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Sample records for repetition cantonese articulation

  1. Repetition Priming Effects in Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin Bidialectals: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong

    2017-05-29

    The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.

  2. Articulation-based sound perception in verbal repetition: A functional NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejin eYoo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal repetition is a fundamental language capacity where listening and speaking are inextricably coupled with each other. We have recently reported that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG harbors articulation-based codes, as evidenced by activation during repetition of meaningless speech sounds, i.e., pseudowords. In this study, we aimed at confirming this finding and further investigating the possibility that sound perception as well as articulation is subserved by neural circuits in this region. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we monitored changes of hemoglobin (Hb concentration at IFG bilaterally, while subjects verbally repeated pseudowords and words. The results revealed that the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb over total Hb was significantly higher at the left IFG during repetition of pseudowords than that of words, replicating the observation by functional MRI and indicating that the region processes articulatory codes for verbal repetition. More importantly for this study, hemodynamic modulations were observed at both IFG during passive listening without repetition to various sounds, including natural environmental sounds, animal vocalizations, and human nonspeech sounds. Furthermore, the O2Hb concentration increased at the left IFG but decreased at the right IFG for both speech and non-speech sounds. These findings suggest that both speech and non-speech sounds may be processed and maintained by a neural mechanism for sensorimotor integration using articulatory codes at the left IFG.

  3. Preschool speech articulation and nonword repetition abilities may help predict eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2014-09-01

    In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9-5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (1) describe the current status of nonlinguistic and linguistic predictors for

  4. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  5. Cantonese versus Canadian Evaluation of Directive and Non-Directive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxer, Peter H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined differences between Canadian and Cantonese university students who read transcripts of Carl Rogers and Albert Ellis counseling sessions and rated these counselors on directiveness, forcefulness, repetitiveness, sensitivity, politeness, and willingness to see either Ellis or Rogers. Found Canadians more willing to see Rogers than Chinese…

  6. [Occlusion, articulated and articulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, J A

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the so-called 'normal' or 'ideal' occlusal relationships are described in static centric as well as in dynamic, eccentric positions. However, difference is made between the different occlusal concepts. There is no real antagonism between the 'physiologic occlusal concept' in natural dentition and the 'therapeutic occlusal concept' on which the treatment should be based in restoring the occlusion. The different forms of occlusion and articulation found in the natural dentition are the expression of physiologic, biological variations. The rest position of the mandible is an unreliable reference point in occlusal rehabilitation. Moderate attrition in older patients should not be considered as pathologic and there is no indication for treatment in absence of functional pathology.

  7. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2017-08-30

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  8. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  9. Segmental and suprasegmental features in speech perception in Cantonese-speaking second graders: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Chia-Ying; Zhang, Juan; Shuai, Lan; Maurer, Urs; Chung, Kevin K H

    2014-11-01

    Using a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm, this study examined second graders' brain responses to Cantonese speech. We aimed to address the question of whether a change in a consonant or lexical tone could be automatically detected by children. We measured auditory mismatch responses to place of articulation and voice onset time (VOT), reflecting segmental perception, as well as Cantonese lexical tones including level tone and contour tone, reflecting suprasegmental perception. The data showed that robust mismatch negativities (MMNs) were elicited by all deviants in the time window of 300-500 ms in second graders. Moreover, relative to the standard stimuli, the VOT deviant elicited a robust positive mismatch response, and the level tone deviant elicited a significant MMN in the time window of 150-300 ms. The findings suggest that Hong Kong second graders were sensitive to neural discriminations of speech sounds both at the segmental and suprasegmental levels.

  10. Cochlear implant in Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S O; Luk, W S; Lau, C C; So, K W; Wong, C M; Yiu, M L; Kwok, C L

    1990-11-01

    Cochlear implant surgery was performed in four Cantonese-speaking postlingually deaf Chinese adults, using the House/3M single channel device. This article outlines the methodology, including preoperative assessment and postoperative rehabilitation; and explains the necessary modifications in speech and audiologic work-up in Cantonese-speaking patients. Salient features of Cantonese phonetics, especially its tonal characteristics, are described. The findings of the study are presented. The results of the cochlear implant would suggest a performance superior to that of the hearing aid. Furthermore, the cochlear implant is able to detect tonal cues. This quality of the cochlear implant may prove to be a valuable asset to a tonal language-speaking cochlear implantee.

  11. Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.

  12. Cantonese Speakers' Memory for English Sentences with Prosodic Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Martha C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the nature and functions of prosody, and contrasts English and Cantonese for this feature of language as background for two experimental studies. Thirty Cantonese advanced speakers of English were tested for their recognition memory of English sentences in which prosody-cued meaning contrasts in otherwise identical sentence pairs. Results…

  13. The Acquisition of Locative Constructions in Cantonese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sik Lee

    A study investigated how Cantonese children acquire word order in the locative system, which is very complex in their native language. Focus was on three semantic categories: static location, locative source, and locative goal. Subjects were 32 monolingual Cantonese children aged 2.5 to 5.9 in four age groups. Each subject performed four tasks,…

  14. A Phonological Screening Tool for Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L.K.H.; Leung, C-S.S.

    2004-01-01

    To assess whether children have phonological disorders, we need to make use of screening tools of the child's first language. This paper describes and evaluates one published phonological screening tool that has been developed for Cantonese-speaking children, the Cantonese Segmental Phonology Test (CSPT). Such a test is also valid for assessing…

  15. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  16. Chinese-Cantonese: List of Basic Chinese-Cantonese Military Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    A list of 565 Chinese-Cantonese words commonly used in the discussion of military subjects is presented as part of the Defense Language Institute Program. It is designed to be used as a guide in future revisions of military lessons and as an aid for instructors in the classroom discussion of these terms. Contents are translations from English to…

  17. English and Cantonese Phonology in Contrast: Explaining Cantonese ESL Learners' English Pronunciation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.; Li, David C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that most pronunciation problems encountered by Cantonese learners of English may be adequately accounted for by contrastive differences. The phonological differences between the two languages are examined, ranging from their phoneme inventories, the characteristics of the phonemes, the distributions of the phoneme syllable structure, to…

  18. Health Information in Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cantonese dialect)) PDF California Department of Health Services Refugee Health Section Drug Abuse Substance Abuse or Dependence - ... dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Postpartum Depression Emotional Changes After Giving Birth - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese ...

  19. Virtual articulators in prosthodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.S., Gugwad; M., Basavakumar; K., Abhijeet; M., Arvind; M., Sudhindra; C., Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Virtual technologies in dentistry provide better education and training by simulating complex contexts and enhancing procedures that are traditionally limited, such as work with mechanical articulator...

  20. The acquisition of phonology by Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L K; Dodd, B J

    1995-10-01

    Little is known about the acquisition of phonology by children learning Cantonese as their first language. This paper describes the phoneme repertoires and phonological error patterns used by 268 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;0 to 6;0, as well as a longitudinal study of tone acquisition by four children aged 1;2 to 2;0. Children had mastered the contrastive use of tones and vowels by two years. While the order of acquisition of consonants was similar to that reported for English, the rate of acquisition was more rapid. The developmental error patterns used by more than 10% of children are also reported as common in other languages. However, specific rules associated with Cantonese phonology were also identified. Few phonological errors were made after age four. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ambient language influences the implementation of universal tendencies in phonological acquisition.

  1. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Tong

    Full Text Available This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role

  2. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Lee, Meg Mei Ling; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  3. Dysprosody and Stimulus Effects in Cantonese Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. Aims: To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with…

  4. Investigating Cantonese Speakers' Language Attitudes in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Dana Funywe; Zhao, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) has often been considered a monolithic, monolingual state but, in fact, it is linguistically and culturally diverse. Despite the size, there is still a lack of sociolinguistic studies on the Han Chinese in the PRC. Therefore, this study focuses on the language attitudes of Cantonese-speaking students in…

  5. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  6. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  7. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Q.; Li, X.

    2015-01-01

    Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area – Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional gard...

  8. The virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisler, A; Bockholt, U; Kordass, B; Suchan, M; Voss, G

    2002-01-01

    The virtual articulator (VA) is intended for use as a tool for the analysis fo the complex static and dynamic occlusal relations. Its chief application is in individual diagnosis and the simulation of the mechanical articulator. As entry data, the VA requires digital, 3-dimensional representations of the jaws and patient-specific data on jaw movement. It then simulates jaw movement and provides a dynamic visualization of the occlusal contacts. If no patient-specific data are available, the modus operandi of the mechanical articulator can be simulated. Virtual reality (VR) techniques applied in computer-aided diagnosis are revolutionizing medical routine in many disciplines. Particularly in the field of dental engineering, VR combined with CAD/CAM technology has great potential in implant planning and design in terms of greater precision and shorter treatment duration. The geometry of teeth can be digitized, the implant models can be designed with specialized CAD systems, and the final implants can be manufactured with a CNC machine. In this context, the virtual articulator completes the digital manufacturing process.

  9. Rehabilitation effect of Cantonese training for Cantonese motility dysarthria%粤语训练对卒中后粤语运动性构音障碍患者的康复效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 王璇; 李胜活; 潘翠环; 陈艳; 张朝霞; 谢晓娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment effect of using pronunciation standards of Canto nese romanization scheme in combination with motor function training of the articulatory organs in patients with Cantonese dvsarthria. Methods A total of 58 patients with motility dysarthria caused by cerebral infarction who met the inclusion criteria and whose native language was Cantonese were enrolled respectively according to the order of odd and even numbers. They were divided into either a Cantonese training group (n = 29) or a mandarin training group ( n - 29). The severity of dysfunction was assessed by Frenchay dysarthria assessment 4 weeks before and after treatment. Both groups received the motor function training and pronunciation training of the articulation organs. The pronunciation training program of the Cantonese training group was evaluated according to the Cantonese romanization scheme; and the mandarin training group was evaluated using the dysarthria assessment method of the China Rehabilitation Research Center (CRRC). Results ①Four weeks after treatment, the patients with normal pronunciation were 37.9% (11/29) and 17.2% (5/29) respectively, and those with mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe dysarthria were 37. 9% (11/29) and 27.6% (8/29),13.8% (4/29) and 34.5% (10/29),7.0% (2/ 29) and 13.8% (4/29), 3.4% (1/29) and7.0% (2/29), respectively in the Cantonese training group and mandarin training group. There were significant differences between the two groups (P = 0. 04). ②There were significant differences in comparing the severity of dysarthria before and after treatment be- tween the two groups (χ2 =21.85, P =0. 000; χ2 =6. 33 , P = 0.012). ③The effective rates in the Cantonese training group and the mandarin training group after treatment were 89. 7% (26/29) and 65. 5% (19/29) respectively. The difference was statistically significant (χ2 =3.99, P= 0.028). Conclusion The therapeutic scheme used by the Cantonese training group may more

  10. Differences in vocal characteristics between Cantonese and English produced by proficient Cantonese-English bilingual speakers--a long-term average spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang; Chan, Ellen Y K

    2012-07-01

    The present study objectively examined the possible difference in vocal characteristics associated with English and Cantonese produced by proficient Cantonese-English bilingual speakers. Forty native speakers of Cantonese (20 males and 20 females) who were proficient in Cantonese and English participated in the study. An array of acoustical parameters, including fundamental frequency (F0) values and first spectral peak (FSP), mean spectral energy (MSE), and spectral tilt (ST) extracted from long-term average speech spectra were obtained from connected speech samples produced in Cantonese and English by the bilingual speakers. Acoustical parameters were measured using Praat (P. Boersma & D. Weenink, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and used to objectively describe the voice quality. Results indicated that female bilingual speakers had significantly higher F0 values in speaking English than Cantonese. Although exhibiting comparable FSP values, the bilingual speakers showed significantly higher MSE and lower ST values when speaking Cantonese compared with English. The present findings imply that, even with the same phonatory apparatus, language being spoken can have an effect on the speakers' voice quality. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were…

  12. A Quantitative Study of Right Dislocation in Cantonese Spoken Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Christy Choi-Ting; Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2017-01-01

    Right Dislocation (RD) has been suggested to be a focus marking device carrying an affective function motivated by limited planning time in conversation. The current study investigated the effects of genre type, planning load and affective function on the use of RD in Cantonese monologues. Discourse data were extracted from a recently developed corpus of oral narratives in Cantonese Chinese containing language samples from 144 native Cantonese speakers evenly distributed in age, education levels and gender. Three genre types representing different structures, styles and degrees of topic familiarity were chosen for an RD analysis: procedural description, story-telling and recount of personal event. The results revealed that genre types and planning load influenced the rate of RD occurrence. (1) Specifically, the lowest proportion of RD occurred in procedural description, assumed to be the most structured genre; whereas the highest rate was found in personal event recount, considered to be the most stylized and less structured genre. (2) The highest proportion of RD appeared near the end of a narrative, where heavier cognitive load is demanded compared with the beginning of a narrative; moreover, RD also tended to co-occur with disfluency. (3) There was a high percentage of RD tokens in the personal event recount for expressing explicit emotions; and (4) a lower rate of occurrence of RD was found in monologues than previous studies based on conversations. The overall findings suggest that the use of RD is sensitive to genre structure and style, as well as planning load effects.

  13. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  14. Teacher-Artist Partnership in Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools: Student Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah; Leung, Eddie C. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine how and why students transform in terms of learning motivation in learning the Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in Hong Kong schools. An artist and seven teachers from four schools collaborated to teach the genre for eight weeks. Students' learning motivation changes in Cantonese opera was…

  15. The Acquisition of Cantonese Classifiers by Preschool Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Li, Hui; Leung, Shing On

    2007-01-01

    The Cantonese language has a complex classifier system and young learners need to pay attention to both the semantics and syntax of classifiers. This study investigated the repertoire of classifiers produced by 492 Cantonese-speaking preschoolers in three age groups (3;0, 4;0 and 5;0). Spontaneous utterances produced in 30-minute toy-play contexts…

  16. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  17. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Li, X.

    2015-08-01

    Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area - Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  18. Factors that enhance English-speaking speech-language pathologists' transcription of Cantonese-speaking children's consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-08-01

    To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Task 1 (baseline) involved transcribing English words. In Task 2, students transcribed 25 words spoken by a Cantonese adult. An average of 59.1% consonants was transcribed correctly (72.9% when Cantonese-English transfer patterns were allowed). There was higher accuracy on shared English and Cantonese syllable-initial consonants /m,n,f,s,h,j,w,l/ and syllable-final consonants. In Task 3, students identified consonant errors and transcribed 100 words spoken by Cantonese-speaking children under 4 additive conditions: (1) baseline, (2) +adult model, (3) +information about Cantonese phonology, and (4) all variables (2 and 3 were counterbalanced). There was a significant improvement in the students' identification and transcription scores for conditions 2, 3, and 4, with a moderate effect size. Increased skill was not based on listeners' proficiency in speaking another language, perceived transcription skill, musicality, or confidence with multilingual clients. Speech-language pathology students, with no exposure to or specific training in Cantonese, have some skills to identify errors and transcribe Cantonese. Provision of a Cantonese-adult model and information about Cantonese phonology increased students' accuracy in transcribing Cantonese speech.

  19. Face bow and articulator for planning orthognathic surgery: 2 articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Fraser; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Moos, Khursheed F; Barbenel, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Patients who require orthognathic surgery may have asymmetry of the position of the temporomandibular joints relative to the maxilla, which is impossible to reproduce on the current semiadjustable articulators used for surgical planning. We describe a highly-adjustable spirit level orthognathic face bow that allows records to be made of patients with asymmetrical maxillae. The orthognathic articulator also allows the position of the condylar components of the articulator to be adjusted in three dimensions. The use of the new face bow and articulator made it possible to mount the dental casts of asymmetrical faces to reproduce their clinical appearance. The devices were evaluated by comparing the measurements of anatomical variables obtained from cephalometric radiographs with equivalent values obtained from the orthognathic articulator and casts mounted on the articulator. Although the measurements showed significant intersubject variability, the angle between the horizontal and maxillary occlusal plane, occlusal cant angle, and intercondylar widths, were not significantly different.

  20. Articulator selection for restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, S; Shillingburg, H T; Whitsett, L D

    1976-07-01

    There are many types of articulators that can be used for making fixed restorations. While unquestionably the most accurate, the fully adjustable instrument is not feasible or necessary for many forms of simple occlusal treatment. The effects of tooth-hinge axis radius, intercondylar distance, and condylar inclination on occlusal morphology have been discussed. Guidelines have been proposed for matching the type of articulator with the extent of treatment anticipated. The use of small, nonadjustable hinge articulators is not recommended.

  1. Dysprosody and stimulus effects in Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K-Y; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S-K

    2010-01-01

    Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease, and to determine the effect of different types of speech stimuli on the perceptual rating of prosody. Speech data in the form of sentence reading, passage reading, and monologue were collected from ten Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. Perceptual analysis was conducted on ten prosodic parameters to evaluate five dimensions of prosody, based on a theoretical framework: pitch, loudness, duration, voice quality, and degree of reduction. The results showed that the most severely affected prosodic parameters were monopitch, harsh voice, and monoloudness, followed by breathy voice and prolonged interval. Differences were noted between speakers with mild and moderate dysprosody. No statistically significant differences were found between the three types of stimuli. However, qualitative analysis revealed noticeable differences between the three stimuli in two speakers. The prosodic profile of Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria is similar to those of other languages (for example, English). The involvement of two new dimensions in the definition of prosody (voice quality and degree of reduction) provides additional insight in differentiating patients with mild and moderate dysarthria. Further investigation on the use of speech materials in the clinical evaluation of speech prosody in speakers with dysarthria is needed, as no single task was found to represent a patient's performance under all circumstances.

  2. Phonological units in spoken word production: insights from Cantonese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andus Wing-Kuen Wong

    Full Text Available Evidence from previous psycholinguistic research suggests that phonological units such as phonemes have a privileged role during phonological planning in Dutch and English (aka the segment-retrieval hypothesis. However, the syllable-retrieval hypothesis previously proposed for Mandarin assumes that only the entire syllable unit (without the tone can be prepared in advance in speech planning. Using Cantonese Chinese as a test case, the present study was conducted to investigate whether the syllable-retrieval hypothesis can be applied to other Chinese spoken languages. In four implicit priming (form-preparation experiments, participants were asked to learn various sets of prompt-response di-syllabic word pairs and to utter the corresponding response word upon seeing each prompt. The response words in a block were either phonologically related (homogeneous or unrelated (heterogeneous. Participants' naming responses were significantly faster in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous conditions when the response words shared the same word-initial syllable (without the tone (Exps.1 and 4 or body (Exps.3 and 4, but not when they shared merely the same word-initial phoneme (Exp.2. Furthermore, the priming effect observed in the syllable-related condition was significantly larger than that in the body-related condition (Exp. 4. Although the observed syllable priming effects and the null effect of word-initial phoneme are consistent with the syllable-retrieval hypothesis, the body-related (sub-syllabic priming effects obtained in this Cantonese study are not. These results suggest that the syllable-retrieval hypothesis is not generalizable to all Chinese spoken languages and that both syllable and sub-syllabic constituents are legitimate planning units in Cantonese speech production.

  3. Operating Guangzhou Hotel Industry with Service Concept of Cantonese Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As the completion of New Baiyun International Airport and Pazhou International Conference Center and the fast development of exhibition industry, the commerce and trade position of Guangzhou (the historical and cultural international city) is growing with each passing day. With the Cantonese food service concept and guest receiving methods of "Culture, Trend,Friendly and Hospitality", Guangzhou hotel industry has won the satisfaction from domestic and foreign businessmen and tourists. With the cultural tinge of and trend of Lingnan, Guangzhou hotels have become the display window to foreign guests. Guangzhou hotels treat all the guests very well during the spring and autumn China Export Commodities Fairs.

  4. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe......, imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool...

  5. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  6. The psychoacoustics of musical articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Scott Charles

    This dissertation develops psychoacoustical definitions of notated articulations, the necessary first step in articulation research. This research can be useful to theorists interested in timbre analysis, the psychology of performance, analysis and performance, the psychology of style differentiation, and performance pedagogy. An explanation of wavelet transforms precedes the development of new techniques for analyzing transient sounds. A history of timbre perception research reveals the inadequacies of current sound segmentation models, resulting in the creation of a new model, the Pitch/Amplitude/Centroid Trajectory (PACT) model of sound segmentation. The new analysis techniques and PACT model are used to analyze recordings of performers playing a melodic fragment in a series of notated articulations. Statistical tests showed that the performers generally agreed on the interpretation of five different articulation groups. A cognitive test of articulation similarity, using musicians and non-musicians as participants, revealed a close correlation between similarity judgments and physical attributes, though additional unknown factors are clearly present. A second psychological test explored the perceptual salience of articulation notation, by asking musically-trained participants to match stimuli to the same notations the performers used. The participants also marked verbal descriptors for each articulation, such as short/long, sharp/dull, loud/soft, harsh/gentle, and normal/extreme. These results were matched against the results of Chapters Five and Six, providing an overall interpretation of the psychoacoustics of articulation.

  7. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  8. The development of discourse referencing in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M Y; Johnston, Judith R

    2004-08-01

    The ability to make clear reference in connected discourse was examined in children learning Cantonese, a Chinese language where noun phrase constituents, whatever their grammatical role, are omissible from sentences under discourse conditions that are not well-understood. Forty-three typically developing children aged 3 ; 0, 5 ; 0, 7 ; 0 and 12 ; 0 told 16 stories based on picture sequences. A panel of adult native Cantonese speakers was asked to judge the referential adequacy of each child's stories by identifying the character the child was talking about in 32 targeted referential acts. The targeted acts were of three sorts: MAINTENANCE of a known character, INTRODUCTION of a second new character, and REINTRODUCTION of a known character. Reference was judged to be adequate when 3 out of 4 'listeners' could successfully identify the character. Children's referential expressions were most adequate for Maintenance, less adequate for Introduction, and least adequate for Reintroduction. The twelve- and seven-year-olds approached ceiling on all three functions. The five-year-olds scored poorly on Reintroduction, and the three-year-olds failed both Introduction and Reintroduction, despite knowledge of at least one of the possible linguistic forms required for these acts as evidenced in a sentence imitation task. Viewed within the framework of Levelt's (1989) discourse model, the data improve our understanding of the developmental period during which children learn to make appropriate presuppositions about the listener's knowledge and attentional states.

  9. Recognizing articulated objects and object articulation in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III; Ahn, Joon S.

    1998-09-01

    The focus of this paper is recognizing articulated objects and the pose of the articulated parts in SAR images. Using SAR scattering center locations as features, the invariance with articulation (i.e. turret rotation for the T72, T80 and M1a tanks, missile erect vs. down for the SCUD launcher) is shown as a function of object azimuth. Similar data is shown for configuration differences in the MSTAR (Public) Targets. The UCR model-based recognition engine (which uses non- articulated models to recognize articulated, occluded and non-standard configuration objects) is described and target identification performance results are given as confusion matrices and ROC curves for six inch and one foot resolution XPATCH images and the one foot resolution MSTAR data. Separate body and turret models are developed that are independent of the relative positions between the body and the turret. These models are used with a subsequent matching technique to refine the pose of the body and determine the pose of the turret. An expression of the probability that a random match will occur is derived and this function is used to set thresholds to minimize the probability of a random match for the recognition system. Results for identification, body pose and turret pose are presented as a function of percent occlusion for articulated XPATCH data and results are given for identification and body pose for articulated MSTAR data.

  10. Lingual articulation in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Rothgerber, John R; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    2016-02-01

    Lingual articulation in humans is one of the primary means of vocal tract resonance filtering that produces the characteristic vowel formants of speech. In songbirds, the function of the tongue in song has not been thoroughly examined, although recent research has identified the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity as a resonance filter that is actively tuned to the frequency of the song. In northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), the volume of this cavity is inversely proportional to the frequency of the song above 2 kHz. However, cardinal song extends below this range, leaving the question of whether and how the vocal tract is tracking these low frequencies. We investigated the possible role of the tongue in vocal tract filtering using X-ray cineradiography of northern cardinals. Below 2 kHz, there was prominent tongue elevation in which the tip of the tongue was raised until it seemed to touch the palate. These results suggest that tongue elevation lowers the resonance frequency below 2 kHz by reducing the area of the passage from the oral cavity into the beak. This is consistent with a computational model of the songbird vocal tract in which resonance frequencies are actively adjusted by both changing the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and constricting the opening into the beak.

  11. Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

    2012-02-01

    The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants.

  12. Probabilistic Phonotactics as a Cue for Recognizing Spoken Cantonese Words in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C W

    2017-02-01

    Previous experimental psycholinguistic studies suggested that the probabilistic phonotactics information might likely to hint the locations of word boundaries in continuous speech and hence posed an interesting solution to the empirical question on how we recognize/segment individual spoken word in speech. We investigated this issue by using Cantonese language as a testing case in the present study. A word-spotting task was used in which listeners were instructed to spot any Cantonese word from a series of nonsense sound sequences. We found that it was easier for the native Cantonese listeners to spot the target word in the nonsense sound sequences with high transitional probability phoneme combinations than those with low transitional probability phoneme combinations. These results concluded that native Cantonese listeners did make use of the transitional probability information to recognize the spoken word in speech.

  13. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  14. The sounds of sarcasm in English and Cantonese: A cross-linguistic production and perception study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Henry S.

    Three studies were conducted to examine the acoustic markers of sarcasm in English and in Cantonese, and the manner in which such markers are perceived across these languages. The first study consisted of acoustic analyses of sarcastic utterances spoken in English to verify whether particular prosodic cues correspond to English sarcastic speech. Native English speakers produced utterances expressing sarcasm, sincerity, humour, or neutrality. Measures taken from each utterance included fundamental frequency (F0), amplitude, speech rate, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR, to probe voice quality), and one-third octave spectral values (to probe resonance). The second study was conducted to ascertain whether specific acoustic features marked sarcasm in Cantonese and how such features compare with English sarcastic prosody. The elicitation and acoustic analysis methods from the first study were applied to similarly-constructed Cantonese utterances spoken by native Cantonese speakers. Direct acoustic comparisons between Cantonese and English sarcasm exemplars were also made. To further test for cross-linguistic prosodic cues of sarcasm and to assess whether sarcasm could be conveyed across languages, a cross-linguistic perceptual study was then performed. A subset of utterances from the first two studies was presented to naive listeners fluent in either Cantonese or English. Listeners had to identify the attitude in each utterance regardless of language of presentation. Sarcastic utterances in English (regardless of text) were marked by lower mean F0 and reductions in HNR and F0 standard deviation (relative to comparison attitudes). Resonance changes, reductions in both speech rate and F0 range signalled sarcasm in conjunction with some vocabulary terms. By contrast, higher mean F0, amplitude range reductions, and F0 range restrictions corresponded with sarcastic utterances spoken in Cantonese regardless of text. For Cantonese, reduced speech rate and higher HNR interacted

  15. Verbal short-term memory and language impairments in Cantonese speakers after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Diana Wai-Lam; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Koon, Nim-Ting

    2017-02-21

    The study examined the relationship between verbal short-term memory (STM) and language impairment in Cantonese speakers after stroke. It is hypothesised that Cantonese speakers with left-hemisphere (LH) stroke would perform worse than those with right hemisphere (RH) stroke and normal controls. Specific linguistic factors of Cantonese might affect results in the tasks. Fifteen participants with LH stroke, 10 with RH stroke and 25 healthy controls were tested with auditory-verbal immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks and auditory linguistic tasks. All stroke participants were assessed with the Cantonese version of Western Aphasia Battery (CAB). The LH group performed significantly worse than the RH and healthy control groups in the auditory verbal ISR and auditory linguistic tasks. There were significant lexicality, frequency and imageability effects in most tasks. Auditory discrimination and word comprehension tasks, but not the auditory word recognition task had correlations with ISR tasks. Verbal STM and language performance of Cantonese-speakers with history of LH stroke were inferior to RH stroke and healthy controls. The effects of lexicality, word frequency and imageability on verbal STM memory performance were found. Cantonese tones have effects on performance in auditory word recognition task, similar to onset, nucleus and rime.

  16. Articulation Points in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Liang; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, e.g. the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a novel perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process is associated with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions with a rich phase diagram. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  17. Articulation points in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  18. Articulation points in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks. PMID:28139697

  19. Vowel articulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodda, Sabine; Visser, Wenke; Schlegel, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze vowel articulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) speakers suffering from mild hypokinetic dysarthria as compared with healthy controls in correlation to net speech rate (NSR) and intonation variability (F(0)SD). Furthermore, we intended to reveal possible correlations among vowel articulation, global motor performance, and stage of disease. We examined 68 PD patients (34 male) with mild dysarthria (1 point according to the "speech" item 18 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale/UPDRS-III) and 32 age-matched control persons (16 male) using a reading task with subsequent acoustical analysis. F1 and F2 frequency values of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were extracted from defined words within the text. Description of vowel articulation was based on measures of triangular vowel space area (tVSA) and Vowel Articulation Index (VAI). PD patients were scored according to UPDRS-III and Hoehn and Yahr stages. VAI values were significantly reduced in male and female PD patients as compared with the accordant control group, whereas tVSA was only reduced in the male PD speakers. NSR was negatively correlated to tVSA and VAI only in female PD speakers. No correlations were seen between vowel articulation and UPDRS-III and stage of disease. VAI seem to be superior to tVSA in the description of impaired vowel articulation in PD. Reduced VAI could be detected in male and female parkinsonian speakers suffering only from mild dysarthria with preserved speech intelligibility and therefore might be applicable to identify subclinical changes of vowel articulation. Moreover, some aspects of altered speech performance in PD seem to feature some gender-specific patterns, which justify further investigation. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3150 Articulator. (a) Identification. An articulator is a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulator. 872.3150 Section 872.3150 Food and... the patient's jaws. An articulator is intended to fit dentures or provide orthodontic treatment....

  1. A phonetic approach to consonant repetition in early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Davis, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate movement-based principles for understanding early speech output patterns. Consonant repetition patterns within children's actual productions of word forms were analyzed using spontaneous speech data from 10 typically developing American-English learning children between 12 and 36 months of age. Place of articulation, word level patterns, and developmental trends in CVC and CVCV repeated word forms were evaluated. Labial and coronal place repetitions dominated. Regressive repetition (e.g., [gag] for "dog") occurred frequently in CVC but not in CVCV word forms. Consonant repetition decreased over time. However, the children produced sound types available reported as being within young children's production system capabilities in consonant repetitions in all time periods. Findings suggest that a movement-based approach can provide a framework for comprehensively characterizing consonant place repetition patterns in early speech development.

  2. Teachers' Transformation as Learning: Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools with a Teacher-Artist Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government has advocated teaching Cantonese opera in the school music curriculum to promote Chinese culture education. This longitudinal study aims to examine how and why teachers transform within 3 years in learning and teaching Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in schools. Five primary and two secondary…

  3. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  4. Teachers' Transformation as Learning: Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools with a Teacher-Artist Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government has advocated teaching Cantonese opera in the school music curriculum to promote Chinese culture education. This longitudinal study aims to examine how and why teachers transform within 3 years in learning and teaching Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in schools. Five primary and two secondary…

  5. Language Proficiency and Early Literacy Skills of Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average,…

  6. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  7. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Processes in Word Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S.; Duran, Gabriela; Augustini, Beatriz K.; Luevano, Genoveva; Arzate, Jose C.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    Translation in fluent bilinguals requires comprehension of a stimulus word and subsequent production, or retrieval and articulation, of the response word. Four repetition-priming experiments with Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 274) decomposed these processes using selective facilitation to evaluate their unique priming contributions and factorial…

  8. The articulator: a diagnostic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Philip L

    2002-01-01

    The success of dental restorations depends on how we view the existing occlusion. Clinicians may be confounded with what aspects of the occlusion will contribute to the success of a restoration. This information can be reviewed with the dental laboratory when it is stored in a dental articulator in the form of dental casts with simulated movements.

  9. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker’s native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich experience using Mandarin Chinese, the Cantonese speakers had problems distinguishing specific Mandarin segmental and tonal contrasts that do not exist in Guangzhou Cantonese. However, we found evidence that the subtle differences between two members of a contrast were nonetheless represented in the lexicon. We also found different processing patterns for non-native segmental versus non-native tonal contrasts. The results provide substantial new information about the representation and processing of segmental and prosodic information by individuals listening to a closely-related, very well-learned, but still non-native language. PMID:22707849

  10. Occlusion: 3. Articulators and related instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Alex

    2003-11-01

    Dental articulators are instruments that reproduce jaw movements to varying degrees of accuracy. This article aims to give an overview of the various types of articulator and describe their applications and limitations.

  11. FCC in Viking articulated boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application requirements and manufacturing techniques for the flat conductor cable used in the Viking Lander Articulated Boom Unit are described. The Viking Boom is a 3-axis device utilized to position a soil sampler and provide digging forces. This application imposed severe restrictions on size, weight, materials, and choice of manufacturing processes. The final cable assembly design resulted in a combination of collated cable and flexible circuits assembled by resistance welding techniques.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...

  13. Imprecise vowel articulation as a potential early marker of Parkinson's disease: effect of speaking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Cmejla, Roman; Tykalova, Tereza; Ruzickova, Hana; Klempir, Jiri; Majerova, Veronika; Picmausova, Jana; Roth, Jan; Ruzicka, Evzen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze vowel articulation across various speaking tasks in a group of 20 early Parkinson's disease (PD) individuals prior to pharmacotherapy. Vowels were extracted from sustained phonation, sentence repetition, reading passage, and monologue. Acoustic analysis was based upon measures of the first (F1) and second (F2) formant of the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, vowel space area (VSA), F2i/F2u and vowel articulation index (VAI). Parkinsonian speakers manifested abnormalities in vowel articulation across F2u, VSA, F2i/F2u, and VAI in all speaking tasks except sustained phonation, compared to 15 age-matched healthy control participants. Findings suggest that sustained phonation is an inappropriate task to investigate vowel articulation in early PD. In contrast, monologue was the most sensitive in differentiating between controls and PD patients, with classification accuracy up to 80%. Measurements of vowel articulation were able to capture even minor abnormalities in speech of PD patients with no perceptible dysarthria. In conclusion, impaired vowel articulation may be considered as a possible early marker of PD. A certain type of speaking task can exert significant influence on vowel articulation. Specifically, complex tasks such as monologue are more likely to elicit articulatory deficits in parkinsonian speech, compared to other speaking tasks.

  14. A Language Stimulation Analysis of Cantonese-English Bilingual Infants in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study measured naturalistic language stimulation in Hong Kong among eight bilingual (Cantonese, English) infants. Two findings were that (a) infants received more indirect (adult-to-adult) than direct (adult-to-infant) language stimulation and (b) infants received 6.8 [hours] of language stimulation per day with more fillers, vocatives, and…

  15. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  16. Common and Distinct Cognitive Bases for Reading in English-Cantonese Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the relationship between phonological awareness and early reading for bilingual children learning to read in two languages that use different writing systems. Participants were 57 Cantonese-English bilingual 6-year-olds who were learning to read in both languages. The children completed cognitive measures, phonological awareness…

  17. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Production of English Speech Sounds: Problems and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the production of English speech sounds by advanced Cantonese ESL learners in Hong Kong. A total of forty university students participated in the study, which included three speech production tasks investigating participants' production of target English speech sounds in isolated words, minimal pairs and passages. The…

  18. Acquisition of Mental State Language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…

  19. Is the Expressive Vocabulary of Young Cantonese Speakers Noun or Verb Dominated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam; Chan, Carol; Li, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous utterances produced by 492 Cantonese-speaking children aged 36-60 months in 30-minute toy play contexts were collected. The incidence and percentage of different lexical classes, the ratio of noun and verb types and tokens were calculated. A statistically significant predominance of verb usage was found in the expressive utterances…

  20. Asking for Action or Information? Crosslinguistic Comparison of Interrogative Functions in Early Child Cantonese and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei; Tse, Shek Kam; Leung, Shing On; Ye, Qianling

    2015-01-01

    Request for information (RfI) is believed to be the universally dominant function of young children's questioning, whereas request for action (RfA) has been reported to be the leading interrogative form used in early child Cantonese. The possibility of crosslinguistic variability prompts further research and comparison with additional languages.…

  1. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Production of English Speech Sounds: Problems and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the production of English speech sounds by advanced Cantonese ESL learners in Hong Kong. A total of forty university students participated in the study, which included three speech production tasks investigating participants' production of target English speech sounds in isolated words, minimal pairs and passages. The…

  2. Assessing Learning Control of English Hedges among Tertiary Cantonese-Speaking EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2014-01-01

    This project was designed to try to investigate the difficulties EFL learners would have in learning to use hedging as a rhetorical device in academic writing. The participants were 136 native Cantonese-speaking EFL students who enrolled in the one-year course "English for Academic Purposes" offered by a language centre at a university…

  3. Production quality of /r/ and /l/ liquids among Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Donald

    2005-04-01

    Perceptual interference theories suggest L2 language learners produce phonemes based on their native language phonology (Iverson et al., 2004, Cognition). This present study investigated the impact of differing native language segmental inventories on the acquisition of the English r/l contrast. Northern Mandarin dialects exhibit coda /r/ similar to the English bunched /r/, while Cantonese exhibits no r-like liquids (Gick et al., 2003, under review). The Mandarin segmental inventory provides more of a basis for acquiring the English r/l contrast than the Cantonese inventory. It is therefore predicted that Mandarin speakers will acquire the r/l contrast with a lower level of experience with English than the Cantonese speakers. One Cantonese and two Mandarin ESL learners produced r/l sounds in minimally contrastive English words in simple and complex onset, coda, and intervocalic positions. The data were analyzed in two ways. Four native English listeners were asked to judge for each word whether the target consonant was /r/ or /l/. Also, ultrasound tongue images were analyzed for component /r/ and /l/ gestures. Results provided partial support for the hypothesis. Implications for theories of second language acquisition will be discussed.

  4. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  5. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  6. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  7. Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Zoe W. Y.; So, Lydia K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the phonological skills of 2 groups of Cantonese-speaking children with prelingual, profound bilateral hearing loss. The phonological abilities of 7 children fitted with hearing aids were compared with the abilities of 7 children who wore cochlear implants. Method: Participants in each group ranged in age from 5;1…

  8. Sociolinguistic Awareness and False Belief in Young Cantonese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him; Mak, Wing Yan; Luo, Xueying; Xiao, Wen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether sociolinguistic awareness and false belief were uniquely related in 3- and 4-year-old Cantonese-speaking children learning English as a second language. The English-use background of these children varied so that they possessed sociolinguistic awareness to different degrees. Results indicated that sociolinguistic…

  9. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  10. Cantonese version of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS: Validation for stroke survivors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Hiu Ping Lam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stroke-induced cognitive impairments are critical predictors of poor functional outcomes. They adversely affect recovery and reduce independent performance of basic activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (Zinn et al., 2004. Choices of cognitive assessment tools specific to the Cantonese speaking stroke population in Hong Kong are limited. The Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia Battery (Cantonese-WAB was specifically developed for examining language impairments. The Cantonese version of MMSE (Cantonese-MMSE and Hong Kong Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA, designed to detect cognitive deficits associated with dementia, lacked important measures of writing, neglect, and praxis where impairments were commonly found in stroke. More critically, most tasks in these two screeners required relatively intact auditory comprehension and verbal responses from participants. Presence of aphasia can, therefore, lead to underestimation of cognitive abilities. Aims Extending Chan et al.’s (2013 development of a Cantonese version of the Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS to be used in Hong Kong, our first aim was to validate the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS, built on similar principles to the BCoS test but is shorter (15 minutes and can be used in acute settings, for Cantonese-speaking stroke survivors. This tool, including assessment of aphasia, apraxia, attention, memory, and spatial neglect, was designed to be neglect- and aphasia-friendly by using multi-modal presentation, forced-choice testing procedures, and vertical layouts. The second aim was to determine which cognitive domain(s in HK-OCS would best predict functional outcomes. Procedures Seventy normal individuals were recruited to establish the normative data of HK-OCS. Norm was developed for three age groups (59 years. Direct percentile conversions for each sub-test scores were used and cut-off scores were set at the top 5th percentile. Forty six native Cantonese

  11. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  12. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  13. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  14. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language (ESL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.

  15. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  16. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  17. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  18. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  19. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  20. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted bef...

  1. Dutch-Cantonese Bilinguals Show Segmental Processing during Sinitic Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinka Timmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the debate on the primacy of syllable vs. segment (i.e., phoneme as a functional unit of phonological encoding in syllabic languages by investigating both behavioral and neural responses of Dutch-Cantonese (DC bilinguals in a color-object picture naming task. Specifically, we investigated whether DC bilinguals exhibit the phonemic processing strategy, evident in monolingual Dutch speakers, during planning of their Cantonese speech production. Participants named the color of colored line-drawings in Cantonese faster when color and object matched in the first segment than when they were mismatched (e.g., 藍駱駝, /laam4/ /lok3to4/, “blue camel;” 紅饑駝, /hung4/ /lok3to4/, “red camel”. This is in contrast to previous studies in Sinitic languages that did not reveal such phoneme-only facilitation. Phonemic overlap also modulated the event-related potentials (ERPs in the 125–175, 200–300, and 300–400 ms time windows, suggesting earlier ERP modulations than in previous studies with monolingual Sinitic speakers or unbalanced Sinitic-Germanic bilinguals. Conjointly, our results suggest that, while the syllable may be considered the primary unit of phonological encoding in Sinitic languages, the phoneme can serve as the primary unit of phonological encoding, both behaviorally and neurally, for DC bilinguals. The presence/absence of a segment onset effect in Sinitic languages may be related to the proficiency in the Germanic language of bilinguals.

  2. Dutch-Cantonese Bilinguals Show Segmental Processing during Sinitic Language Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Kalinka; Chen, Yiya

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the debate on the primacy of syllable vs. segment (i.e., phoneme) as a functional unit of phonological encoding in syllabic languages by investigating both behavioral and neural responses of Dutch-Cantonese (DC) bilinguals in a color-object picture naming task. Specifically, we investigated whether DC bilinguals exhibit the phonemic processing strategy, evident in monolingual Dutch speakers, during planning of their Cantonese speech production. Participants named the color of colored line-drawings in Cantonese faster when color and object matched in the first segment than when they were mismatched (e.g., , /laam4/ /lok3to4/, "blue camel;" , /hung4/ /lok3to4/, "red camel"). This is in contrast to previous studies in Sinitic languages that did not reveal such phoneme-only facilitation. Phonemic overlap also modulated the event-related potentials (ERPs) in the 125-175, 200-300, and 300-400 ms time windows, suggesting earlier ERP modulations than in previous studies with monolingual Sinitic speakers or unbalanced Sinitic-Germanic bilinguals. Conjointly, our results suggest that, while the syllable may be considered the primary unit of phonological encoding in Sinitic languages, the phoneme can serve as the primary unit of phonological encoding, both behaviorally and neurally, for DC bilinguals. The presence/absence of a segment onset effect in Sinitic languages may be related to the proficiency in the Germanic language of bilinguals.

  3. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  4. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  5. Articulation effects in melody recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee Hun Lim, Stephen; Goh, Winston D

    2013-09-01

    Various surface features-timbre, tempo, and pitch-influence melody recognition memory, but articulation format effects, if any, remain unknown. For the first time, these effects were examined. In Experiment 1, melodies that remained in the same, or appeared in a different but similar, articulation format from study to test were recognized better than were melodies that were presented in a distinct format at test. A similar articulation format adequately induced matching processes to enhance recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that melodies rated as perceptually dissimilar on the basis of the location of the articulation mismatch did not impair recognition performance, suggesting an important boundary condition for articulation format effects on memory recognition-the matching of the memory trace and recognition probe may depend more on the overall proportion, rather than the temporal location, of the mismatch. The present findings are discussed in terms of a global matching advantage hypothesis.

  6. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan X

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Pan,1,* Haobo Chen,1,2,* Wai-Ling Bickerton,2 Johnny King Lam Lau,2 Anthony Pak Hin Kong,3 Pia Rotshtein,2 Aihua Guo,1 Jianxi Hu,1 Glyn W Humphreys4 1Department of Neurology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 4Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People’s Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients’ poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou.Method: A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Albert’s cancellation test, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test–retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment

  7. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  8. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  9. Design Articulations for Aesthetics of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present three categories of design articulations addressing the characteristic qualities of aesthetics of interaction. By aesthetics of interaction we point to the process in which interactive technology brings about aesthetic experience in the use of interactive technology...... in everyday life. As designers we are prohibited access to the aesthetic experience of the user. However, we have the possibility of articulating intentions and values embedded in the artefact that can be interpreted in use and thereby providing the artefact an aesthetic potential for users to unleash. Design...... articulations serve as catalysts for developing and choosing design expressions in the design process. Design articulations are embodied in artifacts, that address desired, anticipated or identified user experiences and capabilities, carrying a format which enable discussions also with non...

  10. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present an articulated tracking system working with data from a single narrow baseline stereo camera. The use of stereo data allows for some depth disambiguation, a common issue in articulated tracking, which in turn yields likelihoods that are practically unimodal. While current state...... with superior results. Tracking quality is measured by comparing with ground truth data from a marker-based motion capture system....

  11. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Yasufumi Saruwatari; Makoto Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation p...

  12. Reaction torque minimization techniques for articulated payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Kevin; Aleman, Roberto M.

    1988-01-01

    Articulated payloads on spacecraft, such as antenna telemetry systems and robotic elements, impart reaction torques back into the vehicle which can significantly affect the performance of other payloads. This paper discusses ways to minimize the reaction torques of articulated payloads through command-shaping algorithms and unique control implementations. The effects of reaction torques encountered on Landsat are presented and compared with simulated and measured data of prototype systems employing these improvements.

  13. Brainstem encoding of speech and musical stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Cantonese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Maggu, Akshay R; Lau, Joseph C Y; Wong, Patrick C M

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical processing that also impacts subtle aspects of speech processing. It remains debated at what stage(s) of auditory processing deficits in amusia arise. In this study, we investigated whether amusia originates from impaired subcortical encoding of speech (in quiet and noise) and musical sounds in the brainstem. Fourteen Cantonese-speaking amusics and 14 matched controls passively listened to six Cantonese lexical tones in quiet, two Cantonese tones in noise (signal-to-noise ratios at 0 and 20 dB), and two cello tones in quiet while their frequency-following responses (FFRs) to these tones were recorded. All participants also completed a behavioral lexical tone identification task. The results indicated normal brainstem encoding of pitch in speech (in quiet and noise) and musical stimuli in amusics relative to controls, as measured by FFR pitch strength, pitch error, and stimulus-to-response correlation. There was also no group difference in neural conduction time or FFR amplitudes. Both groups demonstrated better FFRs to speech (in quiet and noise) than to musical stimuli. However, a significant group difference was observed for tone identification, with amusics showing significantly lower accuracy than controls. Analysis of the tone confusion matrices suggested that amusics were more likely than controls to confuse between tones that shared similar acoustic features. Interestingly, this deficit in lexical tone identification was not coupled with brainstem abnormality for either speech or musical stimuli. Together, our results suggest that the amusic brainstem is not functioning abnormally, although higher-order linguistic pitch processing is impaired in amusia. This finding has significant implications for theories of central auditory processing, requiring further investigations into how different stages of auditory processing interact in the human brain.

  14. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  15. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  16. Relative Roles of General and Complementation Language in Theory-of-Mind Development: Evidence From Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him; Hsuan-Chih, Chen; Creed, Nikki; Ng, Lisa; Ping Wang, Sui; Mo, Lei

    2004-01-01

    Complex complements are clausal objects containing tensed verbs (e.g., that she cried) or infinitives (e.g., to cry), following main verbs of communication or mental activities (e.g., say, want). This research examined whether English- and Cantonese-speaking 4-year-olds' complement understanding uniquely predicts their representation of other…

  17. Transmission of Cantonese Opera in the Conservatory Tradition: Two Case Studies in South China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo-Wah

    2015-01-01

    The Cantonese opera was traditionally transmitted by an apprenticeship approach, which has faded out in the mid-twentieth century. Instead, the conservatory approach adapted from the West has replaced the major mode of nurturing professional artists in China and Hong Kong. This study aims to investigate and examine the current practice of the…

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Syntactic Treatment Procedures with Cantonese-Speaking, School-Age Children with Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Lui, Hoi Ming; Li, Xin Xin; Lam, Gary Y. H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentence-combining (SC) and narrative-based (NAR) intervention approaches to syntax intervention using a randomized-controlled-trial design. Method: Fifty-two Cantonese-speaking, school-age children with language impairment were assigned randomly to either the SC or the NAR treatment…

  19. Toward a Taxonomy of Written Errors: Investigation into the Written Errors of Hong Kong Cantonese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines common lexicogrammatical problems found in Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' written English output. A study was conducted with 387 student participants, who were asked to do two untutored and unaided free-writing tasks of about 200-300 words each. A range of lexicogrammatical error types commonly found…

  20. Transmission of Cantonese Opera in the Conservatory Tradition: Two Case Studies in South China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo-Wah

    2015-01-01

    The Cantonese opera was traditionally transmitted by an apprenticeship approach, which has faded out in the mid-twentieth century. Instead, the conservatory approach adapted from the West has replaced the major mode of nurturing professional artists in China and Hong Kong. This study aims to investigate and examine the current practice of the…

  1. Bidirectional Cross-Linguistic Influence in Cantonese-English Bilingual Children: The Case of Right-Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Haoyan; Matthews, Stephen; Cheung, Lawrence Yam-leung; Yip, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This corpus-based study demonstrates a case of bidirectional cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of right-dislocation by Cantonese-English bilingual children and interprets the results in relation to Hulk and Müller's hypothesis for cross-linguistic influence. Longitudinal data reveal qualitative and quantitative differences between…

  2. Cross-Language Transfer of Syntactic Skills and Reading Comprehension among Young Cantonese-English Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Carrey Tik-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the roles of different dimensions of syntactic skills in predicting reading comprehension within and across two languages with contrasting structural properties: Chinese and English. A total of 413 young Cantonese-English bilingual students in Hong Kong (202 first graders and 211 third graders) were tested on word order…

  3. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  4. Intonation contrast in Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K-Y; Whitehill, Tara L; So, Susanne Y-S

    2010-08-01

    Speech produced by individuals with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a number of features including impaired speech prosody. The purpose of this study was to investigate intonation contrasts produced by this group of speakers. Speech materials with a question-statement contrast were collected from 14 Cantonese speakers with PD. Twenty listeners then classified the productions as either questions or statements. Acoustic analyses of F0, duration, and intensity were conducted to determine which acoustic cues distinguished the production of questions from statements, and which cues appeared to be exploited by listeners in identifying intonational contrasts. The results show that listeners identified statements with a high degree of accuracy, but the accuracy of question identification ranged from 0.56% to 96% across the 14 speakers. The speakers with PD used similar acoustic cues as nondysarthric Cantonese speakers to mark the question-statement contrast, although the contrasts were not observed in all speakers. Listeners mainly used F0 cues at the final syllable for intonation identification. These data contribute to the researchers' understanding of intonation marking in speakers with PD, with specific application to the production and perception of intonation in a lexical tone language.

  5. Pitch perception and production in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chan, Alice H D; Ciocca, Valter; Roquet, Catherine; Peretz, Isabelle; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated pitch perception and production in speech and music in individuals with congenital amusia (a disorder of musical pitch processing) who are native speakers of Cantonese, a tone language with a highly complex tonal system. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking congenital amusics and 16 controls performed a set of lexical tone perception, production, singing, and psychophysical pitch threshold tasks. Their tone production accuracy and singing proficiency were subsequently judged by independent listeners, and subjected to acoustic analyses. Relative to controls, amusics showed impaired discrimination of lexical tones in both speech and non-speech conditions. They also received lower ratings for singing proficiency, producing larger pitch interval deviations and making more pitch interval errors compared to controls. Demonstrating higher pitch direction identification thresholds than controls for both speech syllables and piano tones, amusics nevertheless produced native lexical tones with comparable pitch trajectories and intelligibility as controls. Significant correlations were found between pitch threshold and lexical tone perception, music perception and production, but not between lexical tone perception and production for amusics. These findings provide further evidence that congenital amusia is a domain-general language-independent pitch-processing deficit that is associated with severely impaired music perception and production, mildly impaired speech perception, and largely intact speech production.

  6. Neural Correlates of Indicators of Sound Change in Cantonese: Evidence from Cortical and Subcortical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggu, Akshay R.; Liu, Fang; Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Across time, languages undergo changes in phonetic, syntactic, and semantic dimensions. Social, cognitive, and cultural factors contribute to sound change, a phenomenon in which the phonetics of a language undergo changes over time. Individuals who misperceive and produce speech in a slightly divergent manner (called innovators) contribute to variability in the society, eventually leading to sound change. However, the cause of variability in these individuals is still unknown. In this study, we examined whether such misperceptions are represented in neural processes of the auditory system. We investigated behavioral, subcortical (via FFR), and cortical (via P300) manifestations of sound change processing in Cantonese, a Chinese language in which several lexical tones are merging. Across the merging categories, we observed a similar gradation of speech perception abilities in both behavior and the brain (subcortical and cortical processes). Further, we also found that behavioral evidence of tone merging correlated with subjects' encoding at the subcortical and cortical levels. These findings indicate that tone-merger categories, that are indicators of sound change in Cantonese, are represented neurophysiologically with high fidelity. Using our results, we speculate that innovators encode speech in a slightly deviant neurophysiological manner, and thus produce speech divergently that eventually spreads across the community and contributes to sound change. PMID:28066218

  7. The influence of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Angela; Wang, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Adult non-native speech perception is subject to influence from multiple factors, including linguistic and extralinguistic experience such as musical training. The present research examines how linguistic and musical factors influence non-native word identification and lexical tone perception. Groups of native tone language (Thai) and non-tone language listeners (English), each subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in Cantonese tone word training. Participants learned to identify words minimally distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also completing musical aptitude and phonemic tone identification tasks. First, the findings suggest that either musical experience or a tone language background leads to significantly better non-native word learning proficiency, as compared to those with neither musical training nor tone language experience. Moreover, the combination of tone language and musical experience did not provide an additional advantage for Thai musicians above and beyond either experience alone. Musicianship was found to be more advantageous than a tone language background for tone identification. Finally, tone identification and musical aptitude scores were significantly correlated with word learning success for English but not Thai listeners. These findings point to a dynamic influence of musical and linguistic experience, both at the tone dentification level and at the word learning stage.

  8. Articulations of the ribs: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutro, C J; Sutro, W H

    1981-01-01

    The joints of the ribs are true articulations and may be involved by local or general affections of the skeleton. Scoliosis, kyphosis, infections, arthritis (local or general types) may result in fibrosis, abnormal configuration, or ankylosis of the joints in question. In certain types of fractures of the dorsal vertebrae, disruption of the contiguous rib articulations may result in fibrosis or bony depositions and secondarily aid in local stabilization of the fracture. Narrowing of the intercostal spaces, as noted in kyphosis, scoliosis, and arthritis of the dorsal region, does not seem to be routinely associated with clinical findings of intercostal neuralgia.

  9. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Saruwatari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation process. These modelsdemonstrate the valuableness of the extensional view and are expected to enhance theunderstanding of the extensional aspects of fundamentals of information.

  10. Cognitive predictors of articulation in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormack, L

    1979-06-01

    Among 106 college students scores on a spontaneous 20-min. essay were regressed on referents of verbal and visual spatial ability. 26% of the variability in writing articulation among males was accounted for by the regression of graded writing scores against logical relations and embedded figures tests. 82% of the variability in writing ability among (females was accounted for by the regression of graded writing scores on visual closure, reading comprehension, spatial visualization, and embedded figures tests. The use of verbal and visual sptial referents as predictors of the degree of articulation in spontaneous writing samples consistent with sex-specific models of.cerebral lateralization was described.

  11. Single Word versus Connected Speech Articulation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study compared the productions of 35 articulation impaired children (ages 3 to 10) obtained by picture elicited single word and connected speech sampling methods. Productions were compared on the basis of both the number and type of errors made under the two testing conditions. (Author/PHR)

  12. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 4, Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide. The subject matter is concerned with displacements, speeds, scalers, vector sum, and vector analysis.The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is required for students to control their…

  13. The School and the Articulation of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, Robin W.

    1988-01-01

    Value neutrality and values clarification fail to foster critical thinking about values. The values articulation approach identifies the rationality that is applied to value claims. It avoids noncognitivism and moral relativism and suggests ways the discussion of values in the classroom prepares students to deal with broader moral issues. (VM)

  14. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  15. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  16. Single Word versus Connected Speech Articulation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study compared the productions of 35 articulation impaired children (ages 3 to 10) obtained by picture elicited single word and connected speech sampling methods. Productions were compared on the basis of both the number and type of errors made under the two testing conditions. (Author/PHR)

  17. Articulation Research 2004: Summary of Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    Most junior syndicate teachers have concerns about the speech clarity of some of the children in their class. It is difficult for teachers to know whether to refer such students for speech assessments by their speech-language therapist. This article outlines a project which gathered New Zealand normative data for a test of articulation. A summary…

  18. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present a probabilistic interpretation of inverse kinematics and extend it to sequential data. The resulting model is used to estimate articulated human motion in visual data. The approach allows us to express the prior temporal models in spatial limb coordinates, which is in contrast to most...

  19. Characterization of articulated vehicles using ladar seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellfare, Michael R.; Norris-Zachery, Karen

    1997-08-01

    Many vehicle targets of interest to military automatic target recognition (ATR) possess articulating components: that is, they have components that change position relative to the main body. Many vehicles also have multiple configurations wherein one or more devices or objects may be added to enhance specific military or logistical capabilities. As the expected target set for military ATR becomes more comprehensive, many additional articulations and optional components must be handled. Mobile air defense units often include moving radar antennae as well as turreted guns and missile launchers. Surface-to-surface missile launchers may be encountered with or without missiles, and with the launch rails raised or lowered. Engineers and countermine vehicles have a tremendous number of possible configurations and even conventional battle tanks may very items such as external reactive armor, long- range tanks, turret azimuth, and gun elevation. These changes pose a significant barrier to the target identification process since they greatly increase the range of possible target signatures. When combined with variations already encountered due to target aspect changes, an extremely large number of possible signatures is formed. Conventional algorithms cannot process so many possibilities effectively, so in response, the matching process is often made less selective. This degrades identification performance, increase false alarm rates, and increases data requirements for algorithm testing and training. By explicitly involving articulation in the detection and identification stages of an ATR algorithm, more precise matching constraints can be applied, and better selectivity can be achieve. Additional benefits include the measurement of the position and orientation of articulated components, which often has tactical significance. In this paper, the result of a study investigating the impact of target articulation in ATR for military vehicles are presented. 3D ladar signature

  20. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  1. Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, T; Wellman, H M

    2000-01-01

    Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.

  2. INCLUSION OF THE OUTSIDER – GRAMMATICALIZATION OF THE VERBAL PARTICLE MAAI IN CANTONESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Chor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the grammaticalization of the verbal particle maai in Cantonese. Originally a verb of movement meaning ‘approach/get close to’ a reference point, maai has undergone grammaticalization to become a directional particle meaning ‘towards’. It then developed into an additive quantifier meaning ‘also/as well’, and has further been reinterpreted as an evaluative marker, marking the speaker’s negative evaluation of the object of the verb to which maai is suffixed. A number of pragmatic processes are involved in maai’s grammaticalization, in particular pragmatic inferencing and subjectification. The evolutionary pathway ‘addition’ > ‘subjective evaluation’ is attested by historical data and is also supported by cross-linguistic evidence.

  3. Development of the computerized Cantonese disyllabic lexical tone identification test in noise (CANDILET-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C P; Pang, Ka Wai; Tong, Michael C F; Van Hasselt, Charles A; Yuan, Meng; Lee, Tan; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2009-01-01

    CANDILET-N is a closed-set speech-recognition test to assess lexical tone recognition in noise for Cantonese speakers. The test consists of 60 test items in a four-alternative forced-choice test paradigm, with male and female speaker versions. Each test plate consists of two disyllabic-word lexical tone minimal pair test items and their respective phonemic distracters. Psychometric performance SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) functions from 26 normal hearing adult subjects were fitted to a logistic regression model to obtain the SNR for 50% correct score (SNR-50%) for individual test items. The mean SNR-50% of the 60 test items for the female and male test sets were -10.3 dB and -11.1 dB, respectively. The SNR-50% varies across test items and their SNR need to be adjusted to improve the homogeneity among them. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Generation of Articulated Mechanisms by Optimization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    that handles topological variations. In this thesis the technique is also extended so as to design the shape as well as the topology of the truss using cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables. This leads to a technique for simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis of articulated...... optimization [Paper 2] 3. Branch and bound global optimization [Paper 3] 4. Path-generation problems [Paper 4] In terms of the objective of the articulated mechanism design problems, the first to third papers deal with maximization of output displacement, while the fourth paper solves prescribed path...... generation problems. From a mathematical programming point of view, the methods proposed in the first and third papers are categorized as deterministic global optimization, while those of the second and fourth papers are categorized as gradient-based local optimization. With respect to design variables, only...

  5. The LPN-ADN articulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlich, L J; Hopkin, L A; Kalunian, K; LeGault, G; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    Faced with a staffing situation where RN positions were needed but there were more LPN positions than were needed. Tucson Medical Center began an LPN-ADN articulation project to rectify the situation without resorting to layoffs. With the cooperation of a local junior college, LPNs are enrolled in ADN programs that provide a more flexible work/study situation. This article describes the program and the results thus far.

  6. Generation of environments: three articulated concepts

    OpenAIRE

    REGO, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to expose three concepts, or idea connections, articulators of the concept of generation of environments: the relation environment round/environment among, the establishing interpretation, the dialogal relation of the logisc/dialogal relation of the dialogue. These concepts have been consolidated as idea connections and operational bases for the concept of generation of environments along the course of dialogues with several practices. O objetivo deste arti...

  7. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  8. Articulation in Schoolchildren and Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Bogaert, Famke; D'Hondt, Stephanie; Van Borsel, John

    2012-01-01

    Several authors mentioned the occurrence of articulation problems in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population. However, few studies have undertaken a detailed analysis of the articulation skills of NF1 patients, especially in schoolchildren and adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine in depth the articulation skills of…

  9. The Influence of Ingredients and Processing Variables on the Quality and Microstructure of Hokkien, Cantonese and Instant Noodles

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, R; Gore, P. J.; Murray, I. C.

    1987-01-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopy have been used as a part of a research program designed to study the influence of flour quality and processing variables on three of the noodle types that are popular in South East Asia . The noodles selected for study were Cantonese, Hokkien and modern instant. They represent the range of cooking and processing variables that are commonly encountered in these products . Flour particle size and the choice of alkaline ingredients influence protein develop...

  10. Production and validation of putonghua- and cantonese-chinese language national institutes of health stroke scale training and certification videos

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, R. T. F.; Lyden, P. D.; Tsoi, T. H.; Huang, Y; Liu, M.; Hon, S. F. K.; Raman, R.; Liu, L

    2010-01-01

    Background and purposes: The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is an integral part of acute stroke assessment. We report our experience with new Putonghua- and Cantonese-Chinese language NIHSS (PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS) training and certification videos. Methods: A professional video production company was hired to create the training and certification videos for both PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS. Two training and certification workshops were held in Chengdu and Beijing, and two worksh...

  11. Phonology of Urban Beihai Cantonese in Guanxi%广西北海市区白话音系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金阳

    2012-01-01

    The urban Beihai Cantonese,which belongs to the Qinlian dialect sub-division under the whole Cantonese dialect division,is a typical dialect of the whole Beihai area.It contains 22 initial consonants,48 simple and compound vowels and 8 tones,among which no pursed-mouth vowels can be found,the ancient voiced initial consonants have become unvoiced and the ancient entering tones are preserved.The paper describes the phonological system,analyzes the phonetic features and lists the combinations of consonants and vowels of urban Beihai Cantonese.%市区白话是北海市的代表方言,属于粤方言钦廉片。市区白话有声母22个,韵母48个,声调8个。市区白话没有撮口呼,古全浊声母清化,并保留古入声韵。该文归纳了北海市区白话的声韵调,分析其语音特点,并列出声韵配合关系表。

  12. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  13. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  15. Feature classification for tracking articulated surgical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Austin; Allen, Peter K; Zhao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Tool tracking is an accepted capability for computer-aided surgical intervention which has numerous applications, both in robotic and manual minimally-invasive procedures. In this paper, we describe a tracking system which learns visual feature descriptors as class-specific landmarks on an articulated tool. The features are localized in 3D using stereo vision and are fused with the robot kinematics to track all of the joints of the dexterous manipulator. Experiments are performed using previously-collected porcine data from a surgical robot.

  16. The velic traverse: an independent oral articulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Francis, Naomi; Klenin, Anna; Mizrahi, Ezra; Tom, Denise

    2013-03-01

    Two speech functions have traditionally been ascribed to the velum: opening and closing the velopharyngeal port and providing a passive surface against which the tongue can produce oral constrictions. Contrary to this passive oral function, the present x-ray study finds that a substantial portion of the velum moves to constrict the oropharyngeal isthmus for French uvular /ʁ/. This substructure, designated the velic traverse, functions independently of the parts of the velum used for velopharyngeal port closure, thus acting as an oral articulator. An active velic traverse challenges methods for estimating vocal tract shapes based on tongue posture alone.

  17. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  18. Topic-Focus Articulation of Isotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Sova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linguistic phenomena at suprasentential level. In particular, it looks into how textual analysis can be enhanced by supplementing the Parisian programme of interpretive semantics, as devised by François Rastier, namely his theory of isotopies, with elementary aspects of topic-focus articulation (TFA, as well as contextual boundness (CB and contextual non-boundness (CN, as elaborated within the Praguian linguistic tradition (V. Mathesius, P. Sgall, E. Hajičová, F. Daneš, J. Firbas, and how the descriptive power of the former can be increased by the latter. In this respect, it is argued that two types of TFA phenomena interact during any process of textual interpretation: those of topic-focus articulation at the level of sentence, conceiving lexical morphs as thematic (T and/or rhematic (R, as well as contextually bound (CB and/or contextually non-bound (CN, and those of topic-focus articulation at the level of isotopy, with each isotopy being conceived as structured around a center (an abstract semantic unit and periphery (a span of concrete utterances. Two types of such interaction are described, each defined by either correlation, or non-correlation of the CB and CN semes at the levels of isotopy and sentence, respectively: thematic-rhematic isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CB seme of the periphery; and thematic-rhematic allotopy (i.e. non-isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CN seme of the periphery. Since topic-focus isotopies and allotopies can be perceived as members of privative oppositions, a tentative system of such oppositions is presented, based on linguistic analyses of selected European Commission texts drafted in English and their Czech translations. The author’s ultimate intention is to show that the semantic features of topic-focus articulation at the sentential and suprasentential levels are both structurally parallel and

  19. Easy cross parameterization for articulated shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wei HU; Li-gang LIU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel interactive system for establishing compatible meshes for articulated shapes. Given two mesh surfaces, our system automatically generates both the global level component correspondence and the local level feature correspondence. Users can use some sketch-based tools to specify the correspondence in an intuitive and easy way. Then all the other vertex correspondences could be generated automatically. The cross parameterization preserves both high level and low level features of the shapes. The technique showed in the system benefits various applications in graphics including mesh inter-polation, deformation transfer, and texture transfer.

  20. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  1. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  2. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  3. Articulation rate across dialect, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; O'Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English.

  4. An Articulated Inspection Arm for fusion purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villedieu, E., E-mail: eric.villedieu@cea.fr [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Pastor, P.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Song, Y.T.; Cheng, Y.; Feng, H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Liu, C. [CEA-IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Shi, S.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Requirements for in vacuum tokamak inspection are presented. • Development of a prototype of the Articulated Inspection Arm is described. • The upgrade of the prototype to convert it into a fully operational device is detailed. • Future applications of inspection robots in the new fusion reactors is discussed. - Abstract: Fusion Tokamaks are complex machines which require special conditions for their operation, in particular, high vacuum inside the vessel and high temperature of the vessel walls. During plasma phases, the first wall components are highly stressed and a control is necessary in case of doubt about their condition. To be able to make safely such an inspection in a short period of time is a great advantage. The Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) developed by the CEA provides the capability for fast inspections of the first wall overall surface keeping the vacuum and temperature conditions of the vessel. The robot prototype was validated in Tore Supra in 2008. In the frame of a joint laboratory, CEA/IRFM and ASIPP have decided to upgrade the existing AIA prototype to use it routinely in the EAST and WEST tokamaks. The robot has followed an important upgrade program in 2013 and 2014. The document presents the various upgrades made on the mechanics, the sensors, the electronics, the control station and the integration adaptation for the operation on EAST. From the AIA experience, thoughts for future inspection robots are given.

  5. 广西北海市区白话同音字汇%The Homophony Syllabary of Beihai Cantonese in Urban District in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金阳

    2012-01-01

    市区白话是北海市区的代表方言,属于粤方言钦廉片。市区白话有声母22个,韵母48个,声调8个。文章描写了北海市区白话的语音,主要内容包括音系及语音特点,同音字汇收字4 000余个。%Beihai Cantonese is subordinate to Yue (粤)dialect. Beihai Cantonese has 22 initials ,48 finals and 8 tones. The paper describes the phonological system, phonetic features and the homophony syllabary of Beihai Cantonese in urban district,Guangxi Autonomous Region.

  6. Advances on SO2 removal technology from Cantonese--style preserved fruit%广式凉果降硫技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓房; 叶绍环; 白卫东

    2011-01-01

    The status of SO2 removal technology from Cantonese-style preserved fruit was summarized. Advances in immersion washing,chemical oxidation, biological oxidation and new physical technology were used in SO2 removal from Cantonese-style preserved fruit, and had a preliminary outlook of sulfur reduction technology trends in the Cantonese-style preserved fruit.%综述广式凉果中降硫技术研发现状.介绍浸泡漂洗法、化学氧化法、生物氧化法以及物理手段处理新技术在广式凉果脱除二氧化硫残留方面的应用研究进展,展望广式凉果降硫技术发展趋势.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS UPON CONTACT STRESS MODELLING IN DENTAL ARTICULATOR PAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ciornei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dental articulator is a mechanism which simulates the temporo-mandibular joint. The articulator is essential as it replicates the basic motions of the upper and lower mandibles, both revolve and translational motions. In the present paper the stresses from an articulator TMJ modelled as a bronze sphere into a cylindrical steel cavity are analyzed by two methods, first applying the Hertzian contact theory and then numerically, by means of finite element analysis using the simulation module in CATIA.

  8. Four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of relative clauses: a permutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Yang, Wenchun; Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan

    2017-06-13

    We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types, classifier (CL) and ge3 RCs, were tested in a between-participants design. The two RC types differ in their syntactic analyses and frequency of occurrence, providing an important point of comparison for theories of RC acquisition and processing. A permutation analysis showed that the two structures were processed differently: CL RCs showed a significant object-over-subject advantage, whereas ge3 RCs showed the opposite effect. This study shows that children can have different preferences even for two very similar RC structures within the same language, suggesting that syntactic processing preferences are shaped by the unique features of particular constructions both within and across different linguistic typologies.

  9. The role of virtual articulator in prosthetic and restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar Ravi; Aljanakh, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator.

  10. Bayesian distributed articulated object tracking using multiple collaborative trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Schonfeld, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two novel articulated object tracking approaches. The Decentralized Articulated Object Tracking approach avoids the common practice of using a high-dimensional joint state representation for articulated object tracking. Instead, it introduces a decentralized scheme and models the inter-part interaction within an innovative Bayesian framework. To handle severe self-occlusions, we further extend the first approach by modeling high-level inter-unit interactions and develop the Hierarchical Articulated Object Tracking algorithm within a consistent hierarchical framework. Preliminary experimental results have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed approaches for real-world videos sequences.

  11. 内源性发酵剂Macrococcus caseolyticus发酵广式腊肠的风味物质成分分析%Analysis of volatile compounds of cantonese sausage fermented by Macrococcus caseolyticus separated from cantonese sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕涛; 赵谋明; 孙为正; 曹宝森

    2011-01-01

    采用固相微萃取方法结合气质联用仪,对内源性发酵剂Macrococcus caseolyticus发酵广式腊肠中风味物质成分进行测定,分析发酵广式腊肠风味物质成分,同时与对照组腊肠的风味物质成分进行比较,分析Macrococcus caseolyticus对广式腊肠风味物质成分的影响.其中,对照组分离出22种风味物质,接种组(MC)分离出25种风味物质成分,主要为醇类、醛类、酮类和酯类物质,还有部分烃类和环类化合物.研究表明,Macrococcus coseolyticusz作为发酵剂,可以加速脂肪和蛋白质的降解与氧化,有助于广式腊肠风味的改善.%The volatile compounds of cantonese sausage fermented by Macrococcus caseolyticus (M.caseolyticus) were investigated. Two cantonese sausage samples were prepared: control, sausage inoculated with M. Caseolyticus( MC).The volatile compounds were extracted by a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) method,quantified and identified by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).A total of 22 and 25 volatile compounds were identified from the two samples respectively. Larger amount of volatile compounds (alcohols,aldehydes,ketones and esters) were detected in the sausage,in addition,amount of hydrocarbons and heterocyclic were detected.The results showed that M.caseolyticus could accelerate the degradation and oxidation of lipids and proteins,and improve the flavor characteristics of cantonese sausage.

  12. Framework for articulating instructional practices and conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dancy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present and describe the development of a framework for assessing or categorizing instructional practices and related conceptions in the context of introductory physics instruction. The purpose of the framework is for articulating practices and conceptions of individual instructors or of curricula. It was developed based on the research literature and interviews with physics faculty and contains ideas with widespread acceptance as well as some outside mainstream rhetoric. We provide an example of how this framework can be applied by using it to categorize aspects of three well-known research-based curricula. The results of this categorization highlight areas that are common in research-based curricular designs and other areas that are less embraced but worthy of consideration.

  13. Landing Motion Control of Articulated Hopping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Youm

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the landing motion of an articulated legged robot. Humans use a peculiar crouching motion to land safely which can be characterized by body stiffness and damping. A stiffness controller formulation is used to realize this human behavior for the robot. Using this method, the landing motion is achieved with only the desired body stiffness and damping values, without desired COG(Center of Gravity or joint paths. To achieve soft landing, variable body stiffness and damping values were optimized. PBOT, which has four links with flexible joints was used for validation of the landing controller. A body stiffness and damping controller was used as an outer landing control loop and a fast subsystem controller for flexible joints was used as an inner force control loop. Simulations and experimental results about the landing motion are presented to show the performance of the body stiffness and damping controller.

  14. Kinematical Analysis of an Articulated Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold: to present mathematical expressions for the kinematics of an articulated mechanism and to perform numerical experiments with the implemented Fortran code. The system of rigid parts is made of two slender bars and a disk. A constant 2 rad/s counterclockwise rotation rate is imposed on the disk triggering the planar motion of the longer bar (link) and the rotation of the shorter one (output). Angular relations, velocities and accelerations are analyzed for a 90-degree turn of the disk. The inversion of the linking bar sense of rotation is well captured by the simulation, and the paper and pencil solutions that may lead to wrong conclusions are explained. Equations are derived from first principles and the Fortran code is placed under version control (currently, v.0.8-beta). This computer project is relevant for those in charge of vector dynamics courses and wishing to expose students to project-based learning activities.

  15. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  16. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  17. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Vries, MP; de Bont, LGM

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial sid

  18. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Vries, MP; de Bont, LGM

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial

  19. The use of articulators in UK dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, J R; Craddock, H L

    2006-11-01

    The increasing complexity of many restorative procedures often involves articulation of study and working casts to ensure accurate fabrication of restorations. Correct selection and use of articulators can be crucial to successful restoration. The aim of this paper is to determine which articulators are recommended for various restorative procedures in UK dental schools, for use by undergraduate students. A questionnaire-based study of all UK dental schools was carried out, with a 100% response rate. Recommended articulator application for specified procedures was established from the literature and questionnaire results were compared with this. The results indicated that dental schools in the UK generally teach appropriate articulator use for most procedures. However, there are some limited areas of what may be argued to be inappropriate recommendation in some establishments.

  20. Parkinson Disease Detection from Speech Articulation Neuromechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Vilda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease.Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech.Methods: A dataset of sustained vowels recorded from Parkinson Disease patients is contrasted with similar recordings from normative subjects. The probability distribution of the absolute kinematic velocity of the jaw-tongue system is extracted from each utterance. A Random Least Squares Feed-Forward Network (RLSFN has been used as a binary classifier working on the pathological and normative datasets in a leave-one-out strategy. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to estimate the influence of the stochastic nature of the classifier. Two datasets for each gender were tested (males and females including 26 normative and 53 pathological subjects in the male set, and 25 normative and 38 pathological in the female set.Results: Male and female data subsets were tested in single runs, yielding equal error rates under 0.6% (Accuracy over 99.4%. Due to the stochastic nature of each experiment, Monte Carlo runs were conducted to test the reliability of the methodology. The average detection results after 200 Montecarlo runs of a 200 hyperplane hidden layer RLSFN are given in terms of Sensitivity (males: 0.9946, females: 0.9942, Specificity (males: 0.9944, females: 0.9941 and Accuracy (males: 0.9945, females: 0.9942. The area under the ROC curve is 0.9947 (males and 0.9945 (females. The equal error rate is 0.0054 (males and 0.0057 (females

  1. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  2. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  3. BIOENERGETIC DIFFERENCES DURING WALKING AND RUNNING IN TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEE RUNNERS USING ARTICULATING AND NON-ARTICULATING KNEE PROSTHESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Kahle, Jason T.; Miro, Rebecca M.; Mengelkoch, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in five of eight fixed walking and running speeds for the prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism. TFA demonstrated a trend for lower RPE at six of eight walking speeds using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. A trend was observed for self-selected walking speed, self-selected running speed, and maximal speed to be faster for TFA subjects using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. Finally, all four TFA participants subjectively preferred running with the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. These findings suggest that, for trained TFA runners, a running prosthesis with an articulating knee prosthesis reduces ambulatory energy costs and enhances subjective perceptive measures compared to using a non-articulating knee prosthesis. PMID:28066524

  4. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  5. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  6. Factors that Enhance English-Speaking Speech-Language Pathologists' Transcription of Cantonese-Speaking Children's Consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved…

  7. 浅谈粤菜饮食之养生保健%Discussion on HeaIth Care of Cantonese Cuisine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅

    2015-01-01

    With a long history,Cantonese cuisine is the highlight of Guangdong catering culture,as well as an important part of Chinese catering culture.Cantonese cuisine is unique due to the influence of Guangdong special geographical and human environment. Cantonese cuisine is abundant and diverse.It is good at blending medicine in food and changing diet with the seasons.Focusing on diet therapy and regimen,Cantonese cuisine with double-stewed soup as its typical representative can bring nutrition,prevent diseases and keep fit.%粤菜历史悠久,是广东饮食文化的亮点,也是中华饮食文化的一个重要组成部分。粤菜因受广东特殊的地理环境、人文环境的影响而独具特色。粤菜菜式丰富多样,善于应四季之变而变,而且善于“寓医于食”,注重食疗养生,达到营养滋补、防病保健、强身健体的目的,这又以广东的老火汤最具代表性。

  8. Neural systems for sign language production: mechanisms supporting lexical selection, phonological encoding, and articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José-Robertson, Lucila; Corina, David P; Ackerman, Debra; Guillemin, Andre; Braun, Allen R

    2004-11-01

    Overt production of ASL signs was evaluated using H(2)(15)O PET to differentiate brain systems that support sign language production at the lexical-selection and phonological-articulatory levels. Subjects were 16 right-handed, congenitally deaf native ASL signers (10 women, six men; age 20 to 29 years). Scans were performed while subjects (1) passively viewed ASL nouns, (2) repeated nouns, (3) generated verbs in response to these nouns, (4) passively viewed videotaped segments depicting transitive actions, and (5) generated a verb to describe these actions. Conjunctions between the two verb-generation tasks revealed left-lateralized activation of perisylvian, frontal, and subcortical regions commonly observed in spoken language generation tasks and implicated in processes of semantic feature binding and lexical selection. Analysis of noun repetition minus viewing condition revealed activation of distinct systems supporting phonological encoding and articulation, including bilateral activation of sensorimotor areas and association cortices in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. In addition, lexical-selection and articulatory processes were associated with activation of different corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuits: articulation with activation of the motor, and lexical-selection with activation of the prefrontal circuits, respectively. The results collectively provide insight into dissociable neural systems underlying these psycholinguistic functions. In addition, activation of regions that are typically associated with the auditory system during sign production suggests that these regions may support modality-independent linguistic processes, or may indicate cross-modal plasticity within the deaf brain.

  9. An Analysis of the Characteristics of Labor Relations in New Cantonese Businessmen'Enterprises%新粤商企业的劳动关系特色研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文静

    2009-01-01

    As a regional business model,Cantonese Businessmen are well known for their distinctive cultural features and strong economic strength.However,whether the internal management of new Cantonese Business-men'enterprises,particularly the personnel management,has been penetrated by the Cantonese Business spir-it?The impact factor model will be established to analyze the major factors that effect the labor relations of the new Cantonese Businessmen'enterprises,and the single-factor analysis variance for statistically analyzing busi-ness variables will be used to test and measure the impact extent of the main factors on the new Cantonese Busi-nessmen'enterprises labor relations.The results show that the corporate welfare of modern enterprises is essen-tial in Cantonese Businessmen'enterprise labor relations,and the spirit of the Cantonese Businessmen'is not fully reflected in labor relations.%作为一种地域商业模式,粤商在企业经营中以鲜明的文化特色和强大的经济实力而著称,但新粤商企业在内部管理尤其是人员管理方面是否延续着粤商的精神理念?建立新粤商企业劳动关系影响因子模型,能较好分析影响新粤商企业劳动关系的主要因素,而对企业统计变量的单因素方差分析,可衡量各因素对新粤商企业劳动关系的影响程度.研究表明:企业福利因素对新粤商企业劳动关系至关重要,而粤商精神在劳动关系中并没有得到充分体现.

  10. ARTICULATION DISORDERS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH SPEECH PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.

  11. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  12. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  13. Articulating a Hermeneutic Pedagogy: The Philosophy of Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirou, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Articulates the salient features of a hermeneutic pedagogy as utilized in a composition classroom. Foregrounds the hermeneutical conclusions of Hans-Georg Gadamer as they relate to the teaching of writing. (HB)

  14. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  15. A Hand-Eye Vision Measuring System for Articulate Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岁波; 都东; 陈强; 韩翔宇; 王力; 张骅

    2004-01-01

    To make dynamic measurements for an articulate robot, a hand-eye vision measuring system is built up.This system uses two charge coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted on the end-effector of the robot.System analysis is based on the stereovision theory and line-matching technology, using a computer to evaluate the dynamic performance parameters of an articulate robot from the two images captured by the two cameras.The measuring procedure includes four stages, namely, calibration, sampling, image processing, and calculation.The path accuracy of an articulate industrial robot was measured by this system.The results show that this system is a low-cost, easy to operate, and simple system for the dynamic performance testing of articulate robots.

  16. Functional occlusion: II. The role of articulators in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J R; Hutchinson, I; Sandy, J R

    2001-06-01

    Opinion is divided on whether there is a place for the use of semi-adjustable dental articulators in orthodontics. In this review we explore the validity and reproducibility of the techniques involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable dental articulator. We also look at the role of articulated study models in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, in the finishing stages of orthodontics and in planning for orthognathic surgery. We report that each of the many stages involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable articulator is a potential source of error and that only if the technique is carried out with a high degree of accuracy is it worth the additional chairside time.

  17. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  18. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  19. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ARTICULATED WHEELED VEHICLES POSITION STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Dubinin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With introducing a mobile measurement system with linear acceleration sensors there was experimentally determined the parameter of position stability of the articulated wheeled vehicle on the example of HTA-200 «Slobozhanets». It was determined that the position stability was provided within the entire range of operating speeds and accelerations. The obtained results can be used to enhance the traffic safety of articulated vehicles.

  20. 德勒兹、莫奈与重复%Deleuze, Monet, and Being Repetitive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正平(著)[美; 金浪(译)

    2015-01-01

    Repetition repeats the unrepeatable.Since what is unrepeatable is singular, repetition repeats singularity.This es-say investigates the concept of repetition as articulated by Gilles Deleuze in his Difference and Repetition.Drawing on the principle of seriality governing some of Monet′s paintings, it demonstrates how and to what extent repetition developed by Deleuze parallels Derrida′s idea of differance and moves poststructuralist thinking in a different direction than that guided by phenomenology.%重复是对不可重复之物的重复。既然不可重复之物是独异的,重复也就是对于独异性之重复。通过尝试考察吉尔·德勒兹在其《差异与重复》一书中提出的重复概念,对于主导莫奈绘画的系列原则所进行的勾勒,证明了重复如何以及在何种程度上为德勒兹及德里达的差异概念所发展,并使后结构主义思想转向了不同于现象学主导下的另外方向。

  1. 熟练粤语-普通话双言者听觉词的语言表征%The Language Representation of Auditory Words in Cantonese-Mandarin Diglossias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积家; 张凤玲

    2014-01-01

    Using implicit memory paradigm, the study probed into the language representation of Cantonese-Mandarin di-glossias.The results showed that:1 ) the semantic representations of Mandarin and Cantonese words are identical and their lexical representations are separated for Mandarin-Cantonese bidialecters; 2 ) the link intensity between Cantonese words, Mandarin words and semantic representation are different;3 ) the links from Mandarin words to Cantonese words are stronger than the links from Cantonese words to Mandarin words.%以熟练粤语-普通话双言者为被试,考察粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征。实验1呈现粤语和普通话同形异音的词,实验2呈现粤语和普通话异形异音的词,要求被试做语义决定。结果发现,粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征类似于双语者,即普通话和粤语的语义共同表征,词汇分别表征。所以如此,是由粤语的特点和它与普通话的关系决定的。

  2. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  3. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2012-01-01

    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treatment for each patient. The present review analyzes the studies published in the literature on the design, functioning and applications of virtual articulators. A Medline-PubMed search was made of dental journals, with the identification of 137 articles, of which 16 were finally selected. The virtual articulator can simulate the specific masticatory movement of the patient. During mandibular animation, the program calculates the sites where the opposing teeth come into contact. The studies made to assess the reliability of the virtual articulator show good correspondence in visualization of the number and position of the dynamic contacts. The virtual articulator is a precise tool for the full analysis of occlusion in a real patient.

  4. Sinkage and slippage estimation for an articulated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes an approach to estimating in real-time the degree to which an articulated robotic vehicle is undergoing wheel slip and/or sinkage in soft terrain. Robotic vehicles generally have hazard avoidance sensors which measure the shape of the sensible surface, and these can be used to predict what the articulation pose of the vehicle will be as it moves over the surface. An articulated vehicle (one with three or more wheels on each side) can directly measure the shape of the loadbearing surface by combining inclination and articulation sensing. Delays between the actual articulations and the expectations can be explained by wheel slippage. Differences between the expectation and the actual articulations can be explained by sinkage below the sensed surface. If one assumes that successive wheels on each side follow the same profile as the front wheel (sinking the same amount, if any, into the soil), then it is possible to estimate sinkage and slippage separately. A Maximum-A-Posteriori estimation procedure formalizing this heuristic approach is developed and simulated, and the results presented and discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Two Facebow/Semi-adjustable Articulator Systems for Orienting Maxillary Cast on Articulators: A Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anusha, C V; Singh, Amith A; Sam, George; Sangwan, Babita; Shilpa, M; Kamath, Akshata G

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the transferability of occlusal plane (OP) orientation from the patient to the articulators with the help of two different facebow systems and evaluated with a gold standard...

  6. 粤语及其社会族群认同感%Cantonese and Its Self-identity of the Social Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雅

    2014-01-01

    粤语和操粤语的社会族群的认同感相互促进,相互联系,粤语的特点和广东人的社会生活正体现了粤语及其社会族群认同感之间的联系。它们之间的相互联系和促进又带来了有利的影响,例如使粤语得到保护和传播、促进了人际关系的维护、加强了操粤语群体的自豪感和增进了操粤语群体间的活动,同时也存在不利影响,例如影响经济和文化的发展、有碍于社会的和谐。总之,对语言及其族群的认同都需在包容的基础上更好地”扬弃”。%Cantonese is a dialect in China. It has a long history and becomes pride of the local people in Guangdong. The Cantonese group, most of whom are local people, has the strongest self-identity which is developing with their interaction. The relationship between Cantonese and its social group is reflected by the features of Cantonese and their social life. The interaction brings beneficial influences. For example, it promotes the protection and transmission of Cantonese, maintains the interpersonal relationship, strengthens the sense of pride of the Cantonese and enhances the activities among them. However, there are also unfavorable effects. It impacts the development of the economy and culture as well as the harmony of the society. In a word, the promotion and surrender on the self-identity of language and its group should be on the basis of toleration.

  7. Translation and Initial Validation of the Chinese (Cantonese Version of Community Integration Measure for Use in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To (1 translate and culturally adapt the English version Community Integration Measure into Chinese (Cantonese, (2 report the results of initial validation of the Chinese (Cantonese version of CIM (CIM-C including the content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factor structure of CIM-C for use in stroke survivors in a Chinese community setting, and (3 investigate the level of community integration of stroke survivors living in Hong Kong. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. University-based rehabilitation centre. Participants. 62 (n=62 subjects with chronic stroke. Methods. The CIM-C was produced after forward-backward translation, expert panel review, and pretesting. 25 (n=25 of the same subjects were reassessed after a 1-week interval. Results. The items of the CIM-C demonstrated high internal consistency with a Cronbach’s α of 0.84. The CIM-C showed good test-retest reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.93. A 3-factor structure of the CIM-C including “relationship and engagement,” “sense of knowing,” and “independent living,” was consistent with the original theoretical model. Hong Kong stroke survivors revealed a high level of community integration as measured by the CIM-C (mean (SD: 43.48 (5.79. Conclusions. The CIM-C is a valid and reliable measure for clinical use.

  8. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  9. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Venkateshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG machine (planmeca. Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01. Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001 and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004 sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated.

  10. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  11. Flavor Characteristics of the Grade Third & the Fourth Cantonese Sausage%三级和四级广式腊肠风味特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓房; 白卫东; 陈海光; 黄碧珍

    2009-01-01

    采用同时蒸馏萃取结合GC-MS分析了三级、四级广式腊肠挥发性成分,并以优级广式腊肠为参照,研究了三级、四级广式腊肠的风味特性.结果表明:三级、四级广式腊肠的酯类、酸类、醛类化合物含量较高,而烃类、醇类和酮类含量较低,两者的风味物组成特点与优级广式腊肠相似;广式腊肠具有与干腌火腿不同的风味特征,其风味物的来源主要与脂肪的氧化有关;三级、四级广式腊肠总体风味特性与优级广式腊肠没有显著差异.%In this paper, the volatile flavor components of grade third & the fourth Cantonese sausage were identified by GC-MS combining with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). The flavor characteristics were compared to the special grade Cantonese sausage. The results showed that esters, acids, aldehydes components were higher,while hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones was lower than the special grade. The volatile flavor components' was similar in both kinds of sausage ; the flavor characteristics of cantonese sausage was mainly due to the fat oxidation which was different from that of the dried cured hams. The sensory evaluation results showed that the whole flavor characteristics of grade third & the fourth Cantonese sausage had no significant ( P < 0.05 ) difference from that of the special grade.

  12. Planar articulated mechanism design by graph theoretical enumeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, A; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism. This guaran......This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism....... This guarantees that one can identify the global optimum solution. The result underlines the importance of mechanism topology and gives insight into the issues specific to articulated mechanism designs compared to compliant mechanism designs....

  13. VARIATIONAL MONTE-CARLO APPROACH FOR ARTICULATED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel variational Monte Carlo approach for modeling and tracking body parts of articulated objects. An articulated object (human target is represented as a dynamic Markov network of the different constituent parts. The proposed approach combines local information of individual body parts and other spatial constraints influenced by neighboring parts. The movement of the relative parts of the articulated body is modeled with local information of displacements from the Markov network and the global information from other neighboring parts. We explore the effect of certain model parameters (including the number of parts tracked; number of Monte-Carlo cycles, etc. on system accuracy and show that ourvariational Monte Carlo approach achieves better efficiency and effectiveness compared to other methods on a number of real-time video datasets containing single targets.

  14. Role of sentence-final particles and prosody in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jackie P W; Law, Thomas; Lam, Gary Y H; To, Carol K S

    2013-01-01

    English-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are less capable of using prosodic cues such as intonation for irony comprehension. Prosodic cues, in particular intonation, in Cantonese are relatively restricted while sentence-final particles (SFPs) may be used for this pragmatic function. This study investigated the use of prosodic cues and SFPs in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without ASD. Thirteen children with ASD (8;3-12;9) were language-matched with 13 typically developing (TD) peers. By manipulating prosodic cues and SFPs, 16 stories with an ironic remark were constructed. Participants had to judge the speaker's belief and intention. Both groups performed similarly well in judging the speaker's belief. For the speaker's intention, the TD group relied more on SFPs. The ASD group performed significantly poorer and did not rely on either cue. SFPs may play a salient role in Cantonese irony comprehension. The differences between the two groups were discussed by considering the literature on theory of mind.

  15. ON the English Foreign Word in Cantonese%谈谈粤语中的那些英文外来词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆晓云

    2015-01-01

    Cantonese is a dialect in Qin and Han Dynasties spreading to Guangdong and Guangxi region mixed with the local an⁃cient Yue language, and it also occupies dominant position of dialect in Hong Kong and Macao, known as vernacular or Cantonese. Due to various reasons, Cantonese blends in a lot of English, mainly in transliteration or transliteration plus translation. To under⁃stand and know well the English foreign word and the meaning of it and the history and culture that it contains, it is of practical sig⁃nificance.%粤语是于秦汉时期传播至两广地区与当地古越语相融合产生的一种方言,同时也是在我国香港和澳门占有主导地位的方言,民间称白话或广东话。由于各种原因,当今的粤语融入了好多英语外来语,主要以音译或音译加意译为多。了解和认知粤语中的英文外来词及其意思以及背后所包含的历史文化是有实际意义的。

  16. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  17. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    ongoing research collaboration between Hydrema Produktion A/S, Aalborg University and the University of Agder on comfort improvement. The main goal of the research project is to improve ride comfort of articulated construction machinery by use of multibody simulation models. In this paper the application...... that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...

  18. The Landscape of Mass Mediated Articulations of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja

    The objective of this paper is to explore the associations made in mass mediatedarticulations of biotechnology. It serves as the basis for further analyses of massmediated controversies and the purpose is to establish a map of the landscape ofmass mediated articulation of biotechnology. Which kinds...... of genetic researchand technology are articulated in what way? What can be associated to what inthe mass mediation and when is it portrayed as controversial? In short this is astudy of associations in the news production that serves as a way of establishingan empirical archive for further work. It is based...

  19. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  20. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  1. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  2. 广式腊肠、腊肉风味物质研究进展%Study progress on flavors of cantonese curing meat and sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白卫东; 陈耀; 刘丽微

    2012-01-01

    Cantonese lapmei is a kind of Chinese traditional flavor food. It was loved by consumers for its unique taste, beautiful shape, tender texture, rich in nutrition and easy cooking. Cantonese curing meat and sausage are two typical Cantonese lapmei. It has unique local taste characteristics. This paper reviews the source, types and the flavor substances of the sausage. It summarized the difference of Cantonese curing meat to Sichuan and Hunan curing meats on flavor characteristics. Then, the methods of keeping meat flavor substances were summarized at the end. The summaries shows that lipid oxidation is an important sources in forming the flavor; alcohols and esters are the main components of the aroma; GC - MS is the best method in testing aromas in Cantonese lapmei and anti - oxidation technology is very important in keeping flavors.%广式腊味是我国传统的风味食品,其口味独特,外形美观,肉嫩香醇,营养丰富,食用简便,深受消费者的喜爱.腊肠和腊肉是两种传统的广式腊味,其独特的风味更形成地方特色,文章综述了广式腊肠特征风味物质的来源、种类及检测方法,概括了广式腊肉与四川、湖南腊肉特征风味物质的区别,并对广式肉制品风味物质保持的研究进行了总结,得出:脂肪氧化是广式腊味的一个重要风味来源;醇类、酯类是腊肠香气成分的重要组成;采用GC - MS法分析香气成分简便快捷;抗氧化技术的发展对于腊味风味保持有重要贡献.

  3. College Level One: Articulation, Equity, and Literacy Issues. Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Soren; Brillhart, Lia V.; Burgess, Ann B.; Cramer, Jane Harris; Denton, Denice D.; Downer, Janice D.; Dunwoody, Sharon L.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Hewson, Peter W.; Secada, Walter G.; Tobias, Sheila

    This document reports on a workshop entitled "Articulation, Equity, and Literacy Issues" hosted by the College Level One (CL-1) project of the National Institute for Science Education (NISE). CL-1 identifies important issues in undergraduate education and determines the best strategies for addressing them. Workshop discussions examine…

  4. Articulating the International Curriculum. Part II, Continuity through Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The three programs now offered by the International Baccalaureate Organization for children 5 to 18 could benefit from greater articulation. The programs share common goals aimed at developing in students sense of responsibility, spirit of open-mindedness, critical thinking ability, multilanguage proficiency, and active interest in other cultures.…

  5. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    and micromorphological data to this debate, we investigated muscle formation in larvae of the brooding articulate brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata using immunocytochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Full grown larvae are three-lobed and show two pairs of bristle bundles. During larval development...

  6. GPU Accelerated Likelihoods for Stereo-Based Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  7. Gaussian-like Spatial Priors for Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial covariance structure of an articulated     motion prior in which joint angles have a known covariance structure. From this,     a well-known, but often ignored, deficiency of the kinematic skeleton     representation becomes clear: spatial variance not only...

  8. Data-driven importance distributions for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present two data-driven importance distributions for particle filterbased articulated tracking; one based on background subtraction, another on depth information. In order to keep the algorithms efficient, we represent human poses in terms of spatial joint positions. To ensure constant bone...

  9. Stick it! Articulated tracking using spatial rigid object priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    Articulated tracking of humans is a well-studied field, but most work has treated the humans as being independent of the environment. Recently, Kjellstrom et al. showed how knowledge of interaction with a known rigid object provides constraints that lower the degrees of freedom in the model. While...

  10. GPU accelerated likelihoods for stereo-based articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  11. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different...

  12. Closed-loop analysis of an articulated railcar train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, P.; Ploechl, M.; Mack, W.; Lugner, P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Mechanik

    2000-07-01

    An articulated railcar train is modelled by a plane three-body linkage mechanism guided at two points along a given trajectory with a prescribed velocity of the front point. The closed-loop system is analyzed using a symbolic-numerical method leading to ordinary differential equations in minimal coordinates. (orig.)

  13. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  14. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  15. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  16. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  17. Articulation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    While foreign language instruction for elementary school children is gaining attention, poor articulation is a problem that has become more complex because of the variety of foreign language program models being developed. Five main types are in use: total immersion, partial immersion, foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES),…

  18. [Malignant otitis externa with disfunction of the temporomandibular articulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Casanova, P; Pila Pérez, R; Dieguez Tejada, R; Pila Peláez, M

    1993-01-01

    Here we present a case of a female patient 70 years old stricken with diabetes mellitud 40 years of evolution with manifestations of malignant external otitis accompanied by disfunction of the temporomandibular articulation. Here we will show the clinical characteristics and the diagnosis in our patient likewise its treatment. We will expound the most important aspects of the entity at this present time.

  19. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  20. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded speec

  1. College Student Access: How Articulation Agreements Support Rural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Dixon, Karrie Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Students from rural areas face additional burdens, such as affordability, academic preparation, and lack of college-going resources that make seeking, enrolling, and attending college more difficult. Community colleges offer hope to achieve a college degree for many rural students, and well-developed articulation agreements can be one way of…

  2. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 3, The Arithmetic of Scientific Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the third lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide. An introductory description is given for scientific notation methods. The subject content is provided in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is required for students to control their learning process.…

  3. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  4. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  5. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  6. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  7. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  8. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  9. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  10. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  11. Individual differences in processing pitch contour and rise time in adults: A behavioral and electrophysiological study of Cantonese tone merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po

    2016-06-01

    One way to understand the relationship between speech perception and production is to examine cases where the two dissociate. This study investigates the hypothesis that perceptual acuity reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) to rise time of sound amplitude envelope and pitch contour [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN)] may associate with individual differences in production among speakers with otherwise comparable perceptual abilities. To test this hypothesis, advantage was taken of an on-going sound change-tone merging in Cantonese, and compared the ERPs between two groups of typically developed native speakers who could discriminate the high rising and low rising tones with equivalent accuracy but differed in the distinctiveness of their production of these tones. Using a passive oddball paradigm, early positive-going EEG components to rise time and MMN to pitch contour were elicited during perception of the two tones. Significant group differences were found in neural responses to rise time rather than pitch contour. More importantly, individual differences in efficiency of tone discrimination in response latency and magnitude of neural responses to rise time were correlated with acoustic measures of F0 offset and rise time differences in productions of the two rising tones.

  12. The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canning, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings.

  13. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  14. Note sur les articulations de la linéarité phrastique

    OpenAIRE

    Rostislav Kocourek

    2012-01-01

    The term structuring is here used as an equivalent of various meanings of terms sentence perspective or sentence articulation found in terms Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP), or Actual Sentence Articulation, or in phrases used in the present paper as l’articulation ordinaire or l’articulation poétique.The introductory sections of the paper deal with the typological and diachronic aspects of word order, and with the proposal to use permutation as a promising procedure preparing to obtain ...

  15. MyReDiary: Co-Designing for Collaborative Articulation in Physical Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our exploration of co-designing for supporting a collaborative articulation of rehabilitation process. Based on our reading of key CSCW literature, we describe three facets of a collaboratively articulated rehab process: Interdependence, Distributed Process, and Interoper......In this paper we present our exploration of co-designing for supporting a collaborative articulation of rehabilitation process. Based on our reading of key CSCW literature, we describe three facets of a collaboratively articulated rehab process: Interdependence, Distributed Process...

  16. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  17. Attitude Dynamics and Control of Solar Sails with Articulated Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Ploen, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop a robust nonlinear algorithm for the attitude control of a solar sailcraft with M single degree-of-freedom articulated control vanes. A general attitude controller that tracks an admissible trajectory while rejecting disturbances such as torques due to center-of-mass to center-of-pressure offsets is applied to this problem. We then describe a methodology based on nonlinear programming to allocate the required control torques among the control vanes. A simplified allocation strategy is then applied to a solar sail with four articulated control vanes, and simulation results are given. The performance of the control algorithm and possible limitations of vane-only control are then discussed.

  18. Design and Construction of Passively Articulated Ornithopter Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Alexander Timothy

    Birds, bats, and insects are able to fly efficiently and execute impressive in-flight, landing, and takeoff maneuvers with apparent ease through actuation of their highly articulated wings. This contrasts the approach used to enable the flight of comparatively simple man-made rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The complex aerodynamics underlying flapping-based flight pose an everpresent challenge to scientists hoping to reveal the secrets of animal flight. Despite this, interest in engineering aircraft on the bird and insect scale is higher than ever. Herein, I present my attempt to design and construct bioinspired passively articulated ornithopter wings. Two different hinge-based joint design concepts are investigated across several design iterations. The advantages and disadvantages of each implementation are discussed. Finally, the necessary instrumentation to analyze the performance of the wings is designed and fabricated, followed by testing of the wings.

  19. The calculation of robot dynamics using articulated-body inertias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating the acceleration of a robot in response to given actuator forces. The method is applicable to open-loop kinematic chains containing revolute and prismatic joints. The algorithm is based on recursive formulas involving quantities called articulated-body inertias, which represent the inertia properties of collections of rigid bodies connected together by joints allowing constrained relative motion between the bodies. A new, matrix-based notation is introduced to represent articulated-body inertias and other spatial quantities. This notation is used to develop the algorithm, and results in a compact representation of the equations. The new algorithm has a computational requirement that varies linearly with the number of joints, and its efficiency is compared with other published algorithms.

  20. Facilitated Articulation of Implicit Knowledge in Textile Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire...... of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced...... an emergent framework for accessing implicit knowledge in textile design. The framework is based on the distance to the fabric. Present at each workshop were materials, chairs and images as initiators for articulation. In each workshop rules for playing and gaming materials were introduced by the author...

  1. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Wu; Guodong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, ho...

  2. Method for optimization of statically determined articulated structures

    OpenAIRE

    Parras Galán, L.; Montes Tubío, M.; García Guzmán, A.; Entrenas Angulo, J.A.; de Dios Palomares, R.

    1985-01-01

    An algorithm of mathematical programmation for the optimum disign of iso-static articulate structures has been developed. The characteristics of the proposed algorithm are: a) It not requires that the objective function or the restriction equations be derivable. b) They use unidimensional methods of unidimensional optimization to pass over from a given solution to a better one. c) To introduce contingent procedures to obtain Information which leads to a better solution. Those characteristics ...

  3. Functional Organization of Human Sensorimotor Cortex for Speech Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Mesgarani, Nima; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex actions we perform, yet nearly all of us learn to do it effortlessly. Production of fluent speech requires the precise, coordinated movement of multiple articulators (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue, larynx) over rapid time scales. Here, we used high-resolution, multi-electrode cortical recordings during the production of consonant-vowel syllables to determine the organization of speech sensorimotor cortex in humans. We found speech articulator representations that were somatotopically arranged on ventral pre- and post-central gyri and partially overlapping at individual electrodes. These representations were temporally coordinated as sequences during syllable production. Spatial patterns of cortical activity revealed an emergent, population-level representation, which was organized by phonetic features. Over tens of milliseconds, the spatial patterns transitioned between distinct representations for different consonants and vowels. These results reveal the dynamic organization of speech sensorimotor cortex during the generation of multi-articulator movements underlying our ability to speak. PMID:23426266

  4. Open software architecture for east articulated maintenance arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Li, Ming [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland); Yang, Yang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd Hefei Anhui (China); Alcina, Daniel A.M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A software requirement of serial-articulated robot for EAST assembly and maintains is presented. • A open software architecture of the robot is developed. • A component-based model distribution system with real-time communication of the robot is constructed. - Abstract: For the inside inspection and the maintenance of vacuum vessel in the EAST, an articulated maintenance arm is developed. In this article, an open software architecture developed for the EAST articulated maintenance arm (EAMA) is described, which offers a robust and proper performance and easy-going experience based on standard open robotic platform OROCOS. The paper presents a component-based model software architecture using multi-layer structure: end layer, up layer, middle, and down layer. In the end layer the components are defined off-line in the task planner manner. The components in up layer complete the function of trajectory plan. The CORBA, as a communication framework, is adopted to exchange the data between the distributed components. The contributors use Real-Time Workshop from the MATLAB/Simulink to generate the components in the middle layer. Real-time Toolkit guarantees control applications running in the hard real-time mode. Ethernets and the CAN bus are used for data transfer in the down layer, where the components implement the hardware functions. The distributed architecture of control system associates each processing node with each joint, which is mapped to a component with all functioning features of the framework.

  5. Oral approach-avoidance: affective consequences of muscular articulation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Maschmann, Ira Theresa; Pecher, Diane; Winkielman, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Can mouth movements shape attitudes? When people articulate different consonants (e.g., B or K) they press the tongue and the lips against various spots in the mouth. This allows for construction of words that feature systematic wanderings of consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear (inward; e.g., BENOKA) or from the rear to the front (outward; e.g., KENOBA) of the mouth. These wanderings of muscular strictures resemble the oral kinematics during either deglution (swallowing-like, inward movement) or expectoration (spitting-like, outward movement). Thus, we predicted that the articulation of inward and outward words induces motivational states associated with deglutition and expectoration--namely, approach and avoidance--which was tested in 9 experiments (total N = 822). Inward words were preferred over outward words, being labeled as nonsense words (Experiments 1, 4, 5, 6, and 9), company names (Experiment 2), or person names (Experiments 3, 7, and 8), with control words falling in between (Experiment 5). As a social-behavioral consequence, ostensible chat partners were more often chosen to interact with when having inward compared to outward names (Experiment 7). The effect was found in German-speaking (Experiments 1-5) and English-speaking (Experiment 6) samples, and it occurred even under silent reading (all experiments) and for negatively labeled targets (names of villains; Experiment 8). Showing articulation simulations as being the causal undercurrent, this effect was absent in aphasia patients who lacked covert subvocalizations (Experiment 9).

  6. Recognizing articulated objects using a region-based invariant transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Isaac; Ray, Manjit

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for representing and recognizing objects, based on invariants of the object's regions. We apply the method to articulated objects in low-resolution, noisy range images. Articulated objects such as a back-hoe can have many degrees of freedom, in addition to the unknown variables of viewpoint. Recognizing such an object in an image can involve a search in a high-dimensional space that involves all these unknown variables. Here, we use invariance to reduce this search space to a manageable size. The low resolution of our range images makes it hard to use common features such as edges to find invariants. We have thus developed a new "featureless" method that does not depend on feature detection. Instead of local features, we deal with whole regions of the object. We define a "transform" that converts the image into an invariant representation on a grid, based on invariant descriptors of entire regions centered around the grid points. We use these region-based invariants for indexing and recognition. While the focus here is on articulation, the method can be easily applied to other problems such as the occlusion of fixed objects.

  7. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  8. [Conceptual parameters of the facial arc and articulators adapted for black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dindin, A C; Djeredou, K B; N'Dindin-Guinan, B; Assi, K D

    2005-12-01

    Articulators and facial arc always used in dentistry are not adapted to African black people. Their use provokes many errors in the setting of models on articulators. In this work, authors propose facial arc and articulator parameters conceptions that are suited to black Africans.

  9. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  10. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the shoulder Epicondylitis: elbow soreness often called "tennis elbow" Ganglion cyst: swelling or lump in the wrist ... Bones, Muscles, and Joints Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Medial Epicondylitis Repetitive Stress Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  11. Temporal evolution of gamma activity in human cortex during an overt and covert word repetition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLeuthardt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models for cortical processing of speech have been proposed. Classically, the regions participating in language were thought to be modular with a linear sequence of activations. More recently, modern theoretical models have posited a more hierarchical and distributed interaction of anatomic areas for the various stages of speech processing. Traditional imaging techniques can only define the location or time of cortical activation, which impedes the further validation and refinement of these models. In this study, we take advantage of recordings from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography ECoG, which can accurately detect the location and timing of cortical activations, to study the time course of ECoG gamma modulations during an overt and covert word repetition task for different cortical areas. For overt word production, our results show substantial perisylvian cortical activations early in the perceptual phase of the task that were maintained through word articulation. However, this broad activation is attenuated during the expressive phase of covert word repetition. Across the different repetition tasks, the utilization of the different cortical sites within the perisylvian region varied dependent on which stimulus was provided (auditory or visual cue and whether the word was to be spoken or imagined. Taken together, the data supports current models of speech that were defined with functional imaging. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the broad perisylvian speech network variably utilizes these cortical resources based on the nature of the cognitive task.

  12. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  13. Cross-linguistic preference and the phonetics of geminates: Place of articulation and duration of phonologically short and long consonants in Guinaang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura

    2003-10-01

    It is reported that there is a preference for the place-of-articulation in geminates among world languages; alveolar, labial, velar geminate consonants always appear in that order with respect to one another (G. Thurgood, Papers in Honor of Frederick H. Brengelman, 1993, pp. 129-137). This study investigated whether the phonetic contrasts in duration are larger in cross-linguistically favored place-of-articulation (e.g., alveolar) than in the less favored place-of-articulation (e.g., velar). The data is from a language called Guinaang Bontok. Four speakers of Guinaang Bontok produced thirty-five words that have either a singleton or a geminate of /p t k m n rhookn/. Eighteen words included a singleton and the other seventeen words included a geminate. The participants produced the target word in isolation first, and then repeated it in a frame sentence twice. The recordings were digitized at 22.05 Hz, and the durations of the consonants were measured. A total of 420 tokens (35 words ×3 repetitions ×4 participants) were analyzed. The results partially supported the hypothesis; the durational contrasts were indeed larger in alveolar consonants (/t n/) than in labial consonants (/p m/) and velar consonants (/rhookn/). However, contrasts in velar stop (/k/) were as large as in the alveolar stop (/t/).

  14. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  15. Onset age of L2 acquisition influences language network in early and late Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojin; Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Jiang, Bo; Gao, Wei; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Niu, Meiqi; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Xiaoxi; Liu, Chang; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-11-01

    Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state. In this study, we acquired resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from 10 Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals (acquired L2: 3years old) and 11 late bilinguals (acquired L2: 6years old), and analyzed their topological properties of language networks after controlling the language daily exposure and usage as well as PL in L1 and L2. We found that early bilinguals had significantly a higher clustering coefficient, global and local efficiency, but significantly lower characteristic path length compared to late bilinguals. Modular analysis indicated that compared to late bilinguals, early bilinguals showed significantly stronger intra-modular functional connectivity in the semantic and phonetic modules, stronger inter-modular functional connectivity between the semantic and phonetic modules as well as between the phonetic and syntactic modules. Differences in global and local parameters may reflect different patterns of neuro-plasticity respectively for early and late bilinguals. These results suggested that different L2 experience influences topological properties of language network, even if late bilinguals achieve high PL-L2. Our findings may provide a new perspective of neural mechanisms related to early and late bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Valence, arousal, familiarity, concreteness, and imageability ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns in Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S

    2017-01-01

    Words are frequently used as stimuli in cognitive psychology experiments, for example, in recognition memory studies. In these experiments, it is often desirable to control for the words' psycholinguistic properties because differences in such properties across experimental conditions might introduce undesirable confounds. In order to avoid confounds, studies typically check to see if various affective and lexico-semantic properties are matched across experimental conditions, and so databases that contain values for these properties are needed. While word ratings for these variables exist in English and other European languages, ratings for Chinese words are not comprehensive. In particular, while ratings for single characters exist, ratings for two-character words-which often have different meanings than their constituent characters, are scarce. In this study, ratings for 292 two-character Chinese nouns were obtained from Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. Affective variables, including valence and arousal, and lexico-semantic variables, including familiarity, concreteness, and imageability, were rated in the study. The words were selected from a film subtitle database containing word frequency information that could be extracted and listed alongside the resulting ratings. Overall, the subjective ratings showed good reliability across all rated dimensions, as well as good reliability within and between the different groups of participants who each rated a subset of the words. Moreover, several well-established relationships between the variables found consistently in other languages were also observed in this study, demonstrating that the ratings are valid. The resulting word database can be used in studies where control for the above psycholinguistic variables is critical to the research design.

  17. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  18. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  19. Effectiveness of an Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis in Genu Recurvatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul ASRM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genu Recurvatum is a deformity of knee joint that tends to push it backwards by excessive extension in tibio-femoral joints. This poses a significant challenge because of technical difficulties and a high incidence of recurrence. This report describes a 63 years old male diagnosed as post-polio residual paralysis who showed excessive genu recurvatum of his left knee during long standing and walking. An Articulated Knee Hyperextension Orthosis (KAFO was tried to check its effectiveness in terms of gait and energy expenditure.

  20. Articulated pipes conveying fluid pulsating with high frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1999-01-01

    Stability and nonlinear dynamics of two articulated pipes conveying fluid with a high-frequency pulsating component is investigated. The non-autonomous model equations are converted into autonomous equations by approximating the fast excitation terms with slowly varying terms. The downward hanging...... pipe position will lose stability if the mean flow speed exceeds a certain critical value. Adding a pulsating component to the fluid flow is shown to stabilize the hanging position for high values of the ratio between fluid and pipe-mass, and to marginally destabilize this position for low ratios...

  1. [Prosthetic treatment of mandibular pseudarthrosis using an articulated prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, C A; Razouk, O; Dichamp, J; Bertrand, J C; Vaillant, J M

    1994-01-01

    Two cases with complete loss of the tooth-bearing portion of the mandible were repaired with a prosthesis. This type of defect can involve the loss of a large number of teeth and aggression to the remaining teeth must be limited as much as possible. A two-part "articulated" prosthesis with two rings appears to be the best adapted system. This method takes into account the requirements of for additional conventional prostheses and thus makes it possible to save the remaining teeth.

  2. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  3. Natural metrics and least-committed priors for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    angle space. However, the metric of the joint angle space is rather unintuitive as it ignores both bone lengths and how bones are connected. As Brownian motion is strongly linked with the underlying metric, this has severe impact on the predictive models. We introduce the spatial kinematic manifold...... on the manifold that respects the natural metric. This model is expressed in terms of a stochastic differential equation, which we solve using a novel numerical scheme. Empirically, we validate the new model in a particle filter based articulated tracking system. Here, we not only outperform the standard Brownian...

  4. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2014-01-01

    human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  5. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  6. Modeling, Simulation and Position Control of 3DOF Articulated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degrees of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.

  7. Motion estimation of elastic articulated objects from image contours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hai-lang; DAI Yue-wei; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    A new method of elastic articulated objects (human bodies) modeling was presented based on a new conic curve. The model includes 3D object deform able curves which can represent the deformation of human occluding contours. The deformation of human occluding contour can be represented by adjusting only four de-formation parameters for each limb. Then, the 3D deformation parameters are determined by corresponding 2Dcontours from a sequence of stereo images. The algorithm presented in this paper includes deform able conic curve parameters determination and the plane, 3D conic curve lying on, parameter determination.

  8. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  9. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  10. Audiovisual materials are effective for enhancing the correction of articulation disorders in children with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, María Del Carmen; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Morales, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    Children with cleft palate frequently show speech disorders known as compensatory articulation. Compensatory articulation requires a prolonged period of speech intervention that should include reinforcement at home. However, frequently relatives do not know how to work with their children at home. To study whether the use of audiovisual materials especially designed for complementing speech pathology treatment in children with compensatory articulation can be effective for stimulating articulation practice at home and consequently enhancing speech normalization in children with cleft palate. Eighty-two patients with compensatory articulation were studied. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received speech pathology treatment aimed to correct articulation placement. In addition, patients from the active group received a set of audiovisual materials to be used at home. Parents were instructed about strategies and ideas about how to use the materials with their children. Severity of compensatory articulation was compared at the onset and at the end of the speech intervention. After the speech therapy period, the group of patients using audiovisual materials at home demonstrated significantly greater improvement in articulation, as compared with the patients receiving speech pathology treatment on - site without audiovisual supporting materials. The results of this study suggest that audiovisual materials especially designed for practicing adequate articulation placement at home can be effective for reinforcing and enhancing speech pathology treatment of patients with cleft palate and compensatory articulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A kinematic study of critical and non-critical articulators in emotional speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangwon; Toutios, Asterios; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-03-01

    This study explores one aspect of the articulatory mechanism that underlies emotional speech production, namely, the behavior of linguistically critical and non-critical articulators in the encoding of emotional information. The hypothesis is that the possible larger kinematic variability in the behavior of non-critical articulators enables revealing underlying emotional expression goal more explicitly than that of the critical articulators; the critical articulators are strictly controlled in service of achieving linguistic goals and exhibit smaller kinematic variability. This hypothesis is examined by kinematic analysis of the movements of critical and non-critical speech articulators gathered using eletromagnetic articulography during spoken expressions of five categorical emotions. Analysis results at the level of consonant-vowel-consonant segments reveal that critical articulators for the consonants show more (less) peripheral articulations during production of the consonant-vowel-consonant syllables for high (low) arousal emotions, while non-critical articulators show less sensitive emotional variation of articulatory position to the linguistic gestures. Analysis results at the individual phonetic targets show that overall, between- and within-emotion variability in articulatory positions is larger for non-critical cases than for critical cases. Finally, the results of simulation experiments suggest that the postural variation of non-critical articulators depending on emotion is significantly associated with the controls of critical articulators.

  12. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2001-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2004-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. The technology of mobile robot with articulated crawler mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yong; Suh, Yong Chil; Lee, Yung Kwang; Sin, Jae Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    The main application of a mobile robot are to do the inspection and maintenance tasks in the primary and auxiliary building, and to meet with the radiological emergency response in nuclear power plant. Our project to develop crawler-type mobile robot has been divided into 3 phases. In 1 st phase, the-state-of-the-arts of mobile robot technology were studied and analyzed. And then the technical report `development of mobile robot technology for the light work` was published on July, 1993. In current phase, the articulated crawler type mobile robot named as ANDROS Mark VI was purchased to evaluate deeply its mechanism and control system. Then we designed the autonomous track surface, to get the inclination angle of robot, and to control the front and rear auxiliary track autonomously during climbing up and down stairs. And also, the autonomous stair-climbing algorithm has been developed to going over stairs with high stability. For the final phase, the advanced model of articulated crawler type mobile robot is going to be developed. (Author) 13 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-01

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  16. Vowel formant dispersion as a measure of articulation proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; van Doorn, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The articulatory range of a speaker has previously been estimated by the shape formed by first and second formant measurements of produced vowels. In a majority of the currently available metrics, formant frequency measurements are reduced to a single estimate for a condition, which has adverse consequences for subsequent statistical testing. Other metrics provide estimates of size of vowel articulation changes only, and do not provide a method for studying the direction of the change. This paper proposes an alternative approach. Vowel formant frequencies are redefined as vectors originating from a defined center point of the vowel space fixed to a basic three-vowel frame. The Euclidean length of the vectors, the vowel formant dispersion (VFD), can be compared across conditions for evidence of articulatory expansions or reductions across conditions or speaker groups. Further, the angle component of the vowel vectors allows for analyses of direction of the reduction or expansion. Based on the range of investigations afforded by the VFD metric, and simulation experiments that compare its statistical properties with those of other proposed metrics, it is argued that the VFD procedure offers an enhanced view of vowel articulation change over rival metrics.

  17. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  18. Articulated navigation testbed (ANT): an example of adaptable intrinsic mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Hanna, Doug M.; Penzes, Steven G.

    2000-07-01

    An important but oft overlooked aspect of any robotic system is the synergistic benefit of designing the chassis to have high intrinsic mobility which complements rather than limits, its system capabilities. This novel concept continues to be investigated by the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) with the Articulated Navigation Testbed (ANT) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). The ANT demonstrates high mobility through the combination of articulated steering and a hybrid locomotion scheme which utilizes individually powered wheels on the edge of rigid legs; legs which are capable of approximately 450 degrees of rotation. The configuration can be minimally configured as a 4x4 and modularly expanded to 6x6, 8x8, and so on. This enhanced mobility configuration permits pose control and novel maneuvers such as stepping, bridging, crawling, etc. Resultant mobility improvements, particularly in unstructured and off-road environments, will reduce the resolution with which the UGV sensor systems must perceive its surroundings and decreases the computational requirements of the UGV's perception systems1 for successful semi-autonomous or autonomous terrain negotiation. This paper reviews critical vehicle developments leading up to the ANT concept, describes the basis for its configuration and speculates on the impact of the intrinsic mobility concept for UGV effectiveness.

  19. Articulated registration: elastic registration based on a wire-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Miguel A.; Munyoz-Moreno, Emma; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of elastic registration of anatomical structures that bears an inner skeleton, such as the knee, hand or spine. Such a method has to deal with great degrees of variability, specially for the case of inter-subject registration; but even for the intra-subject case the degree of variability of images will be large since the structures we bear in mind are articulated. Rigid registration methods are clearly inappropriate for this problem, and well-known elastic methods do not usually incorporate the restriction of maintaining long skeletal structures straight. A new method is therefore needed to deal with such a situation; we call this new method "articulated registration". The inner bone skeleton is modeled with a wire model, where wires are drawn by connecting landmarks located in the main joints of the skeletal structure to be registered (long bones). The main feature of our registration method is that within the bone axis (specifically, where the wires are) an exact registration is guaranteed, while for the remaining image points an elastic registration is carried out based on a distance transform (with respect to the model wires); this causes the registration on long bones to be affine to all practical purposes, while the registration of soft tissue -- far from the bones -- is elastic. As a proof-of-concept of this method we describe the registration of hands on radiographs.

  20. Evaluation of accuracy of transfer of the maxillary occlusal cant of two articulators using two facebow/semi-adjustable articulator systems: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the angle made by Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane on maxillary casts, mounted using the respective facebows on Artex Amann Girrbach and Hanau Wide-vue semi-adjustable articulators with cephalometrically derived Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle as a control. Subjects and Methods: Maxillary casts of 30 subjects were mounted on Hanau Wide-vue and Artex Amann Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following facebow transfer using respective facebows. The Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angles of these casts were measured using Wixey's digital angle gauge. They were also subjected to a lateral cephalogram, and the occlusal cant was measured using RadiAnt DICOM software. Statistical Analysis: Using Pearson correlation, the accuracy of the angle made by upper member of the articulator and occlusal plane of mounted maxillary casts in each of the articulator was compared to the Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle in lateral cephalogram. Results: A mean difference of 1.9° was found between Hanau Wide-vue articulator and lateral cephalogram and a mean difference of 3.6° was found between Artex Amann Girrbach articulator and lateral cephalogram. Statistically, Pearson correlation value (r obtained between Hanau Wide-vue and lateral cephalogram was 0.46 and between Artex Amann Girrbach and lateral cephalogram was 0.25. Conclusion: From the statistical value (r derived, it can be inferred that the Frankfort horizontal plane-occlusal plane angle of the casts articulated on Hanau Wide-vue articulator was more accurate in comparison to that on Artex Amann Girrbach articulator.

  1. Material opportunities for children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Kolmos, Marie

    to know whether the researcher and the child share understandings of verbal articulations. A similar challenge counts for phenomena and experiences that may be difficult to describe and articulate in verbal language such as sensory and body experiences and diverse experiences of awareness, attention....... In both studies the mutual material references offer new opportunities for the children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing in the interview situations....

  2. Effects of different fermentation methods on bacterial cellulose and acid production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Cantonese-style rice vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Chen, Siqian; Yi, Jiulong; Hou, Zongxia

    2014-07-01

    A strain of acidogenic bacterium was isolated from the fermentation liquid of Cantonese-style rice vinegar produced by traditional surface fermentation. 16S rDNA identification confirmed the bacterium as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which synthesizes bacterial cellulose, and the acid productivity of the strain was investigated. In the study, the effects of the membrane integrity and the comparison of the air-liquid interface membrane with immerged membrane on total acidity, cellulose production, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and number of bacteria were investigated. The cellulose membrane and the bacteria were observed under SEM for discussing their relationship. The correlations between oxygen consumption and total acid production rate were compared in surface and shake flask fermentation. The results showed the average acid productivity of the strain was 0.02g/(100mL/h), and the integrity of cellulose membrane in surface fermentation had an important effect on total acidity and cellulose production. With a higher membrane integrity, the total acidity after 144 h of fermentation was 3.75 g/100 mL, and the cellulose production was 1.71 g/100 mL after 360 h of fermentation. However, when the membrane was crushed by mechanical force, the total acidity and the cellulose production were as low as 0.36 g/100 mL and 0.14 g/100 mL, respectively. When the cellulose membrane was forced under the surface of fermentation liquid, the total acid production rate was extremely low, but the activity of ADH in the cellulose membrane was basically the same with the one above the liquid surface. The bacteria were mainly distributed in the cellulose membrane during the fermentation. The bacterial counts in surface fermentation were more than in the shake flask fermentation and G. xylinus consumed the substrate faster, in surface fermentation than in shake flask fermentation. The oxygen consumption rate and total acid production rate of surface fermentation were respectively 26

  3. 粤韵园音,气韵相合--粤剧艺术博物馆创作理念%Consistency of Rhythmic Vitality Between the Cantonese Operaand Gardens:the Design Proposal of the Art Museum of Cantonese Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭谦; 李晓雪

    2015-01-01

    abstract The Art Museum of Cantonese Opera uses the important concept of Chinese traditional art"Rhythmic vitality (QiYun)" as the design spirit. The design proposal borrows the essence of the art of Cantonese opera and Lingnan garden, utilizing it in spiritual meaning and building performance between Cantonese Opera and Lingnan garden, and translating the construction entity into the garden space. Its gardening, building, hill making and water design all use“Rhythmic vitality (QiYun)”as a guideline, achieving a contemporary dialogue across time and space of the two major cultural symbols in Lingnan.%粤剧艺术博物馆以中国传统艺术领域的重要概念“气韵”作为核心设计追求,注重对粤剧艺术及岭南园林艺术精髓的深入挖掘,主动在设计中追求与粤剧艺术在精神内涵及园林建筑表现上的气韵相合,将建筑实体转化为园林空间,造园、建筑、筑山理水皆以“气韵”为设计指导,从而力图带动全园“气韵”生动,达成岭南两大文化标志跨越时空的当代对话。

  4. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Evaluation of an improved orthognathic articulator system: 1. Accuracy of cast orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P E; Barbenel, J C; Walker, F S; Khambay, B S; Moos, K F; Ayoub, A F

    2012-02-01

    A systematic study was carried out using plastic model skulls to quantify the accuracy of the transfer of face bow registration to the articulator. A standard Dentatus semi-adjustable articulator system was compared to a purpose built orthognathic articulator system by measuring the maxillary occlusal plane angles of plastic model skulls and of dental casts mounted on the two different types of articulators. There was a statistically significant difference between the two systems; the orthognathic system showed small random errors, but the standard system showed systematic errors of up to 28°.

  6. Evaluation of relationship between feeding reflexes and articulation in spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hadian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the term used to describe a movement disorder though to be the result of nonprogressive brain damage. Due to damage to CNS, it is associated with articulation disorder and abnormal feeding reflex. Lack of oral function control and coordination following feeding reflex disorders. Articulation disorders are seen in most of the cerebral palsied patients.This research aimed to determine the relationship between feeding reflexes and articulation in cerebral palsy (spasticchildren. Methods: This study was cross sectionally carried out on 52 children with cerebral palsy, 5 to 10 yrs old, in rehabilitation centers and private clinics. The information related to feeding reflexes was collected through direct observation of patient and evaluation of sound articulation through phonetic information test. Results: Statistical analysis carried out by SPSS and chi-square and fisher exact tests. Abnomal chewing and tongue reflex are more prevalent than other feeding reflexes.The relationship between lip reflex and articulation of p/m/r/y/f/č and chewing reflex with articulation of/z/š/ is meaningful. The relationship between biting reflex with articulation of /z/j/l/š/ is meaningful. The relationship between tongue reflex and rooting reflex with articulation of sound is not meaningful. Conclusion: With regard to the result of this research, it can be suggested that in children with cerebral palsy following feeding reflex disorders, abnormal posture during speech occurs that could have effect on articulation.

  7. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  8. Large-scale detection of repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W F

    2014-05-28

    Combinatorics on words began more than a century ago with a demonstration that an infinitely long string with no repetitions could be constructed on an alphabet of only three letters. Computing all the repetitions (such as ∙∙∙TTT ∙∙∙ or ∙∙∙ CGACGA ∙∙∙ ) in a given string x of length n is one of the oldest and most important problems of computational stringology, requiring time in the worst case. About a dozen years ago, it was discovered that repetitions can be computed as a by-product of the Θ(n)-time computation of all the maximal periodicities or runs in x. However, even though the computation is linear, it is also brute force: global data structures, such as the suffix array, the longest common prefix array and the Lempel-Ziv factorization, need to be computed in a preprocessing phase. Furthermore, all of this effort is required despite the fact that the expected number of runs in a string is generally a small fraction of the string length. In this paper, I explore the possibility that repetitions (perhaps also other regularities in strings) can be computed in a manner commensurate with the size of the output.

  9. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  10. Neurobehavioural Correlates of Abnormal Repetitive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ford

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in which echolalia and echopraxia occur are reviewed, followed by an attempt to elicit possible mechanisms of these phenomena. A brief description of stereotypical and perseverative behaviour and obsessional phenomena is given. It is suggested that abnormal repetitive behaviour may occur partly as a result of central dopaminergic dysfunction.

  11. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  12. Verbal Repetitions and Echolalia in Alzheimer's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Fernanda Miranda

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of echolalic repetition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A qualitative analysis of data from spontaneous conversations with MHI, a woman with AD, is presented. The data come from the DALI Corpus, a corpus of spontaneous conversations involving subjects with AD. This study argues that echolalic effects can be…

  13. Measurement uncertainty analysis on laser tracker combined with articulated CMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-ning; Yu, Lian-dong; Du, Yun; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2013-10-01

    The combined measurement technology plays an increasingly important role in the digitalized assembly. This paper introduces a combined measurement system consists of a Laser tracker and a FACMM,with the applications in the inspection of the position of the inner parts in a large-scale device. When these measurement instruments are combined, the resulting coordinate data set contains uncertainties that are a function of the base data sets and complex interactions between the measurement sets. Combined with the characteristics of Laser Tracker and Flexible Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine (FACMM),Monte-Claro simulation mothed is employed in the uncertainty evaluation of combined measurement systems. A case study is given to demonstrate the practical applications of this research.

  14. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Lea, W.A. [Speech Science Institute, P.O. Box 240428, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124 (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  15. Sensory Integration with Articulated Motion on a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rojas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration of articulated motion with auditory and visual sensory information that enables a humanoid robot to achieve certain reflex actions that mimic those of people. Reflexes such as reach-and-grasp behavior enables the robot to learn, through experience, its own state and that of the world. A humanoid robot with binaural audio input, stereo vision, and pneumatic arms and hands exhibited tightly coupled sensory-motor behaviors in four different demonstrations. The complexity of successive demonstrations was increased to show that the reflexive sensory-motor behaviors combine to perform increasingly complex tasks. The humanoid robot executed these tasks effectively and established the groundwork for the further development of hardware and software systems, sensory-motor vector-space representations, and coupling with higher-level cognition.

  16. African American English: Dialect Mistaken As an Articulation Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Sade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the reasons speech-language pathologists often misdiagnose children using AAE as having articulation and phonological disorders. In my literature review, I will discuss three ruling explanations for why this problem occurs. The most common reason for this misdiagnosis is that speech-language pathologists (SLPs are unfamiliar with AAE acquisition and its phonological features. The second is that SLPs administer norm-referenced standardized tests that are culturally biased, which unfairly contributes to these errors. Finally, SLPs often do not realize that AAE speaking children are, in a way, learning a second dialect ¾ Standard American English ¾ in school. Each of these practices delivers inaccurate information about the child, placing the SLPs and their clients at a disadvantage. I will provide recommendations and suggestions for SLPs. My argument is that changes can, and should, be made.

  17. Palatalization in English: An Articulation Problem for Turkish Teacher Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mehmet Demirezen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of teacher training, there is a scarcity of teaching pronunciation teachingmethodology to cure the fossilized mistakes of teacher trainees and foreign language teacherson-the-job. A case study pertaining to this situation is handled for the first time in this articleunder the title of “Audio-articulation Method” (Demirezen, 2003; Hişmanoğlu, 2004. Thismethod takes up a fossilized mistake of teacher trainees or teachers on-the-job in fifty minutesand brings in pronunciation correction by using tongue-twisters, idioms, proverbs, and thelike. Thus, it cures the fossilized mistake to a grater extent by creating a higher awareness andimproving communicative fluency. This method through task-based point of view removesthe related fossilized mistake and brings in pronunciation betterment to the teacher traineesand the teachers on-the-job.

  18. Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J

    2015-01-01

    With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health.

  19. [Articulation between child and adolescent mental health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.

  20. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  2. Optimal visual-haptic integration with articulated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chie; Watt, Simon J

    2017-05-01

    When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units. The system must also determine when signals refer to the same property of the world-seeing and feeling the same thing-and only integrate those that do. This could be achieved by comparing the pattern of current visual and haptic input to known statistics of their normal relationship. Articulated tools disrupt this relationship, however, by altering the geometrical relationship between object properties and hand posture (the haptic signal). We examined whether different tool configurations are taken into account in visual-haptic integration. We indexed integration by measuring the precision of size estimates, and compared our results to optimal predictions from a maximum-likelihood integrator. Integration was near optimal, independent of tool configuration/hand posture, provided that visual and haptic signals referred to the same object in the world. Thus, sensory correspondence was determined correctly (trial-by-trial), taking tool configuration into account. This reveals highly flexible multisensory integration underlying tool use, consistent with the brain constructing internal models of tools' properties.

  3. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  4. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  5. The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shing eTse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese and second-language (L2, English proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants’ reaction time distributions in the Simon task. Bilinguals’ L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in µ, and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ regardless of trial types. Bilinguals’ L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants’ age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in µ. In contrast, neither bilinguals’ L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants’ age, only (a scores in the working memory task and (b RT in incongruent trials and (c Simon effect in µ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals’ L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children’s L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies.

  6. Articulation Error Migration: A Comparison of Single Word and Connected Speech Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Timothy J.; Madison, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    The study compared frequency and type of articulation error, including error migration, between single word production and connected speech samples when vocabulary was held constant with 20 articulation disordered children (ages 5-12 years). There were significantly more errors in connected speech samples than in single word utterances. (Author/DB)

  7. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  8. The Articulation of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data from Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Insung

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of…

  9. Demanding Dynamics - Demand articulation of intermediary organisations in emerging pharmaceutical innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in emerging technological fields is carried by so-called demand articulation processes. These demand articulation processes are interactive learning processes in which stakeholders try to address what they perceive as important characteristics of, and to unravel preferences for an e

  10. Articulation Rate and Its Relationship to Disfluency Type, Duration, and Temperament in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Throneburg, Rebecca N.; Kayikci, Mavis E. Kulak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age = 3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound…

  11. Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia: Changes in Articulation and Perceived Resilience with Intensive Multimodal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maureen K; Wright, Lindsay Elizabeth; Perry, Susan; Cornett, Daphne; Schraeder, Missy; Johnson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Research into intervention strategies for developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) clearly demonstrates the need to identify effective interventions. The goals of this study were to examine changes in articulation skills following the use of phonetic, multimodal intervention and to consider the relationship between these improved articulation skills…

  12. Sectoral demand articulation : The case of emerging sensor technologies in the drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kulve, Haico; Konrad, Kornelia Elke

    Demand articulation plays a central role in innovation processes as it reduces uncertainties for innovating firms and offers guidance in innovation processes. Studies into demand articulation processes have mostly focused on users and user-producer interactions and paid less attention to the role of

  13. Articulation Error Migration: A Comparison of Single Word and Connected Speech Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Timothy J.; Madison, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    The study compared frequency and type of articulation error, including error migration, between single word production and connected speech samples when vocabulary was held constant with 20 articulation disordered children (ages 5-12 years). There were significantly more errors in connected speech samples than in single word utterances. (Author/DB)

  14. Robust Repetitive Controller for Fast AFM Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Necipoglu, Serkan; Has, Yunus; Guvenc, Levent; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the most preferred Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) method due to its numerous advantages. However, increasing the scanning speed and reducing the interaction forces between the probe's tip and the sample surface are still the two main challenges in AFM. To meet these challenges, we take advantage of the fact that the lateral movements performed during an AFM scan is a repetitive motion and propose a Repetitive Controller (RC) for the z-axis movements of the piezo-scanner. The RC utilizes the profile of the previous scan line while scanning the current line to achieve a better scan performance. The results of the scanning experiments performed with our AFM set-up show that the proposed RC significantly outperforms a conventional PI controller that is typically used for the same task. The scan error and the average tapping forces are reduced by 66% and 58%, respectively when the scan speed is increased by 7-fold.

  15. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  16. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  17. The Rhythms of Echo. Variations on Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Aradra Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the echo as metric and rhetorical procedure. It makes a brief tour through some of the poetic manifestations of echo in the Spanish literary tradition, and a brief tour through the attention that metric theory has paid to this phenomenon. Then it stops at the possibilities that rhetoric offers for its analysis from the generic approach of the discursive repetition phenomena.

  18. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  19. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  20. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  1. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  2. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  3. Repetitive element hypermethylation in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, K Y; Piola, M; Angelici, L; Cortini, F; Fenoglio, C; Galimberti, D; Pesatori, A C; Scarpini, E; Bollati, V

    2016-06-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability. We obtained blood samples from 51 MS patients and 137 healthy volunteers matched by gender, age and smoking. Methylation was assessed using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing. For all participants, medical history, physical and neurological examinations and screening laboratory tests were collected. All repetitive elements were hypermethylated in MS patients compared to healthy controls. A lower Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was associated with a lower levels of LINE-1 methylation for 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5' compared to an EDSS higher than 3, while Alu was associated with a higher level of methylation in these groups: 'EDSS = 1.0' and '1.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5'. MS patients exhibit an hypermethylation in repetitive elements compared to healthy controls. Alu and LINE-1 were associated with degree of EDSS score. Forthcoming studies focusing on epigenetics and the multifactorial pathogenetic mechanism of MS could elucidate these links further.

  4. FRB repetition and non-Poissonian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Liam; Oppermann, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some of the claims that have been made regarding the statistics of fast radio bursts (FRBs). In an earlier paper \\citep{2015arXiv150505535C} we conjectured that flicker noise associated with FRB repetition could show up in non-cataclysmic neutron star emission models, like supergiant pulses. We show how the current limits of repetition would be significantly weakened if their repeat rate really were non-Poissonian and had a pink or red spectrum. Repetition and its statistics have implications for observing strategy, generally favouring shallow wide-field surveys, since in the non-repeating scenario survey depth is unimportant. We also discuss the statistics of the apparent latitudinal dependence of FRBs, and offer a simple method for calculating the significance of this effect. We provide a generalized Bayesian framework for addressing this problem, which allows for direct model comparison. It is shown how the evidence for a steep latitudinal gradient of the FRB rate is less strong than initially s...

  5. High-precision robotic microcontact printing (R-μCP) utilizing a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Jason D; Klann, Tyler; Sha, Jin; Salick, Max; Knight, Gavin T; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Ashton, Randolph S

    2014-06-01

    Increased realization of the spatial heterogeneity found within in vivo tissue microenvironments has prompted the desire to engineer similar complexities into in vitro culture substrates. Microcontact printing (μCP) is a versatile technique for engineering such complexities onto cell culture substrates because it permits microscale control of the relative positioning of molecules and cells over large surface areas. However, challenges associated with precisely aligning and superimposing multiple μCP steps severely limits the extent of substrate modification that can be achieved using this method. Thus, we investigated the feasibility of using a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm (SCARA) for μCP applications. SCARAs are routinely used to perform high precision, repetitive tasks in manufacturing, and even low-end models are capable of achieving microscale precision. Here, we present customization of a SCARA to execute robotic-μCP (R-μCP) onto gold-coated microscope coverslips. The system not only possesses the ability to align multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps but also has the capability to do so even after the substrates have been removed, reacted to graft polymer brushes, and replaced back into the system. Plus, non-biased computerized analysis shows that the system performs such sequential patterning with <10 μm precision and accuracy, which is equivalent to the repeatability specifications of the employed SCARA model. R-μCP should facilitate the engineering of complex in vivo-like complexities onto culture substrates and their integration with microfluidic devices.

  6. Is Iẕlak a Subject of Articulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazife Nihal İnce

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this assay I have studied the structure of iẕlak which took place in disciplines that interested in Arabic phonetics in some way. The structure of iẕlak, in many field related to phonetics, has been used to express one of the conditions made by the organs during the process of producing speak sounds. But this structure didn’t mentioned in the earliest sources and in some of the latests. On the other hand we have noticed that the explanations of iẕlak term in the earliest works and the latest works of tacwid were different, and also that the new explanation was getting widely accepted. To follow this structure, which it’s all definitions were connected with its root meaning, we reviewed classical dictionaries, works concerned with Arabic language, tacwid works and other sources. The study has pointed out that although iẕlak is an affecting characteristic which influences the sound interactions, it is basically not an articulation subject.

  7. Human-like Manipulation Planning for Articulated Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahui Gan; Xianzhong Dai

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on human-likeness assessment and optimization concept to solve the problem of human-like manipulation planning for articulated robot is proposed in this paper.This method intrinsically formulates the problem as a constrained optimization problem in robot configuration space.The robot configuration space is divided into different subregions by human likeness assessment.A widely used strategy,Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) in applied ergonomics,is adopted here to evaluate the human likeness of robot configuration.A task compatibility measurement of the robot velocity transmission ratio along a specified direction is used as the target function for the optimization problem.Simple illustrative examples of this method applied to a two Degree of Freedom (DOF) planar robot that resembles the upper limb of a human are presented.Further applications to a humanoid industrial robot SDA10D are also presented.The reasonable planning results for these applications assert the effectiveness of our method.

  8. Decoding of covert vowel articulation using electroencephalography cortical currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsue eYoshimura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of providing assistive technology for the communication impaired, we proposed electroencephalography (EEG cortical currents as a new approach for EEG-based brain-computer interface spellers. EEG cortical currents were estimated with a variational Bayesian method that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data as a hierarchical prior. EEG and fMRI data were recorded from ten healthy participants during covert articulation of Japanese vowels /a/ and /i/, as well as during a no-imagery control task. Applying a sparse logistic regression (SLR method to classify the three tasks, mean classification accuracy using EEG cortical currents was significantly higher than that using EEG sensor signals and was also comparable to accuracies in previous studies using electrocorticography. SLR weight analysis revealed vertices of EEG cortical currents that were highly contributive to classification for each participant, and the vertices showed discriminative time series signals according to the three tasks. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis focusing on the highly contributive vertices revealed positive and negative correlations among areas related to speech processing. As the same findings were not observed using EEG sensor signals, our results demonstrate the potential utility of EEG cortical currents not only for engineering purposes such as brain-computer interfaces but also for neuroscientific purposes such as the identification of neural signaling related to language processing.

  9. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  10. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  11. Design and fabrication of an articulated four axes microrobot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoshi; Yang, Zhong; Wei, Danming; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    In order to carry out nanomanufacturing tasks, a microrobot requires both high precision and high reliability over prolonged periods of time. Articulated Four-Axis Microrobots (AFAM) have been introduced a decade ago as millimetric microrobots capable of carrying out nanoscale tasks. The original robot design relied on a Micro Electro Mechanical (MEMS) actuator bank positioned onto a Silicon substrate, and an assembled arm mechanically coupled to the actuators through a cable. Movement of two thermal actuator banks positions the AFAM's end effector in 3-Dimensional space with approximately 75 microns workspace and 50 nm repeatability. However, failure of the AFAM's cable mechanism was observed after less than 1 million cycles. In this paper, we propose a novel arm mechanism for AFAM that improve its performance. The design presented in this article substitutes the "wire-gluing" cable with an anchored electrostatic actuator, and therefore it simplifies assembly requirements, reduces overall footprint of the microrobot, and achieves higher operating frequency. Simulation results are presented for a rotary electrostatic comb drive as basis for the microrobot arm with overall dimensions of 2 mm × 2 mm. The AFAM arm cantilever is 1 mm long to achieve a workspace of dimension of 75 microns along the vertical axis. Experimental evaluation of the design was accomplished using a prototype fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer processed with the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process.

  12. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  13. Decoding of Covert Vowel Articulation Using Electroencephalography Cortical Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Nishimoto, Atsushi; Belkacem, Abdelkader Nasreddine; Shin, Duk; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Hanakawa, Takashi; Koike, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of providing assistive technology for the communication impaired, we proposed electroencephalography (EEG) cortical currents as a new approach for EEG-based brain-computer interface spellers. EEG cortical currents were estimated with a variational Bayesian method that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data as a hierarchical prior. EEG and fMRI data were recorded from ten healthy participants during covert articulation of Japanese vowels /a/ and /i/, as well as during a no-imagery control task. Applying a sparse logistic regression (SLR) method to classify the three tasks, mean classification accuracy using EEG cortical currents was significantly higher than that using EEG sensor signals and was also comparable to accuracies in previous studies using electrocorticography. SLR weight analysis revealed vertices of EEG cortical currents that were highly contributive to classification for each participant, and the vertices showed discriminative time series signals according to the three tasks. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis focusing on the highly contributive vertices revealed positive and negative correlations among areas related to speech processing. As the same findings were not observed using EEG sensor signals, our results demonstrate the potential utility of EEG cortical currents not only for engineering purposes such as brain-computer interfaces but also for neuroscientific purposes such as the identification of neural signaling related to language processing. PMID:27199638

  14. fMRI repetition suppression: neuronal adaptation or stimulus expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jonas; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of repetition suppression with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation) have been used widely to probe neuronal population response properties in human cerebral cortex. fMRI adaptation techniques assume that fMRI repetition suppression reflects neuronal adaptation, an assumption that has been challenged on the basis of evidence that repetition-related response changes may reflect unrelated factors, such as attention and stimulus expectation. Specifically, Summerfield et al. (Summerfield C, Trittschuh EH, Monti JM, Mesulam MM, Egner T. 2008. Neural repetition suppression reflects fulfilled perceptual expectations. Nat Neurosci. 11:1004-1006) reported that the relative frequency of stimulus repetitions and non-repetitions influenced the magnitude of repetition suppression in the fusiform face area, suggesting that stimulus expectation accounted for most of the effect of repetition. We confirm that stimulus expectation can significantly influence fMRI repetition suppression throughout visual cortex and show that it occurs with long as well as short adaptation durations. However, the effect was attention dependent: When attention was diverted away from the stimuli, the effects of stimulus expectation completely disappeared. Nonetheless, robust and significant repetition suppression was still evident. These results suggest that fMRI repetition suppression reflects a combination of neuronal adaptation and attention-dependent expectation effects that can be experimentally dissociated. This implies that with an appropriate experimental design, fMRI adaptation can provide valid measures of neuronal adaptation and hence response specificity.

  15. State Estimation of the Electric Drive Articulated Dump Truck Based on UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Jin; Tong Liu; Yanhua Shen

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of vehicle dynamic stability control are higher than ever as the significant increase of electric drive articulated vehicle speed. According to the construction features of articulated dumping truck and nonlinear characteristics of moving vehicles, nonlinear observer of vehicle status is designed to strength robustness of dynamic control system in this paper. A 4⁃degree⁃of⁃freedom nonlinear dynamic model of articulated electric drive vehicle is built as reference model to estimate the state of the articulated vehicle. And by adopting Unscented Kalman Filter ( UKF ) algorithm, a series of state parameters such as longitudinal velocities of front and rear frames, yaw rate and side⁃slip angle are estimated. During the test of 60 t articulated electric drive vehicle, 2 inertial navigation modules are installed in the front frame and rear frame respectively and the speed of each electric drive wheel is obtained simultaneously. As the test results suggest, in various working conditions, the algorithm based on UKF is able to accurately estimate the state parameters of articulated vehicle with the estimated error less than 5%. The proposed method is justified to be the theoretical basis and application guidance for articulated vehicle stability control.

  16. Influence of Articulating Paper Thickness on Occlusal Contacts Registration: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Álvarez-Arenal, Ángel; Ellakuria-Echevarria, Joseba; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Martín-Blanco, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine if the occlusal contact surface registered with an articulating paper during fixed prosthodontic treatment was contained within the area marked on a thicker articulating paper. This information would optimize any necessary occlusal adjustment of a prosthesis' veneering material. A convenience sample of 15 patients who were being treated with an implant-supported fixed singleunit dental prosthesis was selected. Occlusal registrations were obtained from each patient using 12-μm, 40-μm, 80-μm, and 200-μm articulating paper. Photographs of the occlusal registrations were obtained, and pixel measurements of the surfaces were taken and overlapped for comparison. The results showed that the thicker the articulating paper, the larger the occlusal contact area obtained. The differences were statistically significant. In all cases, the occlusal registrations obtained with the thinnest articulating paper were contained within the area marked on the thickest articulating paper. The results suggested that the use of thin articulating papers (12-μm or 40-μm) can avoid unnecessary grinding of veneering material or teeth during occlusal adjustment.

  17. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate.

  18. Accurate recovery of articulator positions from acoustics: New conclusions based on human data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lofqvist, A.; Gracco, V. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Zlokarnik, I. [MS B265, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rubin, P.; Saltzman, E. [Haskins Laboratories, 270 Crown Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Vocal tract models are often used to study the problem of mapping from the acoustic transfer function to the vocal tract area function (inverse mapping). Unfortunately, results based on vocal tract models are strongly affected by the assumptions underlying the models. In this study, the mapping from acoustics (digitized speech samples) to articulation (measurements of the positions of receiver coils placed on the tongue, jaw, and lips) is examined using human data from a single speaker: Simultaneous acoustic and articulator measurements made for vowel-to-vowel transitions, /g/ closures, and transitions into and out of /g/ closures. Articulator positions were measured using an EMMA system to track coils placed on the lips, jaw, and tongue. Using these data, look-up tables were created that allow articulator positions to be estimated from acoustic signals. On a data set not used for making look-up tables, correlations between estimated and actual coil positions of around 94{percent} and root-mean-squared errors around 2 mm are common for coils on the tongue. An error source evaluation shows that estimating articulator positions from quantized acoustics gives root-mean-squared errors that are typically less than 1 mm greater than the errors that would be obtained from quantizing the articulator positions themselves. This study agrees with and extends previous studies of human data by showing that for the data studied, speech acoustics can be used to accurately recover articulator positions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  19. [Semi-adjustable articulator for computer aided design of complete denture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chun; L V, Pei-Jun; Wang, Yong

    2008-02-18

    To explore virtual semi-adjustable articulator for complete denture computer aided design (CAD) system, and to simulate biting motion and virtual occlusal adjustment for a complete denture CAD digital model. The edentulous jaw casts, rims and bite records of forward protrusion were made in clinic. The casts were fixed to the articulator and inclination of protrusive condylar guidance was set up with bite records of forward protrusion. Inclination of lateral condylar guidance was calculated and set up with Hanus formula. Inclination of protrusive incisal guidance inclination was calculated and set up with ratios of over bite and overjet of complete denture CAD digital model which have been designed with Complete Denture CAD System. The 3D locus data of semi-adjustable articulator was obtained by scanning three points on articulator with contact head of FARO ScanArm (FARO Technologies Inc., American). In the same scanning coordinate system, the laser scanner was used to get labial/buccal surface data of rims at centric relation position. Based on rims, the coordinate system was set up and the complete denture CAD model was aligned to the locus data. The virtual articulator program was explored with Scoll language offered by Imageware (EDS corp., American). The 3D biting motion simulating, automatic occluding relation detection and automatic occlusal adjustment functions were supported by the program. A virtual semi-adjustable articulator program for Complete Denture CAD System was explored and applied to a complete denture CAD digital model. With the program, 3D biting motion simulating, automatic occluding relation detection and automatic occlusal adjustment can be realized. A technical route of virtual articulator is set up based on semi-adjustable articulator and initial approach is carried out for application of the virtual articulator in CAD progress of complete denture.

  20. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  1. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  2. Improving the digital workflow: direct transfer from patient to virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Minguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz; Barrenetxea, Lander

    2013-01-01

    When designing a custom-made dental restoration, using a digital workflow represents an important advance over mechanical tools such as facebows or mechanical articulators. When using virtual scanning procedures, there is a direct transfer from the patient to the articulator. This paper presents a novel methodology to design custom-made restorations. This new approach permits the transfer of all data directly from the patient to the virtual articulator, always taking into account the kinematics of the mandible. Rapid further developments can be expected in the near future.

  3. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  4. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  5. Storytelling and Repetitive Narratives for Design Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Judice, Andrea; Soini, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Today it is widely established in design research that empathy is an important part of creating a true understanding of user experience as a resource for design. A typical challenge is how to transmit the feeling of empathy acquired by user studies to designers who have not participated in the user...... study. In this paper, we show how we attained an empathic understanding through storytelling and aroused empathy to others using repetitive narratives in an experimental presentation bringing forth factual, reflective and experiential aspects of the user information. Taking as a starting point our...... experiences with the design project Suomenlinna Seclusive, we conclude with the potential of using narratives for invoking design empathy....

  6. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  7. Practice of making web multimedia courseware with Articulate Storyline%用 Articulate Storyline制作网络多媒体课件的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李变锋; 王江栓

    2015-01-01

    Web multimedia courseware made with Articulate Storyline that can be run on PC and mobile terminals have such characteristics as rich content , novel design , easy operation and effectively interaction with readers .Therefore, it is an effective complement to the traditional teaching model .%利用Articulate Storyline软件制作可用于PC和移动端运行的网络多媒体课件,具有内容丰富、设计新颖、便于读者操作并能与读者有效互动等特点,是传统教学模式的有效补充。

  8. The exaptation of manual dexterity for articulate speech: an electromyogram investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, David R; Isaak, Matthew I; Domingue, James N

    2008-04-01

    Electromyogram recordings revealed a concurrent contraction of the orbicularis oris, the primary articulator for bilabial stops, when participants executed a precision grip contracting the abductor pollicis brevis, a point motor act contracting the extensor indicis proprius or a curl motor act contracting the flexor sublimis digitorum (FDS). In contrast, the concurrent contraction of several facial muscles not directly involved in labial articulation was not observed during these acts. The results converge both with observations of sympathetic hand and mouth activity among nonhuman primates and prelinguistic human infants and with demonstrations of the influence of grasping on labial articulation in adult humans (e.g., Gentilucci et al., J Neurophysiol 86, 1685-1699, 2001). The findings are also consistent with theories suggesting the transition from gestural to verbal, articulate communication systems may be subserved by the properties of the human equivalent of monkey F5 mirror and canonical neurons located in Broca's area.

  9. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  10. Articulated Lifting System Modeling Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In lifting sub-system of deep-sea mining system, spherical joint is used to connect lifting pipes to replace fixed joint. Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-body systems, the mechanics model of articulated lifting system is established. Under the four-grade and six-grade oceanic condition, dynamic responses of lifting system are simulated and experiment verified. The simulation results are consistent with experimental ones. The maximum moment of flexion is 322 kN-m on the first pipe under six-grade sea condition. It is seen that the articulated connection can reduce the moment of flexion. The bending deformation of pipe center is researched, and the maximum is 0.000479 m on the first pipe. Deformation has a little effect on the motion of system. It is feasible to analyze articulated lifting system by applying the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics. The articulated lifting system is obviously better than the fixed one.

  11. Articulating the signs of danger: lay experiences of post-Chernobyl radiation risks and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2011-05-01

    This essay examines lay experiences of radiation--the hazard imperceptible with unaided senses--and how these experiences are shaped. Analysis is conducted on the basis of participant observation and interviews in Belarusian rural areas affected after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. I argue that radiation risks and health effects are not always obvious or immediately observable for those experiencing them, and they should be articulated. The paper compares various opportunities for articulation, including the context of radiological testing and administrative contexts, and describes the kinds of articulations they make possible. I conclude that limited opportunities for articulation result in limited lay recognition of radioactive contamination and their own health effects. The analysis implies that affected lay populations cannot always be assumed to be the most risk-conscious and hold special knowledge about radiation effects independently of scientific and administrative definitions of it.

  12. Changes in vowel articulation with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Macoir, Joël; Langlois, Mélanie; Prud'Homme, Michel; Cantin, Léo; Roy, Johanna-Pascale

    2014-01-01

    ... (1 hour after DBS was turned off). Vowel articulation was compared ON-simulation versus OFF-stimulation using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio, calculated with the first (F1...

  13. The cognitive ergonomics and the articulation of the functions of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sabrina Talita; Heemann, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development is a challenge to all areas of knowledge. In the field of design, it motivates an enhanced discussion about the functions of systems, products and services. Accordingly, this paper presents a theoretical contribution to the sustainable articulation of the functions of industrial products from principles of cognitive ergonomics. This paper is based on an exploratory literature about the functions of industrial products and further study of the relationship between man and object of Cognitive Ergonomics, specifically linked the aesthetic perception and symbolic. Presents qualitative results of this correlation, which indicates the feasibility of a better articulation in product development. The paper argues that in the practical field of design, the best articulation of the functions may influence the effectiveness of product performance in its relationship with the user. Already, on theoretical grounds, this new articulation can help designers to understand the nature of the transdisciplinary functions and the insights into product design.

  14. Demand articulation in emerging technologies: Intermediary user organisations as co-producers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Wouter P.C.; Moors, Ellen H.M.; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Smits, Ruud E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    User involvement is assumed to be beneficial to innovation processes. Intermediary user organisations contribute to articulating societal demands for innovations. However, the learning processes inside these organisations are still not understood well. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates

  15. Demand articulation in emerging technologies: intermediary user organizations as co-producers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.; Moors, E.H.M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    User involvement is assumed to be beneficial to innovation processes. Intermediary user organisations contribute to articulating societal demands for innovations. However, the learning processes inside these organisations are still not understood well. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates

  16. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo cal...

  17. Design of an articulated manipulator for enhanced dexterity in minimally invasive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Jerry DeWane, II

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A current limitation in minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures is the lack of an articulated mechanism which will provide dexterity inside the torso while supporting a surgical tool. The tool could be a pair of scissors or an optical device such as a camera, or both. To overcome this limitation we have designed an Articulated Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery (AMMIS). The AMMIS is expected to provide surgeons with impro...

  18. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwin Smit, MSc; Dick H. Plettenburg, MSc, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cos...

  19. Direct transfer of the position of digitized casts to a virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Mínguez, Rikardo; Barrenetxea, Lander; Etxaniz, Olatz

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a digital technique to transfer the location of digitized casts obtained directly from the patient to a virtual articulator (digital/virtual facebow transfer). The primary advantage of this technique is that it allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a physical articulator. This results in a significant time reduction and a higher degree of accuracy in the cast location.

  20. THE ARTICULATION STATUS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH IMPARED HEARING ECOMPRASSED BY REHABILITATION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneta TRAJKOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is evaluation of the progress of articulation towards the particular group of voices of the preschool aged children with hearing impairment, which are included in rehabilitation treatment. The research explores the impact of the general factors (degree of the hearing impairment, age of the examinees, etiological factor of the hearing impairment, and duration of the treatment, which contributes in the progress of articulation.

  1. Production and perception of legato, portato and staccato articulation in saxophone playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eHofmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the production and perception of different articulation techniques on the saxophone. In a production experiment, two melodies were recorded that required different effectors to play the tones (tongue actions alone, finger actions alone, combined tongue and finger actions at three different tempi. A sensor saxophone reed was developed to monitor tongue-reed interactions during performance. At the slow tempo condition, combined tongue-finger actions showed improved timing, compared to the timing of the tongue alone. This observation supports the multiple timer hypothesis where the tongue's timekeeper benefits from a coupling to the timekeeper of the fingers. At the fast tempo condition, finger alone actions were less precise than the tongue alone and combined tongue-finger actions led to more variable timing. This suggests that the finger actions have a dominant influence on the overall timing of saxophone performance. In a listening experiment we investigated whether motor expertise in music performance influences the perception of articulation techniques in saxophone performance. Participants with different backgrounds in music making (saxophonists, musicians not playing the saxophone, and non-musicians attended an AB-X listening test. They had to discriminate between saxophone phrases played with different articulation techniques (legato, portato, staccato. Participants across all three groups discriminated the sound of staccato articulation well from the sound of portato articulation and legato articulation. Errors occurred across all groups of listeners when legato articulation (no tonguing and portato articulation (soft tonguing had to be discriminated. Saxophonists' results were superior compared to the results of the other two groups, suggesting that expertise in saxophone playing facilitated the discrimination task.

  2. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  3. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  4. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  5. A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-05-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.

  6. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  7. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  8. Studies of the uncanny: the repetition factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teitelroit Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Freud’s essay The Uncanny (Das Unheimliche offers many indications for the comprehension of an aesthetics of the uncanny which deserve to be explored. Nonetheless, a concept traverses it from beginning to end: the return – which enables its reading under the light of Beyond the pleasure principle, written along the same span of time. Emphasis is given to the uncanny in the sense of repetition of the different – a paradox in terms, like the strangely familiar uncanny. In order to test the validity of an aesthetic reading under this perspective, follows an analysis of the brief short story “A terceira margem do rio” (“The third margin of the river”, by Guimarães Rosa.

  9. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  10. The interaction of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context in on-line spoken word recognition: an ERP study on Cantonese Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Carmen; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we investigate the on-line interplay of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context during spoken word recognition in Cantonese Chinese. Experiment 1 shows that lexical tone and intonation interact immediately. Words with a low lexical tone at the end of questions (with a rising question intonation) lead to a processing conflict. This is reflected in a low accuracy in lexical identification and in a P600 effect compared to the same words at the end of a statement. Experiment 2 shows that a strongly biasing semantic context leads to much better lexical-identification performance for words with a low tone at the end of questions and to a disappearance of the P600 effect. These results support the claim that semantic context plays a major role in disentangling the tonal information from the intonational information, and thus, in resolving the on-line conflict between intonation and tone. However, the ERP data indicate that the introduction of a semantic context does not entirely eliminate on-line processing problems for words at the end of questions. This is revealed by the presence of an N400 effect for words with a low lexical tone and for words with a high-mid lexical tone at the end of questions. The ERP data thus show that, while semantic context helps in the eventual lexical identification, it makes the deviation of the contextually expected lexical tone from the actual acoustic signal more salient. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Mapping the cortical representation of speech sounds in a syllable repetition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Christopher J; Bohland, Jason W

    2016-11-01

    Speech repetition relies on a series of distributed cortical representations and functional pathways. A speaker must map auditory representations of incoming sounds onto learned speech items, maintain an accurate representation of those items in short-term memory, interface that representation with the motor output system, and fluently articulate the target sequence. A "dorsal stream" consisting of posterior temporal, inferior parietal and premotor regions is thought to mediate auditory-motor representations and transformations, but the nature and activation of these representations for different portions of speech repetition tasks remains unclear. Here we mapped the correlates of phonetic and/or phonological information related to the specific phonemes and syllables that were heard, remembered, and produced using a series of cortical searchlight multi-voxel pattern analyses trained on estimates of BOLD responses from individual trials. Based on responses linked to input events (auditory syllable presentation), predictive vowel-level information was found in the left inferior frontal sulcus, while syllable prediction revealed significant clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and central sulcus and the left mid superior temporal sulcus. Responses linked to output events (the GO signal cueing overt production) revealed strong clusters of vowel-related information bilaterally in the mid to posterior superior temporal sulcus. For the prediction of onset and coda consonants, input-linked responses yielded distributed clusters in the superior temporal cortices, which were further informative for classifiers trained on output-linked responses. Output-linked responses in the Rolandic cortex made strong predictions for the syllables and consonants produced, but their predictive power was reduced for vowels. The results of this study provide a systematic survey of how cortical response patterns covary with the identity of speech sounds, which will help to constrain

  12. Sensory-to-motor integration during auditory repetition: A combined fMRI and lesion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Ōiwi eParker Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the neurological underpinnings of auditory-to-motor translation during auditory repetition of unfamiliar pseudowords. We tested two different hypotheses. First we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy subjects to determine whether a functionally defined area in the left temporo-parietal junction, referred to as Spt (Sylvian-parietal-temporal region, reflected the demands on auditory-to-motor integration during the repetition of pseudowords relative to a semantically mediated nonverbal sound-naming task. The experiment also allowed us to test alternative accounts of Spt function, namely that Spt is involved in subvocal articulation or auditory processing that can be driven either bottom-up or top-down. The results did not provide convincing evidence that activation increased in either Spt or any other cortical area when non-semantic auditory inputs were being translated into motor outputs. Instead, the results were most consistent with Spt responding to bottom up or top down auditory processing, independent of the demands on auditory-to-motor integration. Second, we investigated the lesion sites in 8 patients who had selective difficulties repeating heard words but with preserved word comprehension, picture naming and verbal fluency (i.e. conduction aphasia. All 8 patients had white-matter tract damage in the vicinity of the arcuate fasciculus and only one of the 8 patients had additional damage to the Spt region, defined functionally in our fMRI data. Our results are therefore most consistent with the neurological tradition that emphasizes the importance of the arcuate fasciculus in the non-semantic integration of auditory and motor speech processing.

  13. Articulation of speech sounds of Serbian language in children aged six to eight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phonetic and phonological system of the healthy members of one linguistic community is fully formed around 8 years of age. The auditory and articulatory habits are established with age and tend to be more difficult to be upgraded and completed later. Material and Methods. The research was done as a cross-sectional study, conducted at the preschool institution “Radosno detinjstvo” and primary school “Branko Radičević” in Novi Sad. It included 66 children of both genders, aged 6 to 8. The quality of articulation was determined according to the Global Articulation Test by working with each child individually. Results. In each individual vowel, plosive, nasal, lateral and fricative, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders compared to the preschool children (p<0.01. In each affricate, except for the sound /ć/, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. The quality of articulation of all speech sounds was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. Discussion and Conclusion. The most common disorder of articulation is distortion, while only substitution and substitution associated with distortion are less common. Omission does not occur in children from 6 to 8 years of age. Girls have slightly better quality of articulation. The articulatory disorders are more common in preschool children than in children who are in the first grade of primary school. The most commonly mispronounced sounds belong to the group of affricates and fricatives.

  14. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  15. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  16. Iconicity in Discourse: The Case of Repetition in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Minako

    This analysis of repeated utterances in Japanese conversational discourse focuses on repetition as an expression of iconicity. In the analysis of a 30-minute conversation among 4 Japanese speakers, the iconic meanings expressed by both reduplication and conversational repetition are highlighted. The iconicity characteristic of conversational data…

  17. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  18. Visual attention to advertising : The impact of motivation and repetition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, RGM; Rosbergen, E; Hartog, M; Corfman, KP; Lynch, JG

    1996-01-01

    Using eye-tracking data, we examine the impact of motivation and repetition on visual attention to advertisements differing in argument quality. Our analyses indicate that repetition leads to an overall decrease in the amount of attention. However, while at first high motivation subjects attend to t

  19. On the Functions of Lexical Repetition in English Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Lexical repetition, as a cohesive device of an English text, can help make up a cohesive and coherent text. Therefore, in English textual learning, it is helpful for students to know about different patterns and functions of lexical repetition to improve their English level and ability.

  20. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  1. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Chengying; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb comprising a single soliton in an anomalous dispersion silicon nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency tuning. The contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and from thermal effects are evaluated both experimentally and theoretically; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in repetition rate. The relationship between the changes in repetition rate and pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ~50 fs.

  2. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  3. Soliton repetition rate in a silicon-nitride microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengying; Xuan, Yi; Wang, Cong; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Leaird, Daniel E; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2017-02-15

    The repetition rate of a Kerr comb composed of a single soliton in an anomalous group velocity dispersion silicon-nitride microcavity is measured as a function of pump frequency. By comparing operation in the soliton and non-soliton states, the contributions from the Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and the thermal effects are evaluated; the SSFS is found to dominate the changes in the repetition rate, similar to silica cavities. The relationship between the changes in the repetition rate and the pump frequency detuning is found to be independent of the nonlinearity coefficient and dispersion of the cavity. Modeling of the repetition rate change by using the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation is discussed; the Kerr shock is found to have only a minor effect on repetition rate for cavity solitons with duration down to ∼50  fs.

  4. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  5. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  6. Repetition and Emotive Communication in Music Versus Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.

  7. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  8. In-Flight Position Calibration of the Cassini Articulated Reaction Wheel Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's long-lived Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is currently in its 14th year of flight and in the midst of its second, and final, extended mission. Cassini is a massive interplanetary spacecraft that is three axis stabilized and can maintain attitude control using either its reaction control system thrusters or using reaction wheel control. Cassini has four identical reaction wheels, of which three are mutually orthogonal and have a fixed orientation. The fourth reaction wheel has an articulation motor that allows this reaction wheel to be aligned with the momentum direction of any of the other three fixed reaction wheels. The articulation motor allows this reaction wheel to be used as a replacement for any of the other three wheels without any performance degradation. However, due to limitations in the design of this backup system, there are few telemetric indications of the orientation of this reaction wheel following an articulation. This investigation serves to outline the procedures that have been developed by the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem to calibrate the position of the articulated reaction wheel assembly in the event that the momentum direction of this reaction wheel must be reoriented.

  9. The brief history of articulator%牙合架的发展简史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国锋

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the origin of articulator and its development process from humble to perfect in the past more than 200 years. The development of articulator is divided into 3 historical periods by the author:Early articulator,modern articulator and contemporary articula-tor.Meanwhile,the detailed basic design principle of articulator,the development of condylar guidance and incisal guidance are explained.%该文以历史时间为轴,详细讲述了牙合架从无到有、从简陋到完善的200多年发展过程。作者将牙合架发展史分为早期牙合架、近代牙合架和现代牙合架3个时期,详细讲解了牙合架的基本设计原理,并列举了髁导、切导等重要牙合架结构的演变由来。

  10. Scan-based volume animation driven by locally adaptive articulated registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Taehyun; Lewis, J P; Neumann, Ulrich; Nayak, Krishna S

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a complete system to create anatomically accurate example-based volume deformation and animation of articulated body regions, starting from multiple in vivo volume scans of a specific individual. In order to solve the correspondence problem across volume scans, a template volume is registered to each sample. The wide range of pose variations is first approximated by volume blend deformation (VBD), providing proper initialization of the articulated subject in different poses. A novel registration method is presented to efficiently reduce the computation cost while avoiding strong local minima inherent in complex articulated body volume registration. The algorithm highly constrains the degrees of freedom and search space involved in the nonlinear optimization, using hierarchical volume structures and locally constrained deformation based on the biharmonic clamped spline. Our registration step establishes a correspondence across scans, allowing a data-driven deformation approach in the volume domain. The results provide an occlusion-free person-specific 3D human body model, asymptotically accurate inner tissue deformations, and realistic volume animation of articulated movements driven by standard joint control estimated from the actual skeleton. Our approach also addresses the practical issues arising in using scans from living subjects. The robustness of our algorithms is tested by their applications on the hand, probably the most complex articulated region in the body, and the knee, a frequent subject area for medical imaging due to injuries.

  11. Genetic algorithm trajectory plan optimization for EAMA: EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd., Hefei, Anhui (China); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Wenglong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd., Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, Yongbo [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A redundant 10-DOF serial-articulated robot for EAST assembly and maintains is presented. • A trajectory optimization algorithm of the robot is developed. • A minimum jerk objective is presented to suppress machining vibration of the robot. - Abstract: EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) is an articulated serial manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) articulated arm followed by 3-DOF gripper, total length is 8.867 m, works in experimental advanced superconductor tokamak (EAST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform blanket inspection and remote maintenance tasks. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method which aims to pursue the 7-DOF articulated arm a stable movement, which keeps the mounted inspection camera anti-vibration. Based on dynamics analysis, trajectory optimization algorithm adopts multi-order polynomial interpolation in joint space and high order geometry Jacobian transform. The object of optimization algorithm is to suppress end-effector movement vibration by minimizing jerk RMS (root mean square) value. The proposed solution has such characteristics which can satisfy kinematic constraints of EAMA’s motion and ensure the arm running under the absolute values of velocity, acceleration and jerk boundaries. GA (genetic algorithm) is employed to find global and robust solution for this problem.

  12. Correlation analysis among physicochemical indexes in Cantonese cured meat on sale%市售广式腊肉理化指标间的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪娇; 唐道邦; 肖更生; 徐玉娟; 吴继军; 蒋爱民

    2012-01-01

    The acidity value(AV)and pH,moisture content,salinity,total sugar content,total acidity,peroxide value(POV),TBA value of Cantonese cured meat were determined and their correlations were also analyzed.The results showed that salinity and total sugar content were positively correlated with AV,but they showed no correlation with moisture content.There were significantly positive correlation between total acidity and TBA,and between POV and TBA.There existed a weak correlation among of salinity,moisture content and total sugar content in Cantonese cured meat.It was found that the different added dosage of salt and sucrose had effect on the change of AV,POV and other physicochemical indexes of Cantonese cured meat.%测定分析市售广式腊肉的酸价与pH、水分、食盐、总糖、总酸、过氧化值及TBA值等8种理化指标并分析其相关性。结果表明:食盐、总糖含量与酸价呈现正相关性,而与过氧化值没有相关性;总酸与TBA值呈显著相关性;POV值与TBA值呈显著正相关;食盐含量与水分含量、总糖含量也呈弱相关性。说明食盐和蔗糖添加量影响广式腊肉的酸价和过氧化值等理化指标。

  13. 以粤语为母语的日语学习者的语音迁移现象及对策%Voice Transfer Phenomenon in Cantonese-speaking Japanese Learners and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Migration phenomenon occurs native speech is an inevitable part of the process of teaching in Japanese. Correct use of regular migration;avoid negative transfer for speech learning effectiveness and efficiency of learners will have a huge impact. From the sound system, the Cantonese phoneme is relatively complex, but Japanese is relatively simple. More flex-ible use of Cantonese pronunciation of phonemes features will be introduced into the teaching process, while the Japanese voice, discern the lack of Cantonese and Japanese in particular phonemes but included targeted education, is bound to Japa-nese learners pronunciation errors play an effective role in the prevention and correction.%母语语音迁移现象的出现在日语教学过程中是不可避免的一个环节。正确利用正迁移,避免负迁移对于学习者的语音学习效果和效率会产生巨大影响。从发音系统上来看,粤语的音位相对复杂,而日语相对简单。灵活利用粤语音位较多的发音特点,将其引入日语语音的教学过程的同时,辨清粤语中缺乏而日语中却包含的特殊音位,进行有针对性的教学,必将对日语学习者发音错误的预防和纠正起到有效作用。

  14. 粤商组织演化路径及其动力分析--兼论粤商的传承与发展%The Evolution, Inheritance and Development of the Cantonese Merchants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹芳; 申明浩

    2013-01-01

      从海上丝绸之路的奠基,到十三行转手贸易的辉煌时代,再到现代的珠三角加工贸易和产业集群的兴盛,粤商千年传承,生生不息,不断在新的时期创造新的辉煌。通过分析发现,其世代繁衍,发展演化的内外动因可以归纳为四大基因和三大优势,最后据此提出了实现粤商传承和发展的四大创新,为粤商企业发展及中国企业“走出去”提供了重要的借鉴作用。%Starting from the maritime Silk Road, through the Thirteen Line Switch Trade Era, and to the modern process-ing and industrial cluster trade period in the Pearl River Delta, the Cantonese merchants have inherited for a millennium and constantly created brilliant businesses in the new era. Our analysis shows that the reasons for the Cantonese merchants’ devel-opment and evolution can be summarized into four major genes and three big superiorities, which can pass down from genera-tion to generation. Finally this paper proposes four innovations to help realize further development of the Cantonese merchants. This may be well supportive of all other Chinese enterprises in“going out”to do business.

  15. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  16. [Rehabilitation Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Various novel stroke rehabilitative methods have been developed based on findings in basic science and clinical research. Recently, many reports have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves function in stroke patients by altering the excitability of the human cortex. The interhemispheric competition model proposes that deficits in stroke patients are due to reduced output from the affected hemisphere and excessive interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected hemisphere to the affected hemisphere. The interhemispheric competition model indicates that improvement in deficits can be achieved either by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere using excitatory rTMS or by decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere using inhibitory rTMS. Recovery after stroke is related to neural plasticity, which involves developing new neural connections, acquiring new functions, and compensating for impairments. Artificially modulating the neural network by rTMS may induce a more suitable environment for use-dependent plasticity and also may interfere with maladaptive neural activation, which weakens function and limits recovery. There is potential, therefore, for rTMS to be used as an adjuvant therapy for developed neurorehabilitation techniques in stroke patients.

  17. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  19. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  20. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15-34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55-100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cosmetic gloves, identical in size but made from different materials, were mechanically tested: three PVC and three silicone. The silicone gloves required less work and dissipated less energy during flexing. They also had a lower joint stiffness and required a lower maximum joint torque. Based on energy requirements, joint stiffness, and required joint torque, the tested silicone glove is most suitable for application on an articulating hand prosthesis.

  1. Numerical method for estimation of kinematical parameters for articulated rovers on loose rough terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin-yi; GAO Hai-bo; DENG Zong-quan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the study of passive articulated rover, a complete suspension kinematics model from wheel to inertial reference frame is presented, which uses D-H method of manipulator and presentation with Euler an-gle of pitch, roll and yaw. An improved contact model is adopted aimed at the loose and rough lunar terrain. U-sing this kinematics model and numerical continuous and discrete Newton' s method with iterative factor, the numerical method for estimation of kinematical parameters of articulated rovers on loose and rough terrain is con-strueted. To demonstrate this numerical method, an example of two torsion bar rocker-bogie lunar rover with eight wheels is presented. Simulation results show that the numerical method for estimation of kinematical pa-rameters of articulated rovers based on improved contact model can improve the precision of kinematical estima-tion on loose and rough terrain and decrease errors caused by contact models established based on general hy-pothesis.

  2. Development of a Wave Energy -Responsive Self-Actuated Blade Articulation Mechanism for an OWC Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis A. Di Bella

    2010-06-01

    The Phase I SBIR effort completed the feasibility design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of a self-actuated blade articulation mechanism that uses a torsion bar and a lightweight airfoil to affect the articulation of the Wells airfoil. The articulation is affected only by the air stream incident on the airfoil. The self-actuating blade eliminates the complex and costly linkage mechanism that is now needed to perform this function on either a variable pitch Wells-type or Dennis-Auld air turbine. Using the results reported by independent researchers, the projected improvement in the Wells-type turbine efficiency is 20-40%, in addition to an increase in the operating air flow range by 50-100%, therefore enabling a smaller or slower single turbine to be used.

  3. Acoustic Cues to Fricatives Place of Articulation Produced in Moroccan Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Elmazouzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine acoustic characteristics of Moroccan fricatives in order to find invariant cues that classify fricatives into their place of articulation. Fricative consonants of Moroccan Arabic dialect were elicited from 8 adult speakers (4 male and 4 female in 3 vowel contexts (/i, a, u/. The cues investigated included temporal measurement (duration of fricative consonant and formant information at fricative-vowel transition (F1 and F2 at vowel onset and locus equation. The effects of voicing, speaker’s gender and post-fricative vowel on both formants onset values and locus equations were investigated. The results obtained showed that F1 onset values differentiated voiceless from voiced fricatives. F2 onset values distinguished fricatives in term of place of articulation. The locus equation slope and intercept differentiated voiceless from voiced fricative and distinguished clearly palatal fricatives from the other places of articulation

  4. Articulation and Hegemony: Tensions between the particular and the universal in the experience of struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra, Alejandra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Difference in the experiences of social struggle, in our country and throughout Latin America and the world, urgently need explication or, as we would say, articulation. However, we are aware that there are dangers in articulating too simple and unfying an account of the great diversity of identities and experiences that characterize current social struggles.We begin by specifying some of our dissatisfactions and disagreements with certain ways of approaching - or avoiding - the problems of articulation and hegemony. We identify those authors who we consider to be central to this subject, and explore their work. We then reflect on our conversations with people who took part in the processes of social mobilization which occurred in Argentina from December, 2001 onwards

  5. A Novel Relative Navigation Control Strategy Based on Relation Space Method for Autonomous Underground Articulated Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqian Dou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel relative navigation control strategy based on the relation space method (RSM for articulated underground trackless vehicles. In the RSM, a self-organizing, competitive neural network is used to identify the space around the vehicle, and the spatial geometric relationships of the identified space are used to determine the vehicle’s optimal driving direction. For driving control, the trajectories of the articulated vehicles are analyzed, and data-based steering and speed control modules are developed to reduce modeling complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed RSM can choose the correct directions for articulated vehicles in different tunnels. The effectiveness and feasibility of the resulting novel relative navigation control strategy are validated through experiments.

  6. Repetitive energy transfer from an inductive energy store

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of a research program aimed at finding practical ways to transfer energy repetitively from an inductive energy store to various loads are discussed. The objectives were to investigate and develop the high power opening switches and transfer circuits needed to enable high-repetition-rate operation of such systems, including a feasibility demonstration at a current level near 10 kA and a pulse repetition rate of 1-10 kpps with a 1-ohm load. The requirements of nonlinear, time-varying loads, such as the railgun electromagnetic launcher, were also addressed. Energy storage capability is needed for proper power conditioning in systems where the duty factor of the output pulse train is low. Inductive energy storage is attractive because it has both a high energy storage density and a fast discharge capability. By producing a pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW at a pulse repetition rate of 5 kpps in a one-ohm load system, this research program was the first to demonstrate fully-controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy storage and transfer system with survivable switches. Success was made possible by using triggered vacuum gap switches as repetitive, current-zero opening switches and developing several new repetitive transfer circuits using the counterpulse technique.

  7. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  8. Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail d’articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IANEVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of rapid technological and organizational changes, identifying and managing individual and collective competencies is of a crucial importance for organizations. This article aims at understanding the competencies involved in a specific kind of work, referred to as “articulation work”. Grounded on activity theory as well as situated action and cognition, our approach highlights the relations between individual and collective competencies. Our results build upon two ethnographic studies within a health call center and a sports equipment manufacturing company. Thus, we identify four core competencies, which could be used to support the design of competencies framework taking into account the too often neglected articulation work

  9. Simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis of articulated mechanisms for path-generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis. For the anal......This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis...

  10. Design of articulated mechanisms with a degree of freedom constraint using global optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi; Stolpe, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss ground structure representation. The considered mechanism design problem is to maximize the output displacement for a given input force by choosing a prescribed number of truss elements out of all the available elements, so...... that the resultant mechanism has one mechanical degree of freedom when supported in a statically determinate manner. The mechanical degree of freedom constraint is included since it is essential for obtaining a proper articulated mechanism design. The Green-Lagrange strain measure is used to accommodate for large...

  11. Inner speech in anarthria: neuropsychological evidence of differential effects of cerebral lesions on subvocal articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P

    1992-07-01

    The role of articulation in verbal short-term memory was investigated in two anarthric patients, C.M. and F.C., both showing normal comprehension for written and spoken language, above average intelligence and visuo-spatial abilities. Based on experimental results, we propose that subvocal articulation might be impaired in anarthric patients in different ways, according to the site of lesion: in 'locked-in' patients only the articulatory rehearsal processes necessary to enhance memory performances is involved, while in cortical anarthric patients the lesion affects the articulatory recoding processes involved in transferring visually presented material into an articulatory form for better retention.

  12. Improved digital transfer of the maxillary cast to a virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Otegi, Jose Ramon; Mínguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz

    2014-10-01

    The clinical procedure described provides a quantifiable, repeatable, and reliable method of transferring the location of the maxillary dental arch from the patient directly to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer) by means of reverse engineering devices to design a customized dental restoration. This procedure allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a mechanical articulator. In addition, specific suggestions are provided for designing the transfer device to enhance patient comfort during the data transfer process and reduce deviation.

  13. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chen Tung,1,# Chin-Kai Lin,2,# Ching-Lin Hsieh,3,4 Ching-Chi Chen,1 Chin-Tsan Huang,1 Chun-Hou Wang5,6 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 2Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, 3School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 5School of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 6Physical Therapy Room, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally Background: Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID. We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID.Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children and the SID group (15 children. The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy.Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05. The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and posttest number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F

  14. Fuzzy Reliability Design for the Interference Articulation of a Roller Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With regard to function, the strengths for interference articulation of a roller shaft formed a series system. As the three strength reliabilities conditioned each other, there was a problem for the system reliability to apportion rationally. In fact, there was a transition from safety to deactivation. The state of structure was fuzziness which was in both safety and non-safety states. Therefore the reliability was a fuzzy event which considered the randomness for some design parameters and the fuzziness for the thresholds between generalized strength safety and deactivation. The mathematical model of fuzzy reliability design for the interference articulation of the roller shaft was presented. Eight design examples were calculated. ``

  15. [Clinical characteristics and speech therapy of lingua-apical articulation disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-hua; Jin, Xing-ming; Zhang, Yi-wen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2006-03-01

    To explore the clinical characteristics and speech therapy of 62 children with lingua-apical articulation disorder. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Gesell development scales (Gesell), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool Children (WPPSI) and speech test were performed for 62 children at the ages of 3 to 8 years with lingua-apical articulation disorder. PPVT was used to measure receptive vocabulary skills. GESELL and WPPSI were utilized to represent cognitive and non-verbal ability. The speech test was adopted to assess the speech development. The children received speech therapy and auxiliary oral-motor functional training once or twice a week. Firstly the target sound was identified according to the speech development milestone, then the method of speech localization was used to clarify the correct articulation placement and manner. It was needed to change food character and administer oral-motor functional training for children with oral motor dysfunction. The 62 cases with the apical articulation disorder were classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the articulation disorder was the most common (40 cases, 64.5%), the next was apico-dental disorder (15 cases, 24.2%). The third was palatal disorder (4 cases, 6.5%) and the last one was the linguo-alveolar disorder (3 cases, 4.8%). The substitution errors of velar were the most common (95.2%), the next was omission errors (30.6%) and the last was absence of aspiration (12.9%). Oral motor dysfunction was found in some children with problems such as disordered joint movement of tongue and head, unstable jaw, weak tongue strength and poor coordination of tongue movement. Some children had feeding problems such as preference of eating soft food, keeping food in mouths, eating slowly, and poor chewing. After 5 to 18 times of therapy, the effective rate of speech therapy reached 82.3%. The lingua-apical articulation disorders can be classified into four groups. The combined pattern of the

  16. The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    AARL-SR-90-512 AD-A235 930l[liill ~i 11111111111 iIII J The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool Louise A...R 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool PE 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...Lagrange method. In this paper the use of the ATH model as a robot dynamics simulation tool is discussed and various simulations are demonstrated. For this

  17. Tribology considerations for hip joint articulations in relation to the "new orthopaedic patient".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, C B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine alternative bearings used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and discuss the specific tribologic needs of the "New Orthopaedic Patient". As orthopaedic patients today are younger and more active, there is a clear need for hip joint implants and articulations minimising the amount of wear and guarantying better stability. Recent modern developments in tribology with highly cross-linked polyethylenes and hard-on-hard bearings allow the safe and effective use of larger diameter articulations in THA.

  18. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  19. An ERP study of good production vis-à-vis poor perception of tones in Cantonese: implications for top-down speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana; Kung, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a theoretically challenging dissociation between good production and poor perception of tones among neurologically unimpaired native speakers of Cantonese. The dissociation is referred to as the near-merger phenomenon in sociolinguistic studies of sound change. In a passive oddball paradigm, lexical and nonlexical syllables of the T1/T6 and T4/T6 contrasts were presented to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a from two groups of participants, those who could produce and distinguish all tones in the language (Control) and those who could produce all tones but specifically failed to distinguish between T4 and T6 in perception (Dissociation). The presence of MMN to T1/T6 and null response to T4/T6 of lexical syllables in the dissociation group confirmed the near-merger phenomenon. The observation that the control participants exhibited a statistically reliable MMN to lexical syllables of T1/T6, weaker responses to nonlexical syllables of T1/T6 and lexical syllables of T4/T6, and finally null response to nonlexical syllables of T4/T6, suggests the involvement of top-down processing in speech perception. Furthermore, the stronger P3a response of the control group, compared with the dissociation group in the same experimental conditions, may be taken to indicate higher cognitive capability in attention switching, auditory attention or memory in the control participants. This cognitive difference, together with our speculation that constant top-down predictions without complete bottom-up analysis of acoustic signals in speech recognition may reduce one's sensitivity to small acoustic contrasts, account for the occurrence of dissociation in some individuals but not others.

  20. An ERP Study of Good Production vis-à-vis Poor Perception of Tones in Cantonese: Implications for Top-Down Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana; Kung, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a theoretically challenging dissociation between good production and poor perception of tones among neurologically unimpaired native speakers of Cantonese. The dissociation is referred to as the near-merger phenomenon in sociolinguistic studies of sound change. In a passive oddball paradigm, lexical and nonlexical syllables of the T1/T6 and T4/T6 contrasts were presented to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a from two groups of participants, those who could produce and distinguish all tones in the language (Control) and those who could produce all tones but specifically failed to distinguish between T4 and T6 in perception (Dissociation). The presence of MMN to T1/T6 and null response to T4/T6 of lexical syllables in the dissociation group confirmed the near-merger phenomenon. The observation that the control participants exhibited a statistically reliable MMN to lexical syllables of T1/T6, weaker responses to nonlexical syllables of T1/T6 and lexical syllables of T4/T6, and finally null response to nonlexical syllables of T4/T6, suggests the involvement of top-down processing in speech perception. Furthermore, the stronger P3a response of the control group, compared with the dissociation group in the same experimental conditions, may be taken to indicate higher cognitive capability in attention switching, auditory attention or memory in the control participants. This cognitive difference, together with our speculation that constant top-down predictions without complete bottom-up analysis of acoustic signals in speech recognition may reduce one’s sensitivity to small acoustic contrasts, account for the occurrence of dissociation in some individuals but not others. PMID:23342146

  1. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  2. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive and relatively painless tool that has been used to study various cognitive functions as well as to understand the brain-behavior relationship in normal individuals as well as in those with various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has also been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, which is called as long-term depression, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation through long-term potentiation. This paper reviews the current status of rTMS as an investigative and therapeutic modality in various neuropsychiatric disorders. It has been used to study the cortical and subcortical functions, neural plasticity and brain mapping in normal individuals and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. rTMS has been most promising in the treatment of depression, with an overall milder adverse effect profile compared with electroconvulsive therapy. In other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, epilepsy and substance abuse, it has been found to be useful, although further studies are required to establish therapeutic efficacy. It appears to be ineffective in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. There is a paucity of studies of efficacy and safety of rTMS in pediatric and geriatric population. Although it appears safe, further research is required to optimize its efficacy and reduce the side-effects. Magnetic seizure therapy, which involves producing seizures akin to electroconvulsive therapy, appears to be of comparable efficacy in the treatment of depression with less cognitive adverse effects.

  5. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  6. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  7. Longitudinal study of the pattern of pubertal development in Cantonese schoolgirls%广州女孩青春期发育模式的纵向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕虹; 马华梅; 陈红珊; 苏喆; 古玉芬; 杜敏联

    2009-01-01

    目的 纵向追踪广州女生性征发育和体格生长,了解青春发育模式及特点.方法 对广州市东、西、中部4所小学1992-2001年311名小学女生自一年级[(7.24±0.38)岁]起至其达到成年身高[238名,(15.72±0.84)岁],每年1次测量其身高、体重;并从三年级起至六年级,检查性征和询问初潮.分析乳房、阴毛发育、初潮、身高线性突增达峰速度(PHV)年龄、成年身高(FAH)及彼此间的关系.结果 (1)乳房发育达到B2期的年龄为9.83(9.33~10.33)岁,阴毛发育达到阴毛2期的年龄10.67(9.92~11.38)岁,初潮年龄(12.35±1.30)岁,均迟于2003年全国横向调查中广州地区女孩的调查结果.PHV年龄(10.52±1.07)岁.B2至PHV为1.00(0.50~1.50)年,B2至初潮为2.92(2.08~3.67)年,乳房发育达到B2期至FAH为(4.80~0.85)年.(2)FAH为(158.74±5.74)cm,高于1985年而低于2003年广州地区横向调查结果.(3)乳房发育达到B2期的年龄是初潮年龄的独立相关因素.(4)乳房发育每期持续年限、B2至PHV及B2至初潮间隔年限,与英国(1969年)、塞内加尔(1995-2000年)、美国(1986-1996年)的纵向调查结果相近.结论 近20年广州女生青春发育呈提前趋势,但成年身高却有增加;青春发育进展模式与世界各国历年调查结果相近.%Objective To investigate the pattern of pubertal development in healthy Cantonese schoolgirls. Method From 1992 to 2001, 311 normal Cantonese schoolgirls, ages from 6.25 to 8.83 yrs (7.24±0.38) at baseline, were followed up until they reached their final adult height (age 15.72±0.84 yrs, n = 238 ). Annual physical examinations including height and weight measurement were performed. From the 3rd visit, pubertal maturations (breast and pubic hair development) were also assessed annually until they were 14.5 years. Age of menarche was recorded. Result (1) Median age at the entry of puberty (age at reaching B2) was 9.83 years (9.33-10.33). Median age at initiation of pubic hair

  8. Study of Heat Pump Dehumidification Drying on Production Scale Application of Cantonese Sausage%广式腊肠热泵除湿干燥生产性应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进疆; 吴耀森; 刘清化; 李浩权; 龚丽

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,14 batches of large scale drying Cantonese sausage was studied by the gradient tem-perature drying parameters, using GHRH-510S type heat pump dehumidifier.The results showed that the time of drying only need 42h, saving more than 24h compare to the traditional drying, 45% water of sausage re-moved in 6h,the quality of dried sausage was excellent and the cost of drying energy was saved 60%. It was also found that heat pump dehumidification drying can fit the need of Cantonese sausage scale drying.%  利用GHRH-510S型热泵除湿干燥机,采取梯度变温干燥工艺参数,进行了14批次广式腊肠规模化干燥加工应用研究。结果表明:热泵除湿干燥技术装备适合广式腊肠规模化生产需要,干燥仅需42 h,较传统方式节约24 h以上,并在6 h内可去除需要去除水量的45%,腊肠品质优异,较传统干燥节约能耗等生产成本60%以上。

  9. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Kwan, Susan; Lam, Stephen; Khan, Nadia A; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials), followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet). The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and perceived self-efficacy to manage COPD. The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures. Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique (Pmanage a COPD exacerbation (Pmanaging COPD (Peducational interventions designed specifically to meet the needs of Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients are associated with significantly better understanding of self-management practices. Self-management education led to improved proper use of medications, ability to manage COPD exacerbations, and ability to achieve goals in managing COPD. A relatively simple culturally appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and self-management practices. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management education on behavioral change and patient empowerment strategies.

  10. 脂肪氧化控制技术在广式腊肠中应用的研究进展%Reviews of Application of Fat Oxidation Control Technology in the Cantonese Sausage Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓房; 鲁长海; 陈耀; 白卫东

    2012-01-01

    脂肪氧化在广式腊肠生产中具有重要作用,适当氧化是广式腊肠特征风味形成的主要途径,而过度氧化则是广式腊肠变质的重要因素.本论文首先阐述了广式腊肠中脂肪的氧化机理,再从生产过程控制、抗氧化剂的添加、包装技术等方面介绍了脂肪氧化控制技术在提高广式腊肠脂肪抗氧化性能的应用研究进展,最后对脂肪氧化控制技术在广式腊肠应用中的研究重点进行了展望.%Fat oxidation plays an important role in production in the cantonese sausage. Appropriate oxidation is the main way which the formation of characteristic flavors. But excessive oxidation is the important factor of metamorphism. This paper firstly discussed the mechanism of the sausage oxidation rancidity. Then fat antioxidation control technology was reviewed to improve the performance of the sausage antioxidation considering the production process control, antioxidant addition and packaging technology. The directions of fat oxidation control technology in Cantonese Style Sausage were also prospected.

  11. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  12. The relationship between task repetition and language proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mojavezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Task repetition is now considered as an important task-based implementation variable which can affect complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 speech. However, in order to move towards theorizing the role of task repetition in second language acquisition, it is necessary that individual variables be taken into account. The present study aimed to investigate the way task repetition correlates with language proficiency and the differential effects that task repetition might have on the complexity, accuracy, and fluency of L2 learners with different levels of proficiency. Fifty language learners of different levels of proficiency, selected from two different language centers, participated in this study. They were asked to perform an oral narrative task twice with a one-week interval. Results revealed that, compared to the participants with lower L2 proficiency, participants with higher levels of L2 proficiency produced more complex, accurate, and fluent speech on the second encounter with the same task.

  13. The repetition effect in building and construction works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Haugbølle, Kim

    are then applied on the Public Transport Authorities' main account structure of units and costs, and a method for assessing the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition for each account is described. Finally, the report summarises the core conditions necessary to take into consideration in relation......This report summarises the results from the work undertaken for the Public Transport Authority on the effect of learning and repetition in building and construction works. The results are applied by the Public Transport Authority in a new budgeting model, while the agency investigates...... the establishment of a new railway between Copenhagen and Ringsted. Drawing on an extensive literature review, the effect of repetition is determined to be in the range of 6-12 %. Further, the report identifies a series of factors affecting the possibilities of achieving effects of repetition. These factors...

  14. Bilingual Children’s Phonological Awareness: The Effect of Articulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether unbalanced Chinese-English bilingual children’s phonological awareness skills are limited to language experience, and whether these skills are improved after a short period of articulation training with L2 (English tongue twisters. Sixty kindergarten children in Taipei whose English proficiency was lower than their mother tongue, Chinese, participated in a series of tests. They were divided into two age groups with an average age of 5;3 and 6;3 respectively. An English proficiency test was first administrated to understand these children’s command of English. Then, phonological awareness pre-tests in Chinese and English were used to tap these children’s phonological awareness in both languages. Tests include onset/ rhyme detection test, onset deletion test, and onset/ rhyme substitution tests. Based on the causal link between articulation and phonological awareness, an English articulation training was given to the experimental group of children after the pre-tests, to examine whether enhanced English phonological awareness skills transfer to Chinese. Results showed that phonological awareness acquired in L1 were also found in L2. A period of articulation training in English led to an improvement of these children’s performances in both English and Chinese, which implies a backward transfer from weaker L2 to stronger L1. Cross-language transfers in phonological awareness abilities also imply that an abstract underlying capacity facilitates language processing across languages.

  15. Feasibility of an LPN to ADN Articulation Program at LSUA. Vocational Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Univ., Alexandria.

    A feasibility study examined the need for and likelihood of success for a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) articulation program for Louisiana State University (LSU) at Alexandria. Following a literature search on the theoretical establishment and implementation of such a program, three schools with successful…

  16. [The Articulator of Primary Health Care Program: an innovative proposal for qualification of Primary Health Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa

    2017-06-01

    In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.

  17. Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Hooshang; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Lira, Ortega Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of abnormal oral reflexes and speech sound production in children with severe cerebral palsy. Seven oral reflexes such as, rooting, mouth-opening, biting, chewing, lip, tongue, and suckling were examined in 52Persian-speaking monolingual children with spastic cerebral palsy (ages 5-10 yr).Phonetic information tests were administered to investigate their ability for articulation of the speech sounds. A significant relationship between three (i.e. the chewing, lip, and biting reflexes) out of the seven abnormal oral reflexes and the speech articulation was noticed. The presence of the chewing reflex was associated with deficits in production of /s, z, š,č/ sounds. The lip reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /p, m, r, j, f, č/ sounds. The biting reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /z, l, y and š/ sounds. No significant relationship was found between the rooting, mouth-opening, tongue, and suckling reflexes and sound articulation. The presence of abnormal reflexes in the children with spastic cerebral palsy would suggest a correlation between these reflexes and sound articulation in Iranian children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, these observations might suggest some disturbances in normal speech development.

  18. Lubrication Specialist: Task List and Competency Record. Developed for Vocational-Technical Curriculum Articulation in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Intended for the vocational instructor, the booklet presents a task list and competency record for the occupational program of lubrication specialist. The list was developed by a working committee of auto mechanics instructors and industry representatives throughout the state of Minnesota for use in program articulation between secondary and…

  19. MyReDiary: Co-Designing for Collaborative Articulation in Physical Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    , and Interoperability. We highlight Magic-Mirror- Spiral, the design ideal guiding the co-designing of MyReDiary that is aimed to support the three facets as an example in this regard. We offer the conceptual understanding of Collaborative Articulation, the Magic-Mirror-Spiral and MyReDiary as a ‘compositional Whole...

  20. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  1. An Articulation Model in Dental Assisting for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylves, Jane M.; Boody, Sandra

    A curriculum development project was conducted to generate additional competency-based modules to be used within the articulation model for Pennsylvania dental assisting programs, established in 1988. Project activities included reviewing, modifying, and providing parallel competency-based structure for the courses at the A.W. Beattie Technical…

  2. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compa

  3. Informal work and formal plans: Articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, MB;

    2013-01-01

    Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories...

  4. Development of the material selection practice - a study exploring articulation of material requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how the material selection matrix is used in a materials and sustainability course. The matrix encourages the students to articulate material selection requirements to become more competent in exploring new materials and selecting materials for a given design task. The study...

  5. Size, strength and allometry of joints in the articulated coralline Calliarthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Patrick T

    2006-05-01

    Articulated coralline algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) dominate low-intertidal, wave-exposed habitats around the world, yet the mechanics of this diverse group of organisms has been almost completely unexplored. In contrast to fleshy seaweeds, articulated corallines consist of calcified segments (intergenicula) separated by uncalcified joints (genicula). This jointed construction makes calcified fronds as flexible as fleshy seaweeds, allowing them to ;go with the flow' when struck by breaking waves. In addition to functioning as joints, genicula act as breakage points along articulated fronds. Here, I describe the allometric scaling of geniculum size, breaking force and tissue strength along articulated fronds in two species of Calliarthron. Genicular material is much stronger than tissue from fleshy macroalgae. Moreover, as fronds grow, genicula get bigger and their tissue strengthens, two processes that help them resist breakage. Within individual fronds, larger branches, which presumably experience greater drag force, are supported by bigger, stronger genicula. However, frond growth greatly outpaces genicular strengthening. As a result, Calliarthron fronds most likely break at their bases when critically stressed by incoming waves. Shedding fronds probably reduces the drag force that threatens to dislodge coralline crusts and may constitute a reproductive strategy.

  6. CHIHARAEA AND YAMADAIA (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA) REPRESENT REDUCED AND RECENTLY DERIVED ARTICULATED CORALLINE MORPHOLOGIES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Patrick T; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2012-08-01

    Phycologists have hypothesized that the diminutive fronds produced by species in the genera Chiharaea and Yamadaia, which are composed of comparatively few genicula and intergenicula, represent morphological intermediates in the evolution of articulated corallines from crustose ancestors. We test this "intermediate frond hypothesis" by comparing rbcL sequences from the generitype species Chiharaea bodegensis and Yamadaia melobesioides to sequences from other coralline genera. We demonstrate that Chiharaea includes two other NE Pacific species, Arthrocardia silvae and Yamadaia americana. Chiharaea species are characterized morphologically by inflated intergenicula and axial conceptacles with apical or acentric pores. Although relationships among the three species are unresolved, Chiharaea bodegensis, C. americana comb. nov., and C. silvae comb. nov. are distinguished from one another by DNA sequences, morphology, habitat, and biogeography. Chiharaea occurs together with Alatocladia, Bossiella, Calliarthron, and Serraticardia macmillanii in a strongly supported clade of nearly endemic north Pacific articulated coralline genera and species that have evolved relatively recently compared to other articulated corallines. In contrast, NW Pacific Yamadaia melobesioides belongs in a clade with Corallina officinalis, the generitype species of Corallina, and therefore we reduce Yamadia to a synonym of Corallina and propose Corallina melobesioides comb. nov. We reject the 'intermediate frond hypothesis' and conclude that Chiharaea and Yamadaia are recently derived taxa that evolved from articulated coralline ancestors and represent a reduction in the number of genicula and intergenicula.

  7. Is Tongue Strength an Important Influence on Rate of Articulation in Diadochokinetic and Reading Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Amy T.; Palmer, Phyllis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tongue strength and rate of articulation in 2 speech tasks, diadochokinetic rates and reading aloud, in healthy men and women between 20 and 78 years of age. Method: Diadochokinetic rates were measured for the syllables /p[wedge]/, /t[wedge]/, /k[wedge]/, and…

  8. Informal work and formal plans: Articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, MB

    2013-01-01

    Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories...

  9. Development of a New Type of Incisal Table for Prosthetic Articulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tasora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the effectiveness of an advanced incisal table surface, featuring adjustable curvature, in the sake of more accurate articulator kinematics in anterior teeth reconstruction. Prosthetic articulators, used by dental technicians in reconstructive dentistry, are adjustable instruments that simulate the motion of mastication between dental casts: usually, the forward motion (protrusion of the mandible is guided by sliding a pin over a flat table in order to recreate those movements when incisal teeth are missing. However, such protrusion is an approximation of the exact motion, since flat incisal tables have a limited set of adjustments. Customized software has been developed in order to simulate the kinematics of articulators in three-dimensional space: animations and measures of the envelope of teeth profiles show the unfeasibility of reconstructing with good approximation the profile of incisive teeth, when a simple ‘flat’ incisal table is used. A new incisal table with an adjustable curvature has been proposed, simulated, and built, and computer simulations demonstrated the superior precision of the new design when compared to a conventional articulator which uses a flat incisal table.

  10. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation Using a Learning Companion: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Bradley; Linton, Frank; Gaimari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Our 1998 paper "Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion" (Goodman et al. 1998) was a stepping stone in the progression of learning companions for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in an intelligent tutoring environment ensures the availability of a…

  11. Activating a Teaching Philosophy in Social Work Education: Articulation, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…

  12. The Acoustic Properties of Vowels: A Tool for Improving Articulation and Comprehension of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Candalene J.

    2006-01-01

    Correct pronunciation is often a later step in the process of teaching English as a second language. However, a focus on the correct articulation of vowels can significantly improve listening and comprehension skills as well as articulatory skills. Vowels and consonants differ in their acoustic properties. Unlike consonants, vowel sounds are…

  13. Part-type Segmentation of Articulated Voxel-Shapes using the Junction Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a part-type segmentation method for articulated voxel-shapes based on curve skeletons. Shapes are considered to consist of several simpler, intersecting shapes. Our method is based on the junction rule : the observation that two intersecting shapes generate an additional junction in their

  14. Part-type Segmentation of Articulated Voxel-Shapes using the Junction Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a part-type segmentation method for articulated voxel-shapes based on curve skeletons. Shapes are considered to consist of several simpler, intersecting shapes. Our method is based on the junction rule: the observation that two intersecting shapes generate an additional junction in their

  15. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  16. Student Transfer Guide and General Education Articulation Matrix, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Board of Regents, Baton Rouge.

    The Louisiana State Board of Regents' 1999-2000 Student Transfer Guide and General Education Articulation Matrix represents Louisiana public higher education's ongoing effort to improve the transfer process. The courses in this guide's matrix are typically referred to as "general education" or "core curriculum" courses. Students should note that…

  17. Relationship between articulation paper mark size and percentage of force measured with computerized occlusal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Sarah; Kerstein, Robert; Kim, Ryan Jin Yung; Huh, Jung-Bo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2012-02-01

    Articulation paper mark size is widely accepted as an indicator of forceful tooth contacts. However, mark size is indicative of contact location and surface area only, and does not quantify occlusal force. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the size of paper marks and the percentage of force applied to the same tooth. Thirty dentate female subjects intercuspated into articulation paper strips to mark occlusal contacts on their maxillary posterior teeth, followed by taking photographs. Then each subject made a multi-bite digital occlusal force percentage recording. The surface area of the largest and darkest articulation paper mark (n = 240 marks) in each quadrant (n = 60 quadrants) was calculated in photographic pixels, and compared with the force percentage present on the same tooth. Regression analysis shows a bi-variant fit of force % on tooth (Pforce indicated a low positive correlation. The coefficient of determination showed a low causative relationship between mark area and force (r(2) = 0.067). The largest paper mark in each quadrant was matched with the most forceful tooth in that same quadrant only 38.3% of time. Only 6 2/3% of mark surface area could be explained by applied occlusal force, while most of the mark area results from other factors unrelated to the applied occlusal force. The findings of this study indicate that size of articulation paper mark is an unreliable indicator of applied occlusal force, to guide treatment occlusal adjustments.

  18. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  19. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  20. Understanding Teachers' Professional Growth through Their Articulation of Personal Practical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Julu

    2002-01-01

    Explored methods of helping Indian teachers articulate their concerns, experiences, and personal practical knowledge, surveying and interviewing teachers regarding their workplace and teaching experiences and critical incidents in their lives and examining their beliefs about students, colleagues, subject matter knowledge, and context. Overall,…

  1. The Effects of Otitis Media on Articulation. Final Report for 1982-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne Erwick

    The study examined the relationship in 44 preschoolers (considered to have varying degrees of predicted risk for poor school performance) between otitis media (middle ear disease) during the first 3 years of life and speech production (articulation) during preschool and school age years. Speech production accuracy was assessed by the number of…

  2. Articulating Scientific Practice: Understanding Dean Hamer's "Gay Gene" Study as Overlapping Material, Social and Rhetorical Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…

  3. Cognitive Levels Regarding Articulation Marks among Violin Students in Department of Music Education in Gazi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taninmis, Gamze Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine violin students' cognitive levels about articulation marks in Department of Music Education, Fine Arts Education, Gazi Faculty of Education, Gazi University (GUGEF), and to identify the variables on which the cognitive levels vary. It is a descriptive research considering the study purpose, method and…

  4. Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DADGAR, Hooshang; HADIAN, Mohammad Reza; LIRA, Ortega Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of abnormal oral reflexes and speech sound production in children with severe cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods Seven oral reflexes such as, rooting, mouth-opening, biting, chewing, lip, tongue, and suckling were examined in 52Persian-speaking monolingual children with spastic cerebral palsy (ages 5-10 yr).Phonetic information tests were administered to investigate their ability for articulation of the speech sounds. Results A significant relationship between three (i.e. the chewing, lip, and biting reflexes) out of the seven abnormal oral reflexes and the speech articulation was noticed. The presence of the chewing reflex was associated with deficits in production of /s, z, š,č/ sounds. The lip reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /p, m, r, j, f, č/ sounds. The biting reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /z, l, y and š/ sounds. No significant relationship was found between the rooting, mouth-opening, tongue, and suckling reflexes and sound articulation. Conclusion The presence of abnormal reflexes in the children with spastic cerebral palsy would suggest a correlation between these reflexes and sound articulation in Iranian children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, these observations might suggest some disturbances in normal speech development. PMID:27375753

  5. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  6. Transfer and Articulation in the 1990s: California in the Larger Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report puts California's current efforts to find solutions to its problems of transfer and articulation in the broader context of national concerns. Following a brief summary and overview, part 1 sets forth a seris of conclusions and six recommendations for action by the University of California, the California State University, the…

  7. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Juliana; Small, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research.…

  8. A Sequence for Helping Children Having Mild to Moderate Functional Articulation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Robert A.

    Presented are specific sequential procedures for use by paraprofessionals in correcting children's mild to moderate articulation problems. The sequence consists of eight activities to prepare the child for the program, five steps in the area of ear training, and ten steps to teach speech production. Activities and minimum teaching times are…

  9. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  10. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  11. A K-12 Articulation Model for the Orange Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Louie S.

    This Maxi II practicum documents the development of a model articulation process and the implementation of that process in the Orange (California) Unified School District. The model was intended to improve the continuity of student progression through the grades from elementary to junior high to senior high school. Primary concerns of the…

  12. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically

  13. Attitudes of Fourth and Sixth Graders toward Peers with Mild Articulation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barbara J. Crowe

    1991-01-01

    This study examined attitudes of 348 fourth and sixth graders toward peers with and without mild articulatory errors. A videotape was shown of peer speakers with and without various articulation errors and viewer attitudes assessed. Significantly more negative attitudes were found toward peers who exhibited articulatory errors. (Author/PB)

  14. Activating a Teaching Philosophy in Social Work Education: Articulation, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…

  15. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 2, Significant Figures and Powers of Ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the second lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to significant figures and powers of ten. An introductory description is given for precise measurement and numbers in scientific notation. The subject content is provided in scrambled form, and the use of…

  16. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  17. "Articulation"与后马克思主义的偶然性逻辑--从拉克劳和墨菲的"articulation"谈起%Articulation and the Post-Marxist Logic of Contingency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔明安

    2006-01-01

    该文认为,"articulation"是拉克劳、墨菲的后马克思主义的一个核心概念,它的基本意思是"链结".该文从词源上考察了"articulation"一词的意义及其历史演变,并对其基本含义和特征做了深入的分析.该文认为,链接是理解后马克思主义的偶然性逻辑的核心概念.链接是发生在主体身份之间的,话语性的,偶然性的建构实践活动.但拉克劳、墨菲的链接虽然力图避免近代哲学的本质主义和还原主义,但却仍然避免不了其精致的"唯心"倾向和向上的还原论的嫌疑.我们对此要有清晰的认识.

  18. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  19. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  20. Analysis of repetitive DNA in chromosomes by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brind'Amour, Julie; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2011-06-01

    We developed a flow cytometry method, chromosome flow fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), called CFF, to analyze repetitive DNA in chromosomes using FISH with directly labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. We used CFF to measure the abundance of interstitial telomeric sequences in Chinese hamster chromosomes and major satellite sequences in mouse chromosomes. Using CFF we also identified parental homologs of human chromosome 18 with different amounts of repetitive DNA.