. This results in the relatively small fresh laser gas exchange of 20 ltr h-1 for long term operation.

  10. A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Michael J; Pérez, Mariana Angoa; Briggs, Denise I.; Viano, David C.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight drop method and allows repeated head impacts to lightly anesthetized mice. A key facet of this method is the delivery of an imp...

  11. Convention, Repetition and Abjection: The Way of the Gothic

    OpenAIRE

    Łowczanin Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs Deleuze and Kristeva in an examination of certain Gothic conventions. It argues that repetition of these conventions- which endows Gothicism with formulaic coherence and consistence but might also lead to predictability and stylistic deadlock-is leavened by a novelty that Deleuze would categorize as literary “gift.” This particular kind of “gift” reveals itself in the fiction of successive Gothic writers on the level of plot and is applied to the repetition of the genre’s m...

  12. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...

  13. A Brief Account on the Functions of Rhetorical Repetition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuping

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that using rhetoric devices precisely is of great importance for the English Learners, if they want to write good articles. Repetition is one of the rhetoric devices that is frequently used in English writing. This paper gives a brief account on the four functions of repetition by presenting some typical examples, focusing the reader's attention on the significance of this device in the English writing. The following are the four functions: an effective means of emphasis; making anidea clear and easier; generating emotional force; heightening a certain atmosphere.

  14. Repetitive differential finger motion increases shear strain between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs switch cost (SC and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 minus repeat 5, and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching.

  16. Repetitive operation of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fen; Wang, Dong; Xu, Sha; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Zhi-kai

    2016-04-01

    We present the repetitive operation research results of an L-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with metal array cathode (MAC-MILO) in this paper. To ensure a more uniform emission of electrons emitted from the cathode, metal plates with different outer radii and thicknesses are periodically arranged in longitudinal direction on the cathode substrate to act as emitters. The higher order mode depressed MILO (HDMILO) structure is applied to ensure stability of the tube. Comparison experiments are carried out between velvet cathode and MAC MILO driven by a 20 GW/40 Ω/40 ns/20 Hz pulse power system. Experimental results reveal that the MAC has much lower outgassing rate, much longer life time, and higher repetitive stability. The MAC-MILO could work stably with a rep-rate up to 20 Hz at a power level of 550 MW when employing a 350 kV/35 kA electric pulse. The TE11 mode radiation pattern in the farfield region reveals the tube works steadily on the dominant mode. More than 2000 shots have been tested in repetitive mode without any obvious degradation of the detected microwave parameters.

  17. A Repetitive Nanosecond Pulse Source for Generation of Large Volume Streamer Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Fengbo; ZHANG Qiaogen; GAO Bo; WANG Hu; LI Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Using a unipolar pulse with the rise time and the pulse duration in the order of microsecond as the primary pulse,a nanosecond pulse with the repetitive frequency of several kilohertz is generated by a spark gap switch.By varying both the inter-pulse duration and the pulse frequency,the voltage recovery rate of the spark gap switch is investigated at different working conditions such as the gas pressure,the gas composition as well as the bias voltage.The results reveal that either increase in gas pressure or addition of SF6 to the air can increase the voltage recovery rate.The effect of gas composition on the voltage recovery rate is discussed based on the transferring and distribution of the residual space charges.The repetitive nanosecond pulse source is also applied to the generation of large volume,and the discharge currents are measured to investigate the effect of pulse repetition rate on the large volume streamer discharge.

  18. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  19. Developmental Education Repeaters: Stories about Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Jade J.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental education students make up almost half of the community college population in the United States (Bettinger & Long, 2005). Approximately 42% of first-time freshmen at community colleges must enroll in at least one developmental education course in English, reading and/or math (NCES, 2010). Many developmental education students are…

  20. Radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation of repetitive elements in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Skinner, Charles M; Melnyk, Stepan B; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism, needed for proper control over the expression of genetic information and silencing of repetitive elements. Exposure to ionizing radiation, aside from its strong genotoxic potential, may also affect the methylation of DNA, within the repetitive elements, in particular. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J male mice to low absorbed mean doses of two types of space radiation-proton (0.1 Gy, 150 MeV, dose rate 0.53 ± 0.08 Gy/min), and heavy iron ions ((56)Fe) (0.5 Gy, 600 MeV/n, dose rate 0.38 ± 0.06 Gy/min). Radiation-induced changes in cardiac DNA methylation associated with repetitive elements were detected. Specifically, modest hypomethylation of retrotransposon LINE-1 was observed at day 7 after irradiation with either protons or (56)Fe. This was followed by LINE-1, and other retrotransposons, ERV2 and SINE B1, as well as major satellite DNA hypermethylation at day 90 after irradiation with (56)Fe. These changes in DNA methylation were accompanied by alterations in the expression of DNA methylation machinery and affected the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Furthermore, loss of transposable elements expression was detected in the cardiac tissue at the 90-day time-point, paralleled by substantial accumulation of mRNA transcripts, associated with major satellites. Given that the one-carbon metabolism pathway can be modulated by dietary modifications, these findings suggest a potential strategy for the mitigation and, possibly, prevention of the negative effects exerted by ionizing radiation on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, we show that the methylation status and expression of repetitive elements may serve as early biomarkers of exposure to space radiation.

  1. Venous gas embolism after an open-water air dive and identical repetitive dive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, N A M; Sterk, W

    2012-01-01

    Decompression tables indicate that a repetitive dive to the same depth as a first dive should be shortened to obtain the same probability of occurrence of decompression sickness (pDCS). Repetition protocols are based on small numbers, a reason for re-examination. Since venous gas embolism (VGE) and pDCS are related, one would expect a higher bubble grade (BG) of VGE after the repetitive dive without reducing bottom time. BGs were determined in 28 divers after a first and an identical repetitive air dive of 40 minutes to 20 meters of sea water. Doppler BG scores were transformed to log number of bubbles/cm2 (logB) to allow numerical analysis. With a previously published model (Model2), pDCS was calculated for the first dive and for both dives together. From pDCS, theoretical logBs were estimated with a pDCS-to-logB model constructed from literature data. However, pDCS the second dive was provided using conditional probability. This was achieved in Model2 and indirectly via tissue saturations. The combination of both models shows a significant increase of logB after the second dive, whereas the measurements showed an unexpected lower logB. These differences between measurements and model expectations are significant (p-values < 0.01). A reason for this discrepancy is uncertain. The most likely speculation would be that the divers, who were relatively old, did not perform physical activity for some days before the first dive. Our data suggest that, wisely, the first dive after a period of no exercise should be performed conservatively, particularly for older divers.

  2. 西方重复思想史与德勒兹重复旨归%The Western History of Repetition Thought and Deleuze's Repetition Purport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛

    2015-01-01

    西方重复思想史,是由同一与差异两类概念逻辑交相辉映、编织而成的.柏拉图的表象哲学肇始的同一律重复,确立了"差异由相似产生"的传统镜像论;克尔凯郭尔、尼采、德勒兹等人则凭借"相似由差异而来"的差异性重复,取消原型与拷贝的二重关系,拆解折射之镜,藉此关照个体生命.德勒兹用时间的三次综合完成了"差异性重复何以可能"的论证,实现了从同一到差异的逻辑转向,确立了差异主体的审美范式.在形而上学"主体之死"的废墟上,思想界以"无主体的主体"的美学面向,完成对生命主体的重建.这是对此前主体性思想的完善和超越,对"人之主体"的整体守护,从而创生出当代异质主体的思想图像.%The Western thought history of repetition is composed of the combination of the two kinds of the conception of logic, that is, identity and difference. The identity repetition from the philosophy of Plato's representation established "difference from similarity";whereas some scholars such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Deleuze, etc. hold the view of repetition of difference-"similarity from differ-ence", thus canceling the dual relation between the model and the copy, dismantling the reflective mirror, and taking care of the individual life. By three synthesis of time, Deleuze completed arguments of "How repetition of difference could be", realized the philosophy turning from identity to difference, and established the aesthetic paradigm of difference. From the ruins of metaphysics of"the death of subject", the academic circles completed the reconstruction of the subject with the"Subjectless Subjectivities"aesthetics attitude. It is perfection to and surpass over the former subjectivity, a wholesome guarding against"human as a subject", thus creating the image of thought in the contemporary time.

  3. ISO TR 22335:2007 experimental comparison%国际标准ISO TR22335实验比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文清

    2013-01-01

    为了制定“技术报告”类国际标准ISO TR22335,2005年2月ISO/TC201技术委员会委托美国国家标准学会负责召集工作小组,小组成员由中国、匈牙利、日本、英国、美国、瑞士、韩国、菲律宾、俄罗斯等9个国家组成,中国等3个国家的6个实验室参加了实验比对,其中清华大学分析中心扫描俄歇电子能谱仪测得的标准偏差值最接近实际值,测得结果为:利用单孔栅网对97 nm的热氧化二氧化硅片进行界面溅射测量,测量的孔内(IA)标准偏差值为0.06 min,孔外(OA)标准偏差值为0.03min;氧化层厚度测量的标准偏差值为0.4 nm.

  4. Pacemaker repetitive nonreentrant ventriculoatrial synchrony. Why did automatic mode switching occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S Serge; Stroobandt, Roland X; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive nonreentrant ventriculoatrial synchrony during dual-chamber pacing is characterized by long intervals alternating with short intervals. This arrangement activated automatic mode switching in a St Jude dual-chamber pacemaker in which the algorithm requires an atrial sensed event for automatic mode switching initiation. Automatic mode switching activation by an atrial sensed event (retrograde P wave) was puzzling because the programmed postventricular atrial period was longer than the retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction time. The explanation is presented in the form of questions and answers to facilitate the understanding of pacemaker function and complex timing cycles.

  5. Adquisición de variables de tráfico vehicular usando visión por computador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Enrique Urrego

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El conteo de vehículos es una tarea fundamental en los aforos de tráfico, tanto para el diseño de nuevas vías como para el control y la optimización del tráfico urbano. En ciudades como Bogotá, este conteo actualmente se realiza en forma manual, pero puede hacerse automáticamente empleando técnicas de visión por computador. El presente artículo muestra el desarrollo de un algoritmo de detección y seguimiento de vehículos en tiempo real a partir de video, el cual permite el conteo de vehículos en la vía y la estimación del volumen de tráfico o velocidad promedio./The count of vehicles is a key task in traffic gauging, as it provides information for designing new roads, and for the control and optimization of urban traffic. Nowadays in cities like Bogota, vehicle counting is done manually, but it can also be done automatically using computer vision techniques. This article presents the development of an algorithm for detecting and tracking vehicles in real time from video. The algorithm allows to count vehicles on the road and to estimate traffic volume or average speed.

  6. Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography using multiple inversion recovery and alternating TR balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hattie Z; Worters, Pauline W; Wu, Holden H; Ingle, R Reeve; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2013-08-01

    Noncontrast-enhanced renal angiography techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession avoid external contrast agents, take advantage of high inherent blood signal from the T 2 / T 1 contrast mechanism, and have short steady-state free precession acquisition times. However, background suppression is limited; inflow times are inflexible; labeling region is difficult to define when tagging arterial flow; and scan times are long. To overcome these limitations, we propose the use of multiple inversion recovery preparatory pulses combined with alternating pulse repetition time balanced steady-state free precession to produce renal angiograms. Multiple inversion recovery uses selective spatial saturation followed by four nonselective inversion recovery pulses to concurrently null a wide range of background T 1 species while allowing for adjustable inflow times; alternating pulse repetition time steady-state free precession maintains vessel contrast and provides added fat suppression. The high level of suppression enables imaging in three-dimensional as well as projective two-dimensional formats, the latter of which has a scan time as short as one heartbeat. In vivo studies at 1.5 T demonstrate the superior vessel contrast of this technique.

  7. Tempo de trânsito intestinal, desempenho, característica de carcaça e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com rações isoenergéticas formuladas com diferentes níveis de óleo de soja Intestinal transit time, performance, carcass characteristics and body composition in broilers fed isoenergy diets formulated with different levels of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Andreotti

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão de 0,0; 3,3; 6,6 e 9,9% de óleo de soja em rações isoenergéticas sobre o tempo de trânsito (TT, desempenho, características de carcaça e composição corporal de frangos de corte de 21 a 56 dias de idade. O TT foi determinado no 22º e 42º dias de idade, utilizando-se 192 frangos distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2x4 (duas idades e quatro níveis de óleo de soja, com quatro repetições de seis aves cada. Para o experimento de desempenho foram utilizados 840 frangos de corte, com peso inicial médio de 870 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições de 35 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de inclusão do óleo de soja influenciaram de forma linear decrescente o TT em ambas as idades. No período de 21 a 42 dias, o ganho de peso e as conversões alimentar e calórica aumentaram de forma quadrática e os consumos de ração e de energia metabolizável, de forma linear. No período total, a adição do óleo de soja melhorou linearmente o ganho de peso, os consumos de energia e de ração e, de forma quadrática, as conversões alimentar e calórica. No 42º e 56º dias de idade, a porcentagem de gordura abdominal, como também o rendimento de carcaça no 56º dia, foi influenciada de forma quadrática. O teor de gordura total foi influenciado de forma linear crescente e o teor de cinzas reduziu linearmente aos 56 dias de idade.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 0.0, 3.3, 6.6, and 9.9% soybean oil inclusion in isoenergy diets on transit time (TT, performance, carcass characteristics and body composition of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The TT was determined at 22 and 42 days of age. Eight hundred and fourty broilers, with initial average weight of 870 g, allotted to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, six replications and 35 broilers per experimental unit, were used in the

  8. System for time-resolved laser absorption spectroscopy and its application to high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámek, P.; Olejníček, J.; Hubička, Z.; Čada, M.; Kment, Š.; Kohout, M.; Do, H. T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the development and construction of an apparatus for time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) for the diagnostics of pulsed plasma. A detailed description of the extension of a progressive method of laser absorption spectroscopy in continuous regime to a direct triggering method of the time-resolved laser absorption spectroscopy (TR-LAS) is presented. The main advantage of the developed method is its capability to measure the time evolution of the whole absorption profile with a preset time resolution, which can be less than 1 μs. Therefore, the presented method of repetitive sampling applied on LAS in plasma processes is capable of simultaneous measurement of the density and kinetic temperature of selected particles. Its appropriate applications are to periodical processes in technological plasma, namely pulsed plasma discharges. The developed method of TR-LAS was applied to measurements of the temporal evolution of density and kinetic temperature of argon metastable species during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium and titanium dioxide thin films.

  9. The Transit Light Curve project. XIV. Confirmation of Anomalous Radii for the Exoplanets TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Tucker; Winn, Joshua N; Holman, Matthew J; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Esquerdo, Gil; Everett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems' parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be "bloated" planets, with radii of 1.706 +/- 0.056 R_Jup and 1.736 +/- 0.092 R_Jup, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 +/- 0.055 R_Jup, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

  10. Optimization and verification of the TR-MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, Sarwar; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The underly

  11. Realization of an integrated VDF/TrFE copolymer-on-silicon pyroelectric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Sarro, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated pyroelectric sensor based on a vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (VDF/TrFE) copolymer is presented. A silicon substrate that contains FET readout electronics is coated with the VDF/TrFE copolymer film using a spin-coating technique. On-chip poling of the copolymer has been applied

  12. A 3 x 1 Integrated Pyroelectric Sensor Based on VDF/TrFE Copolymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Sarro, P.M.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated pyroelectric sensor based on a Vinylidene Fluoride TriFluoroEthylene (VDF/TrFE) copolymer. A silicon substrate that contains FET readout electronics is coated with the VDF/TrFE copolymer film using a spin-coating technique. On-chip poling of the copolymer has been a

  13. Design of a VDF/TrFE Copolymer-on-silicon pyroelectric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a VDF/TrFE copolymer-on-silicon pyroelectric sensor. For an optimal design of a VDF/TrFE-on-silicon pyroelectric sensor, the one-dimensional diffusion equation is solved for the pyroelectric multilayer structure. The output current of the sensor is calculated. Improve

  14. A 3x1 integrated pyroelectric sensor based on VDF/TrFE copolymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Sarro, P.M.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated pyroelectric sensor based on a vinylidene fluoride¿trifluoroethylene (VDF/TrFE) copolymer. A silicon substrate that contains field-effect transistor (FET) readout electronics is coated with the VDF/TrFE copolymer film using a spin-coating technique. On-chip poling o

  15. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric (Michigan-Med); (Van Andel)

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  16. Beregningsforudsætninger for dimensioneringstabeller i TRÆ 28: Træspærfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.

    Meddelelsen giver henvisninger til de relevante bestemmelser i normerne og specificerer de beregningsforudsætninger og beregningsmodeller, der ligger til grund for dimensioneringstabellerne i pjecen TRÆ 28: Træspærfag, der er udgivet i samarbejde med SBI og Træbranchens Oplysningsråd....

  17. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The design of an asynchronous Tiny RISC TM/TR4101 microprocessor core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jensen, P.; Korger, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an asynchronous version of the TR4101 embedded microprocessor core developed by LSI Logic Inc. The asynchronous processor, called ARISC, was designed using the same CAD tools and the same standard cell library that was used to implement the TR4101. The paper repo...

  19. Initial code exchange for asynchronous TR-UWB ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Shi, N.; Leus, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an initial code exchange scheme for a transmit-reference ultra wide-band (TR-UWB) system. We exploit the facts that a TR-UWB transceiver scheme allows for simultaneous transmission and reception as well as detection and separation of distinct users with the same code even if

  20. Samlingsdetaljers indflydelse på fugtniveauet i træfacader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Asta; Hansen, Morten Hjorslev

    Fugtophobningen i en række træfacadeelementer med forskellige konstruktionsopbygninger med eller uden fejl i samlingerne er bestemt under laboratorieforhold. Rapporten dokumenterer, at fejl i samlinger mellem træfacadeelementer medfører højere fugtindhold i konstruktionstræet, end når samlingerne...

  1. Fugtforhold i træfacader med letbeton bagvægge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.

    Denne rapport beskriver, hvilke faktorer der har indflydelse på ophobningen af fugt i lette træfacader med bagvægge af letbeton. Såvel laboratorieforsøg som inspektion af eksisterende bygninger viser, at bagvægge af letbeton kombineret med lette træfacader giver en konstruktion, som er yderst føl...

  2. The orphan nuclear receptor TR4 is a vitamin A-activated nuclear receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H Eric

    2011-01-28

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  3. Tendinosis-like histologic and molecular changes of the Achilles tendon to repetitive stress: a pilot study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Soon; Hwang, Ji Hye; Lee, Yong Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan

    2011-11-01

    Tendinopathy (pain and tendon degeneration) is associated with repetitive use and mechanical overload. However, the etiology of tendinopathy remains unclear. Clarification of histologic and molecular changes of tendon to repetitive stress could provide better understanding of Achilles tendon disorders related to repetitive stress. We asked whether repetitive stress simulating overuse of the Achilles tendon induced (1) histologic changes in rats similar to tendinosis (increased cellularity of fibrocytes, increased disorganization of collagen fiber, and increased roundness of the nucleus of the fibrocyte), (2) increased collagen Type III occurrence, and (3) increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We used an exercise protocol simulating repetitive, jerky, eccentric contraction of the triceps surae in 15 rats. We conducted the exercise for 2 hours per day, three times per week using the right rear legs only and the left legs as internal controls. We harvested Achilles tendons after either 2, 4, or 6 weeks of exercise, and evaluated changes in tendon thickness, fibrocyte count, collagen fiber arrangement, collagen fiber type, and occurrence of iNOS. Exercised Achilles tendons showed increased cellularity of fibrocytes at 4 and 6 weeks of exercise, and disorganized collagen fiber arrangement at 6 weeks of exercise. There was a trend for Type III collagen occurrence being greater in experimental groups. Expression of iNOS increased after 2 and 4 weeks of exercise when compared with that of the controls, but decreased after 6 weeks. These observations suggest repetitive, synchronized, passive, and jerky exercise induced by electrical stimulation can lead to the tendinosis-like changes in the Achilles tendons in rats with imbalance between synthesis and degeneration after 4 weeks of exercise. This newly designed exercise protocol may be used to design an animal model of Achilles tendon overuse. With this model, therapeutic interventions of tendinopathy

  4. Handedness, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and bulimic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, F; Broadbent, H; Guillaume, S; Claudino, A; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2012-05-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research in psychiatry mostly excludes left-handed participants. We recruited left-handed people with a bulimic disorder and found that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex may result in different effects in left- and right-handed people. This highlights the importance of handedness and cortex lateralisation for rTMS.

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  6. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  7. Auditory Repetition Priming Is Impaired in Pure Alexic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Miller, Kimberly M.; Larsen, Jary

    2004-01-01

    Alexia without agraphia, or ''pure'' alexia, is an acquired impairment in reading that leaves writing skills intact. Repetition priming for visually presented words is diminished in pure alexia. However, it is not possible to verify whether this priming deficit is modality-specific or modality independent because reading abilities are compromised.…

  8. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  9. A Study on Repetition Techniques in Persian Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Vafaie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The speakers of any language, according to their constant need, coin some novel words in order to convey meaning, express ideas, thoughts, and their desires. In this process, they take advantage of their overt or covert linguistic competence. For instance, the derivative feature of Arabic language has contributed a lot to speakers of that language to create so many words with multiple meanings, all formed on the same stem. Likewise, English speakers make use of the derivative features, compounding, blending, and multiple processes of their language to create words. Similarly, in Persian language, the speakers make new words based on specific features of that language. There are five common processes applied in Persian language to form new words, among which blending, compounding, derivation, repetition or reduplication, clipping and acronyms are frequently used and the other techniques or processes have been neglected. Word repetition is one of the word formation processes and many words are made through this process. This study is an attempt to delve into the morphological processes of word repetition in Persian contemporary language according to the texts of three books, “Imaginary Perspectives in Persian Poetry”, “Let’s Listen to the Speech” and “with Holleh Convoy”. In addition, it strives to find a proper solution to the question of the Persian word formation processes in creating new words through repetition.

  10. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  11. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  12. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  13. Piriform spider silk sequences reveal unique repetitive elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David J; Bittencourt, Daniela; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica; Rech, Elibio L; Lewis, Randolph V

    2010-11-08

    Orb-weaving spider silk fibers are assembled from very large, highly repetitive proteins. The repeated segments contain, in turn, short, simple, and repetitive amino acid motifs that account for the physical and mechanical properties of the assembled fiber. Of the six orb-weaver silk fibroins, the piriform silk that makes the attachment discs, which lashes the joints of the web and attaches dragline silk to surfaces, has not been previously characterized. Piriform silk protein cDNAs were isolated from phage libraries of three species: A. trifasciata , N. clavipes , and N. cruentata . The deduced amino acid sequences from these genes revealed two new repetitive motifs: an alternating proline motif, where every other amino acid is proline, and a glutamine-rich motif of 6-8 amino acids. Similar to other spider silk proteins, the repeated segments are large (>200 amino acids) and highly homogenized within a species. There is also substantial sequence similarity across the genes from the three species, with particular conservation of the repetitive motifs. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA is larger than 11 kb and is expressed exclusively in the piriform glands of the spider. Phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal regions of the new proteins with published spidroins robustly shows that the piriform sequences form an ortholog group.

  14. Focus on form through task repetition in TBLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Guchte, M.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Bimmel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners’ attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where

  15. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  16. Spierbelasting en RSI [Muscle load and repetitive strain injury (RSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Visser, B.; Huysmans, M.A.; Speklé, E.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of theories concerning the development of RSI (repetitive strain injury), related to muscle disorders. Movement is a noisy process. The level of noise is affected by factors such as fatigue and psychosocial stress. In order for precision movements to be made in such

  17. Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, Andre

    The potential of noninvasive neurostimulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for improving psychiatric disorders has been studied increasingly over the past two decades. This is especially the case for major depression and for auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  18. A repetitive 0.14 THz relativistic surface wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang; Tong Changjiang; Li Xiaoze; Wang Xuefeng; Li Shuang; Lu Xicheng [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); Wang Jianguo [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-1, Xi' an 710024 (China); School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Preliminary experimental results of a repetitive 0.14 THz overmoded relativistic surface wave oscillator (RSWO) are presented in this paper. The repetitive RSWO is developed by using a rectangularly corrugated slow-wave structure with overmoded ratio of 3 and a foilless diode emitting annular electron beam with thickness of 0.5 mm. The high quality electron beams at the repetition rate of 10 are obtained over a wide range of diode voltage (180 kV < U < 240 kV) and current (700 A < I < 1.2 kA). The generation experiments of RSWO are conducted at an axial pulsed magnetic field whose maximum strength and duration can reach about 2.7 T and 1 s, respectively. The experimental results show that the RSWO successfully produces reasonable uniform terahertz pulses at repetition rate of 10, and the pulse duration, frequency, and power of a single pulse are about 1.5 ns, 0.154 THz, and 2.6 MW, respectively, whereas the dominated radiation mode of the RSWO is TM{sub 02}.

  19. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  1. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  2. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  3. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  4. Passive Repetitive Stretching for a Short Duration within a Week Increases Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Rats' Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Kamikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a stimulation of muscle growth. Stretching for hours or days has an effect on muscle hypertrophy. However, differences of continuous stretching and repetitive stretching to affect muscle growth are not well known. To clarify the difference of continuous and repetitive stretching within a short duration, we investigated the gene expression of muscle-related genes on stretched skeletal muscles. We used 8-week-old male Wistar rats ( for this study. Animals medial gastrocnemius muscle was stretched continuously or repetitively for 15 min daily and 4 times/week under anesthesia. After stretching, muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted. Then, reverse transcriptional quantitative real-time PCR was done to evaluate the mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Muscles, either stretched continuously or repetitively, increased mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic MyHC more than unstretched muscles. Notably, repetitive stretching resulted in more substantial effects on embryonic MyHC gene expression than continuous stretching. In conclusion, passive stretching for a short duration within a week is effective in increasing myogenic factor expression, and repetitive stretching had more effects than continuous stretching for skeletal muscle on muscle growth. These findings are applicable in clinical muscle-strengthening therapy.

  5. Repetitive Myocardial Infarctions Secondary to Delirium Tremens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schwartzberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal.

  6. Finite-Repetition threshold for infinite ternary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Badkobeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The exponent of a word is the ratio of its length over its smallest period. The repetitive threshold r(a of an a-letter alphabet is the smallest rational number for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most r(a. This notion was introduced in 1972 by Dejean who gave the exact values of r(a for every alphabet size a as it has been eventually proved in 2009. The finite-repetition threshold for an a-letter alphabet refines the above notion. It is the smallest rational number FRt(a for which there exists an infinite word whose finite factors have exponent at most FRt(a and that contains a finite number of factors with exponent r(a. It is known from Shallit (2008 that FRt(2=7/3. With each finite-repetition threshold is associated the smallest number of r(a-exponent factors that can be found in the corresponding infinite word. It has been proved by Badkobeh and Crochemore (2010 that this number is 12 for infinite binary words whose maximal exponent is 7/3. We show that FRt(3=r(3=7/4 and that the bound is achieved with an infinite word containing only two 7/4-exponent words, the smallest number. Based on deep experiments we conjecture that FRt(4=r(4=7/5. The question remains open for alphabets with more than four letters. Keywords: combinatorics on words, repetition, repeat, word powers, word exponent, repetition threshold, pattern avoidability, word morphisms.

  7. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  8. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Family History of Breast Cancer and Risk Perception and Impacts on Repetition of Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Sahar; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Roshani, Daem

    2016-01-01

    Since the mean age of breast cancer in women living in developing countries, compared with those in developed countries, is lower by about 10 years, repetition of mammography can play an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between family history of breast cancer and risk perception and its impact on repetition of mammography. In this cross-sectional study, 1,507 women aged 50 years and older, referred to the mammography center of Regions 1 and 6 in Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and LISREL. According to our findings, knowledge about the time interval of mammography was found to have the highest correlation with repetition of mammography (r =0.4). Among the demographic variables, marital status (β= -0.1) and family history of breast cancer (β=0.1) had the most direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P mammography (P mammography, but the results did not prove any relationship with risk perception. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of risk perception and knowledge about time interval on the initiation and continuation of mammography.

  9. A New Revised DNA Cramp Tool Based Approach of Chopping DNA Repetitive and Non-Repetitive Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Hari Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vogue tremendous amount of data generated day by day by the living organism of genetic sequences and its accumulation in database, their size is growing in an exponential manner. Due to excessive storage of DNA sequences in public databases like NCBI, EMBL and DDBJ archival maintenance is tedious task. Transmission of information from one place to another place in network management systems is also a critical task. So To improve the efficiency and to reduce the overhead of the database need of compression arises in database optimization. In this connection different techniques were bloomed, but achieved results are not bountiful. Many classical algorithms are fails to compress genetic sequences due to the specificity of text encoded in dna and few of the existing techniques achieved positive results. DNA is repetitive and non repetitive in nature. Our proposed technique DNACRAMP is applicable on repetitive and non repetitive sequences of dna and it yields better compression ratio in terms of bits per bases. This is compared with existing techniques and observed that our one is the optimum technique and compression results are on par with existing techniques.

  10. Re-imagining the future: repetition decreases hippocampal involvement in future simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie van Mulukom

    Full Text Available Imagining or simulating future events has been shown to activate the anterior right hippocampus (RHC more than remembering past events does. One fundamental difference between simulation and memory is that imagining future scenarios requires a more extensive constructive process than remembering past experiences does. Indeed, studies in which this constructive element is reduced or eliminated by "pre-imagining" events in a prior session do not report differential RHC activity during simulation. In this fMRI study, we examined the effects of repeatedly simulating an event on neural activity. During scanning, participants imagined 60 future events; each event was simulated three times. Activation in the RHC showed a significant linear decrease across repetitions, as did other neural regions typically associated with simulation. Importantly, such decreases in activation could not be explained by non-specific linear time-dependent effects, with no reductions in activity evident for the control task across similar time intervals. Moreover, the anterior RHC exhibited significant functional connectivity with the whole-brain network during the first, but not second and third simulations of future events. There was also evidence of a linear increase in activity across repetitions in right ventral precuneus, right posterior cingulate and left anterior prefrontal cortex, which may reflect source recognition and retrieval of internally generated contextual details. Overall, our findings demonstrate that repeatedly imagining future events has a decremental effect on activation of the hippocampus and many other regions engaged by the initial construction of the simulation, possibly reflecting the decreasing novelty of simulations across repetitions, and therefore is an important consideration in the design of future studies examining simulation.

  11. TR32DB - Management of Research Data in a Collaborative, Interdisciplinary Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, Constanze; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Waldhoff, Guido; Lang, Ulrich; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    The management of research data in a well-structured and documented manner is essential in the context of collaborative, interdisciplinary research environments (e.g. across various institutions). Consequently, set-up and use of a research data management (RDM) system like a data repository or project database is necessary. These systems should accompany and support scientists during the entire research life cycle (e.g. data collection, documentation, storage, archiving, sharing, publishing) and operate cross-disciplinary in interdisciplinary research projects. Challenges and problems of RDM are well-know. Consequently, the set-up of a user-friendly, well-documented, sustainable RDM system is essential, as well as user support and further assistance. In the framework of the Transregio Collaborative Research Centre 32 'Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Systems: Monitoring, Modelling, and Data Assimilation' (CRC/TR32), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), a RDM system was self-designed and implemented. The CRC/TR32 project database (TR32DB, www.tr32db.de) is operating online since early 2008. The TR32DB handles all data, which are created by the involved project participants from several institutions (e.g. Universities of Cologne, Bonn, Aachen, and the Research Centre Jülich) and research fields (e.g. soil and plant sciences, hydrology, geography, geophysics, meteorology, remote sensing). Very heterogeneous research data are considered, which are resulting from field measurement campaigns, meteorological monitoring, remote sensing, laboratory studies and modelling approaches. Furthermore, outcomes like publications, conference contributions, PhD reports and corresponding images are regarded. The TR32DB project database is set-up in cooperation with the Regional Computing Centre of the University of Cologne (RRZK) and also located in this hardware environment. The TR32DB system architecture is composed of three main components: (i) a file-based data

  12. miRNA-133a attenuates lipid accumulation via TR4-CD36 pathway in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Lei; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    lipid metabolism is the major causes of atherosclerosis. There is increasing evidence that miR-133a plays an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a in macrophages is still unclear. Several lines of evidence indicate that loss of TR4 leads to reduce lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues, etc, and lesional macrophages-derived TR4 can greatly increase the foam cell formation through increasing the CD36-mediated the uptake of ox-LDL. Interestingly, computational analysis suggests that TR4 may be a target gene of miR-133a. Here, we examined whether miR-133a regulates TR4 expression in ox-LDL-induced mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, thereby affecting lipid accumulation. Using ox-LDL-treatment RAW 264.7 macrophages transfected with miR-133a mimics or inhibitors, we have showed that miR-133a can directly regulate the expression of TR4 in RAW 264.7 cells, thereby attenuates CD36-medide lipid accumulation. Furthermore, our studies suggest an additional explanation for the regulatory mechanism of miR-133a regulation to its functional target, TR4 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-133a may regulate lipid accumulation in ox-LDL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via TR4-CD36 pathway.

  13. Fate of TR-2, the hepatic metabolite of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen, in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, I; Mantle, P G; Rodrigues, L; Penny, R H

    1987-08-01

    1. Verruculogen is eliminated in bile after transformation to TR-2, only a trace of which was excreted as such in faeces of sheep given verruculogen per os. Negligible TR-2 was present free in urine; no glucuronide was found. 2. An isomer of TR-2, a minor component of the bile of sheep given verruculogen, has been defined by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and the isomerism involves the disposition of the two adjacent hydroxyl groups with a concomitant change in the conformation of the ring adjacent to the indole. 3. 14C-TR-2, added to the perfusate of isolated rat liver, was excreted unchanged in the bile, implying no significant loss of any biliary TR-2 subject to enterohepatic recycling in vivo. 4. 14C-TR-2 incubated anaerobically in sheep ileum contents was 95% transformed into more polar metabolites, the majority of the radiolabelled metabolites isolated being water soluble. 5. The principal fate of biliary TR-2 is as a metabolic substrate for the intestinal microflora.

  14. Repetitive Reduction Patterns in Lambda Calculus with letrec (Work in Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rochel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the lambda-calculus with letrec we develop an optimisation, which is based on the contraction of a certain class of 'future' (also: virtual redexes. In the implementation of functional programming languages it is common practice to perform beta-reductions at compile time whenever possible in order to produce code that requires fewer reductions at run time. This is, however, in principle limited to redexes and created redexes that are 'visible' (in the sense that they can be contracted without the need for unsharing, and cannot generally be extended to redexes that are concealed by sharing constructs such as letrec. In the case of recursion, concealed redexes become visible only after unwindings during evaluation, and then have to be contracted time and again. We observe that in some cases such redexes exhibit a certain form of repetitive behaviour at run time. We describe an analysis for identifying binders that give rise to such repetitive reduction patterns, and eliminate them by a sort of predictive contraction. Thereby these binders are lifted out of recursive positions or eliminated altogether, as a result alleviating the amount of beta-reductions required for each recursive iteration. Both our analysis and simplification are suitable to be integrated into existing compilers for functional programming languages as an additional optimisation phase. With this work we hope to contribute to increasing the efficiency of executing programs written in such languages.

  15. Estabelecimento in vitro de explantes de três cultivares de bananeira Explants establishment in vitro of three banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar dois protocolos de desinfestação na micropropagação em três cultivares de bananeira. Utilizaram-se mudas das cultivares de bananeira Prata Anã, FHIA 18 e SH3640. Os protocolos 1 e 2 de desinfestação (Des. 1 e Des. 2 foram realizados utilizando-se os seguintes produtos: solução fungicida de Derosol, álcool comercial, solução de hipoclorito de sódio e de hipoclorito de cálcio e tween 20, apresentando variações na concentração dos produtos em cada um dos protocolos. As avaliações para a porcentagem de contaminação foram realizadas diariamente por meio do número total de tubos contaminados e não contaminados. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em um sistema fatorial. As contaminações que ocorreram foram causadas exclusivamente por bactérias. Independentemente do tratamento utilizado, os índices de contaminação foram superiores a 29% para as três cultivares testadas. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de adequar novas metodologias de assepsias de explantes de bananeira.The purpose of this work was to evaluate two protocols of disinfestations in the micropropagation on young plants of three banana cultivars: Prata-Anã, FHIA 18 and SH3640. Protocols 1 and 2 of disinfestations (Dis. 1 and Dis. 2 were carried out using the products: fungicidal solution of Derosol, commercial alcohol, solution of sodium hypo chlorite and calcium hypo chlorite and tween 20, presenting variations in their concentration in every one of the protocols. The evaluations for contamination rate were taken daily by means of the total number of contaminated and non-contaminated tubes. A random block design in a factorial scheme with four repetitions was used. Exclusively bacteria had caused all contamination. Independently of the used treatment the contamination levels had been up to 29% for all the three cultivars tested. These results indicate the necessity of

  16. Did Kant Appreciate Hume? Perception and Repetition as Separate Aspects of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Bernstein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of experience has two sides: it implies that knowledge is acquired through the senses, and it implies that knowledge is acquired over time. Different traditions of thought have emphasized either one or the other of these two aspects of experience, with epistemology gravitating toward an idea of experience as perception and political philosophy gravitating toward an idea of experience as repetition. In this paper, I argue that Hume's great innovation consisted in taking the notion of experience traditionally associated with political philosophy and applying it to epistemology. Meanwhile, Kant aimed his critique at the traditional epistemological notion of experience and thus failed to appreciate Hume's originality.  

  17. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  18. Understanding repetitive travel mode choices in a stable context: A panel study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    of public transport is traced back to attitudes towards doing so, beliefs about whether or not public transportation can cover one's transport needs, and car ownership. The influence of these variables is greatly attenuated when past behavior is accounted for, however. For subjects without a car, behavior......It is argued that most travel mode choices are repetitive and made in a stable context. As an example, the everyday use of public transport is analyzed based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 1300 Danish residents interviewed up to three times in the period 1998-2000. The use...

  19. Spectrum analysis of all parameter noises in repetition-rate laser pulse train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Tang; Yuncai Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The theoretical investigation of all parameter noises in repetition-rate laser pulse train was presented. The expression of power spectrum of laser pulse trains with all parameter noises was derived, and the power spectra of pulse trains with different noise parameters were numerically simulated. By comparing the power spectra with and without pulse-width jitter, we noted that pulse-width jitter could not be neglected compared with amplitude noise and timing jitter and contributed a great amount of noise into the power spectrum under the condition that the product of pulse width and angular frequency was larger than 1.

  20. Choppers to optimise the repetition rate multiplication technique on a direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, Anette; Deen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of repetition rate multiplication (RRM) on direct geometry neutron spectrometers has been established and is the common mode of operation on a growing number of instruments. However, the chopper configurations are not ideally optimised for RRM with a resultant 100 fold flu...... in time resolution probed for a single European Spallation Source (ESS) period, which is ideal to probe complex relaxational behaviour. These two chopper configurations have been simulated for the Versatile Optimal Resolution direct geometry spectrometer, VOR, that will be built at ESS....