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Sample records for repetition receptive grammar

  1. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  2. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eConti-Ramsden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females and 46 typically developing (TD children (30 males, 16 females, both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group x procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and Procedural Deficit Hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children

  3. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  4. The Effect of Event Repetition on the Production of Story Grammar in Children's Event Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effect of event repetition on the amount and nature of story-grammar produced by children when recalling the event. Method: Children aged 4 years (N=50) and 7 years (N=56) participated in either 1 or 6 occurrences of a highly similar event where details varied across the occurrences. Half the children in each age…

  5. Robertson’s century: The reception and impact of an epoch-making grammar of the Greek New Testament

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    Gerhard Swart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The author endeavours, firstly, to present a vivid account of the reception that A.T. Robertson’s A grammar of the Greek New Testament in the light of historical research found in scholarly circles when first published (in 1914 and during the ensuing years; secondly, to probe the question whether, during the course of the past century, the renown of both the man and the book has outlasted the scientific value and the actual utilisation of ‘Robertson’ in New Testament commentaries and scholarly publications; and thirdly, to address a few grammatical points stated by Robertson that seem to have gone unchallenged despite major shifts affecting the study of language generally, and New Testament Greek specifically, since the publication of his Grammar.

  6. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDecarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Previous sections have reviewed issues in describing grammar, issues that were mainly concerned with what to describe, how to describe it and how to account for differing approaches and their implications in terms of theory and pedagogy in applied linguistics. But however precise and thorough researchers may attempt to be in addressing these issues, there are certain limitations to descriptions of grammar given in isolation from all other parts of the language system

  7. Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JeanetteDeCarrico; DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to definitions of grammar,confusion abounds.One problem is that the word grammar means different things to different people.For many,the term sugges tsa list of do's and don't's,rules that tell us we should say It is I,not It is me,that we should not say ain't,or that weshould avoid ending a sentence with a preposition.For oth

  8. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  9. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal N van Dijk

    Full Text Available When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever. Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand

  10. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  11. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  12. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  13. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    . The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  14. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    . The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming....

  15. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  16. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena...

  17. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena...

  18. English Grammar Comparison:Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-wen; LI Yi-an

    2015-01-01

    English grammar is thought as one of the most important parts in both language learning and teaching. While few peo⁃ple know there is more than one kind of English grammar. This essay provides the features and comparison between two com⁃monly used English grammar, namely descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar, and assist English teachers to explore further in grammar teaching.

  19. LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    1976-01-01

    To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...

  20. Mungbam Grammar

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    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  1. Mungbam Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  2. Teaching Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Swan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trouble with teaching grammar is that we are never quite sure whether it works or not:its effects are uncertain and hard to assess.Michael Swan looks at grammar teaching and the carry-over to spontaneous production by students.

  3. The Nature of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the nature of grammar as "universalness". The universal grammar indicates that all the languages in the world have identical grammar. This is discussed from three aspects, which gives insight into grammar acquisition.

  4. Universal Grammar Is a Universal Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Casares, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Is Universal Grammar a universal grammar? From Chomsky's hierarchy we deduce that for each grammar there is a Turing machine, and conversely. Following this equivalence, it is immediate to conclude that a universal Turing machine is equivalent to a universal grammar. Meanwhile, in linguistics, Universal Grammar is the human brain circuitry that implements the faculty of language. So the definitive answer is achieved only when we show that the human brain is Turing complete, and that language ...

  5. Grammar Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  6. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  7. Lexicalization and Grammar Development

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    Srinivas, B; Doran, C F; Becker, T; Egedi, Dania; Doran, Christy; Becker, Tilman

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a fully lexicalized grammar formalism as a particularly attractive framework for the specification of natural language grammars. We discuss in detail Feature-based, Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars (FB-LTAGs), a representative of the class of lexicalized grammars. We illustrate the advantages of lexicalized grammars in various contexts of natural language processing, ranging from wide-coverage grammar development to parsing and machine translation. We also present a method for compact and efficient representation of lexicalized trees.

  8. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  9. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  10. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  11. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  12. Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉

    2007-01-01

    Instead of being a boring subject, grammar is in fact one of the most exciting, creative, relevant subjects. It is sometimes described as the skeleton of a language, but it is much more than bones. It is the language's heartbeat, for without grammar; there can be no meaningful or effective communication. And grammar has different definitions and categories according to different contexts. By first reviewing the past linguists, especially those grammarians and their research, the paper makes some comparisons between some categories of grammar and puts forward that there is no 'good' or 'bad' grammar but knowing grammar or knowing about grammar really has a close relationship with effective communication.

  13. Active and Passive Minimum of Grammar in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Velička

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of active and passive minimum of grammar is analysed alongside with the questions relevant to this problem: the aspects of selection of grammar material, its presentation, teaching, consolidation and realization in communicational process. The author, while analysing students mistakes, states that the main criteria for selecting passive minimum of grammar must be the frequency of the subject and the possibilities of its usage in a definite text. The main factor for choosing active grammar minimum is communicative value of grammar. In the article it has been stated that different grammar exercises are needed for receptive and reproductive learning. The possibilities of grammar material presentation, consolidation and realization in a concrete situation are also touched on in the article.

  14. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  15. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  16. Presenting New Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-ling; WANG Xi

    2015-01-01

    More and more researchers have now agreed upon the necessity of teaching grammar, but it still remains controversial as how to teach the forms, with the central consideration of not to harm the meaning-focused communicative teaching method. In this essay, one of the issues in grammar teaching will be discussed as how to present new grammar to learners, through evaluating and modifying a particular presentation activity in a grammar-teaching textbook.

  17. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  18. French grammar made easy

    CERN Document Server

    McNab, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar Made Easy series is ideal for complete beginners as well as for those non-linguists who have some knowledge of the language but need to know the basics of grammar to progress beyond phrasebook level. The books consist of seven units that present basic grammar topics in an accessible and non-patronising manner. The interactive CD-ROM provides extensive interactive grammar practice, it contains around 220 activities (those included in the book plus extra ones) covering all the language in French Grammar Made Easy. Learners work at their own pace and move through the different sect

  19. Learn Grammar in Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟静

    2007-01-01

    Grammar learning has often been regarded as a structure based activity .Grammar games which are worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom can help learner to learn and recall a grammar material in a pleasant, entertaining way and motivate learners,promote the communicative competence and generate the fluency. In this essay, the author compares the use of games in learning grammar with some traditional techniques for grammar presentation and revision, in order to find the advantages of using games. Also the author discusses how to choose appropriate games and when to use games.

  20. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  1. Matrix Graph Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Pedro Pablo Perez

    2008-01-01

    This book objective is to develop an algebraization of graph grammars. Equivalently, we study graph dynamics. From the point of view of a computer scientist, graph grammars are a natural generalization of Chomsky grammars for which a purely algebraic approach does not exist up to now. A Chomsky (or string) grammar is, roughly speaking, a precise description of a formal language (which in essence is a set of strings). On a more discrete mathematical style, it can be said that graph grammars -- Matrix Graph Grammars in particular -- study dynamics of graphs. Ideally, this algebraization would enforce our understanding of grammars in general, providing new analysis techniques and generalizations of concepts, problems and results known so far.

  2. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  3. Grammar-translation and CLT in L2 Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪杉莎

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward to compare teaching method between grammar-translation and CLT in grammar teaching. Gram⁃mar leaning is a basic concept in English learning as grammar is an important element in a communicative approach to language. This paper discussed CLT method can help and encourage student to study, however, grammar-translation method is able to under⁃stand.

  4. Grammar A and Grammar B: Rhetorical Life and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Dorothy Margaret

    In the past, writers have chosen stylistic devices within the parameters of the traditional grammar of style, "Grammar A," characterized by analyticity, coherence, and clarity. But many contemporary writers are creating a new grammar of style, "Grammar B," characterized by synchronicity, discontinuity, and ambiguity, which relies on such devices…

  5. Grammar Writing for a Grammar-reading Audience

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper will be concerned primarily with the problem of establishment of higher standards for grammar writing. The text includes a list of 28 points for grammar writers suggested by the Michael Noonan. About another issue, the evaluation of grammar writing within the profession and the professional support provided to grammar writers, the author makes some few comments at the end of this essay.

  6. A Grammar of Belep

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  7. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  8. A Grammar of Belep

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  9. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  10. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  11. Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyun

    2009-01-01

    Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…

  12. GRAMMAR IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nongxin

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar Grammar is the science dealing with the systematic rules of a language, its forms, inflections, syntax, and the art of using them correctly. It is summarized from language use and practice, and reflects the logic of thinking in people's speech or writing.

  13. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  14. REFLECTIONS ON GRAMMAR TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to answer three questions:(1)Why there exists a discrepancy between the learner’sgrammar knowledge and their communicative skills?(2)What problems are there with grammar tests andteaching?(3)How should grammar be taught as"away of talking"rather than"a description of rules"?

  15. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  16. XPath Node Selection over Grammar-Compressed Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Maneth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available XML document markup is highly repetitive and therefore well compressible using grammar-based compression. Downward, navigational XPath can be executed over grammar-compressed trees in PTIME: the query is translated into an automaton which is executed in one pass over the grammar. This result is well-known and has been mentioned before. Here we present precise bounds on the time complexity of this problem, in terms of big-O notation. For a given grammar and XPath query, we consider three different tasks: (1 to count the number of nodes selected by the query, (2 to materialize the pre-order numbers of the selected nodes, and (3 to serialize the subtrees at the selected nodes.

  17. Phonology without Universal Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eArchangeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e. Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  18. Phonology without universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  19. Receptivity and judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Nedelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both judgment and receptivity are important to optimal politics, and both are important to each other. In making this argument, I use an Arendtian conception of judgment and take mindfulness as an example of receptivity. I argue that receptivity offers a needed dimension to addressing the puzzles of what makes Arendtian judgment possible, and that judgment provides a necessary complement to receptivity for action in the world. Exploring this complementary relation between judgment and receptivity also reveals a surprising similarity between what each offers to the practice of politics, in particular to freedom and the possibility of transformation. At the same time, I argue, these important contributions to politics are best understood and realized if judgment and receptivity are thought of as distinct forms of relating to the world.

  20. Perceptual Constraints and the Learnability of Simple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Mehler, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive processes are often attributed to statistical or symbolic general-purpose mechanisms. Here we show that some spontaneous generalizations are driven by specialized, highly constrained symbolic operations. We explore how two types of artificial grammars are acquired, one based on repetitions and the other on characteristic relations…

  1. Spoken Grammar for Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the concept of spoken grammar has been mentioned among Chinese teachers. However, teach-ers in China still have a vague idea of spoken grammar. Therefore this dissertation examines what spoken grammar is and argues that native speakers’ model of spoken grammar needs to be highlighted in the classroom teaching.

  2. La Grammaire: Lectures (Grammar: Readings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrive, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Claude

    A historical perspective of French grammar is developed in this chronologically arranged reader. Part One includes material on French grammar from the 16th to the 19th century: (1) the "Premiere Epoque": 1530-1660, (2) the general grammar of Port-Royal, and (3) the "philosophical grammars" treating syntax, sentence structure, and discourse…

  3. A Brief Survey of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ There are two kinds of grammar, prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. The prescriptive grammar gives orders how a language ought to be used rather than simply describing how it is used.This type of grammar lays down a lot of rules for the student to follow but the gifted philologist Edward Sapir points out that all grammatical rules leak. This type of grammar also warns the student against what are called ‘Shall-nots', but these ‘Shall-nots' are more likely to cause the student muchconcern rather than helping him to exprese his ideas in English. On the contrary, the descriptive grammar just describes how a language is used.

  4. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  5. Grammar and Grammar Teaching——A Reflective Journal of Grammar and Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction When we talk about grammar, we will usually refer to the detailed instruction rules of grammar. In China, grammar is usually taught explicitly in formal instructions, which is different from that in some western countries. So there are some controversial questions coming out: Should there be formal instruction of grammar?

  6. Towards an Information-Based Procedural Grammar for Natural Language Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sévigny

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes a number of phenomena which must be taken into account in order to model aspects of information transmission/reception which occur during natural language processing. It presents a brief comparison with two prominent and similar approaches (Dynamic Syntax and Left-Associative Grammar followed by a detailed description of the model proposed—referred to as Discourse Information Grammar or DIG. It further provides an illustration of the model and a brief discussion of its potential applications to computer-assisted language learning, and concludes with a definition of what is understood by “information” in Discourse Information Grammar.

  7. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  8. Receptive processer og IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Lone

    2002-01-01

    Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception......Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception...

  9. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  10. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  11. Importance of Grammar in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天毓

    2011-01-01

    Grammar teaching is one of the most difficult and important points in the middle school. However, there exist some problems with present grammar teaching, such as students' poor knowledge of grammar, improper teaching methods and the ignorance of grammar

  12. The Effect of Task Repetition and Noticing on EFL Learners' Oral Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Derakhshesh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Teaching grammar is still a topic of heated debate in second/foreign language teaching. One major approach to teaching grammar holds that the learners should receive reactive focus on form in the context of communicative language teaching. The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of task repetition along with reactive focus on form on…

  13. MediaWiki Grammar Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Zaytsev, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the recovery effort of one of the official MediaWiki grammars. Over two hundred grammar transformation steps are reported and annotated, leading to delivery of a level 2 grammar, semi-automatically extracted from a community created semi-formal text using at least five different syntactic notations, several non-enforced naming conventions, multiple misspellings, obsolete parsing technology idiosyncrasies and other problems commonly encountered in grammars that were not engineered properly. Having a quality grammar will allow to test and validate it further, without alienating the community with a separately developed grammar.

  14. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  15. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  16. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  17. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Repetition Enhancement and Suppression Effects in the Newborn Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillia Bouchon

    Full Text Available The repeated presentation of stimuli typically attenuates neural responses (repetition suppression or, less commonly, increases them (repetition enhancement when stimuli are highly complex, degraded or presented under noisy conditions. In adult functional neuroimaging research, these repetition effects are considered as neural correlates of habituation. The development and respective functional significance of these effects in infancy remain largely unknown.This study investigates repetition effects in newborns using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and specifically the role of stimulus complexity in evoking a repetition enhancement vs. a repetition suppression response, following up on Gervain et al. (2008. In that study, abstract rule-learning was found at birth in cortical areas specific to speech processing, as evidenced by a left-lateralized repetition enhancement of the hemodynamic response to highly variable speech sequences conforming to a repetition-based ABB artificial grammar, but not to a random ABC grammar.Here, the same paradigm was used to investigate how simpler stimuli (12 different sequences per condition as opposed to 140, and simpler presentation conditions (blocked rather than interleaved would influence repetition effects at birth.Results revealed that the two grammars elicited different dynamics in the two hemispheres. In left fronto-temporal areas, we reproduce the early perceptual discrimination of the two grammars, with ABB giving rise to a greater response at the beginning of the experiment than ABC. In addition, the ABC grammar evoked a repetition enhancement effect over time, whereas a stable response was found for the ABB grammar. Right fronto-temporal areas showed neither initial discrimination, nor change over time to either pattern.Taken together with Gervain et al. (2008, this is the first evidence that manipulating methodological factors influences the presence or absence of neural repetition enhancement

  19. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  20. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  1. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  2. The Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan

    2010-01-01

    Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…

  3. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  4. La gramatica comunicativa (Communicative Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This paper explains the main concepts of communicative grammar and provides a detailed view of how communicative grammar analyses language at various levels. Language is discussed in terms of communication; the central elements in the analysis are those that carry information. Communicative grammar seeks to describe the process of the linguistic…

  5. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  6. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  7. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  8. Optimal Recurrence Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    We optimally estimate the recurrence structure of a multivariate time series by Markov chains obtained from recurrence grammars. The goodness of fit is assessed with a utility function derived from the stochastic Markov transition matrix. It assumes a local maximum for the distance threshold of the optimal recurrence grammar. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. Finally we apply our optimization procedure to the segmentation of neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  9. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  10. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…

  11. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Get some good grammar practice-and start speaking and writing well. Good grammar is important, whether you want to advance your career, boost your GPA, or increase your SAT or ACT score. Practice is the key to improving your grammar skills, and that's what this workbook is all about. Honing speaking and writing skills through continued practice translates into everyday situations, such as writing papers, giving presentations, and communicating effectively in the workplace or classroom. In English Grammar Workbook For Dummies you'll find hundreds of fun problems to help build your grammar muscl

  12. SERIOUS GRAMMAR CAN BE FUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionToday many Chinese students think of English grammar as an unpopular and difficult part of theirEnglish lessons Even more worryingly,that attitude is one they have usually picked up from theirteachers.Namely,grammar seems to be hard work for EFL teachers and students.So should grammarteaching be abolishedWhy do many teachers and students take a negative attitude toward grammarInthis paper,first,I will attempt to discuss the place of grammar in EFL teaching.Next,I will outline thetraditional methods of grammar teaching and the results of this kind of grammar teaching.Finally,I willput forward some suggestions on how to make grammar teaching more interesting in Chinese classrooms.

  13. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  14. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  15. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  16. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant to be applica

  17. Grammars as contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M. de; Visser, E.; Visser, J.M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based development of language tools stands in need of meta-tool support. This support can be offered by generation of code -- libraries or full-fledged components -- from syntax definitions. We develop a comprehensive architecture for such syntax-driven meta-tooling in which grammars serve

  18. Teaching Grammar in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1998-01-01

    Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

  19. Teaching Grammar in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1998-01-01

    Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

  20. Revisiting Universal Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEISEL Jürgen M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sketches various specific scenarios within the Principles and Parameter Theory under which the question of whether Universal Grammar remains accessible to second language learners should be addressed. It also discusses some implications of several approaches to this issue and offers some speculation as to how the question is to be reformulated in the context of the Minimalist Program.

  1. Grammar and discourse prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Boye, Kasper

    in Danish, the lexicon-grammar contrast is a more important cue to discourse prominence (foreground vs. background status) than focalization (by means of focus particles). BOYE, K. & HARDER, P. 2012. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization. Language, 88, 1-44. RENSINK, R. A., O...

  2. Literature and Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremont, Francesca

    1993-01-01

    This reprint of a lecture published in 1976 examines the uses of history and literary stories for instructing children in grammar, creative dramatics, natural history, and prehistory, as well as literary analysis. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom.…

  3. Bioinspired Haircell Receptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-23

    DAPAR program manager Dr. Hylton. The new objective copes better with navy’s immediate interests, (ii) Station keeping was later aborted after some...alien to our human experience such as, for example, sensitivities in the infrared and ultrasound , electro-magnetic reception, and strain detection

  4. Diversity Networking Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  5. Receptivity, possibility, and democratic politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kompridis, Nikolas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present a model of receptivity that is composed of ontological and normative dimensions, which I argue answer to the critical-diagnostic and to the possibility-disclosing needs of democratic politics. I distinguish between ‘pre-reflective receptivity,’ understood ontologically as a condition of intelligibility, and ‘reflective receptivity,’ understood normatively as a condition of disclosing new possibilities.Keywords: receptivity; change; possibility; critique; reflective dis...

  6. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  7. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-

  8. War’s Second Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    such as the difference between policy and politics; the first is the sausage , the second is everything that goes into making it. Put differently...grammar cannot cover how to strike deals and make bargains, as these require finesse unique to specific cultures; but it can underscore the...first or second grammar. In the face of imperceptible logic, we will make a choice. In other words, war’s second grammar gives those responsible for

  9. A communicative grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Communicative Grammar of English has long been established as a grammar innovative in approach, reliable in coverage, and clear in its explanations. This fully revised and redesigned third edition provides up-to-date and accessible help to teachers, advanced learners and undergraduate students of English. Part One looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, such as 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'; Part Two focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure and Part Three provides a handy alphabetically arranged guide to

  10. The Teaching of English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Acquiring the grammar system is vital in the foreign language learning, and there has always been the debate on how learners can best acquire the English grammar. Inthis paper, two methods for teaching grammar will be presented--traditional practice and consciousness-raising. Both thetwo methods have their ad-vantages and disadvantages. But in practice, it is a better idea to combine different methods to make grammar teaching more effective. In addition, the consideration of different individual learners is also very important.

  11. Story Parsing Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.A new approach to story understanding is proposed in this paper.The so-called Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) is used to represent the story abstracting processes with different degrees in story understanding,and the story understanding process is converted to the storyn recognizing process done by the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly,a survey of story understanding research is given.Secondly,by the classification of various kinds of story structures,the so-called Case Frame Forest (CFF) is proposed to represent the superficial meaning of story.Based on CFF,a high-dimen-sional grammar,called Forest Grammar (FG),is defined.Furthermore,SPG is defined as a subclass of context-sensitive FG.Considering the context-sensitivity of story content,a type of context-sensitive derivation is defined in the definition of SPG.Lastly,data about runtime efficiency of the syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence SPG,a subclass of SPG,are given and analysed.

  12. The Active Music Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Šulanová, Silvie

    2009-01-01

    Listening to music in the process of education is beneficial for a pupil only in case it is realized by means of active creativeness. To meet this requirement specific activities concerning music listening are applied in the framework of receptive music teaching. The dissertation proposes a so called dynamic model to function as an ideal solution to didactic transformation of music. The model enables to set up such classroom conditions in which pupils find it easier to observe elementary item...

  13. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  14. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  15. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  16. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  18. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...... interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  19. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  20. Modern French Grammar Workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    An innovative new workbook of exercises and language tasks for intermediate and advanced learners of French. This Workbook can be used independently or alongside Modern French Grammar.This Workbook provides exercises in:* Essential grammatical structures* Everyday functions such as agreeing and disagreeing* Role-plays set in a wide range of different contextsIt is suitable for group or pair work and for private study.A comprehensive answer key at the back of the Workbook enables you to check on your progress.This Workbook is ideal for all learners who have a basic knowledge of French, includin

  1. Reception Shop Special Stand

    CERN Multimedia

    Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

    2004-01-01

    Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

  2. Classroom Grammar Teaching for Adult Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石怡

    2014-01-01

    As Wight (1999, p.33) pointed out to“know a language was to know the grammar of it”, hence grammar teaching is usually the main approach in second or foreign language teaching. This paper presents an analysis from three aspects to il-lustrate why classroom grammar teaching benefits adult learners. However, if grammar is overstated, some negative results will occur. Therefore a balance between grammar teaching and communicative skill teaching is need, as is a balance between accuracy and fluency.

  3. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  4. English grammar a university course

    CERN Document Server

    Downing, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive descriptive grammar forms a complete course, ideal for all students studying English Language ,whether on a course or for self-study. Broadly based on Hallidayan systemic-functional grammar but also drawing on cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis, English Grammar is accessible, avoiding overly theoretical or technical explanations.Divided into 12 self-contained chapters based around language functions, each chapter is divided into units of class-length material. Key features include:Numerous authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and w

  5. Grammars for Language and Genes

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, David

    2012-01-01

    Grammars are gaining importance in natural language processing and computational biology as a means of encoding theories and structuring algorithms. But one serious obstacle to applications of grammars is that formal language theory traditionally classifies grammars according to their weak generative capacity (what sets of strings they generate) and tends to ignore strong generative capacity (what sets of structural descriptions they generate) even though the latter is more relevant to applications. This book develops and demonstrates a framework for carrying out rigorous comparisons of gramma

  6. Analyzing the Grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Teschner, Richard V

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing the Grammar of English offers a descriptive analysis of the indispensable elements of English grammar. Designed to be covered in one semester, this textbook starts from scratch and takes nothing for granted beyond a reading and speaking knowledge of English. Extensively revised to function better in skills-building classes, it includes more interspersed exercises that promptly test what is taught, simplified and clarified explanations, greatly expanded and more diverse activities, and a new glossary of over 200 technical terms.Analyzing the Grammar of English is the only English gram

  7. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  8. GRAMMAR(S, SCHOOLING AND “LINGUISTIC ADEQUACY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Lammoglia Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some concepts of grammar, in an attempt to show that there are only two meanings and that they are not in complementary distribution as some linguistic publications addressed to students usually suggest. Once reviewed the meaning of grammar as the knowledge every speaker has of his language, we will turn our attention to what has been called “linguistic adequacy”, showing the misunderstanding that underlies this concept, which leads to the opposition “informality” / “formality”. As we will see, such opposition is related to rules that belong to different grammars and only speakers with longer exposure to the “grammar of school” can “change their grammar”, particularly in writing. A brief analysis of Portuguese and Brazilian raps and funks, very popular musical genders, will bring empirical evidence to our statements, showing what is “informality” and what is “grammar”. Our final remarks will concentrate on the importance of teaching the “grammar of writing” based on contemporary descriptions, without ignoring this will mean a big step for students and they must be aware of that. Recent proposals of “pedagogical intervention” with the purpose to teach new rules which are not part of the students’ performance seem fair and necessary, but it is important to value the students’ grammar in order not to deepen linguistic prejudice.

  9. Mathematical grammar of biology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2017-01-01

    This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

  10. Teaching Grammar Using Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way ofteaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and manyothers. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process ofcommunication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Using pictures can make exercises and activities more interesting and more interactive. We canconstantly improve our activities by looking at what went well and what fell flat. These 5 unique ways to practice grammar using pictures are a jumping offpoint, and can be expanded in lots of interesting ways. 

  11. Learning Unification-Based Natural Language Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, M

    1999-01-01

    When parsing unrestricted language, wide-covering grammars often undergenerate. Undergeneration can be tackled either by sentence correction, or by grammar correction. This thesis concentrates upon automatic grammar correction (or machine learning of grammar) as a solution to the problem of undergeneration. Broadly speaking, grammar correction approaches can be classified as being either {\\it data-driven}, or {\\it model-based}. Data-driven learners use data-intensive methods to acquire grammar. They typically use grammar formalisms unsuited to the needs of practical text processing and cannot guarantee that the resulting grammar is adequate for subsequent semantic interpretation. That is, data-driven learners acquire grammars that generate strings that humans would judge to be grammatically ill-formed (they {\\it overgenerate}) and fail to assign linguistically plausible parses. Model-based learners are knowledge-intensive and are reliant for success upon the completeness of a {\\it model of grammaticality}. Bu...

  12. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  13. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  14. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus

  15. Predicting Volleyball Serve-reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver’s actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones – zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver’s head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver’s on-court positioning and movement. Receivers’ initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver’s initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver’s larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers’ positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball’s kinematics (with the exception of the ball’s lateral displacement, as well as in the receivers’ positioning (distances from the net and from the target. Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball’s rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain

  16. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  17. New Year’s reception

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At a reception on 28 January, the CERN management presented their best wishes for 2009 to politicians and representatives of the administrations in the local area, and diplomats representing CERN’s Member States, Observer States and other countries.

  18. When global structure "Explains Away" local grammar: a Bayesian account of rule-induction in tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, Louann

    2011-09-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not stipulate separate explanations for each detail without additional evidence, as the general structure has "explained away" the original evidence. In a grammar-learning experiment using tone sequences, manipulating learners' prior exposure to a tone environment affects their sensitivity to the grammar-defining feature, in this case consecutive repeated tones. Grammar-learning performance is worse if context melodies are "smooth" -- when small intervals occur more than large ones -- as Smoothness is a general property accounting for a high rate of repetition. We present an idealized Bayesian model as a "best case" benchmark for learning repetition grammars. When context melodies are Smooth, the model places greater weight on the small-interval constraint, and does not learn the repetition rule as well as when context melodies are not Smooth, paralleling the human learners. These findings support an account of abstract grammar-induction in which learners rationally assess the statistical evidence for underlying structure based on a generative model of the environment.

  19. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  20. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results......Methods for procedural modelling tend to be designed either for organic objects, which are described well by skeletal structures, or for man-made objects, which are described well by surface primitives. Procedural methods, which allow for modelling of both kinds of objects, are few and usually...

  1. Teaching the Topography of Gretel Ehrlich's Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessell, Donna A.

    When writing, few students have any concept that word placement affects the content of their writing. They seldom rework their papers at the sentence level in order to assure that their grammar reflects and enhances their content. Recognizing the relationship of grammar to meaning, composition researchers are reasserting the place of grammar in…

  2. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  3. The design and implementation of Object Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der; Cook, W.R.; Loh, A.

    2014-01-01

    An Object Grammar is a variation on traditional BNF grammars, where the notation is extended to support declarative bidirectional mappings between text and object graphs. The two directions for interpreting Object Grammars are parsing and formatting. Parsing transforms text into an object graph by r

  4. French grammar you really need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures are reinforced and contextualized through authentic materials. You will not only learn how to construct grammar correctly, but when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. French Grammar You Really Need to Know will help you gain the intuition you need to become a confident communicator in your new language.

  5. Integrating Grammar in Adult TESOL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Burns, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices about the integration of grammar and skills teaching reported by 176 English language teachers from 18 countries. Teachers completed a questionnaire which elicited beliefs about grammar teaching generally as well as specific beliefs and reported practices about the integration of grammar and skills…

  6. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  7. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  8. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  9. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  10. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  11. Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    Describes three approaches with which grammar may be welcomed back into the composition classroom. Considers how the teaching of grammar is making a comeback, with scholars acknowledging that the objections raised by process theories were valid but also investigating how to use grammar in writing classrooms, how to answer old process objections,…

  12. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  13. An Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可科

    2013-01-01

      Of the many issues surrounding grammar, perhaps the hottest debate is whether to teach it or not. We review briefly argu⁃ments against and in support of grammar teaching before examining current grammar approaches in second language teaching.

  14. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  15. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  16. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  17. Two Case Studies in Phonological Universals: A View from Artificial Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nevins

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results of two experiments that use artificial grammar learning in order to test proposed phonological universals. The first universal involves limits on precedence-modification in phonological representations, drawn from a typology of ludlings (language games. It is found that certain unattested precedence-modifying operations in ludlings are also dispreferred in learning in experimental studies, suggesting that the typological gap reflects a principled and universal aspect of language structure. The second universal involves differences between vowels and consonants, and in particular, the fact that phonological typology finds vowel repetition and harmony to be widespread, while consonants are more likely to dissimilate. An artificial grammar task replicates this bias in the laboratory, suggesting that its presence in natural languages is not due to historical accident but to cognitive constraints on the form of linguistic grammars.

  18. Grammar Specialization through Entropy Thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, C

    1994-01-01

    Explanation-based generalization is used to extract a specialized grammar from the original one using a training corpus of parse trees. This allows very much faster parsing and gives a lower error rate, at the price of a small loss in coverage. Previously, it has been necessary to specify the tree-cutting criteria (or operationality criteria) manually; here they are derived automatically from the training set and the desired coverage of the specialized grammar. This is done by assigning an entropy value to each node in the parse trees and cutting in the nodes with sufficiently high entropy values.

  19. Oxford dictionary of English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Chalker, Sylvia

    1994-01-01

    English grammar has changed a great deal since the beginning of the Twentieth Century, and it is a subject that can provide a complex minefield of uncertainties within the language. This accessible and comprehensive dictionary comes to the aid of both the general reader and the student or teacher, offering straightforward and immediate A-Z access to 1,000 grammatical terms and their meanings. All the currently accepted terms of grammar are included, as well as older, traditional names, controversial new coinages, and items from the study of other languages. Concise definitions of the wider sub

  20. A glossary of English grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    A Glossary of English Grammar presents a wide range of terms used to describe the way the English language is structured. Grammatical terms can be a problem for students, especially when there are alternative names for the same thing (for example, 'past tense' and 'preterite'). This book therefore provides a basic and accessible guide, focusing on the English language. Definitions of grammatical terms are given in simple language, with clear examples, many from authentic texts and spoken sources, showing how they are used. The terms used in the Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language are

  1. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  2. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinjen Julie Hsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children.Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation. A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded.Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant

  3. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  4. Procedure Of Teaching Grammar Using Memory Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Susanto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar has been regarded as a process of understanding from the context. It means a teacher teaches the pupils contextually more than just the rules. However, I have my own experience that teaching grammar methods must depend on the purposes of learning grammar. Some people learn grammar as a means to fulfill the syllabus needs for schools but other people learn grammar for special purposes out of school syllabus, such as for entrance test. For these reasons, the methods of teaching grammar should be different. The students who learn grammar based on the school syllabus probably needs longer procedure of learning that usually uses contextual teaching through listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Nevertheless, students who learn grammar for test need shorter procedure of learning such as memorizing. Therefore, I propose giving a workshop of teaching grammar using memory enhancement as another alternative teaching grammar method. This workshop would show the class that grammar can be learnt through memory enhancement process, i.e.; mind map, music, memory technique and drill to boost up students understanding for test preparation.

  5. The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P; Nowak, M A

    2001-03-07

    Grammar is the computational system of language. It is a set of rules that specifies how to construct sentences out of words. Grammar is the basis of the unlimited expressibility of human language. Children acquire the grammar of their native language without formal education simply by hearing a number of sample sentences. Children could not solve this learning task if they did not have some pre-formed expectations. In other words, children have to evaluate the sample sentences and choose one grammar out of a limited set of candidate grammars. The restricted search space and the mechanism which allows to evaluate the sample sentences is called universal grammar. Universal grammar cannot be learned; it must be in place when the learning process starts. In this paper, we design a mathematical theory that places the problem of language acquisition into an evolutionary context. We formulate equations for the population dynamics of communication and grammar learning. We ask how accurate children have to learn the grammar of their parents' language for a population of individuals to evolve and maintain a coherent grammatical system. It turns out that there is a maximum error tolerance for which a predominant grammar is stable. We calculate the maximum size of the search space that is compatible with coherent communication in a population. Thus, we specify the conditions for the evolution of universal grammar.

  6. Casebook in functional discourse grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenzie, J.L.; Olbertz, H.

    2013-01-01

    This book provides ten case studies in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), a typologically-oriented theory of the organization of natural languages that has risen to prominence in recent years. The authors, all committed practitioners of FDG, include Kees Hengeveld, the intellectual father of the th

  7. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i…

  8. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  9. Grammar Rules as Computer Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd

    1992-01-01

    One college writing teacher engaged his class in the revision of a computer program to check grammar, focusing on improvement of the algorithms for identifying inappropriate uses of the passive voice. Process and problems of constructing new algorithms, effects on student writing, and other algorithm applications are discussed. (MSE)

  10. A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

  11. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Sloane, A.M.; Andova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Automation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction techniques that allow

  12. Narrative Comprehension and Story Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Zahoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every text has an underlying structure which has a vital contribution in making it a meaningful whole. Awareness of a text’s structure therefore is significant in developing an overall sense of the text. Story grammar offers a simple and effective framework to analyze a coherent structure in narrative texts, hence is assumed to facilitate the comprehension of narratives. The research has been designed to be a descriptive study, with the objective to explain and illustrate how story grammar functions in constructing and decoding meanings in a narrative text, and, to highlight its scope in pedagogy. A short story text has been randomly selected from the short story collection in the English text book by Punjab text book board for Intermediate level. A three stepped comprehensive analysis of the sample text has been done by implementing the selected story grammar model. It has been found that story grammar helped in deriving coherent structure and meanings from the selected short story text; hence it has pedagogical implications in developing narrative comprehension.

  13. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  14. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  15. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  16. Ternate Malay : grammar and texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litamahuputty, Bathseba Helena Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first grammar on Ternate Malay, a local variety of Malay spoken on the island of Ternate, North-Moluccas, Indonesia. It is a language with words flexible in function and meaning, which do not bear overtly expressed features to indicate grammatical functions. Linguistic tools traditi

  17. Micmac Teaching Grammar. Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Gilles L.; Metallic, Manny L.

    This teaching grammar is designed primarily for university-level students, but may also be used for adult courses, high school classes, and in junior colleges. The text takes the transformational-generative approach to language, in which the notions of system, derivation, and relation are emphasized rather than categorization and classification.…

  18. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); A.M. Sloane; S. Andova

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction

  19. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  20. Micmac Teaching Grammar. Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Gilles L.; Metallic, Manny L.

    This teaching grammar is designed primarily for university-level students, but may also be used for adult courses, high school classes, and in junior colleges. The text takes the transformational-generative approach to language, in which the notions of system, derivation, and relation are emphasized rather than categorization and classification.…

  1. Reception research 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated...... on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi...... (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text...

  2. A Companion to Classical Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This recent addition to the excellent Blackwell Companions series looks at the various forms of classical reception currently being researched as well as those deemed to have future importance. The diversity and volume of the themes and approaches contained in this book are truly impressive. As Hardwick and Stray state in their introduction, this collection “has been constructed on the basis that the activators of reception are many and varied and that we all gain from encountering examples from outside our own immediate areas of knowledge” (p. 4. Throughout the book they stay true to this motto and traditional approaches to classical reception are not given prominence over more recent (sometimes contentious approaches such as film studies, cultural politics and photography. The same goes for the various cultures involved and there is even a chapter on Greek drama in South Africa.

  3. Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

    2012-01-01

    The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

  4. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  5. The Receptive Side of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    When observing teachers in action, one is likely to witness explaining, modeling, managing, guiding, and encouraging. These expressive behaviors constitute a directive force moving outward from teacher to students. Though less visible to an outside observer, teaching also requires receptive skills, the ability to take in information by being fully…

  6. Communication from Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding.

  7. Sexual conflict over floral receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Asa; Hellriegel, Barbara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2006-12-01

    In flowering plants, the onset and duration of female receptivity vary among species. In several species the receptive structures wilt upon pollination. Here we explore the hypothesis that postpollination wilting may be influenced by pollen and serve as a general means to secure paternity of the pollen donor at the expense of female fitness. Taking a game-theoretical approach, we examine the potential for the evolution of a pollen-borne wilting substance, and for the coevolution of a defense strategy by the recipient plant. The model without defense predicts an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for the production of wilting substance. The ESS value is highest when pollinator visiting rates are intermediate and when the probability that pollen from several donors arrives at the same time is low. This finding has general implications in that it shows that male traits to secure paternity also can evolve in species, such as plants, where mating is not strictly sequential. We further model coevolution of the wilting substance with the timing of stigma receptivity. We assume that pollen-receiving plants can reduce the costs induced by toxic pollen by delaying the onset of stigmatic receptivity. The model predicts a joint ESS, but no female counter-adaptation when the wilting substance is highly toxic. This indicates that toxicity affects the probability that a male manipulative trait stays beneficial (i.e., not countered by female defense) over evolutionary time. We discuss parallels to male induced changes in female receptivity known to occur in animals and the role of harm for the evolution of male manipulative adaptations.

  8. Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    refuses any direct instruction on grammar, explicit error correction, or even .... teachers in general believe that grammar is central to language learning and students ... grammar teaching and to explore the possible factors behind their common ...

  9. Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

  10. Grammar Games: A Case for Instructionist Game Models to Enhance Grammar Awareness and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Brian; Santos, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on our own experiences teaching grammar in developmental writing classes and classes not dedicated to writing instruction, along with a history of scholarship that indicates a need for grammar pedagogies (e.g., Dougherty, 2012), instructor-designed grammar games can likely help facilitate learning about these mechanics of writing while…

  11. The Value of Grammar m English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2011-01-01

    Few students know that grammar is acquired naturally; it need not be taught. Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching. There are some students thinking it a waste of time to memorize the rules. They even claim that if the structures are taught, the lessons will be boring. This paper will help to realize how helpful and useful as well as beneficial learning English grammar well will be, not only for students, but also for teachers.

  12. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible......) 'it cannot by itself refer, but must have a vehicle, a grammar. There is an obligatory choice between three types of grammar corresponding to the three ways in which a state of affairs exists in a communication situation: (1) the situation as such in a real or in an imagined world being common...... it is impossible to find a matching experience in the hearer’s store of experiences. In other words, the static linguistic symbol needs an index that needs an icon (or the lack of an icon) in order for it to be properly decoded by the hearer. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that in addition to the level of naming...

  13. Ternate Malay: grammar and texts

    OpenAIRE

    Litamahuputty, Bathseba Helena Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first grammar on Ternate Malay, a local variety of Malay spoken on the island of Ternate, North-Moluccas, Indonesia. It is a language with words flexible in function and meaning, which do not bear overtly expressed features to indicate grammatical functions. Linguistic tools traditionally used to distinguish between word classes do not work satisfactorily for this language. Certain lexical items and their position in a string of words serve as indicators of relationships betw...

  14. Writing Study and Grammar Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青

    2013-01-01

    This study is undertaken to describe,classify and analyze the problems in Chinese college students’ writing of CET-4 through contrastive analysis,statistical analysis and error analysis.The main problems appearing in CET-4 writing are the wrong usage of words,sentence structures and the lack of coherence.Meanwhile it proves grammar study plays an important and basic role in CET-4 writing.

  15. About the Bakhtinian Thought: A Reception of Receptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Coelho Marchezan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several receptions of the Bakhtinian work: those which situate it in a cultural and historical perspective, making it possible to understand the context inherent to it, the interchanges with which it was instituted and its development paths; those which separately take one or other of its ideas, and those which search to infer a less or more systemized framework from it in order to consider a specific object. When we concentrate on those last ones and on the field of studies about language, we examine the receptions of the Bakhtinian thought as a pragmatics, a sociolinguistics, a semiotics, a social theory, a theory of the discourse. The perspective of this branch of instruction is the one on which we lastly focus in order to reflect upon some of its fundamental basis.

  16. Evaluation of a Grammar of French Determiners

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Existing syntactic grammars of natural languages, even with a far from complete coverage, are complex objects. Assessments of the quality of parts of such grammars are useful for the validation of their construction. We evaluated the quality of a grammar of French determiners that takes the form of a recursive transition network. The result of the application of this local grammar gives deeper syntactic information than chunking or information available in treebanks. We performed the evaluation by comparison with a corpus independently annotated with information on determiners. We obtained 86% precision and 92% recall on text not tagged for parts of speech.

  17. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  18. English Traditional Grammars An international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Gerhard

    1991-01-01

    Until recently grammars of English have received surprisingly little scholarly attention, while a lot of research is done on dictionaries. It appears, however, that learners of English shy away from modern grammars and prefer to consult dictionaries or traditional reference grammars instead. This raises questions as to the relationship between theoretical linguistics and grammar writing and calls for more research into this area, especially for the period from 1800 onwards, which was crucial for the development of grammatical thinking and its acceptance (or rejection) at all educational levels

  19. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/.

  20. A Brief Study on the Grammar Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱华

    2013-01-01

    Grammar has been an important part of school teaching, language study and applying, and the word grammar has vari-ous definitions. During the development of linguistics, lots of grammatical schools emerge, and different schools have different opinions on grammar. This article first of all presents some different definitions and theories of different grammatical schools. It then analyses some main grammatical theories of those schools. Finally, it airs the present writer ’s view about the nature of gram-mar by analyzing specifically the opinions of those different grammatical schools.

  1. Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2008-01-01

    @@ Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field.The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language.Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be taught,learners will acquire them on their own,or if the structures are taught,the lessons that ensue will he boring.Consequently,communicative and proficiency-based teaching approaches sometimes unduly limit grammar instruction.Of the many claims about grammar that deserve to be called myths,this digest will challenge ten.

  2. Assessment of grammar comprehension: Adaptation of TROG for Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Darinka Č.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present our adaptation and preliminary standardization of Test for Reception of Grammar TROG (Bishop, 1989 for Serbian language. TROG is a receptive test of grammatical structures, constructed primarily for an assessment of grammatical development and detection of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI. Due to the lack of standardized tests for language development in our clinical community, TROG is selected for adaptation as a test which includes two components relevant for discrimination of children with language difficulties: a measure of receptive abilities and b distinguishing knowledge of grammar from semantic aspect of comprehension. Preliminary standardization was done on a sample of 335 participants between 4 and 7 years of age, divided into 8 age subsamples. Since dynamic of language change at early ages is faster, age samples covered range of 3 months at the ages 4;0-4;2, 4;3-4;5, 4;6-4;8, 4;9-4;11, and range of 6 months at the ages 5;0-5;5, 5;6-5;11, 6;00-6;05, 6;06-6;11. Analyses have revealed that the first version of Serbian TROG is discriminative for the differences between age samples, but discrimination is smaller then it was expected. The test discriminates three age-samples (4;0-4;8, 4;9-5;5, and 5;6-6;11. It is easier for the children older then 5 years, which causes statistical significance of discrimination to tilt within a narrow margin around 0,05. Reliability of the whole instrument is estimated very high - between 0,86 and 0,91, depending on the method of estimation. However, reliability estimated for particular blocks (grammatical structure revealed that internal consistency of blocks is not homogeneous. This finding prevents reliable estimation of competence for particular structures, and makes difficult to define which contrast is understood by a child and which is not. Furthermore, internal inconsistency of blocks may also be additional source of low discrimination of test for children

  3. The minimalist grammar of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  4. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  5. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  6. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  7. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  8. Missed periods and other grammar scares how to avoid unplanned and unwanted grammar errors

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Missed Periods and Other Grammar Scares is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors-the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capita

  9. Receptive fields and visual representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient representation of images for human use requires an understanding of how the brain processes and represents visual information. Spatial imagery is represented in the brain in the receptive fields of visual neurons. Models of these neurons lead to models of image fidelity, and to digital implementations of these neural codes. This approach will be illustrated by two example codes. The advantages and difficulties of this approach will be discussed.

  10. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  11. What Is Grammar, Who Is She?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafford, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the role of grammar in second-language instruction. It is suggested that changes in language teaching have encouraged the view that grammar is one of several dimensions along which learners need to progress to achieve greater proficiency but that it should not be dominant. (22 references) (CK)

  12. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  13. The Role of Output in Grammar Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹莉; 段薇; 谢璐

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers tend to emphasize a lot on the importance of grammar learning because knowledge of gram⁃mar is the base of the competence of communication. This thesis just focuses on how output affects students ’grammar learning by analyzing the role of output in learning of English and the strategies of English learning.

  14. Making a Case for Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2004-01-01

    Rhetorical grammar analysis encourages students to view writing as a material social practice in which meaning is actively made, rather than passively relayed or effortlessly produced. The study of rhetorical grammar can demonstrate to students that language does purposeful, consequential work in the world--work that can be learned and applied.

  15. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

  16. From Attribute Grammars to Constraint Handling Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano Mena, A.; Hage, J.

    2016-01-01

    Attribute grammars provide a framework to de ne compu- tations over trees, by decorating those trees with attributes. Attribute grammars have been successfully applied in many areas, including compiler construction and natural language processing. In this paper we present a translation of attribute

  17. Grammar-Based Teaching: A Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Betty

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the role of grammar in second language instruction from the point of view of a longtime practitioner. It outlines the basic methods and assumptions underlying Grammar-Based Teaching (GBT), which the author sees as an effective, ever-evolving, and widespread pedagogical practice. The article discusses the importance of…

  18. Student Teacher Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2016-01-01

    The role of grammar teaching in foreign language education is a controversial one both in second language acquisition (SLA) research and language pedagogy and, as a result, a potential source of confusion to student teachers. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the beliefs on grammar teaching of student teachers of English as a…

  19. Probe into Methods of Teaching English Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar People sometlmes descibe grammaras the "rules" of a language, to be accurate,grammar is the science dealing with thesystematic rules of a language,its forms,inflections,syntax,and the rules of usingthem correctly.It is summarized from lan-guage use and practice,and reflects thelogic of thinking in people's speech orwriting.

  20. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…

  1. Towards a Framework for Teaching Spoken Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Ivor

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of spoken corpora, descriptions of native speaker spoken grammar have become far more detailed and comprehensive. These insights, however, have been relatively slow to filter through to ELT practice. The aim of this article is to outline an approach to the teaching of native-speaker spoken grammar which is not only pedagogically…

  2. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  3. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  4. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  5. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  6. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  7. Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2008-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar at standard VI. A Video Game package was prepared and it consisted of self-learning activities in play way manner which attracted the minds of the young learners. Chief objective: Find out the effectiveness of Video-Game based learning in English grammar.…

  8. Albanian Basic Course: Exercises in Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume of exercises in grammar has been designed by the Defense Language Institute as a supplement to volumes 2-6 to reinforce and overlearn grammar patterns, with emphasis on case structure through specially developed sentences. Contents include exercises on: (1) interrogative pronouns, (2) declension of nouns, (3) demonstrative adjectives,…

  9. Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit II: Phonological Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…

  10. Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

  11. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  12. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  13. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  14. Pratiquer une grammaire textuelle (Practicing Textual Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of textual, as contrasted with traditional, grammar for French second-language instruction argues that textual grammar is essential for acquisition of communicative competence because it identifies grammatical facts relevant to everyday communication and allows the student to experience the construction of meaning through them. (MSE)

  15. Two modes of transfer in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, R J; Altmann, G T

    2001-05-01

    Participants can transfer grammatical knowledge acquired implicitly in 1 vocabulary to new sequences instantiated in both the same and a novel vocabulary. Two principal theories have been advanced to account for these effects. One suggests that sequential dependencies form the basis for cross-domain transfer (e.g., Z. Dienes, G. T. M. Altmann, & S. J. Gao, 1999). Another argues that a form of episodic memory known as abstract analogy is sufficient (e.g., L. R. Brooks & J. R. Vokey, 1991). Three experiments reveal the contributions of the 2. In Experiment 1 sequential dependencies form the only basis for transfer. Experiment 2 demonstrates that this process is impaired by a change in the distributional properties of the language. Experiment 3 demonstrates that abstract analogy of repetition structure is relatively immune to such a change. These findings inform theories of artificial grammar learning and the transfer of grammatical knowledge.

  16. Competitive exclusion and coexistence of universal grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, W Garrett; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-01-01

    Universal grammar (UG) is a list of innate constraints that specify the set of grammars that can be learned by the child during primary language acquisition. UG of the human brain has been shaped by evolution. Evolution requires variation. Hence, we have to postulate and study variation of UG. We investigate evolutionary dynamics and language acquisition in the context of multiple UGs. We provide examples for competitive exclusion and stable coexistence of different UGs. More specific UGs admit fewer candidate grammars, and less specific UGs admit more candidate grammars. We will analyze conditions for more specific UGs to outcompete less specific UGs and vice versa. An interesting finding is that less specific UGs can resist invasion by more specific UGs if learning is more accurate. In other words, accurate learning stabilizes UGs that admit large numbers of candidate grammars.

  17. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  18. Weak Precedence Story Parsing Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1995-01-01

    Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.The story understanding approach based on Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) involves that SPG is used to represent different abstracting processes of stories with different levels in story understanding and that the story understanding process is converted to the recognition process of stories using the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly a subclass of SPG,called Weak Precedence SPG(WPSPG),is defined.Afterwards the syntactic parsing algorithm of WPSPG is studied.An example of story parsing is also given.

  19. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  20. A Survey of Grammar Instruction from Scholastic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanghua

    2017-01-01

    The study of grammar has been paid much attention and the grammar instruction becomes an emphasis and key problem in English language teaching and learning. How to instruct students grammar appropriately becomes controversial for some English teachers increasingly. Some linguistics, theorists and teachers hold that the grammar instruction should…

  1. Using a Linguistic Theory of Humour in Teaching English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Rufaidah Kamal; Hameed, Sarab Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Teachers who teach a new language grammar do not usually have the time and the proper situation to introduce humour when starting a new topic in grammar. There are many different opinions about teaching grammar. Many teachers seem to believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and practical exercises. Other…

  2. What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdick, William

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

  3. Ambiguity Detection Methods for Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, H.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Meta-Environment enables the creation of grammars using the SDF formalism. From these grammars an SGLR parser can be generated. One of the advantages of these parsers is that they can handle the entire class of context-free grammars (CFGs). The grammar developer does not have to squeeze his gram

  4. What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdick, William

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

  5. The Importance of English Grammar Teaching at College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to elaborate the importance of grammar teaching at college through the four linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading,and writing.The nature of grammar determines the significance of grammar teaching. This paper shows the importance of grammar teaching from its relationship with listening,speaking,reading and writing.

  6. Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastuji, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  7. Application of Flipped Classroom in English Majors' Grammar Teaching%Application of Flipped Classroom in English Majors'Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕丽梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed how flipped classroom facilitated grammar teaching for English majors by indicating the principle status of students in class, shaping good classroom atmosphere of grammar learning and expanding English grammar teaching. Meanwhile, it raised strategies of flipped classroom applied in English majors' grammar teaching such as preparations before class and abundant teaching methods.

  8. Three-dimensional object representation by array grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Patrick S. P.

    1991-02-01

    A new approach for representing 3-d objects by 3-d array grammar is introduced. The concept of universal array grammar is proposed for 3-d object representation. it uses parallelism for pattern generation. Many interesting 3-d objecis can indeed he represented by this universal 3-d array grammar which paves a ground for 3-d object recognition. description and understanding. Keywords: 3-d array grammars. universal array grammars pattern generation. object representation parallel generation I.

  9. Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

  10. CAN ENUNCIATION CONTRIBUTE FOR TEACHING GRAMMAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir do Nascimento Flores

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses which concept of grammar can be understood from the point of view of Émile Benveniste’s enunciative theory, compiled in Problems on general linguistics, volumes 1 and 2. In order to do so, we present a brief review of the different concepts that the term grammar has taken on throughout the linguistic studies developed in Brazil. The text ends with some considerations on the relevance of the proposal of an Enunciative Grammar to the teaching of mother tongue.

  11. An Empirically Motivated Reinterpretation of Dependency Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Covington, M A

    1994-01-01

    Dependency grammar is usually interpreted as equivalent to a strict form of X--bar theory that forbids the stacking of nodes of the same bar level (e.g., N' immediately dominating N' with the same head). But adequate accounts of _one_--anaphora and of the semantics of multiple modifiers require such stacking and accordingly argue against dependency grammar. Dependency grammar can be salvaged by reinterpreting its claims about phrase structure, so that modifiers map onto binary--branching X--bar trees rather than ``flat'' ones.

  12. THE EFFECT OF TASK REPETITION AND NOTICING ON EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar is still a topic of heated debate in second/foreign language teaching. One major approach to teaching grammar holds that the learners should receive reactive focus on form in the context of communicative language teaching. The present study is an attempt to examine the effect of task repetition along with reactive focus on form on learners’ subsequent accurate output. To achieve this end, four Iranian intermediate EFL students participated in this study by volunteering to present lectures while their voices were being recorded. After transcribing their voices at home, the participants corrected their mistakes and submitted the draft to their teacher for additional corrections. The revised draft was returned to the participants to prepare themselves for a second oral presentation. The comparison of the number of erroneous utterances made in the first and the second presentations confirmed the positive effect of task repetition on the participants’ more accurate second oral performance.

  13. Stochastic phonological grammars and acceptability

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, J; Coleman, John; Pierrehumbert, Janet

    1997-01-01

    In foundational works of generative phonology it is claimed that subjects can reliably discriminate between possible but non-occurring words and words that could not be English. In this paper we examine the use of a probabilistic phonological parser for words to model experimentally-obtained judgements of the acceptability of a set of nonsense words. We compared various methods of scoring the goodness of the parse as a predictor of acceptability. We found that the probability of the worst part is not the best score of acceptability, indicating that classical generative phonology and Optimality Theory miss an important fact, as these approaches do not recognise a mechanism by which the frequency of well-formed parts may ameliorate the unacceptability of low-frequency parts. We argue that probabilistic generative grammars are demonstrably a more psychologically realistic model of phonological competence than standard generative phonology or Optimality Theory.

  14. The Compactness of Construction Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W

    1995-01-01

    We present an argument for {\\em construction grammars} based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle (a formal version of the Ockham Razor). The argument consists in using linguistic and computational evidence in setting up a formal model, and then applying the MDL principle to prove its superiority with respect to alternative models. We show that construction-based representations are at least an order of magnitude more compact that the corresponding lexicalized representations of the same linguistic data. The result is significant for our understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, and consequently for choosing NLP architectures. For instance, whether the processing should proceed in a pipeline from syntax to semantics to pragmatics, and whether all linguistic information should be combined in a set of constraints. From a broader perspective, this paper does not only argue for a certain model of processing, but also provides a methodology for determining advantages of different...

  15. Universal Grammar, statistics or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D

    2004-10-01

    Recent demonstrations of statistical learning in infants have reinvigorated the innateness versus learning debate in language acquisition. This article addresses these issues from both computational and developmental perspectives. First, I argue that statistical learning using transitional probabilities cannot reliably segment words when scaled to a realistic setting (e.g. child-directed English). To be successful, it must be constrained by knowledge of phonological structure. Then, turning to the bona fide theory of innateness--the Principles and Parameters framework--I argue that a full explanation of children's grammar development must abandon the domain-specific learning model of triggering, in favor of probabilistic learning mechanisms that might be domain-general but nevertheless operate in the domain-specific space of syntactic parameters.

  16. Developmental assessment of Spanish grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronto, A S

    1976-05-01

    The Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar (DASG) provides a language analysis procedure for Spanish-speaking children similar to the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure in English. The DASG is not an attempted translation of the DSS but was developed independently, taking into consideration the present knowledge of Spanish language acquisition. The purpose of the DASG is to evaluate the language of children with deficient grammatical skills in Spanish and to serve as a model for structuring Spanish language therapy. Proposed syntactic hierarchies for the following six grammatical categories are presented: indefinite pronouns and noun modifiers, personal pronouns, primary verbs, secondary verbs, conjunctions, and interrogative words. Weighted scores are assigned to groups of structures within the hierarchies and are used to score Spanish sentences children use spontaneously in conversation with an adult. The DASG was standardized on 128 Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 3.0 and 6.11 years. Norms and reliability measures are presented.

  17. Cognitive grammar and aphasic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches.

  18. Vocatives and discourse markers in textualinteractive grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Penhavel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the class of Vocatives and the class of Discourse Markers as proposed within Textualinteractive Grammar, and we try to demonstrate that Vocatives can work as Discourse Markers.

  19. A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    of the workbook is to supply students and teachers with material which can be used in connection with the study of grammar. The workbook is organised so that each chapter in the grammar book matches a chapter in the workbook. There are exercises of many different kinds in the workbook. Some aim at explanation......Like the first edition, this second revised edition of the workbook is intended to be used together with A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English for Danish Students, which is a systematic and pedagogical introduction to English grammar for Danish students of English at bachelor level. The purpose...... and exemplification, others at awareness-raising and recognition of particular structures. Some aim at production in the form of either insertion of particular forms or translation, others at recognising differences between English and Danish. Finally, there are a number of exercises where students get...

  20. Measuring strategic control in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma

    2011-12-01

    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning.

  1. Note from the Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  2. Morning Receptions in a Danish ECE Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Gravgaard, Mette Lykke

    2017-01-01

    This paper focus on a special pedagogical context; morning receptions as a learning environment. The studies of mornings are part of a 3 year long research project in which different types of learning environments were investigated. Few studies have researched morning receptions in this perspecti...

  3. THE AUDIT OF RECEPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUŢA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study case is to analyze the quality of the logistics department, focusing on the audit process. Purpose of this paper is to present the advantages resulting from the systematic audit processes and methods of analysis and improvement of nonconformities found. The case study is realised at SC Miele Tehnica SRL Brasov, twelfth production line, and the fourth from outside Germany. The specific objectives are: clarifying the concept of audit quality, emphasizing requirements ISO 19011:2003 "Guidelines for auditing quality management systems and / or environment" on audits; cchieving quality audit and performance analysis; improved process performance reception materials; compliance with legislation and auditing standards applicable in EU and Romania.

  4. The elements of grammar in 90 minutes

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An eminent scholar explains the essentials of English grammar to those who never studied the basics as well as those who need a refresher course. Inspired by Strunk & White's classic The Elements of Style, this user-friendly guide focuses exclusively on grammar, explaining the individual parts of speech and their proper arrangement in sentence form. A modest investment of 90 minutes can provide readers of all ages with simple but important tools that will improve their communication skills. Dover (2011) original publication.

  5. A Generative Grammar for Modal Syntagms

    OpenAIRE

    Galofaro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Organisational Semiotics: Theory and Concepts; International audience; The contribution presents a generative grammar for Greimas’ semiotic square, designed to represent modal syntax. In particular: (1) the grammar will generate both modal syntagms and their structural descriptions; (2) the articulation of the immanent narrative structure will be clarified; (3) structural features which are not manifested on the linear surface will become easier to examine. This model contributes to c...

  6. Encoding Frequency Information in Lexicalized Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, J; Carroll, John; Weir, David

    1997-01-01

    We address the issue of how to associate frequency information with lexicalized grammar formalisms, using Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar as a representative framework. We consider systematically a number of alternative probabilistic frameworks, evaluating their adequacy from both a theoretical and empirical perspective using data from existing large treebanks. We also propose three orthogonal approaches for backing off probability estimates to cope with the large number of parameters involved.

  7. Capturing CFLs with Tree Adjoining Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, J

    1994-01-01

    We define a decidable class of TAGs that is strongly equivalent to CFGs and is cubic-time parsable. This class serves to lexicalize CFGs in the same manner as the LCFGs of Schabes and Waters but with considerably less restriction on the form of the grammars. The class provides a normal form for TAGs that generate local sets in much the same way that regular grammars provide a normal form for CFGs that generate regular sets.

  8. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  9. Pronominal expression rule ordering in Danish and the question of a discourse grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisbeth Falster

    2005-01-01

    Dansk, funktionel grammatik, discourse grammar, personlige pronominer, modtageorientering, referens......Dansk, funktionel grammatik, discourse grammar, personlige pronominer, modtageorientering, referens...

  10. Generative Power and Closure Properties of Watson-Crick Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Liyana Mohamad Zulkufli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define WK linear grammars, as an extension of WK regular grammars with linear grammar rules, and WK context-free grammars, thus investigating their computational power and closure properties. We show that WK linear grammars can generate some context-sensitive languages. Moreover, we demonstrate that the family of WK regular languages is the proper subset of the family of WK linear languages, but it is not comparable with the family of linear languages. We also establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations.

  11. A Communicative Approach to College English Grammar Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-xian

    2016-01-01

    In response to the misconception that Communicative Language Teaching means no teaching of grammar, it is argued that grammar is as important as traffic rules for safe and smooth traffic on the road. To achieve appropriate and effective commu-nication, a communicative approach to college grammar teaching and learning is proposed. Both teachers and learners should change their attitudes toward and conceptions about grammar teaching and learning;additionally, teaching grammar in the com-pany of reading and writing helps learners learn and acquire grammar in meaningful contexts.

  12. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  13. Grammar Instruction for Writing Skills: Do Students Perceive Grammar as Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Joan M.; Calk, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Examines second language students' perceptions of grammar instruction, with specific reference to writing skill. Discusses issues involved in defining a role for grammar study and presents excerpts from student essays and explanations of classroom lessons. Results indicate that the instruction provided helped to improve students' ability to use…

  14. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  15. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  16. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  17. Learning English Grammar with a Corpus: Experimenting with Concordancing in a University Grammar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannestal, Maria Estling; Lindquist, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Corpora have been used for pedagogical purposes for more than two decades but empirical studies are relatively rare, particularly in the context of grammar teaching. The present study focuses on students' attitudes towards grammar and how these attitudes are affected by the introduction of concordancing. The principal aims of the project were to…

  18. Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

  19. Missionary Pragmalinguistics: Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores’ grammar within the tradition of Philippine grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The grammar written in Latin, in 1668, by the Jesuit missionary Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores (1627-1672) is the oldest description we have of Chamorro, a language spoken on the Mariana islands. The grammar received a number of bad reviews and as a consequence has become neglected and almost

  20. The Tower of Babel and the Teaching of Grammar: Writing Instruction for a New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…

  1. Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rohit J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. Methods In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes.

  2. A few thoughts about teaching listening and grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2014-01-01

    Listening and grammar are the most difficult subjects for both teacher and students. This passage discussed how to visual aid and brain storming in the listening class;and the importance of confidence in the grammar teaching and learning.

  3. Current Developments in Research on the Teaching of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Nassaji; Sandra Fotos

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the rise of communicative methodology in the late 1970s, the role of grammar instruction in second language learning was downplayed, and it was even suggested that teaching grammar was not only unhelpful but might actually be detrimental.

  4. Quel Eclectisme en grammaire? (What Eclecticism in Grammar?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacco, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The teaching of grammar provides more options for teacher strategies than almost any other area of language teaching, but because of the nature of grammar and classroom language instruction, using a variety of approaches is a more appropriate strategy. (MSE)

  5. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  6. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... methods that combine constraints with logic grammars such as Definite Clause Grammars and CHR Grammars, and show also a direct relationship to abductive reasoning....

  7. The Complexity of Recognition of Linguistically Adequate Dependency Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaus, P; Neuhaus, Peter; Broeker, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Results of computational complexity exist for a wide range of phrase structure-based grammar formalisms, while there is an apparent lack of such results for dependency-based formalisms. We here adapt a result on the complexity of ID/LP-grammars to the dependency framework. Contrary to previous studies on heavily restricted dependency grammars, we prove that recognition (and thus, parsing) of linguistically adequate dependency grammars is NP-complete.

  8. A Review of the Development of Systemic-Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2014-01-01

    50 years has seen Systemic-Functional Grammar(SFG)growing into its prosperity. With the efforts of Halliday and many other linguists, SFG has developed from Scale and Category Grammar to Systemic Grammar and then to Functional Gram-mar. The development of this general linguistic theory’s features and framework is the main focus of this study. SFG views lan-guage as a social semiotic resource people use to express meanings in context.

  9. An Evaluation on Learning Strategies used in Grammar Subjects in Turkish Language Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazegül DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the learning strategies employed in classroom environments in Turkish language courses by elementary education eighth-grade students while learning grammar subjects, and to determine the extent to which they use these strategies. Data of the research, which was carried out in line with the scanning model, were collected through the learning strategies questionnaire form prepared by the researcher. This form was administered to students in one-on-one interviews. In the analysis of the data; frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were used. It was determined in the research that elementary education eighth-grade students always use attention strategies, mental repetition strategies, grouping strategies, implicit and explicit repetition strategies, memory support strategies, strategies to improve recalling, and metacognition strategies; whereas they sometimes use the strategies of attaching, organization and motivation.

  10. The structure of modern standard French a student grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maj-Britt Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    This book is an advanced student's grammar of French that integrates traditional grammar with knowledge and insights from modern linguistics. It assumes some prior knowledge of French grammar but is designed to be accessible to those with no background in linguistics.

  11. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  12. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  13. From left-regular to Greibach normal form grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1979-01-01

    Each context-free grammar can be transformed to a context-free grammar in Greibach normal form, that is, a context-free grammar where each right-hand side of a prorfuction begins with a terminal symbol and the remainder of the right-hand side consists of nonterminal symbols. In this short paper we

  14. Teaching Grammar and Testing Grammar in the English Primary School: The Impact on Teachers and Their Teaching of the Grammar Element of the Statutory Test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The research examined the impact on teachers of the grammar element of a new statutory test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG) in primary schools in England. The research aimed to evaluate the nature and the extent of changes to the teaching of grammar and to wider literacy teaching since the introduction of the test in 2013. The research…

  15. Learning unification-based grammars using the Spoken English Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, M; Osborne, Miles; Bridge, Derek

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a grammar learning system that combines model-based and data-driven learning within a single framework. Our results from learning grammars using the Spoken English Corpus (SEC) suggest that combined model-based and data-driven learning can produce a more plausible grammar than is the case when using either learning style isolation.

  16. Van Wijngaarden grammars, metamorphism and K-ary malwares

    CERN Document Server

    Gueguen, Geoffroy

    2010-01-01

    Grammars are used to describe sentences structure, thanks to some sets of rules, which depends on the grammar type. A classification of grammars has been made by Noam Chomsky, which led to four well-known types. Yet, there are other types of grammars, which do not exactly fit in Chomsky's classification, such as the two-level grammars. As their name suggests it, the main idea behind these grammars is that they are composed of two grammars. Van Wijngaarden grammars, particularly, are such grammars. They are interesting by their power (expressiveness), which can be the same, under some hypotheses, as the most powerful grammars of Chomsky's classification, i.e. Type 0 grammars. Another point of interest is their relative conciseness and readability. Van Wijngaarden grammars can describe static and dynamic semantic of a language. So, by using them as a generative engine, it is possible to generate a possibly infinite set of words, while assuring us that they all have the same semantic. Moreover, they can describe...

  17. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most…

  18. When Is a Verb? Using Functional Grammar to Teach Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn, Leif; Farnan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    While evidence shows that grammar study focused on identification, description, and definition (IDD) fails to enhance writing performance, the grammar most students study remains focused on the IDD tradition. We taught a functional grammar that featured what words do in sentences, rather than what words are called and how they are defined, to two…

  19. Ways of Knowing: Writing with Grammar in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra

    2005-01-01

    In the international context of concerns about standards in writing, this article addresses the role of grammar in the teaching of writing. It considers both current and historical perspectives on the teaching of grammar and offers a critique of research which attempts to determine the impact of grammar teaching on writing, but which does not…

  20. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem

  1. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  2. Teaching Grammar and Testing Grammar in the English Primary School: The Impact on Teachers and Their Teaching of the Grammar Element of the Statutory Test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The research examined the impact on teachers of the grammar element of a new statutory test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG) in primary schools in England. The research aimed to evaluate the nature and the extent of changes to the teaching of grammar and to wider literacy teaching since the introduction of the test in 2013. The research…

  3. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  4. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  5. On the Generating Power of Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.; Hogendorp, Jan Anne

    1989-01-01

    RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this

  6. On the generating power of regularly controlled bidirection grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Hogendorp, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this

  7. How grammar can be best taught

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Braga Carneiro Leão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of language teaching, especially in second language teaching, teachers and researchers are constantly concerned with using the most efficient ways to provide knowledge to learners leading to acquisition. This article aims to analyze form-focused instructional options regarding grammar teaching, in light of the computational model for second language acquisition, and discuss if there is a best way to teach grammar and what it is. For that, firstly, the instructional possibilities are presented, in their macro and micro-options. Secondly, discussions on whether we should select or not and on if we could balance different options throughout a lesson are carried. Finally, sample material is provided in order to present possible ways to conduct a grammar lesson.

  8. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  9. Reading and grammar learning through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students’ mobile phones. Students read or took part in any aspect of the materials that appealed to them. Information gathered from participants and server logs indicate that reading and learning grammar using mobile devices is regarded as a positive language experience. However, the data also indicate that the success of any mobile learning project could be limited unless certain criteria are applied. This includes (a providing engaging learning materials that are neither too long nor overly-demanding; (b a proper degree of teacher monitoring; (c student involvement; (d the need for incentives; (e a respect for privacy; and (f a safe and secure mobile-learning technical environment.

  10. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  11. Probabilistic Grammar: The view from Cognitive Sociolinguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Claes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose that Probabilistic Grammar may benefit from incorporating theoretical insights from Cognitive (SocioLinguistics. I begin by introducing Cognitive Linguistics. Then, I propose a model of the domain-general cognitive constraints (markedness of coding, statistical preemption, and structural priming that condition language (variation. Subsequently, three case studies are presented that test the predictions of this model on three distinct alternations in English and Spanish (variable agreement with existential 'haber', variable agreement with existential 'there be', and Spanish subject pronoun expression. For each case study, the model generates empirically correct predictions. I conclude that, with the support of Cognitive Sociolinguistics, Probabilistic Grammar may move beyond description towards explanation.    This article is part of the special collection: Probabilistic grammars: Syntactic variation in a comparative perspective

  12. A computational theory of visual receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2013-12-01

    A receptive field constitutes a region in the visual field where a visual cell or a visual operator responds to visual stimuli. This paper presents a theory for what types of receptive field profiles can be regarded as natural for an idealized vision system, given a set of structural requirements on the first stages of visual processing that reflect symmetry properties of the surrounding world. These symmetry properties include (i) covariance properties under scale changes, affine image deformations, and Galilean transformations of space-time as occur for real-world image data as well as specific requirements of (ii) temporal causality implying that the future cannot be accessed and (iii) a time-recursive updating mechanism of a limited temporal buffer of the past as is necessary for a genuine real-time system. Fundamental structural requirements are also imposed to ensure (iv) mutual consistency and a proper handling of internal representations at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how a set of families of idealized receptive field profiles can be derived by necessity regarding spatial, spatio-chromatic, and spatio-temporal receptive fields in terms of Gaussian kernels, Gaussian derivatives, or closely related operators. Such image filters have been successfully used as a basis for expressing a large number of visual operations in computer vision, regarding feature detection, feature classification, motion estimation, object recognition, spatio-temporal recognition, and shape estimation. Hence, the associated so-called scale-space theory constitutes a both theoretically well-founded and general framework for expressing visual operations. There are very close similarities between receptive field profiles predicted from this scale-space theory and receptive field profiles found by cell recordings in biological vision. Among the family of receptive field profiles derived by necessity from the assumptions, idealized models with very good qualitative

  13. Understanding Grammars through Diachronic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Madariaga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005 three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012. Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 [1936]; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b. Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011 hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative than purely synchronic accounts.

  14. Understanding Grammars through Diachronic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, Nerea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I will vindicate the importance of syntactic change for the study of synchronic stages of natural languages, according to the following outline. First, I will analyze the relationship between the diachrony and synchrony of grammars, introducing some basic concepts: the notions of I-language/E-language, the role of Chomsky's (2005) three factors in language change, and some assumptions about language acquisition. I will briefly describe the different approaches to syntactic change adopted in generative accounts, as well as their assumptions and implications (Lightfoot, 1999, 2006; van Gelderen, 2004; Biberauer et al., 2010; Roberts, 2012). Finally, I will illustrate the convenience of introducing the diachronic dimension into the study of at least certain synchronic phenomena with the help of a practical example: variation in object case marking of several verbs in Modern Russian, namely, the verbs denoting avoidance and the verbs slušat'sja “obey” and dožidat'sja “expect,” which show two object case-marking patterns, genitive case in standard varieties and accusative case in colloquial varieties. To do so, I will review previous descriptive and/or functionalist accounts on this or equivalent phenomena (Jakobson, 1984 [1936]; Clancy, 2006; Nesset and Kuznetsova, 2015a,b). Then, I will present a formal—but just synchronic—account, applying Sigurðsson (2011) hypothesis on the expression of morphological case to this phenomenon. Finally, I will show that a formal account including the diachronic dimension is superior (i.e., more explanative) than purely synchronic accounts. PMID:28824474

  15. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  16. Optimality: from neural networks to universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A; Smolensky, P

    1997-03-14

    Can concepts from the theory of neural computation contribute to formal theories of the mind? Recent research has explored the implications of one principle of neural computation, optimization, for the theory of grammar. Optimization over symbolic linguistic structures provides the core of a new grammatical architecture, optimality theory. The proposition that grammaticality equals optimality sheds light on a wide range of phenomena, from the gulf between production and comprehension in child language, to language learnability, to the fundamental questions of linguistic theory: What is it that the grammars of all languages share, and how may they differ?

  17. Priority Union and Generalization in Discourse Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, C; Manandhar, S; Moens, M; Grover, Claire; Brew, Chris; Manandhar, Suresh; Moens, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We describe an implementation in Carpenter's typed feature formalism, ALE, of a discourse grammar of the kind proposed by Scha, Polanyi, et al. We examine their method for resolving parallelism-dependent anaphora and show that there is a coherent feature-structural rendition of this type of grammar which uses the operations of priority union and generalization. We describe an augmentation of the ALE system to encompass these operations and we show that an appropriate choice of definition for priority union gives the desired multiple output for examples of VP-ellipsis which exhibit a strict/sloppy ambiguity.

  18. EXPLAIN AND EXPLORE——THE INDUCTIVE APPROACH TO EFL GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuoxing

    2004-01-01

    The new role of grammar instruction now is based on the increasing understandings that grammar per se is a comprehensive conglomerate. The paper examines the inductive approach to EFL grammar instruction. It starts with some theoretical considerations on inductive approach to formal grammar instruction, followed by its methodological considerations such as how to deal with grammar generalizations and exceptions, learner variables, and grammar complexity, and proposes a sensitive and dynamic balance of explorations and explanations in EFL grammar instruction.

  19. DEVELOPING A SOUND POLICY FOR THE TREATMENT OF GRAMMAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Should grammar be taught at all?Is it a hindrance or anaid?Communicative language teaching approach seems to havecast doubts on the value of grammar teaching.The present paperargues that the positive effect of grammar in College Englishteaching and learning should not be overlooked.Grammar servesas a means to the final achievement of language proficiency.Itis time for language teachers to reconsider the role of grammarand to come up with a more appropriate and thus,moreeffective treatment of grammar in College English teaching.

  20. Teaching Children Foreign-Language Grammar: Are Authentic Materials Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses authentic materials as a resource for teaching grammar to young learners. Difficulties in foreign-language grammar learning for Russian pupils are presented, and typical challenges are described. The paper provides a pre-/post-intervention study of the development of children’s grammar skills. The research question is, “How does one use authentic materials for teaching grammar in an English as a foreign language (EFL classroom?” A qualitative method is used to assess the learning outcomes of using authentic materials in teaching grammar to eight–nine-year-old pupils (the second year of studying English.

  1. A Contrastive Study of Two Approaches to Teach Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai; Lin

    2007-01-01

    There are many kinds of methods of teaching grammar, no matter what they are, these approaches can generally be classified into two approaches-deductive and inductive. What an appropriate grammar teaching approach is by examining the inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching and learning. It starts with the definitions of inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching, followed by a contrastive study of these two approaches in terms of both the bases and the application. Finally, it explores the inductive approach and outlines the benefits of this approach and suggests an alternative view of grammar teaching.

  2. Grammar: A Complex Structure. A Linguistic Description of Esperanto in Functional Discourse Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Jansesn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional Discourse-Grammar or FDG is the latest development in the functional grammar that was initiated by the Dutch linguist Simon Dik (1940-1995. In this paper, the FDG architecture proper is described, including the role of the extra-grammatical conceptual and contextual components. A simple interrogative clause in Esperanto is used to illustrate how a linguistic expression is built up from the formulation of its (pragmatic intention to its articulation. Attention is paid to linguistic transparencies and opacities, defined here as the absence or presence of discontinuities between the descriptive levels in the grammar. Opacities are held accountable, among other factors, for making languages more or less easy to learn. The grammar of every human language is a complex system. This is clearly demonstrable precisely in Esperanto, in which the relatively few difficulties, identified by the opacities in the system, form such a sharp contrast to the general background of freedom, regularity and lack of exceptions.

  3. A Unified Framework to Compute over Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Saubion

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree languages are powerful tools for the representation and schematization of infinite sets of terms for various purposes (unification theory, verification and specification .... In order to extend the regular tree language framework, more complex formalisms have been developed. In this paper, we focus on Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars which introduce specific control structures to represent non regular sets of terms. We propose a common unified framework in order to achieve the membership test for these particular languages. Thanks to a proof system, we provide a full operational framework, that allows us to transform tree grammars into Prolog programs (as it already exists for word grammars with DCG whose goal is to recognize terms of the corresponding language.

  4. Efficient Grammar Induction Algorithm with Parse Forests from Real Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke

    The task of inducing grammar structures has received a great deal of attention. The reasons why researchers have studied are different; to use grammar induction as the first stage in building large treebanks or to make up better language models. However, grammar induction has inherent computational complexity. To overcome it, some grammar induction algorithms add new production rules incrementally. They refine the grammar while keeping their computational complexity low. In this paper, we propose a new efficient grammar induction algorithm. Although our algorithm is similar to algorithms which learn a grammar incrementally, our algorithm uses the graphical EM algorithm instead of the Inside-Outside algorithm. We report results of learning experiments in terms of learning speeds. The results show that our algorithm learns a grammar in constant time regardless of the size of the grammar. Since our algorithm decreases syntactic ambiguities in each step, our algorithm reduces required time for learning. This constant-time learning considerably affects learning time for larger grammars. We also reports results of evaluation of criteria to choose nonterminals. Our algorithm refines a grammar based on a nonterminal in each step. Since there can be several criteria to decide which nonterminal is the best, we evaluate them by learning experiments.

  5. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  6. Component-based Systems Reconfigurations Using Graph Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kouchnarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic reconfigurations can modify the architecture of component-based systems without incurring any system downtime. In this context, the main contribution of the present article is the establishment of correctness results proving component-based systems reconfigurations using graph grammars. New guarded reconfigurations allow us to build reconfigurations based on primitive reconfiguration operations using sequences of reconfigurations and the alternative and the repetitive constructs, while preserving configuration consistency. A practical contribution consists of the implementation of a component-based model using the GROOVE graph transformation tool. Then, after enriching the model with interpreted configurations and reconfigurations in a consistency compatible manner, a simulation relation is exploited to validate component systems’ implementations. This sound implementation is illustrated on a cloud-based multitier application hosting environment managed as a component-based system.

  7. Abstraction processes in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, D R; Johnstone, T; Staggs, L

    1997-02-01

    Four experiments explored the extent the extent to which abstract knowledge may underlie subjects' performance when asked to judge the grammaticality of letter strings generated from an artificial grammar. In Experiment 1 and 2 subjects studied grammatical strings instantiated with one set of letters and were then tested on grammatical and ungrammatical strings formed either from the same or a changed letter-set. Even with a change of letter-set, subjects were found to be sensitive to a variety of violation of the grammar. In Experiments 3 and 4, the critical manipulation involved the way in which the training strings were studied: an incidental learning procedure was used for some subjects, and others engaged in an explicit code-breaking task to try to learn the rules of the grammar. When strings were generated from a biconditional (Experiment 4) but not from a standard finite-state grammar (Experiment 3), grammaticality judgements for test strings were independent of their surface similarity to specific studied strings. Overall, the results suggest that transfer in this simple memory task is mediated at least to some extent by abstract knowledge.

  8. Grammar Schools: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Apart from one amalgamation there are as many grammar schools in England as when Labour took office in 1997. Selection at age 11 still influences English education and unless there are changes its effect is likely to increase. Legislation introduced in 1998 which could have ended selection had no effect. The pressure from the right-wing minority…

  9. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetical...

  10. Grammar and the English National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Laura Louise

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

  11. Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

  12. Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, H.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Context-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages. They can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure. These parse trees can then be

  13. Individual strategies in artificial grammar learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Pothos, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study theories of learning, but compelling conclusions cannot be drawn without an analysis of individual strategies. We describe a new statistical method for doing so, based on the increasingly popular framework of latent variable

  14. A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, A. H.; Clayton, A. C.

    The first chapter of this grammar of prose Tamil introduces the alphabet and orthography. Following chapters deal with parts of speech and verb constructions. A final chapter deals with colloquialisms and foreign words. Appended are lists of abbreviations, grammatical and temporal terms, and other information useful to the student, as well as a…

  15. Teaching Grammar as a Humanities Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    Nassau Community College (NCC) offers a grammar course as a humanities option that may be taken instead of a literature course. The approach to the course incorporates reader-response theory, feminist criticism, new historicism, and journal writing as the key means for enabling students to learn. Each student has a notebook divided into sections…

  16. A Reference Grammar of Spoken Kannada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This reference grammar is a description of the speech of educated people of the Bangalore/Mysore area of Karnataka State in South India. This particular dialect is used in films and, to some extent, on the radio. The four sections of the book deal with: (1) phonology, (2) the noun phrase, (3) the verb phrase, and (4) syntax. Each item that is…

  17. NL Understanding with a Grammar of Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W; Jarecki, S; Johnson, D E; Morgenstern, L; Zadrozny, Wlodek; Szummer, Marcin; Jarecki, Stanislaw; Johnson, David E.; Morgenstern, Leora

    1995-01-01

    We present an approach to natural language understanding based on a computable grammar of constructions. A "construction" consists of a set of features of form and a description of meaning in a context. A grammar is a set of constructions. This kind of grammar is the key element of Mincal, an implemented natural language, speech-enabled interface to an on-line calendar system. The system consists of a NL grammar, a parser, an on-line calendar, a domain knowledge base (about dates, times and meetings), an application knowledge base (about the calendar), a speech recognizer, a speech generator, and the interfaces between those modules. We claim that this architecture should work in general for spoken interfaces in small domains. In this paper we present two novel aspects of the architecture: (a) the use of constructions, integrating descriptions of form, meaning and context into one whole; and (b) the separation of domain knowledge from application knowledge. We describe the data structures for encoding constru...

  18. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  19. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Universal Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华芳

    2013-01-01

      Chomsky’s universal grammar (UG) has always had a following among certain linguists. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of UG in the L2 setting according to its proponents and opponents. The author also evaluates it using Ka⁃plan’s five-point tool and Long’s eight-point measuring stick.

  20. Nativism Does Not Equal Universal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Quintero, Kate

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on nativist theories of language learning and how they apply to second-language acquisition (SLA). The article is seeking a nativism that goes beyond the scope of Universal Grammar and explains the human cognitive capacity for language learning, the learning of all language structures found in natural languages, and SLA. (95 references)…

  1. Universal Grammar Theory and the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vivian

    1989-01-01

    Explores the implications of the principles and parameters theory of Universal Grammar for language teaching. Classroom acquisition depends on the provision of appropriate syntactic evidence to trigger parameter setting, and certain aspects of vocabulary are also crucial. (33 references) (Author/VWL)

  2. Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

  3. Universal Grammar and the Basic Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of Basic Variety (BV) principles proposed by Klein and Perdue, arguing that some of them need clarification with learner varieties and that they are not part of Universal Grammar (UG) as they exclude phenomena (e.g., psych verbs) that cannot be excluded from the core of natural language. (15 references) (Author/CK)

  4. To Teach Spoken Grammar With Corpus Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li

    2016-01-01

    Using scripted materials in spoken language teaching has been challenged in recent years. Accordingly, many scholars have proposed to employ corpus in spoken language teaching. This article proved it is an efficient way to teach spoken grammar by combining scripted materials with authentic materials from corpus.

  5. On Parallel Evaluation of Ordered Attribute Grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺迁; 叶大兴

    1991-01-01

    In this paper,a parallel algorithm is presented for the evaluation of orgered attribute grammars.The parallelism is achieved by constructing the so-called paralled visit sequences and accordingly augmenting the ordinary evaluation driver as well.For experimental purposes,the algorithm has been implemented by simulation.

  6. Education and the Grammar of Assent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    John Henry Newman is probably known best for "The Idea of a University." In his most philosophical work, "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent," however, he undertakes a detailed investigation of different ways of knowing and understanding in a manner that is of clear pertinence for philosophical enquiry into education. He…

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  8. Enriching a Descriptive Grammar with Treebank Queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; van Koppen, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203188934; Landsbergen, Frank; Odijk, J.E.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/082781710; van der Wouden, Ton; van de Camp, Matje

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax of Dutch (SoD) is a descriptive and detailed grammar of Dutch, that provides data for many issues raised in linguistic theory. We present the results of a pilot project that investigated the possibility of enriching the online version of the text with links to queries that provide

  9. Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

  10. Random Access to Grammar Compressed Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Bille, Philip; Weimann, Oren

    2010-01-01

    Grammar based compression, where one replaces a long string by a small context-free grammar that generates the string, is a simple and powerful paradigm that captures many of the popular compression schemes, including the Lempel-Ziv family, Run-Length Encoding, Byte-Pair Encoding, Sequitur, and Re-Pair. In this paper, we present a novel grammar representation that allows efficient random access to any character or substring of $S$ without decompressing $S$. Let $S$ be a string of length $N$ compressed into a context-free grammar $\\mathcal{S}$ of size $n$. We present two representations of $\\mathcal{S}$ achieving either O(n) construction time and space and $O(\\log N \\log \\log N)$ random access time, or $O(n\\cdot \\alpha_k(n))$ construction time and space and $O(\\log N)$ random access time. Here, $\\alpha_k(n)$ is the inverse of the $k^{th}$ row of Ackermann's function. Our representations extend to efficiently support decompression of any substring in $S$. Namely, we can decompress any substring of length $m$ in...

  11. A Grammar Library for Information Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghoun

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation makes substantial contributions to both the theoretical and computational treatment of information structure, with an eye toward creating natural language processing applications such as multilingual machine translation systems. The aim of the present dissertation is to create a grammar library of information structure for the…

  12. Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

  13. Eye Movements in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased…

  14. Grammar success in 20 minutes a day

    CERN Document Server

    Express, Learning

    2013-01-01

    Thorough and concise, Grammar Success in 20 Minutes a Day, covers all the essentials, including common and proper nouns; personal, reflexive, and demonstrative pronouns; regular and irregular verbs; adjectives, adverbs, misplaced modifiers, prepositions, subordinate and insubordinate clauses; coordinating and correlating conjunctions; compound sentences; and punctuation.

  15. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  16. Grammaire et communication (Grammar and Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman-Langlois, Martine

    1994-01-01

    A technique for teaching French grammar that involves reading, rereading, and analyzing the language in authentic materials is discussed. The student is led to recognition and generalization of structures in the text. Text examples used here include a comic strip and a publicity blurb for a French city. (MSE)

  17. Visual Feature Learning in Artificial Grammar Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The Artificial Grammar Learning task has been used extensively to assess individuals' implicit learning capabilities. Previous work suggests that participants implicitly acquire rule-based knowledge as well as exemplar-specific knowledge in this task. This study investigated whether exemplar-specific knowledge acquired in this task is based on the…

  18. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  19. Interactive Russian Grammar: The Case System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Gam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My paper addresses a problem many of us in North American college language programs confront regularly, the solution to which regularly and frustratingly remains just out of our reach. I refer to the teaching of the most basic and most crucial element of Russian grammar, namely, its case system, and teaching it to our students whose native language, English, does not have such a system. As I teach the Russian cases, I see vividly the disconnect between grammar presented for students (simplified, episodic, based on the "pick it up along the way" principle and the learned papers on Russian grammar by linguists, which are barely comprehensible to a non-linguist. Materials in the middle are lacking-materials to help a literature professor acting as a "de facto" language instructor understand and address the needs of students as they learn this crucial segment of basic Russian grammar. This core element of Russian grammar is presented to students in the first year of college language study, is revisited in the second year, and very often by the third year students either manage to completely block it out from their memory (as if it were some traumatic experience that happened "a long time ago"-that is, before .summer break-but most importantly due to the lack of practice or demonstrate a partial or even complete lack of understanding or misunderstanding of this system forcing us to deal with it again in the third year. Not only is it frustrating for both the students and the language instructor; but from the point of view of their overall proficiency, the lack of control of the case system holds our students back. There can be no talk of advanced language proficiency without a complete and automatic mastery of this basic system. Unfortunately, regardless of the specific textbooks used, the students very often manage not to have a general idea and mastery of this system even by the third year of study.

  20. Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

    2013-11-01

    As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

  1. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  2. Severe receptive language disorder in childhood--familial aspects and long-term outcomes: results from a Scottish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ann; O'Hare, Anne; Watson, Jocelynne; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Elton, Rob; Nasir, Jamal; Seckl, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the familial characteristics of children with severe receptive specific language impairment (SLI). Affected children are more likely to have long-term problems than those with expressive SLI but to date they have only been described as small cohorts within SLI populations. We therefore aimed to describe the clinical and familial characteristics of severe receptive SLI as defined by a rigorous phenotype and to establish whether non-word repetition showed a relationship with language impairment in these families. Cross-sectional study of children who met ICD-10 (F80.2) criteria for receptive SLI at school entry, their siblings and genetic parents with standardised measures of language and non-verbal IQ, phonological auditory memory and speech sound inventory. At a mean of 6 years after school entry with a severe receptive SLI, the 58 participants had a normal mean and standard deviation non-verbal IQ, but only 3% (two) had attained language measures in the normal range. One third still had severe receptive language impairment. One third of siblings not known to be affected had language levels outside the normal range. Phonological auditory memory was impaired in most family members. Severe receptive SLI is nearly always associated with an equally severe reduction in expressive language skills. Language impairment in siblings may go undetected and yet they are at high risk. Family members had weak phonological auditory memory skills, suggesting that this could be a marker for language acquisition difficulties. Receptive SLI rarely resolves and trials of therapy are urgently needed.

  3. Ableism and the Reception of Improvised Soundsinging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonelli, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soundsinging is one name for the practice of making music using an idiosyncratic palette of vocal and non-vocal oral techniques. This paper is concerned with the reception of soundsinging and, more specifically, with listeners whose reactions to soundsinging involve attempts to contain the practice.

  4. The reception of relativity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Besouw; J. van Dongen

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A. Loren

  5. The politics, science, and art of receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Beausoleil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With so much attention on the issue of voice in democratic theory, the inverse question of how people come to listen remains a marginal one. Recent scholarship in affect and neuroscience reveals that cognitive and verbal strategies, while privileged in democratic politics, are often insufficient to cultivate the receptivity that constitutes the most basic premise of democratic encounters. This article draws on this scholarship and a recent case of forum theatre to examine the conditions of receptivity and responsiveness, and identify specific strategies that foster such conditions. It argues that the forms of encounter most effective in cultivating receptivity are those that move us via affective intensity within pointedly mediated contexts. It is this constellation of strategies—this strange marriage of immersion and mediation—that enabled this performance to surface latent memory, affect and bias, unsettle entrenched patterns of thought and behaviour, and provide the conditions for revisability. This case makes clear that to lie beyond the domain of cognitive and verbal processes is not to lie beyond potential intervention, and offers insight to how such receptivity might be achieved in political processes more broadly.

  6. The reception of Cambodian refugees in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, G.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cambodian refugees’ arrival in France has helped initiate an atypical political mobilization in the process of their reception. The French political power balance, the sociocultural “mood” (zeitgeist) and the “mediatization” of the Indochinese region have impacted on their resettlement and given the

  7. Simulated Critical Differences for Speech Reception Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Critical differences state by how much 2 test results have to differ in order to be significantly different. Critical differences for discrimination scores have been available for several decades, but they do not exist for speech reception thresholds (SRTs). This study presents and discusses how critical differences for SRTs can be…

  8. BVA and AWF hold parliamentary reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-02

    After another successful Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF) Discussion Forum, BVA honorary member Neil Parish MP hosted an evening reception in the House of Commons' terrace pavilion on behalf of BVA and AWF. Felicity Quick, BVA media officer, reports on the event.

  9. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  10. Interrelating Reception and Expression in Speechreading Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, Antoine M. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies characteristics of poor speechreaders, defines developmental dyspraxia in profoundly hearing-impaired children, and outlines the speechreading process. An active training method is described in which expressive and receptive skills are integrated, by having hearing-impaired people speechread their own speech via videotape…

  11. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  12. Design of an Oscillator for Satellite Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, F.H.E.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents research on an LC-oscillator for Ku-band (10.7-12.7GHz) satellite reception. The zero-IF receiver architecture, proposed in the joint project involving the University of Twente and NXP Research, requires a 11.7GHz quadrature oscillator that achieves a phase noise of -85dBc/Hz@10

  13. Schulgrammatik und Fachgrammatiken: Fuer eine differenzierte Konzeption der didaktischen Grammatik (School Grammar and Scientific Grammar: Toward a Differentiated Concept of Didactic Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Volkmar

    1979-01-01

    Defines the practical functions of various types of grammars, and theoretical functions of linguistic grammars. Points out some differences between the two (stressing contrast between native and foreign languages), as well as differences in defining, finality, or variation of categories, and in psycho- and sociolinguistic components. (IFS/WGA)

  14. On the Balance of Grammar and Communication Teaching for Chinese Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦耀咏

    2002-01-01

    To the problem of neglecting grammar teaching when the Communicative approach is encouraged,this paper tries to analyze the position of teaching grammar and put forward some suggestions on how to balance grammar and communication teaching.

  15. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  16. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  17. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ GRAMMAR COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukminatus Zuhriyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammar becomes one of the subjects studied in all Indonesian English Department. It is because grammar has the important role in all English skills. Grammar makes those four English skills meaningful. Somebody can be said as a master of English when he or she also masters grammar. Unfortunately, learning grammar is not as easy as what we think. It needs the effective method that can make the learners motivated and active in learning as well as in applying the grammar in the real life. Problem-based learning applied in this research is one of the alternatives that can help the learners learn grammar easily. This research was a collaborative action research whose general purpose to know whether or not Problem-based learning could improve the students’ grammar competence. Meanwhile, the specific purposes were to know the lecturer’s activities, the students’ activities, and the students’ responses when problem-based learning was implemented in grammar class. Nine students of the fifth semester of English department of education faculty of Hasyim Asy’ari University (UNHASY Tebuireng Jombang in the academic year of 2016/2017 became the subjects of this research. The data got was from the observation notes and the grammar test. There was an improvement on students’ grammar competence from cycle one to cycle two. It was proven by their mean score from 66.7 in cycle one to 72.8 in cycle two. Meanwhile, the percentage of students passing the minimum mastery criteria was from 44.4 in cycle one and 88.9 in cycle two. So that it can be concluded that problem-based learning could improve students’ grammar competence.

  18. XTAG system A Wide Coverage Grammar for English

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, C F; Hockey, B A; Srinivas, B; Zaidel, M; Doran, Christy; Egedi, Dania; Hockey, Beth Ann; Zaidel, Martin

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the XTAG system, a grammar development tool based on the Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) formalism that includes a wide-coverage syntactic grammar for English. The various components of the system are discussed and preliminary evaluation results from the parsing of various corpora are given. Results from the comparison of XTAG against the IBM statistical parser and the Alvey Natural Language Tool parser are also given.

  19. Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G

    1999-01-01

    Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran

  20. Visual feature learning in artificial grammar classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace Y; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2004-05-01

    The Artificial Grammar Learning task has been used extensively to assess individuals' implicit learning capabilities. Previous work suggests that participants implicitly acquire rule-based knowledge as well as exemplar-specific knowledge in this task. This study investigated whether exemplar-specific knowledge acquired in this task is based on the visual features of the exemplars. When a change in the font and case occurred between study and test, there was no effect on sensitivity to grammatical rules in classification judgments. However, such a change did virtually eliminate sensitivity to training frequencies of letter bigrams and trigrams (chunk strength) in classification judgments. Performance of a secondary task during study eliminated this font sensitivity and generally reduced the contribution of chunk strength knowledge. The results are consistent with the idea that perceptual fluency makes a contribution to artificial grammar judgments.

  1. Grammar Based Genetic Programming Using Linear Representations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHong; LUYinan; WANGFei

    2003-01-01

    In recent years,there has been a great interest in genetic programming(GP),which is used to solve many applications such as data mining,electronic engineering and pattern recognition etc.. Genetic programming paradigm as a from of adaptive learning is a functional approach to many problems that require a nonfixed representation and GP typically operates on a population of parse which usually represent computer programs whose nodes have single data type.In this paper GP using context-free grammars(CFGs) is described.This technique separates search space from solution space through a genotype to phenotype mapping.The genotypes and phenotypes of the individuals both act on different linear representations.A phenotype is postfix expression,a new method of representing which is described by making use of the definition and related features of a context-free grammar,i.e.a genotype is a variable length,linear valid genome determined by a simplifled derivation tree(SDT) generated from a context-free grammar.A CFG is used to specify how the possible solutions are created according to experiential knowledge and to direct legal crossover(ormutation)operations without any explicit reference to the process of program generation and parsing,and automatically ensuring typing and syntax correctness.Some related definitions involving genetic operators are described.Fitness evaluation is given.This technique is applied to a symbol regression problem-the identification of nonlinear dynamic characteristics of cushioning packaging.Experimental results show this method can flnd good relations between variables and is better than basic GP without a grammar.Future research on it is outlined.

  2. Nigel: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    in the logical component). Henrici [ Henrici 811 observes that "linear recursion is rather more troublesome" than recursion through embedding (which...notation defined by Henrici [ Henrici 81]. However, we have neither exhausted the grammar nor reached the lexicon. This section will present how the...Halliday, M. A. K., Language as Social Semiotic, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978 [ Henrici 81] Henrici , A., "Some notes on the systemic generation of

  3. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...... is based on a bottom-up tabulation algorithm reformulated using least fixed points and evaluated using an instance of the chaotic iteration scheme by Cousot and Cousot....

  4. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  5. Introduction (of 'The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar')

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Velasco, Daniel; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this volume analyse the noun phrase within the framework of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), the successor to Simon C. Dik’s Functional Grammar (FG). The Noun Phrase was the main conference theme of the 11th International Conference on Functional Grammar, which took place......, the most recent treatment of NPs by Dik in terms of “classical FG” was published (posthumously) in 1997, in the first volume of The Theory of Functional Grammar. Given the fact that FDG presents a strongly revised version of Dikkian FG with respect to rules, variables, representations and overall design...

  6. English grammar a function-based introduction, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Givón, T

    1993-01-01

    The approach to language and grammar that motivates this book is unabashedly functional; grammar is not just a system of empty rules, it is a means to an end, an instrument for constructing concise coherent communication. In grammar as in music, good expression rides on good form. Figuratively and literally, grammar like musical form must make sense. But for the instrument to serve its purpose, it must first exist; the rules must be real, they can be explicitly described and taught. This book is intended for both students and teachers, at college level, for both native and nonnative speakers.

  7. English grammar a function-based introduction, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Givón, T

    1993-01-01

    The approach to language and grammar that motivates this book is unabashedly functional; grammar is not just a system of empty rules, it is a means to an end, an instrument for constructing concise coherent communication. In grammar as in music, good expression rides on good form. Figuratively and literally, grammar like musical form must make sense. But for the instrument to serve its purpose, it must first exist; the rules must be real, they can be explicitly described and taught. This book is intended for both students and teachers, at college level, for both native and nonnative speakers.

  8. Teaching English Grammar Through Communicative Language Teaching Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is an important part of language learning. In order for students to have a functional knowledge of a language (in other words, that they can spontaneously produce language) they must have at least some knowledge about the grammatical con⁃structs of the language in question. How grammar can be taught? Considering various second language teaching methods, teaching grammar through Communicative Language Teaching Approach is the most talked. Emphasis in this article is put on the applica⁃tion of Communicative Language Teaching Approach in grammar teaching in college English classes.

  9. Kiss my asterisk a feisty guide to punctuation and grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Kiss My Asterisk is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors—the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capitalize President Obama bu

  10. Context-free Grammars for Triangular Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert X. J. HAO; Larry X. W. WANG; Harold R. L. YANG

    2015-01-01

    We consider context-free grammars of the form G={f →fb1+b2+1ga1+a2, g→fb1ga1+1}, where ai and bi are integers subject to certain positivity conditions. Such a grammar G gives rise to triangular arrays {T (n, k)}0≤k≤n satisfying a three-term recurrence relation. Many combinatorial sequences can be generated in this way. Let Tn(x)=? nk=0 T (n, k)xk. Based on the diff erential operator with respect to G, we define a sequence of linear operators Pn such that Tn+1(x)=Pn(Tn(x)). Applying the characterization of real stability preserving linear operators on the multivariate polynomials due to Borcea and Bra¨nd´en, we obtain a necessary and suffi cient condition for the operator Pn to be real stability preserving for any n. As a consequence, we are led to a suffi cient condition for the real-rootedness of the polynomials defined by certain triangular arrays, obtained by Wang and Yeh. Moreover, as special cases we obtain grammars that lead to identities involving the Whitney numbers and the Bessel numbers.

  11. Human kinship, from conceptual structure to grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2010-10-01

    Research in anthropology has shown that kin terminologies have a complex combinatorial structure and vary systematically across cultures. This article argues that universals and variation in kin terminology result from the interaction of (1) an innate conceptual structure of kinship, homologous with conceptual structure in other domains, and (2) principles of optimal, "grammatical" communication active in language in general. Kin terms from two languages, English and Seneca, show how terminologies that look very different on the surface may result from variation in the rankings of a universal set of constraints. Constraints on kin terms form a system: some are concerned with absolute features of kin (sex), others with the position (distance and direction) of kin in "kinship space", others with groups and group boundaries (matrilines, patrilines, generations, etc.). Also, kin terms sometimes extend indefinitely via recursion, and recursion in kin terminology has parallels with recursion in other areas of language. Thus the study of kinship sheds light on two areas of cognition, and their phylogeny. The conceptual structure of kinship seems to borrow its organization from the conceptual structure of space, while being specialized for representing genealogy. And the grammar of kinship looks like the product of an evolved grammar faculty, opportunistically active across traditional domains of semantics, syntax, and phonology. Grammar is best understood as an offshoot of a uniquely human capacity for playing coordination games.

  12. On Grammar Teaching for Japanese Learners of English as a Foreign Language (1) : Three Requirements of Pedagogical Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    伊東, 治己

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to provide a framework or viewpoint for future studies to be conducted by the same author concerning grammar teaching for Japanese EFL learners at secondary school. Its specific aim is to discuss the requirements to be met by pedagogical grammar intended for use in the EFL classroom at Japanese secondary school. Unlike theoretical grammar, which is intended for researchers on linguistics and whose main purpose is to systematize the regularities observed in the use of ...

  13. An Attempt to Employ Diagrammatic Illustrations in Teaching English Grammar: Pictorial English Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takahashi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for intermediate students poor at English grammar to enjoy learning it, a unique methodology has been improved in the classroom. In this article illustrated vehicles relevant to the five basic sentence patterns are presented in order to show how helpful this method is to understand English grammar. Also, more enhanced areas of this theory are discussed, which clarifies the feasibility of this methodology. The items to be introduced in my method are gerund, the passive voice, the relative pronoun and so on.

  14. Minimalist Grammars and Minimalist Categorial Grammars, definitions toward inclusion of generated languages

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime

    2011-01-01

    Stabler proposes an implementation of the Chomskyan Minimalist Program, Chomsky 95 with Minimalist Grammars - MG, Stabler 97. This framework inherits a long linguistic tradition. But the semantic calculus is more easily added if one uses the Curry-Howard isomorphism. Minimalist Categorial Grammars - MCG, based on an extension of the Lambek calculus, the mixed logic, were introduced to provide a theoretically-motivated syntax-semantics interface, Amblard 07. In this article, we give full definitions of MG with algebraic tree descriptions and of MCG, and take the first steps towards giving a proof of inclusion of their generated languages.

  15. The Critical Reception of Lewis Nordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer in the sout...... in the southern literary tradition and have highlighted themes such as magical realism, the grotesque, race relations, music, and gender....

  16. A Methodology for Conus APOE Reception Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Heizer , Ramon N. Chief, Supply Systems Branch, Dir- ectorate of Distribution, DCS/Logistics Operations , HQ AFLC, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. Personal inter...would be tasked to serve as aerial ports of embarkation for large quantities of per- sonnel and equipment. The managers must develop reception plans to...into a ’rough cut’ estimate of the workload based on an unconstrained flow through the -.i system. Based on this workload, the managers can develop a

  17. Czech children's literature reception in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Starc, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...

  18. Dual-Antenna Microwave Reception Without Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Receiver remains connected to both antennas, transmitter switched to connect it to one or other. Combination of hybrid junction, circulators, and filter provides simultaneous reception paths from both antennas without significantly altering radiation patterns of antennas. Communication system considered for use in spacecraft and in which mechanical switch permitted on downlink but not on uplink. Applicable to terrestrial microwave communication stations subject to dual-antenna requirements.

  19. Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.

  20. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  1. Rehabilitering og 'motion på recept'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Sandholm; Larsen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi søge at analysere fænomenerne 'rehabilitering' og 'motion på recept' med særlig fokus på relationerne til det, som vi efterfølgende betegner som medicinsk felt. Vi vil via en sociologisk optik beskrive og forklare opkomsten af rehabilitering som del af en række andre...... stridigheder og bevægelser i medicinsk felt. Vi vil i den forbindelse samtidig vise, at rehabilitering, og også det nye fænomen 'motion på recept', hverken kan forstås som en selvstændig substans eller som et isoleret fænomen. Rehabilitering og 'motion på recept' konstrueres som fænomener, der udgør et slags...... sociologisk analyse af nogle relativt upåagtede områder indenfor sundhedsområdet, og hensigten er at vise, at denne type praksisområder med fordel kan beskrives og forklares sociologisk.  I Danmark ser vi aktuelt en genkomst eller opblomstring af fænomenet 'rehabilitering'. Rehabilitering beskrives i...

  2. Construction Morphology and the Parallel Architecture of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Geert; Audring, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a systematic exposition of how the basic ideas of Construction Grammar (CxG) (Goldberg, 2006) and the Parallel Architecture (PA) of grammar (Jackendoff, 2002]) provide the framework for a proper account of morphological phenomena, in particular word formation. This framework is referred to as Construction Morphology (CxM). As…

  3. Effect of Jigsaw I Technique on Teaching Turkish Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of Jigsaw I technique on students' academic success and attitude towards the course in teaching Turkish grammar. For that purpose, three grammar topics (spelling and punctuation marks rules) were determined and an experimental study conforming to "control group preliminary-testing final…

  4. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  5. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  6. Functional Grammar and Its Implications for English Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Functional grammar has received more and more attention from domestic scholars in the world of linguistics since 1970s, but it is still new to most EFL teachers. In spite of controversies about its applications into classroom teaching, this new grammar model has its own advantages and can facilitate EFL students to achieve academic success. This…

  7. Exploring Tensions between Teachers' Grammar Teaching Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Simon; Borg, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tensions in the grammar teaching beliefs and practices of three practising teachers of English working in Turkey. The teachers were observed and interviewed over a period of 18 months; the observations provided insights into how they taught grammar, while the interviews explored the beliefs underpinning the teachers' classroom…

  8. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  9. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  10. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  11. Teacher Cognition in Grammar Teaching: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of teacher cognition in relation to the teaching of grammar in first, second, and foreign language classrooms. Teacher cognition encompasses a range of psychological constructs and these are reflected in the research reviewed here. Thus, in turn, I discuss studies of teachers' declarative knowledge about grammar, of…

  12. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammars : With Automatic Augmenting Dependency Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Binsbergen, L. Thomas; Bransen, Jeroen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Attribute Grammars (AGs) extend Context-Free Grammars with attributes: information gathered on the syntax tree that adds semantics to the syntax. AGs are very well suited for describing static analyses, code-generation and other phases incorporated in a compiler. AGs are divided into classes based o

  13. Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

  14. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia

    This book examines how the underlying linguistic competence of second language (L2) learners is constrained by the same universal principals governing natural language. It is assumed that there is an innately given universal grammar (UG) which constrains L1 grammars, limiting the kinds of hypotheses that L1 acquirers entertain about the nature of…

  15. Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

  16. The Grammar of Action and Reversal Errors in Children's Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Studies predictions about letter reversals made by Goodnow's "grammar of action." Two samples of right- and left-handed children in nursery school through first grade printed from memory immediately after exposure to each of 41 reversible letters and numbers. Results challenge "grammar of action" proposals about the…

  17. Does Teaching Grammar Really Hinder Students' Speaking Abilities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Araki

    2015-01-01

    In the history of formal English education in Japan, grammar used to be the mainstream. In the secondary education system, teachers used to spend many hours teaching grammar to the students. However, it has been replaced by the aural/oral method of teaching a foreign language. There was even a remark that teaching grammar hinders students from communicating fluently. Literally, there was a time when grammar was set aside in formal English education. However, the author noticed that in grammar classes, the students speak English more loudly and confidently without much hesitation than in other types of English classes. One of the reasons is that they are not worried about the contents of the speeches. They are simply concentrating on the forms. They are not afraid of making major mistakes, and the errors they make are minor so they do not feel embarrassed in public. The atmosphere of the grammar classes is very positive and the students enjoy speaking English. In this paper, the author shows how grammar classes can contribute to the acquisition of the students' speaking abilities and manners. "Learning grammar was a precious experience", one student reported after the course.

  18. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  19. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navest, Karlijn Marianne

    2011-01-01

    From the second half of the eighteenth century onwards a knowledge of grammar served as an important marker of class in England. In order to enable their children to rise in society, middle-class parents expected their sons and daughters to learn English grammar. Since England did not have an Academ

  20. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  1. Albanian Basic Course: Workbook for Exercises in Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This workbook in Albanian grammar requires students to fill in missing words following a particular grammatical pattern, selected from Exercises in Grammar used in the "Albanian Basic Course," prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Drills include: (1) interrogative pronouns, (2) demonstrative adjectives; (3) declension of nouns, possessive…

  2. A Pure Object-Oriented Embedding of Attribute Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloane, A.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Attribute grammars are a powerful specification paradigm for many language processing tasks, particularly semantic analysis of programming languages. Recent attribute grammar systems use dynamic scheduling algorithms to evaluate attributes by need. In this paper, we show how to remove the need for a

  3. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  4. An All-Fragments Grammar for Simple and Accurate Parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    see Figure 1(a)) derived from a binarized treebank B. G is formally a tree-substitution grammar [ Resnik , 1992, Bod, 1993] wherein each subgraph of each...of EMNLP, 2008. 18 Matt Post and Daniel Gildea. Bayesian Learning of a Tree Substitution Grammar. In Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP, 2009. Philip Resnik

  5. Grammar Engineering Support for Precedence Rule Recovery and Compatibility Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, E.; Bravenboer, M.; Visser, E.

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of parser generators are used to generate parsers for programming languages. The grammar formalisms that come with parser generators provide different approaches for defining operator precedence. Some generators (e.g. YACC) support precedence declarations, others require the grammar to

  6. What is the Spirit of the English Grammar Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In China,English is a foreign language,not a second language.Chinese students can't learn English well without learning its gram?mar first.As for English teachers,the most important is to help the students to grasp the spirit of English grammar learning.

  7. Effectiveness of Inductive and Deductive Methods in Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the comparative effectiveness of teaching English grammar by using deductive and inductive teaching models. The study also attempts to see which of these two methods has a positive effect on the grammar academic achievement of the university students and elementary school students in Jordan so it answers the following…

  8. Spoken Grammar: An Urgent Necessity in the EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-wossabi, Sami A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in corpus linguistics have revealed apparent inconsistencies between the prescriptive grammar presented in EFL textbooks and the type of grammar used in the speech of native speakers. Such variations and learning gaps deprive EFL learners of the actual use of English and delay their oral/aural developmental processes. The focus of…

  9. Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

  10. Yemeni Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Teaching and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzi, Nemah Abdullah Ayash

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs of in-service English teachers about grammar learning/teaching and the influence of such beliefs on their classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. More precisely, this study explores English teachers' beliefs about grammar learning and teaching. It throws light on the teachers' actual practices in the classrooms of 7th -12th…

  11. Teaching Latin grammar for veterinary students with electronic textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Юріївна Балалаєва

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of teaching Latin grammar for veterinary students with author's electronic textbook, the implementation of which is aimed at support for process of grammar skills formation, increasing of students’ cognitive interest in the Latin language learning and comfortable computer support traditional learning technologies for Latin language and veterinary terminology is scientifically substantiated and described in the article

  12. Albanian Basic Course: Workbook for Exercises in Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This workbook in Albanian grammar requires students to fill in missing words following a particular grammatical pattern, selected from Exercises in Grammar used in the "Albanian Basic Course," prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Drills include: (1) interrogative pronouns, (2) demonstrative adjectives; (3) declension of nouns, possessive…

  13. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  14. Effect of Direct Grammar Instruction on Student Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lisa; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Grammar Instruction has an important role to play in helping students to speak and write more effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct grammar instruction on the quality of student's writing skills. The participants in this study included 18 fifth grade students and two fifth grade teachers. Based on the results…

  15. The Effects of Using Online Concordancers on Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Yasemin; Aydin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted so far have mainly focused on the effects of online concordancers on teaching vocabulary, while there is a lack of research focusing on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar. Thus, this study aims to review the studies on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar and how…

  16. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  17. SPECIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLAIR, FRED; ROSENBAUM, PETER S.

    RESEARCH IN THREE AREAS OF COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS IS DESCRIBED--(1) THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR FOR A SUBSET TO GRAMMATICAL SENTENCES IN ENGLISH, (2) THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS GRAMMAR IN TERMS OF A SENTENCE SYNTHESIZING PROGRAM WRITTEN IN LISP 1.5, AND (3) THE USE OF SENTENCE SYNTHESIZING PROGRAMS FOR…

  18. The Role of Grammar Knowledge for Identifying Language Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Anne Toolan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the study was an interest in discerning the relationship between grammar knowledge and its application for evaluating grammar development at different academic and professional stages. A 3-part questionnaire was completed by first and last semester Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) graduate students, and practicing…

  19. The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liceras, Juana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

  20. The place of exclamatives and miratives in grammar: a functional discourse grammar view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of mirativity has come to interfere in the recently developed framework of Functional Discourse Grammar with what would be considered to be exclamative elsewhere. In addition, the concept of exclamative itself turns out to be ill-defined in various studies within the functional paradigm.

  1. Rhetorical Grammar and the Grammar of Schooling: Teaching Powerful Verbs in the English National Literacy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the trajectory of educational ideas through policy, curricular materials and enactment in the classroom. Specifically, I examine current English policy regarding the teaching of grammar in primary schools, and its enactment in a Year 3 (8-year olds) literacy lesson. While the policy advances a broadly rhetorical approach to…

  2. Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Pust, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

  3. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  4. Adaptable Grammars for Non-Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    We consider, as an alternative to traditional approaches for describing non-context-free languages, the use of grammars in which application of grammar rules themselves control the creation or modification of grammar rules. This principle is shown to capture, in a concise way, standard example...... languages that are considered as prototype representatives of non-context-free phenomena in natural languages. We define a grammar formalism with these characteristics and show how it can be implemented in logic programming in a surprisingly straightforward way, compared with the expressive...... power. It is also shown how such adaptable grammars can be applied for describing meta-level architectures that include their own explicit meta-languages for defining new syntax...

  5. The Effect of Grammar Teaching on Writing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建平

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning English in China is a rather daunting task. Learners' English speaking and listening skills are known to be unsatisfactory, but their writing and reading profi ciency are far from being that optimistic, especially writing. Even at the college level, students lack the ability to consistently form complete sentences or to make pronouns agree with their referents. What should be reconsidered is the actual grammatical competence of non-English majors of college students. This paper, targeting at exploring the effect of grammar teaching on college students' writing profi ciency and laying out a number of guidelines for the inclusion of grammar teaching in college English teaching in China, is aimed at addressing the following four questions:1.Why is continuous grammar instruction still necessary at college? 2.Does grammar teaching in college help to improve students' writing profi ciency? 3.What strategies can teachers use to teach grammar in the context of writing?

  6. On the interaction of Linguistic Typology and Functional Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    empirical research in a wide variety of languages as practiced in the context of linguistic typology and one particular theory, Simon Dik's theory of Functional Grammar. In my view, the relationship between Functional Grammar and linguistic typology is an excellent example of the fruitful combination...... of theory driven data collection and data driven hypothesis formation. Furthermore, typological facts do not only serve to confirm the theory of Functional Grammar, but they also serve as a heuristics for an extension of the theory.Research conducted within the wider theoretical framework of Dik......'s Functional Grammar has resulted in important contributions to linguistic typology, and, vice versa, empirical facts from a wide variety of languages have significantly improved the theory of Functional Grammar, especially regarding its typological adequacy. This article discusses the following contributions...

  7. Finite-State Approximation of Phrase-Structure Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, F C N; Pereira, Fernando C. N.; Wright, Rebecca N.

    1996-01-01

    Phrase-structure grammars are effective models for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but can be computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. Therefore, finite-state models are used instead, even though they lack expressive power. To reconcile those two alternatives, we designed an algorithm to compute finite-state approximations of context-free grammars and context-free-equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammars. The approximation is exact for certain context-free grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear and right-linear context-free grammars. The algorithm has been used to build finite-state language models for limited-domain speech recognition tasks.

  8. Random Access to Grammar-Compressed Strings and Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Landau, Gad M.; Raman, Rajeev;

    2015-01-01

    and other operations on grammar-compressed ordered trees. All of the above bounds significantly improve the currently best known results. To achieve these bounds, we introduce several new techniques and data structures of independent interest, including a predecessor data structure, two “biased” weighted......Grammar-based compression, where one replaces a long string by a small context-free grammar that generates the string, is a simple and powerful paradigm that captures (sometimes with slight reduction in efficiency) many of the popular compression schemes, including the Lempel-Ziv family, run......-length encoding, byte-pair encoding, Sequitur, and Re-Pair. In this paper, we present a novel grammar representation that allows efficient random access to any character or substring without decompressing the string. Let S be a string of length N compressed into a context-free grammar S of size n. We present two...

  9. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  10. Grammar for Writing? An Investigation of the Effects of Contextualised Grammar Teaching on Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Myhill, Debra; Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most Anglophone countries, with several robust meta-analyses finding no evidence of any beneficial effect. However, existing research is limited in that it only considers isolated grammar instruction and offers no theorisation of an instructional relationship between…

  11. Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

  12. Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-Supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelheimer, Volker; Fisher, David

    2006-01-01

    English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowledge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts…

  13. Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

  14. An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tammie M.

    2010-01-01

    The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

  15. Grammar for Writing? An Investigation of the Effects of Contextualised Grammar Teaching on Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Myhill, Debra; Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most Anglophone countries, with several robust meta-analyses finding no evidence of any beneficial effect. However, existing research is limited in that it only considers isolated grammar instruction and offers no theorisation of an instructional relationship between…

  16. [The genetic language: grammar, semantics, evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, V A

    1993-05-01

    The genetic language is a collection of rules and regularities of genetic information coding for genetic texts. It is defined by alphabet, grammar, collection of punctuation marks and regulatory sites, semantics. There is a review of these general attributes of genetic language, including also the problems of synonymy and evolution. The main directions of theoretical investigations of genetic language and neighbouring questions are formulated: (1) cryptographic problems, (2) analysis of genetic texts, (3) theoretical-linguistic problems, (4) evolutionary linguistic questions. The problem of genetic language becomes one of the key ones of molecular genetics, molecular biology and gene engineering.

  17. A Note On Higher Order Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Gluzberg, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Both syntax-phonology and syntax-semantics interfaces in Higher Order Grammar (HOG) are expressed as axiomatic theories in higher-order logic (HOL), i.e. a language is defined entirely in terms of provability in the single logical system. An important implication of this elegant architecture is that the meaning of a valid expression turns out to be represented not by a single, nor even by a few "discrete" terms (in case of ambiguity), but by a "continuous" set of logically equivalent terms. The note is devoted to precise formulation and proof of this observation.

  18. Cognitive Linguistics and the Teaching of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces some of the main themes in CL, with special focus on the role of constructions and idioms, and the way in which constructions and idioms are motivated. It is argued that a language can, in fact, be regarded as a very large set of idioms and constructions. This view contrasts with the more traditional view, that a language can be analyzed as a dictionary and a grammar . Some conclusions are drawn for foreign language pedagogy, and for the design of learning aids for language students.

  19. Universal moral grammar: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre

    2007-09-01

    A new framework for the study of the human moral faculty is currently receiving much attention: the so-called 'universal moral grammar' framework. It is based on an intriguing analogy, first pointed out by Rawls, between the study of the human moral sense and Chomsky's research program into the human language faculty. To assess UMG, we ask: is moral competence modular? Does it have an underlying hierarchical grammatical structure? Does moral diversity rest on culture-dependant parameters? We review the evidence and argue that formal grammatical concepts are of limited value for the study of moral judgments, moral development and moral diversity.

  20. Understanding the Complex Processes in Developing Student Teachers' Knowledge about Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the view that grammar is driven by user choices and is therefore complex and dynamic. This has implications for the teaching of grammar in language teacher education and how teachers' cognitions about grammar, and hence their own grammar teaching, might change. In this small, interpretative study, the participants--students on…

  1. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of…

  2. How Should English Grammar Be Taught in Middle Schools By Wang Shikun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕坤

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the idea that whether grammar teaching should be weakened or not ,the importance of grammar teaching,the present situation of grammar and some suggestions on how to teach grammar ,aiming at the improvement of English teaching and learning.

  3. The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

  4. Understanding the Complex Processes in Developing Student Teachers' Knowledge about Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the view that grammar is driven by user choices and is therefore complex and dynamic. This has implications for the teaching of grammar in language teacher education and how teachers' cognitions about grammar, and hence their own grammar teaching, might change. In this small, interpretative study, the participants--students on…

  5. The Effects of Communicative Grammar Teaching on Students' Achievement of Grammatical Knowledge and Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pham Vu Phi; The Binh, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    So far the students of Le Hong Phong Junior High School have been taught grammar with GTM (Grammar-Translation Method), which just prepares learners for conventional grammar-paper tests. Despite their considerable knowledge of grammar, the students fail to use the language they have learnt to communicate in real-life situations. The purpose of…

  6. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  7. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  8. A Contribution Towards A Grammar of Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Berry

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past thirty years there has been an increasing interest in the social and cultural implications of digital technologies and ‘informationalism’ from the social sciences and humanities. Generally this has concentrated on the implications of the “convergence” of digital devices and services, understood as linked to the discrete processing capabilities of computers, which rely on logical operations, binary processing and symbolic representation. In this paper, I wish to suggest that a ‘grammar of code’ might provide a useful way of thinking about the way in which digital technologies operate as a medium and can contribute usefully to this wider debate. I am interested in the way in which the dynamic properties of code can be understood as operating according to a grammar reflected in its materialisation and operation in the lifeworld – the discretisation of the phenomenal world. As part of that contribution in this paper I develop some tentative Weberian ‘ideal-types’. These ideal-types are then applied to the work of the Japanese composer, Masahiro Miwa, whose innovative ‘Reverse-Simulation music’ models the operation of basic low-level digital circuitry for the performance and generation of musical pieces.

  9. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  10. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  11. A Survey of Teachers' Attitudes Towards Grammar Teaching Through Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2004-01-01

    Grammar teaching is an indispensable part of English Language Teaching (ELT) in an EFL context like China. Compared with the classroom teaching innovation in listening, speaker, reading and writing, grammar teaching has of often been forgotten. The newly published Senior High School English Teaching Curriculum Standard points out that the general aim of the English curriculum is to enable students to clarify the aim of English learning, to develop ability in autonomous learning and cooperative learning, to establish efficient learning strategy, and to develop integrated skills in using the language. Knowledge, skills, affect, learning strategies, and culture awareness have attracted more attention in teaching and learning. The publication of this new standard leads the ELT in China to a new direction. Correspondingly, grammar teaching should not just maintain its rule-listing routine. Instead, some new attempts should be involved. Grammar teaching through tasks in situational contexts, which pursues the appropriate practical use of grammar, has been tested in the writer's class. This paper is mainly about the author's understanding of grammar teaching and her real classroom practice. A small-scale survey was done with the author's colleagues in the same school to investigate their attitudes and opinions. In general, teachers show an affirmative attitude. Meanwhile they have some worries as well since good attainments in exams are expected from both students and parents. However, the author has a strong belief that teaching grammar through situational tasks cannot only benefit students' linguistic competence, communicative competence and language proficiency, but also students' achievements in exams.

  12. Front Office and Reception; An Approach to Front Office and Reception Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This manual is concerned with the tasks and training needs of front office personnel in hotels. After discussion of selection and qualifications of such personnel, the perfect receptionist is described in terms of personality, appearance, and deportment. Then follows a detailed listing of tasks--basic tasks, such as reception, bookkeeping, cash,…

  13. Intervention for mixed receptive-expressive language impairment: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    ... difficulties as well as adverse outcomes for language development and academic progress. This paper considers underlying explanations that may account for receptive-expressive language impairment...

  14. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  15. The Role of Grammar Instruction in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The role of grammar instruction in foreign or second language acquisition is one of the most con troversial issues in foreign/second language teach ing and learning research. The advocators of gram mar instruction argue that grammar should be the core of language instruction and formal instruction enhances formal accuracy. On the other hand, crit ics naintain that the grammar knowledge has lim ited uses and may hinder the students from acquir ing the communicative competence and efficiency. Undoubtedly these two extreme theories often put teachers into a dilemma. What theory should they believe then? Do they accept the one and ignore the other?

  16. A rule-based Afan Oromo Grammar Checker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debela Tesfaye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP is a subfield of computer science, with strong connections to artificial intelligence. One area of NLP is concerned with creating proofing systems, such as grammar checker. Grammar checker determines the syntactical correctness of a sentence which is mostly used in word processors and compilers. For languages, such as Afan Oromo, advanced tools have been lacking and are still in the early stages. In this paper a rule based grammar checker is presented. The rule base is entirely developed and dependent on the morphology of the language . The checker is evaluated and shown a promising result.

  17. A Suggested approach to teaching and learning grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jijun; Niu Conglin

    2008-01-01

    The teaching and learning of grammar used to be processed at the sentence level with paying litttle attention to discourse and context.Students Were familiar with alot of gammatical terms and were able to remember many rules .However,they often wondered why they could not use English properly and fluently and fluently although they had learned the grammatical rules quite well.This essay,taking grammar as resource for communication,suggests an approach by using ideational frameworks to the teacxhing and learning of grammar in a communicative context.

  18. Cognitive grammar: marking new paths in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Llopis García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the usefulness of cognitive grammar for teaching foreign languages, also because of a growing interest for this discipline in recent years. First the author exposes an overview of cognitive grammar, a language model framed in the cognitive linguistics. Although the concept exists since the late 1980s, its applications for second language acquisition is very recent. In the second part of the article the author explains basics of the cognitive grammar, as well as its most important concepts.

  19. An Approach to User Interface Specification with Attribute Grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华庆一

    1997-01-01

    An approach to supporting user interfaces using an attribute grammar combined with an event model is described.The main emphasis is how to represent a multi-thread dialogue model in direct manipulation user interfaces.It is shown that control sequence within dialogues,communication with other dialogues, and some computations for applications can be specified with a syntactic and semantic notation.The attribute grammar specification can be implemented using an attribute grammar intepreter embedded in the run-time structure supporting communication,synchronization,and dialogue executon.

  20. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  1. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  2. A grammar checker based on web searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an English grammar and style checker for non-native English speakers. The main characteristic of this checker is the use of an Internet search engine. As the number of web pages written in English is immense, the system hypothesises that a piece of text not found on the Web is probably badly written. The system also hypothesises that the Web will provide examples of how the content of the text segment can be expressed in a grammatically correct and idiomatic way. Thus, when the checker warns the user about the odd nature of a text segment, the Internet engine searches for contexts that can help the user decide whether he/she should correct the segment or not. By means of a search engine, the checker also suggests use of other expressions that appear on the Web more often than the expression he/she actually wrote.

  3. Random Access to Grammar-Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Landau, Gad M.; Raman, Rajeev;

    2011-01-01

    Let S be a string of length N compressed into a context- free grammar S of size n. We present two representa- tions of S achieving O(logN) random access time, and either O(n-ak(n)) construction time and space on the pointer machine model, or O(n) construction time and space on the RAM. Here, k......(n) is the inverse of the kth row of Ackermann's function. Our representations also efficiently support decompression of any substring in S: we can decompress any substring of length m in the same complexity as a single random access query and ad- ditional O(m) time. Combining these results with fast algorithms...

  4. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (last section from 'Introduction' of The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar) The previous sections have shown that there are basically three proposals concerning the way NPs should be analysed in F(D)G: 1. the analysis according to “classical FG” (Dik 1997); 2. the analysis proposed in FDG...... treatment of noun phrases. Hengeveld takes the prototypical noun phrase as his point of departure, which he defines as an NP with a nominal head that denotes a concrete, first-order entity by lexical means and is used referentially rather than ascriptively. He then discusses examples of non-prototypical NPs...... earlier studies. The authors assume a process interpretation of the F(D)G model in which matters of form and order are interlaced. Their contribution is particularly concerned with agreement phenomena in the German noun phrase, which is noted for its morphological complexity. They show that their model...

  5. A cognitively plausible model for grammar induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Katzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to bring theoretical linguistics and cognition-general theories of learning into closer contact. I argue that linguists' notions of rich UGs are well-founded, but that cognition-general learning approaches are viable as well and that the two can and should co-exist and support each other. Specifically, I use the observation that any theory of UG provides a learning criterion -- the total memory space used to store a grammar and its encoding of the input -- that supports learning according to the principle of Minimum Description-Length. This mapping from UGs to learners maintains a minimal ontological commitment: the learner for a particular UG uses only what is already required to account for linguistic competence in adults. I suggest that such learners should be our null hypothesis regarding the child's learning mechanism, and that furthermore, the mapping from theories of UG to learners provides a framework for comparing theories of UG.

  6. A Robust Parsing Algorithm For Link Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, D; Sleator, D; Grinberg, Dennis; Lafferty, John; Sleator, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a robust parsing algorithm based on the link grammar formalism for parsing natural languages. Our algorithm is a natural extension of the original dynamic programming recognition algorithm which recursively counts the number of linkages between two words in the input sentence. The modified algorithm uses the notion of a null link in order to allow a connection between any pair of adjacent words, regardless of their dictionary definitions. The algorithm proceeds by making three dynamic programming passes. In the first pass, the input is parsed using the original algorithm which enforces the constraints on links to ensure grammaticality. In the second pass, the total cost of each substring of words is computed, where cost is determined by the number of null links necessary to parse the substring. The final pass counts the total number of parses with minimal cost. All of the original pruning techniques have natural counterparts in the robust algorithm. When used together with memoization...

  7. An entropy model for artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pothos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed to characterize the type of knowledge acquired in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL. In particular, Shannon entropy is employed to compute the complexity of different test items in an AGL task, relative to the training items. According to this model, the more predictable a test item is from the training items, the more likely it is that this item should be selected as compatible with the training items. The predictions of the entropy model are explored in relation to the results from several previous AGL datasets and compared to other AGL measures. This particular approach in AGL resonates well with similar models in categorization and reasoning which also postulate that cognitive processing is geared towards the reduction of entropy.

  8. Object Grammars: Compositional & Bidirectional Mapping Between Text and Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs); W.R. Cook; A. Loh; K. Czarnecki; G. Hedin

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract: Object Grammars define mappings between text and object graphs. Parsing recognizes syntactic features and creates the corresponding object structure. In the reverse direction, formatting recognizes object graph features and generates an appropriate textual presentation. The key

  9. On the Nominalization from the Functional Grammar Theory Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管梦迪

    2014-01-01

    this paper intends to explore the phenomena of nominalization from the perspective of Functional Grammar Theory. With the brief interpretation of the nominalization functioning in the text, it is hoped to make a bet er understanding about the nominalization.

  10. Object Grammars: Compositional & Bidirectional Mapping Between Text and Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der; Cook, W.R.; Loh, A.; Czarnecki, K.; Hedin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Object Grammars define mappings between text and object graphs. Parsing recognizes syntactic features and creates the corresponding object structure. In the reverse direction, formatting recognizes object graph features and generates an appropriate textual presentation. The key to Object G

  11. Stars in the teaching of astrophysics at grammar schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefl, V.

    The paper subjects to theoretical analysis the topic "Stars" of the teaching programme of astrophysics at grammar schools. Diagrams express the relations among parameters of stars, sources of energy, structure and evolution of stars.

  12. DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.

  13. A Grammar Analysis Model for the Unified Multimedia Query Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Sheng Cao; Zong-Da Wu; Yuan-Zhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    The unified multimedia query language (UMQL) is a powerful general-purpose multimedia query language, and it is very suitable for multimedia information retrieval. The paper proposes a grammar analysis model to implement an effective grammatical processing for the language. It separates the grammar analysis of a UMQL query specification into two phases: syntactic analysis and semantic analysis, and then respectively uses Backus-Naur form (EBNF) and logical algebra to specify both restrictive grammar rules. As a result, the model can present error guiding information for a query specification which owns incorrect grammar. The model not only suits well the processing of UMQL queries, but also has a guiding significance for other projects concerning query processings of descriptive query languages.

  14. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  15. Evolving stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, James WJ; Tataru, Paula Cristina; Stains, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Background Stochastic Context-Free Grammars (SCFGs) were applied successfully to RNA secondary structure prediction in the early 90s, and used in combination with comparative methods in the late 90s. The set of SCFGs potentially useful for RNA secondary structure prediction is very large, but a few...... intuitively designed grammars have remained dominant. In this paper we investigate two automatic search techniques for effective grammars - exhaustive search for very compact grammars and an evolutionary algorithm to find larger grammars. We also examine whether grammar ambiguity is as problematic...... to structure prediction as has been previously suggested. Results These search techniques were applied to predict RNA secondary structure on a maximal data set and revealed new and interesting grammars, though none are dramatically better than classic grammars. In general, results showed that many grammars...

  16. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  17. Bits of Experience in the Oral Practice of Teaching Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2002-01-01

    English learners may have such experience that most of them can't be able to speak English apropriately and fluently even if they have gained a lot of grammar knowledge. The approach of teaching grammar discussed in this paper focuses on training students' communicative ability. And it is benefical to stimulating the activeness and interest of students and fostering the ability to solve the problems independently.

  18. THE USE OF THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction Among the plethora of foreign language teaching methods and approaches there are the grammar-translation method, the direct method, the audiolingual method and the communicative approach to name but a few. Of the major methods, grammar-translation gets the most criticism and is thought to be obsolete. However, in my view it is suitable for China given the country’s present language learning situation, and, in practice, is not at all ineffectual.

  19. Computing FIRST and FOLLOW Functions for Feature-Theoretic Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, A

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for the computation of FIRST and FOLLOW sets for use with feature-theoretic grammars in which the value of the sets consists of pairs of feature-theoretic categories. The algorithm preserves as much information from the grammars as possible, using negative restriction to define equivalence classes. Addition of a simple data structure leads to an order of magnitude improvement in execution time over a naive implementation.

  20. A Theoretical Glimpse at Issues of Grammar Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海涛

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to the description of the status of grammar in the field of second language teaching now,recent literature bears witness a good deal of discussion about a ’grammar revival’. More recently,theoretical perspectives on language teaching and learning have changed. The possibilities and feasibility of integrating form - focus instruction and meaningful communicative activities in the communicative language classroom have been explored.