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Sample records for reperfusion pigs received

  1. R56865 IS ANTIFIBRILLATORY IN REPERFUSED ISCHEMIC GUINEA-PIG HEARTS, EVEN WHEN GIVEN ONLY DURING REPERFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHEUFLER, E; MOZES, A; GUTTMANN, [No Value; WILFFERT, B

    R56865 was previously characterized as an inhibitor of Na and Ca overload that has beneficial effects during ischemia and reperfusion. An isolated guinea-pig heart preparation was subjected to 60 minutes of ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion. R56865 was given before ischemia and with the onset

  2. EFFECTS OF EARLY ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME-INHIBITION IN A PIG MODEL OF MYOCARDIAL-ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJNGAARDEN, J; TOBE, TJM; WEERSINK, EGL; BEL, KJ; DEGRAEFF, PA; DELANGEN, CDJ; VANGILST, WH; WESSELING, H

    In a blind, randomized study, the effects of perindopril, a nonsulfhydryl-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, were compared with those of placebo in a closed-chest pig model of myocardial infraction. In anesthetized pigs, my ocardinal ischemia and reperfusion were induced by

  3. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  4. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

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    Pranitha Kamat

    Full Text Available Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury during myocardial infarction (MI. Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5 or saline (n = 5 was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE, endothelial cell activation (CD31 and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1 were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  5. Edaravone, A Free Radical Scavenger, Ameliorates Early-Phase Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Increases Hepatocyte Proliferation in A Pig Hepatectomy Model

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    Mitsugi Shimoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of Edaravone (Edr on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and liver regeneration were examined in a pig hepatectomy model. Methods: One hour of ischemia was induced by occluding the vessels and the bile duct of the right and median lobes. About a 40% left hepatectomy was performed after reperfusion. Six animals received Edr (3 mg/kg/h intravenously and six control animals received saline just before reperfusion. Remnant liver volume, hemodynamics, and levels of AST, ALT, LDH, and LA were compared between the groups. Expression of TGF-beta1 and IL-6 mRNA in hepatic tissues was examined using RT-PCR. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were demonstrated by TUNEL and Ki-67 staining, respectively. Results: Serum AST, LDH, and LA levels were significantly lower at 3 hours and 1 week after perfusion in animals that had received Edr. In the Edr group, hepatic tissues showed a greater tendency for the expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA to be inhibited at 1 week, although the difference was not significant. Also at 1 week in the Edr group, TUNEL-positive cells in the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium were significantly fewer, and Ki-67-positive cells were significantly more numerous. Conclusion: We conclude that Edr reduces hepatic injury and supports tissue regeneration after I/R injury in this pig model. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(3.000: 142-150

  6. Polydeoxyribonucleotides and nitric oxide release from guinea-pig hearts during ischaemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E.; Lupini, M.; Mugnai, L.; Raspanti, S.; Mannaioni, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Two polydeoxyribonucleotides, produced by the controlled hydrolysis of DNA of mammalian lung (defibrotide and its lower molecular weight fraction, P.O. 085 DV), were studied for their ability to modify the release of nitrite and the coronary flow in perfusates collected from isolated, normally perfused hearts of guinea-pigs and from hearts subjected to regional ischaemia and reperfusion. 2. In guinea-pig normally perfused hearts, both defibrotide (DFT) and its fraction, P.O. 085 DV, increase the amount of nitrite appearing in perfusates in a concentration-dependent fashion. At the highest concentration studied (10(-6) M), P.O. 085 DV was more effective than DFT. A concomitant increase in the coronary flow was observed. 3. The increase in nitrite in perfusates and the increase in coronary flow induced by both DFT and P.O. 085 DV were significantly reduced by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10(-4) M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 4. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (ACh), enhances the formation of nitrite and the coronary flow. Both the increase in coronary flow and in the formation of nitrite were significantly reduced by L-NMMA (10(-4) M). 5. In guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion, the effect of both compounds in increasing the amount of nitrite in perfusates was more evident and more pronounced with P.O. 085 DV. 6. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were significantly reduced by both compounds to the extent of complete protection afforded by compound P.O. 085 DV. 7. The cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of DFT and P.O. 085 DV are discussed. PMID:7582482

  7. Metabolic changes in the pig liver during warm ischemia and reperfusion measured by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Grønbaek, Henning

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Portal triad clamping can cause ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to monitor metabolic changes by microdialysis before, during, and after warm ischemia in the pigliver. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight pigs underwent laparotomy followed by ischemia by Pringle's maneuver. One...... in transaminase levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: During and after warm ischemia, there were profound metabolic changes in the pigliver observed with an increase in lactate, glucose, glycerol, and the lactate-pyruvate ratio. There were no differences between the four liver lobes, indicating the piglivers...

  8. Treating myocardial stunning randomly, with either propofol or isoflurane following transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion in pigs

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    Urdaneta Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol and isoflurane may be used during fast track anesthesia for off-pump bypass, where transient ischemia is common. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of propofol vs isoflurane in a porcine model of acute coronary occlusion. Twenty five pigs were randomized to receive general anesthesia with either isoflurane, 1 MAC (n = 13, or propofol, 3 mg/kg bolus followed by 200 μg/ kg/min infusion (n = 12. Pressure-tipped catheters were placed in the left ventricle (LV and carotid artery; cardiac output was measured by ultrasound; two pairs of ultrasonic dimension catheters were placed in the subendocardium of LV. The slope of LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (E max was calculated. Reversible ischemia for 15 mins was accomplished with an occluder around the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion period. Measurements were done at baseline, end ischemia, early (5 min and late (30 min reperfusion. The data collected included systemic hemodynamics, LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, dP/dt, E max , and the presence of ventricular arrhythmias. The number of animals studied to completion was 19 (n = 11 in the isoflurane group; n = 8 in propofol group. There was a significant difference in E max between isoflurane and propofol during early and late reperfusion [3.4 (0.5 and 4.0 (0.3 vs 2.6 (0.4 and 3.2 (0.5 mmHg/sec, respectively; P < 0.05]. Postreperfusion ventricular fibrillation occurred in 54% animals in the propofol group vs none in the isoflurane group ( P < 0.05. Isoflurane administration was found to be cardioprotective against ventricular depression and arrhythmias compared to propofol.

  9. The incidence of dysphagia in patients receiving cerebral reperfusion therapy poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Priscila W; Cola, Paula C; Gatto, Ana R; da Silva, Roberta G; Luvizutto, Gustavo J; Braga, Gabriel P; Schelp, Arthur O; de Arruda Henry, Maria A C; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2014-07-01

    The high prevalence of dysphagia after stroke leads to increased mortality, and cerebral reperfusion therapy has been effective in reducing neurologic deficits. The aim of this study was to investigate the severity and evolution of dysphagia and the occurrence of pneumonia in patients submitted to cerebral reperfusion therapy. Seventy ischemic stroke patients were evaluated. Of these, 35 patients (group 1) were submitted to cerebral reperfusion therapy and 35 (group 2) did not receive thrombolytic treatment. The following were evaluated: severity of dysphagia by means of videofluoroscopy, evolution of oral intake rate by means of the Functional Oral Intake Scale, and the occurrence of pneumonia by international protocol. The relation between the severity of dysphagia and the occurrence of pneumonia with the treatment was evaluated through the chi-square test; the daily oral intake rate and its relation to the treatment were assessed by the Mann-Whitney test and considered significant if P is less than .05. The moderate and severe degrees of dysphagia were more frequent (P=.013) among the patients who were not submitted to cerebral reperfusion therapy. The daily oral intake evolved independently of the treatment type, without statistical significance when compared between the groups, whereas pneumonia occurred more frequently in group 2 (28%) in relation to group 1 (11%) and was associated with the worst degrees of dysphagia (P=.045). We can conclude that there is improvement in the oral intake rate in both groups, with lower severity of dysphagia and occurrence of pneumonia in ischemic stroke patients submitted to cerebral reperfusion therapy. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  11. Lifelike Vascular Reperfusion of a Thiel-Embalmed Pig Model and Evaluation as a Surgical Training Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, Wouter; Tozzi, Francesca; Van Hoof, Tom; Ceelen, Wim; Pattyn, Piet; D''Herde, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Vascular reperfusion of Thiel cadavers can aid surgical and anatomical instruction. This study investigated whether ideal embalming circumstances provide lifelike vascular flow, enabling surgical practice and enhancing anatomical reality. Pressure-controlled pump-driven administration of blue embalming solution was assessed directly postmortem in a pig model (n = 4). Investigation of subsequent pump-driven vascular injection of red paraffinum perliquidum (PP) included assessment of flow parameters, intracorporeal distribution, anatomical alterations, and feasibility for surgical training. The microscopic distribution of PP was analyzed in pump-embalmed pig and gravity-embalmed human small intestines. Embalming lasted 50-105 min, and maximum arterial pressure was 65 mm Hg. During embalming, the following consecutive alterations were observed: arterial filling, organ coloration, venous perfusion, and further tissue coloration during the next weeks. Most organs were adequately preserved. PP generated low arterial pressures (drainage is a prerequisite to prevent anatomical deformation, allowing simulation of various surgeries. In pump-embalmed pig small intestines, PP flowed from artery to vein through the capillaries without extravasation. In contrast, arterioles were blocked in gravity-embalmed human tissues. In a pig model, immediate postmortem pressure-controlled pump embalming generates ideal circumstances for (micro)vascular reperfusion with PP, permitting lifelike anatomy instruction and surgical training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Multifocal electroretinogram for functional evaluation of retinal injury following ischemia-reperfusion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morén, Håkan; Gesslein, Bodil; Andreasson, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) has the power to discriminate between localized functional losses and overall retinal changes when evaluating retinal injury. So far, full-field ERG has been the gold standard for examining retinal ischemia and the effects of different neuroprotectants...... in experimental conditions. The aim of the present study was to establish mfERG, with simultaneous fundus monitoring, for analyzing the localized functional response in the retina after ischemia-reperfusion in the porcine eye....

  13. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  14. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  15. Role of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases in the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus during in vitro ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaroni, C; Marchet, S; Carpanese, E; Prandoni, V; Oldrini, R; Bartolini, B; Moro, E; Vigetti, D; Crema, F; Lecchini, S; Frigo, G

    2013-02-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to abnormalities in motility, namely delay of transit, caused by damage to myenteric neurons. Alterations of the nitrergic transmission may occur in these conditions. This study investigated whether an in vitro I/R injury may affect nitric oxide (NO) production from the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig ileum and which NO synthase (NOS) isoform is involved. The distribution of the neuronal (n) and inducible (i) NOS was determined by immunohistochemistry during 60 min of glucose/oxygen deprivation (in vitro ischemia) followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The protein and mRNA levels of nNOS and iNOS were investigated by Western-immunoblotting and real time RT-PCR, respectively. NO levels were quantified as nitrite/nitrate. After in vitro I/R the proportion of nNOS-expressing neurons and protein levels remained unchanged. nNOS mRNA levels increased 60 min after inducing ischemia and in the following 5 min of reperfusion. iNOS-immunoreactive neurons, protein and mRNA levels were up-regulated during the whole I/R period. A significant increase of nitrite/nitrate levels was observed in the first 5 min after inducing I/R and was significantly reduced by N(ω) -propyl-l-arginine and 1400 W, selective inhibitors of nNOS and iNOS, respectively. Our data demonstrate that both iNOS and nNOS represent sources for NO overproduction in ileal myenteric plexus during I/R, although iNOS undergoes more consistent changes suggesting a more relevant role for this isoform in the alterations occurring in myenteric neurons following I/R. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Bisgaard, Line Stattau

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect...... in apoptotic changes in the BNP-stimulated cells. Pigs tolerated the BNP and CD-NP (a CNP analogue) infusion well, with a decrease in systemic blood pressure (~15 mmHg) and increased diuresis compared with the controls. Left ventricular pressure decreased in the pigs that received BNP infusion compared...... with controls (P=0.02). A similar trend was observed in the pigs that received CD-NP infusion, although this was not significant (P=0.3). BNP and CD-NP infusion in pigs reduced total cardiac troponin T release by 46 and 40%, respectively (P=0.0015 and 0.0019), and were associated with improved RNA integrity...

  17. Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Bisgaard, Line Stattau

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect...... in apoptotic changes in the BNP-stimulated cells. Pigs tolerated the BNP and CD-NP (a CNP analogue) infusion well, with a decrease in systemic blood pressure (∼15 mmHg) and increased diuresis compared with the controls. Left ventricular pressure decreased in the pigs that received BNP infusion compared...... with controls (P=0.02). A similar trend was observed in the pigs that received CD-NP infusion, although this was not significant (P=0.3). BNP and CD-NP infusion in pigs reduced total cardiac troponin T release by 46 and 40%, respectively (P=0.0015 and 0.0019), and were associated with improved RNA integrity...

  18. Oxygen-charged HTK-F6H8 emulsion reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidneys from brain-dead pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Sana; Sedigh, Amir; Nordström, Johan; Brandhorst, Heide; Jorns, Carl; Lorant, Tomas; Larsson, Erik; Magnusson, Peetra U; Nowak, Greg; Theisinger, Sonja; Hoeger, Simone; Wennberg, Lars; Korsgren, Olle; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Prolonged cold ischemia is frequently associated with a greater risk of delayed graft function and enhanced graft failure. We hypothesized that media, combining a high oxygen-dissolving capacity with specific qualities of organ preservation solutions, would be more efficient in reducing immediate ischemia-reperfusion injury from organs stored long term compared with standard preservation media. Kidneys retrieved from brain-dead pigs were flushed using either cold histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) or oxygen-precharged emulsion composed of 75% HTK and 25% perfluorohexyloctane. After 18 h of cold ischemia the kidneys were transplanted into allogeneic recipients and assessed for adenosine triphosphate content, morphology, and expression of genes related to hypoxia, environmental stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Compared with HTK-flushed kidneys, organs preserved using oxygen-precharged HTK-perfluorohexyloctane emulsion had increased elevated adenosine triphosphate content and a significantly lower gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-α, JNK-1, p38, cytochrome-c, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-3 at all time points assessed. In contrast, the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was significantly increased. The present study has demonstrated that in brain-dead pigs the perfusion of kidneys with oxygen-precharged HTK-perfluorohexyloctane emulsion results in significantly reduced inflammation, hypoxic injury, and apoptosis and cellular integrity and energy content are well maintained. Histologic examination revealed less tubular, vascular, and glomerular changes in the emulsion-perfused tissue compared with the HTK-perfused counterparts. The concept of perfusing organs with oxygen-precharged emulsion based on organ preservation media represents an efficient alternative for improved organ preservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Digestive microbiota is different in pigs receiving antimicrobials or a feed additive during the nursery period.

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    Cassandra Soler

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials have been used in a prophylactic way to decrease the incidence of digestive disorders during the piglet post-weaning period. Nowadays, it is urgent to reduce their consumption in livestock to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, the effect of a product on piglet microbiota has been investigated as an alternative to antimicrobials. Three groups of ten post-weaning pigs were sampled at 0, 15 and 30 days one week post-weaning; the control, antibiotic and feed additive group received a standard post-weaning diet without antibiotics or additives, the same diet as the control group but with amoxicillin and colistin sulphate and the same diet as the control group but with a feed additive (Sanacore-EN, Nutriad International N.V., respectively. The total DNA extracted from faeces was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for massive sequencing under manufacturer's conditions. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software and suitable statistical methods. In general terms, age modifies significantly the microbiota of the piglets. Thus, the oldest the animal, the highest bacterial diversity observed for the control and the feed additive groups. However, this diversity was very similar in the antibiotic group throughout the trial. Interestingly, a clear increase in abundance of Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp was detected within the feed additive group versus the antibiotic and control groups. In conclusion, the feed additive group had a positive effect in the endogenous microbiota of post-weaning pigs increasing both, the diversity of bacterial families and the abundance of lactic acid bacteria during the post-weaning period.

  20. Transmit-Only/Receive-Only Radiofrequency System for Hyperpolarized 13C MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables metabolic activity mapping, providing a powerful tool for the study of the heart physiology, but requires the development of dedicated radiofrequency coils, capable of providing large field of view with high signal......-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work describes the simulations and the tests of a transmit-only (TX) volume coil/receive-only (RX) surface coil both designed for hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. The coil characterization is performed by developing an SNR model for coil performance...

  1. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  2. Impact of ECG findings and process-of-care characteristics on the likelihood of not receiving reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results of a field evaluation.

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    Kevin A Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI do not receive reperfusion therapy and are known to have poorer outcomes. We aimed to perform the first population-level, integrated analysis of clinical, ECG and hospital characteristics associated with non-receipt of reperfusion therapy in patients with STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: This systematic evaluation of STEMI care in 82 hospitals in Quebec included all patients with a discharge diagnosis of myocardial infarction, presenting with characteristic symptoms and an ECG showing STEMI as attested by at least one of two study cardiologists or left bundle branch block (LBBB. Excluding LBBB, an ECG was considered a definite STEMI diagnosis if both cardiologists scored 'certain STEMI' and ambiguous if one scored 'uncertain' or 'not STEMI'. Centers were classified according to accessibility to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI: 1 on-site PPCI; 2 routine transfer for PPCI; 3 varying mix of PPCI transfer and on-site fibrinolysis; and 4 routine on-site fibrinolysis. Of 3730 STEMI/LBBB patients, 812 (21.8% did not receive reperfusion therapy. In multivariate analysis, likelihood of no reperfusion therapy was a function of PPCI accessibility (odds ratio [OR] for fibrinolysis versus PPCI centers = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2-4.4, presence of LBBB (OR = 24.1; 95% CI: 17.8-32.9 and an ECG ambiguous for STEMI (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 3.3-5.1. When the ECG was ambiguous, likelihood of no reperfusion therapy was highest in hospitals most distant from PPCI centers. CONCLUSIONS: ECG diagnostic ambiguity, LBBB and PPCI accessibility are important predictors of not receiving reperfusion therapy, suggesting opportunities for improving outcomes.

  3. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    . and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms...

  4. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  5. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R.; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R. A.

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects.Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

  6. Quick opening closure: a brazilian design to pig launching and receiving vessels; Tampa de abertura rapida: um projeto brasileiro para lancadores e recebedores de pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Antonio T. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Originally designed to use at launcher and receiver pig traps on offshore, area, the quick opening closure, presented at this work, it has technical features that assure a singular performance. The safety is assured by the 'vent bleed screw' that stop the blockage mechanism in closed position until it to be totally removed. A limited pressure bleed, give a warning that there is pressure in the vessel. The height quality of the door and external ring grinding surfaces added to the circular block segments system mechanism give a same pressure all over the o'ring surface. This assure the leak proof warranty. The open an close Asca system composed by circular blocks segments more the push pull mechanism actuated by the same davit-screw that lift the door, provide a quick, safety and ease operation. The care at the design and the manufacture quality of the parts prevent grip rings and the door opening operation failure. (author)

  7. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life® in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO 2 life ® to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO 2 life ® is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex ® ) was compared with Perfadex ® associated with HEMO 2 life ® and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO 2 life ® group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  8. High-resolution imaging of the layers of the gastrointestinal wall of pig and human specimens using an endoluminal MR receiver coil. Correlation to histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Sebastian; Palmowski, M.; Macher-Goeppinger, S.; Mueller, M.; Volke, F.; Duex, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: High-resolution MR imaging of the layers of the gastrointestinal wall to provide a foundation for tumor staging based on morphological criteria. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 12 months, miscellaneous parts of the gastrointestinal tract of 15 human specimens and 30 porcine specimens were scanned using a 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner combined with an endoluminal receiver coil. The sequences used were T1-weighted opposed-phase, T2-weighted turbo spin echo with fat saturation and fast T2-weighted inversion recovery. The number of differentiable layers, their width and the signal intensity were documented. Then, the results were compared with histological specimens in order to link the imaged wall layers to the anatomical layers. Spearman's Rank Correlation was used to determine the soundness of the link between the images and their related histology. Results: For both human and animal specimens, the MRI scanning produced 3 to 5, maximum 6 (pig), differentiable layers. The mucosa, submucosa and muscularis could be differentiated with a hyperintense, hypointense and intermediary signal, respectively. The subserosal layer displayed a hypointense signal. Conclusion: High-resolution MRI is able to produce differentiable images of the anatomical layers of the gastrointestinal wall in both humans and pigs. Accordingly, it is possible to use MR imaging to diagnose the extent of local tumor infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall. (orig.)

  9. Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli in Pigs Receiving Oral Antimicrobial Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Elke; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify risk factors in addition to antimicrobial treatment for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurrence in commensal Escherichia coli in pigs. A variety of studies were searched in 2014 and 2015. Studies identified as potentially relevant were assessed against eligibility criteria such as observation or experiment (no review), presentation of risk factors in addition to (single dosage) antimicrobial use, risk factors for but not resulting from AMR, and the same antimicrobial used and tested. Thirteen articles (nine on observational, four on experimental studies) were finally selected as relevant. It was reported that space allowance, production size/stage, cleanliness, entry of animals and humans into herds, dosage/frequency/route of administration, time span between treatment and sampling date, herd size, distance to another farm, coldness, and season had an impact on AMR occurrence. Associations were shown by one to four studies per factor and differed in magnitude, direction, and level of significance. The risk of bias was unclear in nearly half of the information of observational studies and in most of the information from experimental studies. Further research on the effects of specific management practices is needed to develop well-founded management advice.

  10. Receptor for advanced glycation end products involved in lung ischemia reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass attenuated by controlled oxygen reperfusion in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Liang, Meng-ya; Chen, Guang-xian; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Wu, Zhong-kai

    2013-01-01

    Controlled oxygen reperfusion could protect the lung against ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by downregulating high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a high affinity receptor of HMGB1. This study investigated the effect of controlled oxygen reperfusion on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression and its downstream effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fourteen canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. Animals were randomized to receive 80% FiO2 during the entire procedure (control group) or to a test group receiving a controlled oxygen reperfusion protocol. Pathologic changes in lung tissues, RAGE expression, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The lung pathologic scores after 25 and 90 minutes of reperfusion were significantly lower in the test group compared with the control group (p RAGE expression, TNF-α, and IL-6 were downregulated by controlled oxygen treatment (p RAGE might be involved in the lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model of CPB, which was downregulated by controlled oxygen reperfusion.

  11. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion mediates cardioprotection via increased nitric oxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T Gonon

    Full Text Available Consumption of L-arginine contributes to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO that is critical for the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to determine myocardial arginase expression and activity in ischemic-reperfusion myocardium and whether local inhibition of arginase within the ischemic myocardium results in increased NO production and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to coronary artery occlusion for 40 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. The pigs were randomized to intracoronary infusion of vehicle (n = 7, the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA, 2 mg/min, n = 7, the combination of nor-NOHA and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.35 mg/min, n = 6 into the jeopardized myocardial area or systemic intravenous infusion of nor-NOHA (2 mg/min, n = 5 at the end of ischemia and start of reperfusion. The infarct size of the vehicle group was 80 ± 4% of the area at risk. Intracoronary nor-NOHA reduced infarct size to 46 ± 5% (P<0.01. Co-administration of L-NMMA abrogated the cardioprotective effect mediated by nor-NOHA (infarct size 72 ± 6%. Intravenous nor-NOHA did not reduce infarct size. Arginase I and II were expressed in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, smooth muscle and poylmorphonuclear cells. There was no difference in cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression between ischemic-reperfused and non-ischemic myocardium. Arginase activity increased 2-fold in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in comparison with non-ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion increases arginase activity without affecting cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion reduces infarct size via a mechanism that is dependent on increased bioavailability of NO.

  12. Uptake and distribution of a labeled fatty acid in a canine model of ischemia with and without reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D. Sr.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) and the regional distribution of 15-(4-iodophenyl)-9-methyl pentadecanoic acid (9-MPDA) was studied in a canine model of myocardial ischemia with and without reperfusion. Group 1 dogs received 135 min of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion; Group 2 dogs received 90 min of LAD occlusion and 45 min of reflow; and Group 3 dogs received 90 min of LAD occlusion and 3.5 hr of reperfusion. All animals received 9-MPDA 15 min prior to sacrifice, and tracer microspheres prior to occlusion, 5 and 80 min after occlusion, 15 min after reperfusion, and 15 min before the end of reperfusion. In Group 1 (permanent ischemia), 9-MPDA distribution was closely correlated with RMBF both 5 and 80 min after occlusion. In Group 2, 9-MPDA uptake was most closely correlated with reperfusion RMBF rather than ischemic RMBF. However, in 1 animal with good reperfusion, 9-MPDA uptake was reduced and was correlated with ischemic blood flow measured 5 min after occlusion. In Group 3, 9-MPDA uptake was correlated with RMBF measured during the ischemic period and not with reperfusion RMBF. It appears that 9-MPDA uptake is determined by RMBF when flow is limited, or early in reperfusion. With prolonged reperfusion, 9-MPDA uptake is significantly reduced in the ischemic zone in the presence of normal flow. This finding implies that the uptake of this fatty acid during reperfusion is related to myocardial damage (myocardial metabolism?) and not to RMBF

  13. Involvement of Rho-kinase in cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Satoko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suehiro, Taketoshi; Soejima, Yuji; Yosizumi, Tomoharu; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2004-08-15

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissues is known to cause the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with resultant tissue damage. However, the sources of ROS in reperfused tissues are not fully characterized. We hypothesized that the small GTPase Rho and its target effector Rho-kinase/ROK/ROCK are involved in the oxidative burst in reperfused tissue with resultant reperfusion injury. In an in vivo rat model of liver transplantation using cold ischemia for 12 hr followed by reperfusion, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg), was administered orally 1 hr before the transplantation. Fasudil suppressed the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced generation of ROS after reperfusion (P<0.01) and also suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta) 3 hr after reperfusion, resulting in a significant reduction of I/R-induced hepatocellular injury (P<0.05), necrosis, apoptosis (P<0.01), and neutrophil infiltration (P<0.0001) 12 hr after reperfusion. All animals receiving a graft without fasudil died within 3 days, whereas 40% of those receiving fasudil survived (P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that Rho-kinase-mediated production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis induced by cold I/R in vivo and that Rho-kinase may be regarded as a novel therapeutic target for the disorder.

  14. Endotoxin tolerance does not limit mild ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, A.; Goeij, M. de; Wouters, C.W.; Riksen, N.P.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Deuren, M. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that previous exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can limit ischemia-reperfusion injury. We tested whether pretreatment with LPS also protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans in vivo. Fourteen volunteers received bolus injections of incremental dosages of LPS

  15. Acute reperfusion without recanalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makris, Nikolaos; Chamard, Leila; Mikkelsen, Irene K

    2017-01-01

    Acute reperfusion despite persistent arterial occlusion may occur in up to 30% of ischemic stroke patients. Recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals may explain this phenomenon. Using dynamic susceptibility-contrast perfusion imaging (DSC-PI), we assessed acute changes in collateral flow among...... patients without recanalization. From a multicenter prospective database (I-KNOW), 46 patients with magnetic resonance angiography visible occlusion in whom both reperfusion and recanalization were assessed within 6 h of onset were identified. Maps of collateral flow at arterial, capillary and late venous...... phases were generated from DSC-PI through inter-frame registration, baseline signal subtraction and temporal summation, and graded blind to all other relevant clinical and radiological data using the Higashida scale. Flow direction and the acute evolution of collaterals were evaluated against...

  16. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  17. Retinal reperfusion in diabetic retinopathy following treatment with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin AM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ariana M Levin, Irene Rusu, Anton Orlin, Mrinali P Gupta, Peter Coombs, Donald J D’Amico, Szilárd Kiss Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Purpose: The aim of this study is to report peripheral reperfusion of ischemic areas of the retina on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF intravitreal injections in patients treated for diabetic retinopathy. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 16 eyes of 15 patients with diabetic retinopathy, who received anti-VEGF intravitreal injections and underwent pre- and postinjection UWFA. The main outcome measured was the presence of reperfusion in postinjection UWFA images in areas of the retina that demonstrated nonperfusion in preinjection images. Images were analyzed for reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively by two graders. Results: Twelve of 16 eyes (75% or 11 of 15 patients (73.3% demonstrated reperfusion following anti-VEGF injection. On UWFA, reperfusion was detected both within the field of 7-standard field (7SF fluorescein angiography and in the periphery outside the 7SF. Four of 16 eyes or 4 of 15 patients did not demonstrate reperfusion, one of which had extensive scarring from prior panretinal photocoagulation. Conclusion: In patients with diabetic retinopathy, treatment with anti-VEGF agents can be associated with reperfusion of areas of nonperfusion, as demonstrated by UWFA. Keywords: anti-VEGF, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, ischemia, perfusion, reperfusion

  18. Reperfusion therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the Veteran Administration Caribbean Healthcare System; search for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escabí-Mendoza, José

    2008-01-01

    Patients that present with acute STEMI have proven morbidity and mortality benefit from early reperfusion therapy. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines recommend either fibrinolytic therapy within 30 minutes or a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 90 minutes of patients arrival to the Emergency Department. Despite these recommendations, some patients do not receive reperfusion therapy and less than half receive it on time. Describe and analyze our reperfusion therapy performance in patients presenting with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) in the Veteran Administration Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS), and determine potential causes for reperfusion therapy delays and develop strategies and a tailored algorithm according to our clinical findings and available institutional resources. Retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the VACHS with a discharge diagnosis of STEMI, from 01/01/2007 until 04/10/2008. A total of 55 patients met inclusion criteria for STEMI diagnosis. Of these, only 30 patients had active indication for reperfusion therapy. Reperfusion therapy was given in 97% of the cases, 69% with PPCI and 31% with fibrinolytic therapy (tenecteplase). In general the selection of reperfusion therapy seemed adherent to ACC/AHA STEMI guidelines. The reperfusion time goal was superior with thrombolytic therapy compared to PPCI, with 43% and 15% respectively. PPCI performed off regular tour of duty was significantly delayed compared to regular day shift, with a mean time of 221 and 113 minutes respectively (p=0.027). Most of the patients presenting with STEMI to the VACHS undergo reperfusion therapy. PPCI was the most frequent selected reperfusion approach. The PPCI time goal was infrequently met. The most significant cause for PPCI delay was related to performance off regular tour of duty. These finding support the implementation of a tailored STEMI reperfusion algorithm

  19. Effects of intracoronary melatonin on ischemia-reperfusion injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sarah V; Halladin, Natalie L; Jensen, Svend E

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary occlusion is effectively treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is at the moment an unavoidable consequence of the procedure. Oxidative stress is central in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Melatonin......, an endogenous hormone, acts through antioxidant mechanisms and could potentially minimize the myocardial injury. The aim of the experimental study was to examine the cardioprotective effects of melatonin in a porcine closed-chest reperfused infarction model. A total of 20 landrace pigs were randomized...... to a dosage of 200 mg (0.4 mg/mL) melatonin or placebo (saline). The intervention was administered intracoronary and intravenous. Infarct size, area at risk and microvascular obstruction were determined ex vivo by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial salvage index was calculated. The plasma...

  20. Isoflurane produces sustained cardiac protection after ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Patel, Hemal H; Lai, N Chin; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Head, Brian P; Roth, David M

    2006-03-01

    Isoflurane reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury within hours to days of reperfusion. Whether isoflurane produces sustained cardiac protection has never been examined. The authors studied isoflurane-induced cardiac protection in the intact mouse after 2 h and 2 weeks of reperfusion and determined the dependence of this protection on adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels and the relevance of this protection to myocardial function and apoptosis. Mice were randomly assigned to receive oxygen or isoflurane for 30 min with 15 min of washout. Some mice received mitochondrial (5-hydroxydecanoic acid) or sarcolemmal (HMR-1098) adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel blockers with or without isoflurane. Mice were then subjected to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h or 2 weeks of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined at 2 h and 2 weeks of reperfusion. Cardiac function and apoptosis were determined 2 weeks after reperfusion. Isoflurane did not change hemodynamics. Isoflurane reduced infarct size after reperfusion when compared with the control groups (27.7 +/- 6.3 vs. 41.7 +/- 6.4% at 2 h and 19.6 +/- 5.9 vs. 28.8 +/- 9.0% at 2 weeks). Previous administration of 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not HMR-1098, abolished isoflurane-induced cardiac protection. At 2 weeks, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was decreased significantly and end-systolic pressure and maximum and minimum dP/dt were improved by isoflurane. Isoflurane-treated mice subjected to ischemia and 2 weeks of reperfusion showed less expression of proapoptotic genes, significantly decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and significantly decreased deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling-positive nuclei compared with the control group. Cardiac protection induced by isoflurane against necrotic and apoptotic cell death is associated with an acute memory period that is sustained and functionally relevant 2 weeks after

  1. Global brain ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B C; Grossman, L I; O'Neil, B J; DeGracia, D J; Neumar, R W; Rafols, J A; Krause, G S

    1996-05-01

    Brain damage accompanying cardiac arrest and resuscitation is frequent and devastating. Neurons in the hippocampus CA1 and CA4 zones and cortical layers III and V are selectively vulnerable to death after injury by ischemia and reperfusion. Ultrastructural evidence indicates that most of the structural damage is associated with reperfusion, during which the vulnerable neurons develop disaggregation of polyribosomes, peroxidative damage to unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane, and prominent alterations in the structure of the Golgi apparatus that is responsible for membrane assembly. Reperfusion is also associated with vulnerable neurons with prominent production of messenger RNAs for stress proteins and for the proteins of the activator protein-1 complex, but these vulnerable neurons fail to efficiently translate these messages into the proteins. The inhibition of protein synthesis during reperfusion involves alteration of translation initiation factors, specifically serine phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (elF-2 alpha). Growth factors--in particular, insulin--have the potential to reverse phosphorylation of elF-2 alpha, promote effective translation of the mRNA transcripts generated in response to ischemia and reperfusion, enhance neuronal defenses against radicals, and stimulate lipid synthesis and membrane repair. There is now substantial evidence that the insulin-class growth factors have neuron-sparing effects against damage by radicals and ischemia and reperfusion. This new knowledge may provide a fundamental basis for a rational approach to "cerebral resuscitation" that will allow substantial amelioration of the often dismal neurologic outcome now associated with resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

  2. Retinal reperfusion in diabetic retinopathy following treatment with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ariana M; Rusu, Irene; Orlin, Anton; Gupta, Mrinali P; Coombs, Peter; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report peripheral reperfusion of ischemic areas of the retina on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections in patients treated for diabetic retinopathy. This study is a retrospective review of 16 eyes of 15 patients with diabetic retinopathy, who received anti-VEGF intravitreal injections and underwent pre- and postinjection UWFA. The main outcome measured was the presence of reperfusion in postinjection UWFA images in areas of the retina that demonstrated nonperfusion in preinjection images. Images were analyzed for reperfusion qualitatively and quantitatively by two graders. Twelve of 16 eyes (75%) or 11 of 15 patients (73.3%) demonstrated reperfusion following anti-VEGF injection. On UWFA, reperfusion was detected both within the field of 7-standard field (7SF) fluorescein angiography and in the periphery outside the 7SF. Four of 16 eyes or 4 of 15 patients did not demonstrate reperfusion, one of which had extensive scarring from prior panretinal photocoagulation. In patients with diabetic retinopathy, treatment with anti-VEGF agents can be associated with reperfusion of areas of nonperfusion, as demonstrated by UWFA.

  3. Platelets Orchestrate Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Platelet Depletion Two days before I/R injury, mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of a titred affinity purified endotoxin-free rabbit...Egan R, Chen J, le Lucca JJ, Juang YT, Tsokos GC. IL-17 producing CD4 T cells mediate accelerated ischemia/reperfusion- induced injury in...activation in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 26: 768–771, 2007. 77. Wang Y, Li Y, le Lucca SL, Simovic M, Tsokos GC, le Lucca JJ. Decay accelerating

  4. Melatonin attenuates lung injury in a hind limb ischemia–reperfusion rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Takhtfooladi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the protective antioxidant effect of melatonin on lung injury as a remote organ after skeletal muscle ischemia–reperfusion in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three experimental groups: operated with no ischemia (Sham group, ischemia–reperfusion group and ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group. Hind limb ischemia was induced by clamping the femoral artery. After 2 h ischemia, the clamp was removed and the animal underwent 24 h reperfusion. Rats in the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group received melatonin (10 mg/kg i.v., immediately before the clamp was removed. At the end of the trial, animals were euthanized and the lungs were removed for water content determination, histopathological and biochemical studies. Results: In the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group, tissues showed less intense histological abnormalities such as neutrophilic infiltration, intra-alveolar hemorrhage and edema compared with the ischemia–reperfusion group. Histopathologically, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the two groups. The lung water content in the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group was significantly lower than the ischemia–reperfusion group (P < 0.05. Lung tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO level were significantly (P < 0.05 increased by ischemia–reperfusion. The increase in these parameters was reduced by melatonin.Comparing the ischemia–reperfusion + melatonin group with the sham group, no significant increase in all analyzed aspects of the research was observed. Conclusions: These findings suggest that melatonin has preventive effects in lung tissue injury after transient femoral artery occlusion. Keywords: Melatonin, Ischemia–reperfusion, Lung remote injury, Histopathology, Myeloperoxidase, Nitric oxide

  5. Protective Effects of Flavonoid Pomiferin on Heart Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nečas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present 15-day study was to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of flavonoid pomiferin isolated from the infructences of Maclura pomifera, Moraceae, against ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rat hearts as a model of antioxidant-based composite therapy. Studies were performed with isolated, modifi ed Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and ischemia of heart was initiated by stopping the coronary flow for 30 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion (14 ml min-1. Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The treated group received pomiferin (5 mg/kg/day in 0.5% Avicel; the placebo group received only 0.5% Avicel; the intact group was left without any applications. Biochemical indicators of oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant activity in serum and myocardium has been evaluated. We also examined the effect of pomiferin on cardiac function (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular pressure, peak positive +dP/dt (rate of pressure development after ischemia and reperfusion. Our results demonstrate that pomiferin attenuates the myocardial dysfunction provoked by ischemiareperfusion. This was confirmed by the increase in both the antioxidant enzyme values and the total antioxidant activity. The cardio-protection provided by pomiferin treatment results from the suppression of oxidative stress and correlates with the improved ventricular function.

  6. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.

    1987-01-01

    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific [3H]ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart

  7. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.

    1987-02-01

    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific (3H)ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart.

  8. Intracoronary Poloxamer 188 Prevents Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Bartos, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poloxamer 188 (P188 is a nonionic triblock copolymer believed to prevent cellular injury after ischemia and reperfusion. This study compared intracoronary (IC infusion of P188 immediately after reperfusion with delayed infusion through a peripheral intravenous catheter in a porcine model of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. STEMI was induced in 55 pigs using 45 min of endovascular coronary artery occlusion. Pigs were then randomized to 4 groups: control, immediate IC P188, delayed peripheral P188, and polyethylene glycol infusion. Heart tissue was collected after 4 h of reperfusion. Assessment of mitochondrial function or infarct size was performed. Mitochondrial yield improved significantly with IC P188 treatment compared with control animals (0.25% vs. 0.13%, suggesting improved mitochondrial morphology and survival. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention were also significantly improved with immediate IC P188 compared with control animals (complex I respiratory control index: 7.4 vs. 3.7; calcium retention: 1,152 nmol vs. 386 nmol. This benefit was only observed with activation of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, suggesting a specific effect from ischemia and reperfusion on this complex. Infarct size and serum troponin I were significantly reduced by immediate IC P188 infusion (infarct size: 13.9% vs. 41.1%; troponin I: 19.2 μg/l vs. 77.4 μg/l. Delayed P188 and polyethylene glycol infusion did not provide a significant benefit. These results demonstrate that intracoronary infusion of P188 immediately upon reperfusion significantly reduces cellular and mitochondrial injury after ischemia and reperfusion in this clinically relevant porcine model of STEMI. The timing and route of delivery were critical to achieve the benefit.

  9. Multivisceral transplantation in pigs: a model for research and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ibrahim David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a model for research and training inmultivisceral transplantation in pigs. Methods: Eight LargeWhite pigs (four donors and four recipients were operated. Themultivisceral transplant with stomach, duodenum, pancreas,liver and intestine was performed similarly to transplantation inhumans with a few differences, described below. Anastomoseswere performed as follows: end-to-end from the supra-hepaticvena cava of the graft to the recipient juxta diaphragmatic venacava; end-to-end from the infra-hepatic vena cava of the graftto the inferior (suprarenal vena cava of the recipient; and endto-side patch of the aorta of the graft to the infrarenal aortaof the recipient plus digestive reconstruction. Results: Theperformance of the multivisceral transplantion was possible inall four animals. Reperfusions of the multivisceral graft led to asevere ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, despite flushing of thegraft. The animals presented with hypotension and the need forhigh doses of vasoactive drugs, and all of them were sacrificedafter discontinuing these drugs. Conclusion: Some alternativesto minimize the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, such as the useof another vasoactive drug, use of a third pig merely for bloodtransfusion, presence of an anesthesia team in the operatingroom, and reduction of the graft, will be the next steps to enableexperimental studies.

  10. Testing Danegaptide Effects on Kidney Function after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a New Porcine Two Week Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Amdisen

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up.Unilateral renal I/R-I was induced in pigs by clamping the left renal artery over a two hour period. The model allowed examination of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the measurement of single kidney GFR two weeks after injury. Eleven animals were randomized to Danegaptide-infusion while nine animals received placebo. Kidney histology and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL excretion were included as markers of AKI.Unilateral kidney I/R-I resulted in an immediate ~50% GFR reduction, associated with a four-fold increase in urinary NGAL-excretion. Fourteen days after I/R-I, the total GFR was ~75% of baseline with a significantly lower GFR in the injured left kidney compared to the right kidney. No differences in GFR were observed between the treated and non-treated animals immediately after I/R-I or at Day 14. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the urinary excretion of NGAL, renal blood flow or other markers of renal function.As expected this porcine renal I/R-I model was associated with reduced GFR two weeks after injury. Danegaptide did not improve renal function after I/R-I.

  11. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  12. Myocardial thallium-201 kinetics during coronary occlusion and reperfusion: influence of method of reflow and timing of thallium-201 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Flanagan, T.L.; Gascho, J.A.; Beller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 (201Tl) uptake and redistribution kinetics were examined in an open-chest canine preparation of occlusion and reperfusion. Seven dogs (group I) underwent 3 hr of sustained occlusion and received 1.5 mCi of 201Tl after 40 min of occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Group II (n = 18) underwent 60 min of LAD occlusion followed by sudden and total release of the ligature. Group IIa (n = 8) received intravenous 201Tl during occlusion of the LAD, whereas group IIb (n = 10) received intravenous 201Tl at the time of peak reflow. Group III dogs (n = 26) also underwent 60 min of LAD occlusion that was followed by gradual reflow through a residual critical stenosis. Animals in this group also received 201Tl either before (IIIa; n = 16) or after reflow was established (IIIb; n = 10). In group I, the relative 201Tl gradient (nonischemic minus ischemic activity) decreased from 88 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM) to 59 +/- 6% during 3 hr of coronary occlusion (p = .034). After rapid and total reperfusion (group IIa), this gradient decreased from 71 +/- 6% during occlusion to 26 +/- 5% after reflow (p less than .001). After slow reperfusion through a residual stenosis (group IIIa), the gradient decreased from 81 +/- 5% to 31 +/- 5% (p less than .001) (p = .56 compared with group IIa). In rapidly reperfused dogs receiving intravenous thallium during peak reflow (IIb), initial 201Tl activity in the ischemic zone was 155 +/- 20% of initial normal activity and fell to 93 +/- 13% of normal after 2 hr of reperfusion. In dogs reperfused slowly through a critical stenosis (IIIb), which received 201Tl during reflow, 201Tl activity soon after reflow was 94 +/- 4% of initial normal and decreased to 80 +/- 6% at 2 hr of reperfusion (p = .10). There was histochemical evidence of necrosis in the biopsy region in 80% of the 20 dogs subjected to triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining

  13. Evaluation of Pulmonary Reperfusion Injury in Rats Undergoing Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion and Protective Effect of Postconditioning on this Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some publications have demonstrated the presence of lung reperfusion injury in mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R, but under to diverse methods. Postconditioning has been recognized as effective in preventing reperfusion injury in various organs and tissues. However, its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the prevention of lung reperfusion injury after mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of pulmonary reperfusion injury and the protective effect of ischemic postconditioning on lung parenchyma in rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: group A (10 rats, which was held mesenteric ischemia (30 minutes and reperfusion (60 minutes; group B (10 rats, ischemia and reperfusion, interspersed by postconditioning with two alternating cycles of reperfusion and reocclusion, for two minutes each; and group C (10 rats, ischemia and reperfusion interleaved by postconditioning with four alternating cycles of reperfusion and reocclusion of 30 seconds each. Finally, it was resected the upper lung lobe for histological analysis. RESULTS: There were mild lung lesions (grade 1 in all samples. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and 2 (P >0.05. CONCLUSION: The mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion in rats for thirty and sixty minutes, respectively, caused mild reperfusion injury in lung. Postconditioning was not able to minimize the remote reperfusion injury and there was no difference comparing two cycles of two minutes with four cycles of 30 seconds.

  14. Treatment with the C5a receptor antagonist ADC-1004 reduces myocardial infarction in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stimulated by the activated complement factor C5a, have been implicated in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ADC-1004 is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist that has been shown to inhibit complement related neutrophil activation. ADC-1004 shields the neutrophils from C5a activation before they enter the reperfused area, which could be a mechanistic advantage compared to previous C5a directed reperfusion therapies. We investigated if treatment with ADC-1004, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce infarct size and microvascular obstruction in a large animal myocardial infarct model. Methods In anesthetized pigs (42-53 kg, a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Twenty minutes after balloon inflation the pigs were randomized to an intravenous bolus administration of ADC-1004 (175 mg, n = 8 or saline (9 mg/ml, n = 8. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. Infarct size and microvascular obstruction were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. The observers were blinded to the treatment at randomization and analysis. Results ADC-1004 treatment reduced infarct size by 21% (ADC-1004: 58.3 ± 3.4 vs control: 74.1 ± 2.9%AAR, p = 0.007. Microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups (ADC-1004: 2.2 ± 1.2 vs control: 5.3 ± 2.5%AAR, p = 0.23. The mean plasma concentration of ADC-1004 was 83 ± 8 nM at sacrifice. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood-gas data. Conclusions ADC-1004 treatment reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and represents a novel treatment strategy of myocardial infarct with potential clinical applicability.

  15. Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group, sham-operation (Sham, or sham plus caffeine (n=12 in each group. To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (P<0.001 and P=0.008, resp.. Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all P<0.05. These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs.

  16. Activated protein C attenuates acute ischaemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, J P

    2012-02-03

    Activated protein C (APC) is an endogenous anti-coagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of activated protein C in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI). IRI was induced in rats by applying rubber bands above the levels of the greater trochanters bilaterally for a period of 2h followed by 12h reperfusion. Treatment groups received either equal volumes of normal saline or activated protein C prior to tourniquet release. Following 12h reperfusion, muscle function was assessed electrophysiologically by electrical field stimulation. The animals were then sacrificed and skeletal muscle harvested for evaluation. Activated protein C significantly attenuated skeletal muscle reperfusion injury as shown by reduced myeloperoxidase content, wet to dry ratio and electrical properties of skeletal muscle. Further in vitro work was carried out on neutrophils isolated from healthy volunteers to determine the direct effect of APC on neutrophil function. The effects of APC on TNF-alpha stimulated neutrophils were examined by measuring CD18 expression as well as reactive oxygen species generation. The in vitro work demonstrated a reduction in CD18 expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We conclude that activated protein C may have a protective role in the setting of skeletal muscle ischaemia reperfusion injury and that this is in part mediated by a direct inhibitory effect on neutrophil activation.

  17. [The influence of estradiol on histomorphology of skin flaps with ischemia reperfusion injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianlong, Wu; Ruixing, Hou; Guangliang, Zhou; Jihui, Ju

    2015-09-01

    To study the influence of estradiol on histomorphology of skin flaps with ischemia reperfusion injury. 48 adult male Wistar rats aged 12-14 weeks old, were randomly divided into control group (group I), ischemia-reperfusion group (group II), saline group (group III), estradiol group (group IV). Superficial epigastric artery axial flap, 3 cm x 6 cm in size, was made in the left lower quadrant abdominal of each rat. Flap model with ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by using the nondestructive micro vascular clamp to clamp the superficial epigastric artery. The general condition of the flap was observed after operation. At 7 days after operation, the survival rate of the flap was detected, the flaps were harvested to receive histology and ultrastructural observation. The neutrophils level of the superficial epigastric vein were tested. 7 days after operation, the survival rate of the flap in group IV was significantly higher than that in group II, III (P organization structure in flap.

  18. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detached intestinal epithelial cells in hypothermia group showed ... of apoptosis than those in normothermia group at 4 h (17.30 ± 2.56 vs. ... intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, which could be attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia.

  19. Radiographic manifestations of reperfusion edema after transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Moon, Sung Wook; Kim, Hyung Joong; Ahn, Chul Min; Paik, Hyo Chae; Lee, Doo Yun; Kim, Sang Jin

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the sequential radiologic manifestations of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation. The study group comprised five consecutive lung transplant recipients (M:F=3:2;mean age; 47.5 years) who between July 1996 and April 2002 underwent lung transplantation procedures (four, unilateral; one, bilateral) at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the serial postoperative radiographs obtained and characterized the lung infiltrates. Lung infiltrates compatible with reperfusion edema were present in all patients (5/5). Reperfusion edema appeared on day 1 in four, and by day 2 in the other. In all transplanted lungs, infiltrates were found in the perihilar and basilar regions, and were scored as maximal on day 1 in one, day 3 in two, day 4 in one and day 5 in the other. The recognition of sequential radiological manifestations helps identify recognition of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation

  20. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  1. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  2. Myocardial thallium-201 kinetics and regional flow alterations with 3 hours of coronary occlusion and either rapid reperfusion through a totally patent vessel or slow reperfusion through a critical stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Flanagan, T.L.; Beller, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 kinetics and regional blood flow alterations were examined in a canine model using 3 hours of coronary occlusion and different methods of reperfusion. Group I comprised 10 dogs undergoing a 3 hour left anterior descending artery occlusion and no reperfusion. Group II comprised seven dogs undergoing 3 hours of left anterior descending artery occlusion and rapid reperfusion through a totally patent vessel. Group III comprised 10 dogs undergoing 3 hours of left anterior descending artery occlusion and slow reperfusion through a residual stenosis. All dogs received 1.5 mCi of thallium-201 after 40 minutes of coronary occlusion. During occlusion and 2 hours of reperfusion, serial hemodynamic, blood flow and myocardial thallium-201 activity measurements were made. The relative thallium-201 gradient (normal zone minus ischemic zone activity when initial normal activity is expressed as 100%) during left anterior descending coronary occlusion was similar in all groups. Group I, 87 +/- 3%; Group II, 78 +/- 6%; Group III, 83 +/- 6% (p = NS). After 2 hours of either method of reperfusion, the final relative gradient had decreased to a similar level (Group II, 51 +/- 9%; Group III, 42 +/- 6%). These values were not significantly different from the final relative thallium-201 gradient seen in dogs undergoing a sustained 3 hour occlusion (Group I, 55 +/- 5%). After 2 hours of reperfusion, both methods of reflow were associated with similar degrees of ''no reflow.'' Transmural flows in the central ischemic zone were 89 +/- 10% of normal in Group II and 71 +/- 6% of normal in Group III after reperfusion, with both flows substantially higher than the relative thallium-201 activities in these dogs

  3. Impact of time to therapy and reperfusion modality on the efficacy of adenosine in acute myocardial infarction: the AMISTAD-2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Forman, Mervyn B; Gibbons, Raymond J; Ross, Allan M; Alexander, R Wayne; Stone, Gregg W

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether the efficacy of adenosine vs. placebo was dependent on the timing of reperfusion therapy in the second Acute Myocardial Infarction Study of Adenosine (AMISTAD-II). Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation anterior AMI were randomized to receive placebo vs. adenosine (50 or 70 microg/kg/min) for 3 h starting within 15 min of reperfusion therapy. In the present post hoc hypothesis generating study, the results were stratified according to the timing of reperfusion, i.e. > or = or < the median 3.17 h, and by reperfusion modality. In patients receiving reperfusion < 3.17 h, adenosine compared with placebo significantly reduced 1-month mortality (5.2 vs. 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.014), 6-month mortality (7.3 vs. 11.2%, P = 0.033), and the occurrence of the primary 6-month composite clinical endpoint of death, in-hospital CHF, or rehospitalization for CHF at 6 months (12.0 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.022). Patients reperfused beyond 3 h did not benefit from adenosine. In this post hoc analysis, 3 h adenosine infusion administered as an adjunct to reperfusion therapy within the first 3.17 h onset of evolving anterior ST-segment elevation AMI enhanced early and late survival, and reduced the composite clinical endpoint of death or CHF at 6 months.

  4. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  5. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  6. Effect of pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürekli, Ismail; Gökalp, Orhan; Kiray, Müge; Gökalp, Gamze; Ergüneş, Kazım; Salman, Ebru; Yürekli, Banu Sarer; Satoğlu, Ismail Safa; Beşir, Yüksel; Cakır, Habib; Gürbüz, Ali

    2013-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (Pn), which is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and pheniramine maleate (Ph), which is an antihistaminic with some anti-inflammatory effects, on reperfusion injury in brain developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was the control group, Group 2 was the sham group (I/R), Rats in Group 3 were subjected to I/R and given Ph, and rats in Group 4 were subjected to I/R and given Pn. A tourniquet was applied at the level of left groin region of subjects in the I/R group after induction of anesthesia. One h of ischemia was performed with no drug administration. In the Ph group, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg Ph was administered intraperitoneally before ischemia and the remaining half before reperfusion. In the Pn group, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg Pn intraperitoneally at the 30th min of ischemia. Brains of all subjects were removed after 24 h for examination. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the prefrontal cortex were significantly lower in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in the Ph group than in the I/R group (p<0.05). Histological examination demonstrated that Ph had protective effects against I/R injury developing in the brain tissue. Ph has a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury created experimentally in rat brains.

  7. Independent cellular effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion: experimental molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó-García, E; Humanes-Sánchez, B; Mojena-Sánchez, M; Rodrígez, J C J; Hernández-Fernández, C; Tejedor-Jorge, A; Fernández, A L

    2013-04-01

    There is less information available on cell cultures on the exclusive effects of either duration of cold ischemia (CI) or rewarming-reperfusion in the kidney subjected to initial warm ischemia (WI). Therefore, the goals of our work were: (1) to evaluate the consequences on tubular cellular viability of different durations of CI on a kidney after an initial period of WI, and (2) to analyze the additional effect on tubular cell viability of rewarming of the same kidney. Sixteen mini-pig were used. All the animals were performed a right nephrectomy after 45-minute occlusion of the vascular pedicle. The kidneys were then divided into 2 groups (phase 1): cold storage in university of wisconsin (UW) solution for 3 hours (group A, n = 8) at 4°C, or cold storage in UW for 12 hours (group B, n = 8) at 4°C. Four organs of group A and four organs of group B were autotrasplanted (AT) and reperfused for 1 hour (phase 2). Nephrectomy was finally done. Biopsies were taken from all groups to perform cultures of proximal tubule epithelium cells. The biopsies were subjected to studies of cellular morphological viability (contrast phase microscopy [CPM]) and quantitative (confluence cell [CC]) parameters. Phase of pure CI effects (phase 1): Both CC rate and CPM parameters were significantly lower in group B compared with group A, where cell activity reached almost normal results. Phase of CI + AT (phase 2): At produced additional harmful effects in cell cultures compared with those obtained in phase 1, more evident in group B cells. The presence of cold storage followed by rewarming-reperfusion induces independent and cumulative detrimental effects in viability of renal proximal tubule cells. CI periods ≤ 3 hours may ameliorate the injuries secondary to reperfusion in comparison with longer CI periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isoprostanes--markers of ischaemia reperfusion injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sakamoto, H

    2012-02-03

    Ischaemia reperfusion injury is a common and important phenomenon that occurs predictably in patients undergoing such procedures as cardiopulmonary bypass, thrombolysis, surgery under tourniquet, organ transplantation or embolectomy. Oxidative stress and the resulting lipid peroxidation play a major role in reperfusion injury. Membrane and cellular dysfunction result and, subsequently, organ injury or failure may ensue. Traditional methods of quantifying ischaemia reperfusion injury, including measurement of malondialdehyde, lack specificity and sensitivity. It was reported in 1990 that isoprostanes, a series of prostaglandin-like compounds, are produced by the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Measurement of the isoprostane concentration in urine or plasma provides the most reliable, non-invasive method currently available to assess oxidative stress in vivo. Serial measurement of isoprostanes in biological fluids has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ischaemia reperfusion injury itself and its role in certain diseases. Furthermore, measurement of the isoprostane concentration provides a means to assess the effects of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. In the future, the development of rapid, simple assays for isoprostanes offers the potential to assess prognosis during and after ischaemia reperfusion events.

  9. Insulin Preconditioning Elevates p-Akt and Cardiac Contractility after Reperfusion in the Isolated Ischemic Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin induces cardioprotection partly via an antiapoptotic effect. However, the optimal timing of insulin administration for the best quality cardioprotection remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that insulin administered prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration after ischemia. Isolated rat hearts were prepared using Langendorff method and divided into three groups. The Pre-Ins group (Pre-Ins received 0.5 U/L insulin prior to 15 min no-flow ischemia for 20 min followed by 20 min of reperfusion. The Post-Ins group (Post-Ins received 0.5 U/L insulin during the reperfusion period only. The control group (Control was perfused with KH buffer throughout. The maximum of left ventricular derivative of pressure development (dP/dt(max was recorded continuously. Measurements of TNF-α and p-Akt in each time point were assayed by ELISA. After reperfusion, dP/dt(max in Pre-Ins was elevated, compared with Post-Ins at 10 minutes after reperfusion and Control at all-time points. TNF-α levels at 5 minutes after reperfusion in the Pre-Ins were lower than the others. After 5 minutes of reperfusion, p-Akt was elevated in Pre-Ins compared with the other groups. Insulin administration prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration only at reperfusion. TNF-α suppression is possibly mediated via p-Akt leading to a reduction in contractile myocardial dysfunction.

  10. Oxidative stress in ischemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk; Clemmensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates......, the different mechanisms through which myocardial protection can be addressed, like ischemic postconditioning in myocardial infarction or adjunctive measures like targeted temperature management as well as new theories, including the role of iron in I/R injury, will be discussed....

  11. Effects of various timings and concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide in lung ischemia-reperfusion. The Paris-Sud University Lung Transplantation Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, S; Bacha, E A; Mazmanian, G M; Détruit, H; Chapelier, A; Dartevelle, P; Hervé, P

    1997-08-01

    Experimental studies reveal that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can prevent, worsen, or have no effect on lung injury in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). We tested the hypothesis that these disparate effects could be related to differences in the timing of administration and/or concentration of inhaled NO during I-R. Isolated rat lungs were subjected to 1-h periods of ischemia followed by 1-h periods of blood reperfusion. We investigated the effects of NO (30 ppm) given during ischemia, NO (30 or 80 ppm) begun immediately at reperfusion, or NO (30 ppm) given 15 min after the beginning of reperfusion, on total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), the coefficient of filtration (Kfc), the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue, and lung myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). A control group did not receive NO. NO given during ischemia had no effect on Kfc or MPO, but decreased PVR. NO (30 ppm) during reperfusion (early or delayed) decreased PVR, W/D, Kfc and MPO. NO at 80 ppm decreased PVR and MPO but not W/D or Kfc. In conclusion, NO at 30 ppm, given immediately or in a delayed fashion during reperfusion, attenuates I-R-induced lung injury. NO at 30 ppm given during ischemia or at 80 ppm during reperfusion is not protective.

  12. The effects of epidural bupivacaine on ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikus, Z; Bedirli, N; Yilmaz, G; Bagriacik, U; Bozkirli, F

    2016-01-01

    Several animal studies showed beneficial effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) in hippocampal, mesenteric and myocardial IR injury (2-4). In this study, we investigated the effects of epidural bupivacaine on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 6 animals. The rats in Group C had sham laparotomy. The rats in the Group S were subjected to liver IR through laparotomy and 20 mcg/kg/h 0.9% NaCl was administered to these rats via an epidural catheter. The rats in the Group B were subjected to liver IR and were given 20 mcg/kg/h bupivacaine via an epidural catheter. Liver tissue was harvested for MDA analysis, apoptosis and histopathological examination after 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 360 minutes of reperfusion. Blood samples were also collected for TNF-α, IL-1β, AST and ALT analysis. The AST and ALT levels were higher in ischemia and reperfusion group, which received only normal saline via the thoracic epidural catheter, compared to the sham group. In the ischemia reperfusion group, which received bupivacaine via the epidural catheter, IL-1 levels were significantly higher than in the other groups. TNF-α levels were higher in the Groups S and B compared to the sham group. Bupivacaine administration induced apoptosis in all animals. These results showed that thoracic epidural bupivacaine was not a suitable agent for preventing inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation in experimental hepatic IR injury in rats. Moreover, epidural bupivacaine triggered apoptosis in hepatocytes. Further research is needed as there are no studies in literature investigate the effects of epidural bupivacaine on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 34).

  13. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning reduces renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Xu, Zhibin; Chen, Haiwen; Gan, Weimin; Chong, Tie

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether low energy shock wave preconditioning could reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion. The right kidneys of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were removed to establish an isolated kidney model. The rats were then divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 was the sham treatment group; Group 2, received only low-energy (12 kv, 1 Hz, 200 times) shock wave preconditioning; Group 3 received the same low-energy shock wave preconditioning as Group 2, and then the left renal artery was occluded for 45 minutes; and Group 4 had the left renal artery occluded for 45 minutes. At 24 hours and one-week time points after reperfusion, serum inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), creatinine (Cr), and cystatin C (Cys C) levels were measured, malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue was detected, and changes in nephric morphology were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, serum iNOS, NGAL, Cr, Cys C, and MDA levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4; light and electron microscopy showed that the renal tissue injury in Group 3 was significantly lighter than that in Group 4. One week after reperfusion, serum NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys C levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning can reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion in an isolated kidney rat model.

  14. Hypercholesterolemic myocardium is vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury and refractory to sevoflurane-induced protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetic postconditioning confers myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury through activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK pathway. As RISK has been shown to be impaired in hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, we investigate whether anesthetic-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, normocholesteolemic or hypercholesterolemic rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Animals received 2.4% sevoflurane for 5 min or 3 cycles of 10-s ischemia/10-s reperfusion. The hemodynamic parameters, including left ventricular developed pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and heart rate, were continuously monitored. The infarct size, apoptosis, p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, p-GSK3β were determined. We found that both sevoflurane and ischemic postconditioning significantly improved heart pump function, reduced infarct size and increased the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and their downstream target of GSK3β in the healthy rats. In the hypercholesterolemic rats, neither sevoflurane nor ischemic postconditioning improved left ventricular hemodynamics, reduced infarct size and increased the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2 and GSK3β. In contrast, GSK inhibitor SB216763 conferred cardioprotection against IR injury in healthy and hypercholesterolemic hearts. In conclusions, hyperchoesterolemia abrogated sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection against IR injury by alteration of upstream signaling of GSK3β and acute GSK inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to protect hypercholesterolemic hearts against IR injury.

  15. Cyclosporine A administered during reperfusion fails to restore cardioprotection in prediabetic Zucker obese rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R; Heinen, A; Hollmann, M W; Schlack, W; Preckel, B; Weber, N C

    2010-12-01

    Hyperglycaemia blocks sevoflurane-induced postconditioning, and cardioprotection in hyperglycaemic myocardium can be restored by inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We investigated whether sevoflurane-induced postconditioning is also blocked in the prediabetic heart and if so, whether cardioprotection could be restored by inhibiting mPTP. Zucker lean (ZL) and Zucker obese (ZO) rats were assigned to one of seven groups. Animals underwent 25 min of ischaemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Control (ZL-/ZO Con) animals were not further treated. postconditioning groups (ZL-/ZO Sevo-post) received sevoflurane for 5 min starting 1min prior to the onset of reperfusion. The mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) was administered intravenously in a concentration of 5 (ZO CsA and ZO CsA+Sevo-post) or 10 mg/kg (ZO CsA10+Sevo-post) 5 min before the onset of reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, infarct sizes were measured by TTC staining. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma levels of insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Sevoflurane postconditioning reduced infarct size in ZL rats to 35±12% (pfailed to restore cardioprotection in the prediabetic but normoglycaemic heart of Zucker obese rats in vivo. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews

  17. Monitoring of intense neuromuscular blockade in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias V; Donatsky, Anders M; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-01-01

    were performed with acceleromyography [train-of-four (TOF) Watch SX]. In all pigs, the response to TOF nerve stimulation was stable and intense NMB (PTC 0-1) was established with rocuronium 3 mg/kg. For reversal, the pigs received sugammadex 20-35 mg/kg and returned to TOF-ratio above 0.90 within 2...

  18. Renal ischemia reperfusion causes brain hippocampus oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The acute kidney injury (AKI) may do damage to remote organs. Objective of the study is to investigate effect of seaweed extract (SE) on brain oxidative damage in kidney ischemia/reperfusion rats. Material and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into five groups. SE pre-fed to rats. Results: Kidney I/R ...

  19. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  20. Protective effects of Tribulus terrestris L extract against acute kidney injury induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Houshang; Firouzifar, Mohammad Reza; Shafaat, Omid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Hosseini, Nasser

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of aerial parts of the Tribulus terrestris L extract on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours in rats. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats in the AKI and 10 in the Tribulus terrestris groups received the extract solvent and extract of the plant (11 mg/kg), respectively, for 13 days (oral administration). On day 14, ischemia for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours were induced on the rats. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period (24 hours), urine samples were collected in metabolic cages. At the end of this period, blood samples were also taken to determine plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations. The kidney tissues were collected for measuring the level of oxidative stress and histological studies. They were compared with the sham operation group and a control group with normal diet and no operation. In the Tribulus terrestris group, the increase in plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations was significantly less following reperfusion, and their values reached the same level as that in the sham group. Creatinine clearance and urine osmolarity in the Tribulus terrestris group was higher in comparison with the AKI group, whereas sodium absolute excretion, fractional excretion of potassium, oxidative stress, and cellular damages were less. Oral administration of Tribulus terrestris extract for 2 weeks can decrease kidney functional disturbance, oxidative stress, and cellular damages following reperfusion injury in rats.

  1. Passive targeting of lipid-based nanoparticles to mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, T.; Paulis, L.E.M.; Coolen, B.F.; Nicolay, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reperfusion therapy is commonly applied after a myocardial infarction. Reperfusion, however, causes secondary damage. An emerging approach for treatment of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury involves the delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles to the myocardium to promote cell survival and

  2. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  3. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  4. The effect of adhesion molecule blockade on pulmonary reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adrian J; Parkes, Karen; Rooney, Stephen J; Bonser, Robert S

    2002-04-01

    Selectins are the molecules involved in the initial adhesion of the activated neutrophil on pulmonary endothelium. We investigated the efficacy of selectin blockade in a selective (monoclonal antibody RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) manner in pulmonary reperfusion injury. Groups of six rat lungs were flushed with University of Wisconsin solution then stored at 4 degrees C for 4 hours. They then underwent sanguinous reperfusion for 30 minutes during which functional measures (gas exchange, pulmonary artery pressure, and airway pressure) of lung performance were made. After reperfusion we estimated their capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc units g/cm water/minute/g wet lung tissue) using a gravimetric technique. Four groups were studied: group I had no reperfusion, group II had 30 minutes of reperfusion, group III had infusion of 20 mg/kg Fucoidin before reperfusion, and group IV had infusion of 20 microg/mL RMP-1 before reperfusion. Reperfusion injury was found between groups I and II by an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.048 +/- 0.316 to 3.063 +/- 0.466, p Kfc than group II (0.967 +/- 0.134 and 1.205 +/- 0.164, respectively, p < 0.01). There was no significant functional difference between groups II, III, and IV. Reperfusion-induced hyperpermeability was ameliorated by selective (RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) selectin blockade.

  5. Effect of olive leaf alcoholic extract on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadreza nasirzade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is present at various degrees in kidney transplants. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR can induce acute kidney injury.  Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: control (intact animals, group-1(I/R 60min+olive leaf extract, group-2 (I/R 60min, group-3(I/R 120min+olive leaf extractand group-4(I/R 120min.The animals  received 100 mg/kg olive leaf extract in0.5 ml drinking water using gavage for 28 days. Other animals received 0.5 ml normal saline by gavages. At the end of the treatment, the level of antioxidant enzymes including TAC, MDA, SOD and GPX were determined in renal tissue. Administration of olive leaf extract can significantly increase activity of TAC, GPX and SOD in group1and 3compared with group2and4. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups (p

  6. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  7. Effects of a Preconditioning Oral Nutritional Supplement on Pig Livers after Warm Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickkholgh, Arash; Li, Zhanqing; Yi, Xue; Mohr, Elvira; Liang, Rui; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Gross, Marie-Luise; Zorn, Markus; Benzing, Steffen; Schneider, Heinz; Büchler, Markus W.; Schemmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70 g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250 mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2 hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3 hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40 min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8 hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8 hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8 hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-α, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis. PMID:22791934

  8. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Yeom

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1, an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs. Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  9. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  10. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of calcium antagonist and free radical scavengers on ischemic and reperfused myocardium due to acute occlusion of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Sakata, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Shigeki

    1988-01-01

    The Langendorff perfused rat heart was used to investigate whether ischemic and reperfused injury could be protected by anti-free radical intervention alone or combined treatment with calcium antagonist. Hearts were subjected to 10 min. of aerobic perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution (K-H) and then randomized into three groups (GP): Control group received only K-H, FRS group K-H with superoxide dismutase (24 IU/ml) and catalase (22 IU/ml) and Combined group the same solution of FRS group with verapamil (10'-'7M) for 10 min; and three groups were subjected to 20 min. of global ischemia; and each group was reperfused by the prior perfusate for 20 min. LV developed pressure (DP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by an intraventricular baloon. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy allowed continuous monitoring of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and β-ATP content. Each group consisted of 5 experiments. PCr in Combined group was significantly higher than that of Control group with significantly higher values of DP and DPxHR compared to Combined group in the early phase of ischemia. By the middle phase of reperfusion, significant reduction in Pi was found only in Combined group with the reduction of HR. However, no significant difference of β-ATP was found between Control group and Combined group through ischemia and reperfusion. These results suggest that free radical scavengers alone could not protect ischemic and reperfused myocardium from injury, but that the reduction of oxygen consumption by verapamil might be predominantly effective in preventing myocardial damage partially from ischemia and reperfusion. (author)

  12. Sevoflurane mitigates shedding of hyaluronan from the coronary endothelium, also during ischemia/reperfusion: an ex vivo animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Chen,1,3 Daniel Chappell,2,3 Thorsten Annecke,2,3 Peter Conzen,2 Matthias Jacob,2,3 Ulrich Welsch,4 Bernhard Zwissler,2 Bernhard F Becker3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Clinic of Anesthesiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 4Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany Abstract: Glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA, a major constituent of the endothelial glycocalyx, helps to maintain vascular integrity. Preconditioning the heart with volatile anesthetic agents protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated a possible protective effect of sevoflurane on the glycocalyx, especially on HA. The effect of pre-ischemic treatment with sevoflurane (15 minutes at 2% vol/vol gas on shedding of HA was evaluated in 28 isolated, beating guinea pig hearts, subjected to warm ischemia (20 minutes at 37°C followed by reperfusion (40 minutes, half with and half without preconditioning by sevoflurane. HA concentration was measured in the coronary effluent. Over the last 20 minutes of reperfusion hydroxyethyl starch (1 g% was continuously infused and the epicardial transudate collected over the last 5 minutes for measuring the colloid extravasation. Additional hearts were fixed by perfusion after the end of reperfusion for immunohistology and electron microscopy. Sevoflurane did not significantly affect post-ischemic oxidative stress, but strongly inhibited shedding of HA during the whole period, surprisingly even prior to ischemia. Immunohistology demonstrated that heparan sulfates and SDC1 of the glycocalyx were also preserved by sevoflurane. Electron microscopy revealed shedding of glycocalyx caused by ischemia and a mostly intact glycocalyx in hearts exposed to sevoflurane. Coronary vascular permeability of the

  13. Sodium Hypochlorite-Modified Hemosorbents in the Treatment of Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Syndrome: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sergiyenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency of treatment for limb ischemia-reperfusion syndrome in an experiment, by using the modified hemosorbents that have oxidative properties.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on 94 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups: 1 intact animals (n=20; 2 animals treated with hemocarboperfusion on the standard sorbent CKH-1K (n=36; 3 animals received hemocarboperfusion on sodium hypochloride-modified sorbent CKH-1K (n=38. A model of acute ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was created by the method of V. D. Pasechnikov et al. Partial oxygen tension (pO2 was determined by pin polarography. The levels of vasoactive eicosanoids were measured by enzyme immunoassay.Results. In the animals with leg ischemia syndrome, there is a significant pO2 reduction in the muscles of the hip and shin, which does not completely recover after reperfusion. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion reduces pO2 as compared with the reperfusion period while the use of modified CKH-1K hemosorbent increased pO2 in the study hind limb muscles to the level observed in intact animals. The development of ischemia and reperfusion is accompanied by the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that have vasoconstrictive properties (thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 and the lower concentration of the vasodilator prostacyclin. Standard CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion results in a further increase in the concentrations of thromboxane B2 and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4, a decrease in the concentration of endothelin-1, and an elevation of the levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2. When sodium hypochlorite-modified CKN-1K sorbent hemocarboperfusion is employed, the concentrations of thromboxane B2, endothelin-1, and leukotrienes C4/D4/E4 decrease, and the level of prostacyclin increases.Conclusion. Hemocarboperfusion used in the treatment of leg ischemia-reperfusion syndrome leads to restoration of tissue oxygenation and

  14. Novel monohydroxamate drugs attenuate myocardial reperfusion-induced arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collis, C S; Rice-Evans, C; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    the first 5 min of reperfusion were quantified. Drugs (all at 150 microM) were introduced during the last 2 min of ischaemia and remained throughout reperfusion. Although the monohydroxamate- and desferrioxamine-treated hearts showed a reduction in the incidence of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation...

  15. Effects of Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury and Splenectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were splenectomized and then subjected to either 20minutes or one hour of superior mesenteric artery and collateral supply ischemia and one hour of reperfusion. Control rats were subjected to either 20minutes or one hour of ischemia and one hour of reperfusion only. Blood samples were collected before and ...

  16. Effect Of Ischemia-Reperfusion On Healing In Intestinal Anastomosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of reperfusion injury on the healing of intestinal anastomotic wound directly subjected to ischemia-reperfusion stress was investigated in dogs. Three groups of dogs were utilized for the study. In group A (Control) cranial mesenteric artery and collateral blood supply were isolated but not occluded. In groups B and ...

  17. Reperfusion promotes mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the cell death observed after cerebral ischemia, and several mechanisms for this dysfunction have been proposed. Reperfusion after transient cerebral ischemia may cause continued and even more severe damage to the brain. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to observe the features of mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated mitochondria during the reperfusion period following focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated mitochondria were fixed for electron microscopic examination; calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling was quantified using spectrophotometry. Cyclophilin D was detected by Western blotting. Fluorescent probes were used to selectively stain mitochondria to measure their membrane potential and to measure reactive oxidative species production using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Signs of damage were observed in the mitochondrial morphology after exposure to reperfusion. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+ increased gradually with the increasing calcium concentration, and this tendency was exacerbated as the reperfusion time was extended. Cyclophilin D protein expression peaked after 24 hours of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly during the reperfusion period, with the greatest decrease observed after 24 hours of reperfusion. The surge in mitochondrial reactive oxidative species occurred after 2 hours of reperfusion and was maintained at a high level during the reperfusion period. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia induced significant mitochondrial morphological damage and Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial swelling. The mechanism of this swelling may be mediated by

  18. Salutary Effects of Cepharanthine against Skeletal Muscle and Kidney Injuries following Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Kao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R causes oxidation and inflammation and subsequently induces muscle and kidney injuries. Cepharanthine, a natural plant alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. We elucidated the salutary effects of cepharanthine against muscle and kidney injuries following limb I/R. Adult male rats were randomized to receive I/R or I/R plus cepharanthine. I/R was achieved by applying tourniquet high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Cepharanthine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal was injected immediately before reperfusion. After euthanization, degrees of tissue injury, inflammation, and oxidation were examined. Our data revealed that the I/R group had significant increases in injury biomarker concentrations of muscle (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase and kidney (creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1. Histological assays revealed moderate muscle and kidney injury characteristics in the I/R group. The I/R group also had significant increases in concentrations of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and prostaglandin E2 and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide as well as lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde. Of note, these effects of limb I/R could be mitigated by cepharanthine. These data confirmed that cepharanthine attenuated muscle and kidney injuries induced by limb I/R. The mechanisms may involve its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities.

  19. Protective Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma on Experimental Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Bostanci, Mehmet Suhha; İnanc, Fatma; Yaylali, Asli; Serin, Salih; Attar, Rukset; Yildirim, Gazi; Yildirim, Ozge Kizilkale

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian torsion is a common cause of local ischemic damage, reduced follicular activity and infertility. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors with demonstrated cytoprotective properties; so we evaluated PRP efficacy in a rat ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. Sixty adult female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 8 animals each: Sham, Ischemia, I/R, Sham + PRP, I + PRP and I/R + PRP; and the remaining 12 used to prepare PRP. Ischemia groups were subjected to bilateral adnexal torsion for 3 h, while I/R and I/R + PRP groups received subsequent detorsion for 3 h. Intraperitoneal PRP was administered 30 min prior to ischemia (Ischemia + PRP) or reperfusion (I/R + PRP). Total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and total ovarian histopathological scores were higher in Ischemia and I/R groups than in the Sham group (p OSI and histopathological scores in I + PRP and I/R + PRP groups compared to the corresponding Ischemia and I/R groups (p OSI (r = 0.877, p < 0.001). Peritoneal vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly higher in PRP-treated groups than corresponding untreated groups (p < 0.05). PRP is effective for the prevention of ischemia and reperfusion damage in rat ovary. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  1. Standardization of an isolated pig heart preparation with parabiotic circulation: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we standardized an experimental model of parabiotic circulation of isolated pig heart. The isolated heart was perfused with arterial blood from a second animal as support and submitted to regional ischemia for 30 min, followed by total ischemia for 90 min and reperfusion for 90 min. Parameters for measurement of ventricular performance using different indices measured directly or indirectly from intraventricular pressure were defined as: maximum peak pressure, final diastolic pressure, pressure developed, first derivative of maximum pressure (dP/dt max, first derivative of minimum pressure (dP/dt min, systolic stress of the left ventricle (sigmas, and maximum elastance of the left ventricle. Isolated hearts subjected to regional and global ischemia presented significant worsening of all measured parameters. Less discriminative parameters were dP/dt max and dP/dt min. Elastance was the most sensitive parameter during the reperfusion period, demonstrating an early loss of ventricular function during reperfusion. The model proved to be stable and reproducible and permitted the study of several variables in the isolated heart, such as ischemia and reperfusion phenomena, the effects of different drugs, surgical interventions, etc. The model introduces an advantage over the classical models which use crystalloid solutions as perfusate, because parabiotic circulation mimics heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

  2. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  4. Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cursio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

  5. 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid mitigates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Juan Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid can stabilize cell membrane and have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Previous studies mainly focused on peripheral nerve injury, but seldom on the central nervous system. We investigated whether these properties of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid have a neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study established rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury by ischemia for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. At the beginning of reperfusion, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg was injected into the tail vein. Results found that various doses of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid effectively reduced infarct volume, mitigate cerebral edema, and increased the mRNA and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor at 24 hours of reperfusion. The effect was most significant in the 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 40 and 80 mg/kg groups. The findings suggest that 13-methyltetradecanoic acid can relieve focal ischemia/reperfusion injury immediately after reperfusion, stimulate the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to exert neuroprotective effects.

  6. Substrate use in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium: quantitative considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myears, D.W.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The patterns of use of substrate in reperfused myocardium are not yet well elucidated, and their delineation is essential for adequate interpretation of results of analyses performed after positron emission tomography with labeled substrates to differentiate normal from abnormal heart muscle. Accordingly, in open-chest, anesthetized dogs the authors measured glucose and fatty acid utilization in normal, ischemic, and reperfused myocardium and assessed the contributions of metabolism of each substrate to overall oxidative metabolism. Intracoronary [ 3 H]glucose and [ 14 C]palmitate were administered in five control dogs, eight dogs subjected to 1 h of coronary occlusion, and nine dogs subjected to reperfusion after 1 h of ischemia. Regional coronary venous blood samples were assayed sequentially. In reperfused myocardium, utilization of glucose was 103% greater than that in ischemic and 273% greater than in normal myocardium. Utilization of fatty acid during reperfusion, although greater than that in ischemic myocardium, was significantly less than that in normal myocardium despite restoration of flow to 80% of control values. Despite diminished net uptake of fatty acid, oxidation of fatty acid accounted for 63% of total oxygen consumption in reperfused myocardium. These studies indicate that canine myocardium reperfused after 1 h of ischemia exhibits enhanced uptake of glucose and impaired utilization of palmitate. Nevertheless, palmitate continues to comprise the substrate primarily utilized for oxidative metabolism

  7. Relation between reperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, Alexander D. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Radiology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Niesten, Joris M.; Seeters, Tom van; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Utrecht Stroke Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: DUST investigators

    2015-12-15

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) is given in acute ischemic stroke patients to achieve reperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication of IV-rtPA treatment and related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury. It is unclear whether HT occurs secondary to reperfusion in combination with ischemic BBB injury or is caused by the negative effect of IV-rtPA on BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to establish the association between reperfusion and the occurrence of HT. From the DUST study, patients were selected with admission and follow-up non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging, and a perfusion deficit in the middle cerebral artery territory on admission. Reperfusion was categorized qualitatively as reperfusion or no-reperfusion by visual comparison of admission and follow-up CTP. Occurrence of HT was assessed on follow-up NCCT. The association between reperfusion and occurrence of HT on follow-up was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) with additional stratification for IV-rtPA treatment. Inclusion criteria were met in 299 patients. There was no significant association between reperfusion and HT (OR 1.2 95%CI 0.5-3.1). In patients treated with IV-rtPA (n = 203), the OR was 1.3 (95%CI 0.4-4.0), and in patients not treated with IV-rtPA (n = 96), the OR was 0.8 (95%CI 0.1-4.5). HT occurred in 14 % of the IV-rtPA patients and in 7 % of patients without IV-rtPA (95%CI of difference -1 to 14 %). Our results suggest that the increased risk of HT after acute ischemic stroke treatment is not dependent on the reperfusion status. (orig.)

  8. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  9. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z

    1975-07-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  10. EFFECT OF CANNABINOIDS ON TESTICULAR ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Anandamide is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors and has endothelial protective effect against ischemic preconditioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoids on reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Testicular ischemia was achieved by twisting the right testes 720◦ counters clockwise for 1 hour and reperfusion was allowed for 4 hours after detorsion. In baseline (normal group, bilateral orchiectomies performed after anesthesia. Sham operated group was served as a control group. Torsion/detorsion group underwent 1 hour testicular torsion and 4 hours of detorsion. Anandamide (cannabinoid agonist group received pretreatment with intraperitoneally anandamide 30 min before torsion. AM251 (CB1 antagonist group, received intraperitoneally injection of AM251 45 min before torsion. Anandamid/AM251 (An/AM group received administrations of AM251 45 min before torsion and anandamide 30 min before torsion. The ipsilateral malondialdehyde (MDA level in T/D group were significantly higher versus control and base line groups. Ipsilateral MDA values in anandamid group were significantly lower than T/D and An/AM groups. There were also significant decreases in catalase activity in T/D group compared with control and base line groups. These values were significantly higher in cannabinoid group versus T/D and An/AM groups. Anandamide increased ipsilateral intratesticular antioxidative markers and decreased free radicals formation during reperfusion phase after unilateral testicular torsion, which was reflected in lesser testicular MDA level. Furthermore, the effects of anandamide were mediated via cannabinoid receptors, since AM251 could abolish these effects.

  11. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  12. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  13. Observation and nursing of complications due to high re-perfusion injury occurring after balloon angioplasty for diabetic vascular diseases of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingling; Zhu Yueqi; Mou Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the symptomatic nursing in treating the complications caused by high re-perfusion which develops after balloon angioplasty for the treatment of diabetic vascular diseases of lower extremity. Methods: Eighteen patients with lower limb ischemia caused by diabetes mellitus developed high re-perfusion injury complications after receiving balloon angioplasty. The patients were randomly and equally divided into study group and control group. The special nursing measures designed by the author's department, including raising the diseased lower limb, enforcing the flexion and extension movement of the leg, cold compress, wound exposure, etc. were carried out for patients of study group, while no special nursing measures were adopted for patients of control group. The clinical results, such as limb pain, swelling and subcutaneous petechia after re-perfusion injury, were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, the limb pain, swelling and subcutaneous petechia due to high re-perfusion injury in study group were relieved more markedly than that in control group, the difference in evaluation score between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: The special symptomatic nursing measures are very effective in relieving the high re-perfusion injury after balloon angioplasty for the treatment of diabetic lower limb ischemia. (authors)

  14. Protectant activity of defibrotide in cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, G; Pompilio, G; Biglioli, P; Alamanni, F; Tartara, P; Rona, P; Porqueddu, M; Berti, F

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that defibrotide, a polydeoxyribonucleotide obtained by depolymerization of DNA from porcine tissues, has important protective effects on myocardial ischemia, which may be associated with a prostacyclin-related mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effects of defibrotide (given in cardioplegia or after ischemia) on a model of rat heart recovery after cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated rat hearts, undergoing 5 minutes of warm cardioplegic arrest followed by 20 minutes of global ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion, were studied using the modified Langendorff model. The cardioplegia consisted of St. Thomas' Hospital solution augmented with defibrotide (50, 100, and 200 microg/mL) or without defibrotide (controls). Left ventricular mechanical function and the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha; the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) were measured during preischemic and reperfusion periods. After global ischemia, hearts receiving defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution (n = 8) manifested in a concentration-dependent fashion lower left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (p defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution also had, in a dose-dependent way, lower levels of creatine-kinase (p defibrotide was given alone to the hearts at the beginning of reperfusion (n = 7), the recovery of postischemic left ventricular function was inferior (p defibrotide was given in cardioplegia. Defibrotide confers to conventional crystalloid cardioplegia a potent concentration-dependent protective effect on the recovery of isolated rat heart undergoing ischemia/reperfusion injury. The low cost and the absence of contraindications (cardiac toxicity and hemodynamic effects) make defibrotide a promising augmentation to cardioplegia.

  15. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice partially independent from hypometabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M Snijder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is a major cause of cardiac damage following various pathological processes. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S is protective during IRI by inducing a hypometabolic state in mice which is associated with anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated whether gaseous H2S administration is protective in cardiac IRI and whether non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S have similar protective properties. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a 0, 10, or 100 ppm H2S-N2 mixture starting 30 minutes prior to ischemia until 5 minutes pre-reperfusion. IRI was inflicted by temporary ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 minutes. High-resolution respirometry equipment was used to assess CO2-production and blood pressure was measured using internal transmitters. The effects of H2S were assessed by histological and molecular analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with 100 ppm H2S decreased CO2-production by 72%, blood pressure by 14% and heart rate by 25%, while treatment with 10 ppm H2S had no effects. At day 1 of reperfusion 10 ppm H2S showed no effect on necrosis, while treatment with 100 ppm H2S reduced necrosis by 62% (p<0.05. Seven days post-reperfusion, both 10 ppm (p<0.01 and 100 ppm (p<0.05 H2S showed a reduction in fibrosis compared to IRI animals. Both 10 ppm and 100 ppm H2S reduced granulocyte-influx by 43% (p<0.05 and 60% (p<0.001, respectively. At 7 days post-reperfusion both 10 and 100 ppm H2S reduced expression of fibronectin by 63% (p<0.05 and 67% (p<0.01 and ANP by 84% and 63% (p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gaseous administration of H2S is protective when administered during a cardiac ischemic insult. Although hypometabolism is restricted to small animals, we now showed that low non-hypometabolic concentrations of H2S also have protective properties in IRI. Since IRI is a frequent cause of myocardial damage during percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiac

  16. Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury and Semen Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Nigeria. Summary: Increasing production of goats takes their reproductive ... of testicular damage and infertility and is a form of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. ... concentration, percentage of normal sperm cells, abnormal sperm cells and ...

  17. Kallikrein-like amidase activity in renal ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Carattino

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed a kallikrein-like amidase activity probably related to the kallikrein-kinin system, as well as the participation of leukocyte infiltration in renal ischemia and reperfusion. Male C57BL/KSJmdb mice were subjected to 20 or 60 min of ischemia and to different periods of reperfusion. A control group consisted of sham-operated mice, under similar conditions, except for ischemia induction. Kallikrein-like amidase activity, Evans blue extravasation and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in kidney homogenates, previously perfused with 0.9% NaCl. Plasma creatinine concentration increased only in the 60-min ischemic group. After 20 min of ischemia and 1 or 24 h of reperfusion, no change in kallikrein-like amidase activity or Evans blue extravasation was observed. In the mice subjected to 20 min of ischemia, edema was evident at 1 h of reperfusion, but kidney water content returned to basal levels after 24 h of reperfusion. In the 60-min ischemic group, kallikrein-like amidase activity and Evans blue extravasation showed a similar significant increase along reperfusion time. Kallikrein-like amidase activity increased from 4 nmol PNA mg protein-1 min-1 in the basal condition to 15 nmol PNA mg protein-1 min-1 at 10 h of reperfusion. For dye extravasation the concentration measured was near 200 µg of Evans blue/g dry tissue in the basal condition and 1750 µg of Evans blue/g dry tissue at 10 h of reperfusion. No variation could be detected in the control group. A significant increase from 5 to 40 units of DAbs 655 nm g wet tissue-1 min-1 in the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase was observed in the 60-min ischemic group, when it was evaluated after 24 h of reperfusion. Histological analysis of the kidneys showed migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the vascular bed to the interstitial tissue in the 60-min ischemic group after 24 h of reperfusion. We conclude that the duration of ischemia is critical for the development of damage

  18. Understanding Thiel embalming in pig kidneys to develop a new circulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Willaert

    Full Text Available The quality of tissue preservation in Thiel embalmed bodies varies. Research on the administered embalming volume and its vascular distribution may elucidate one of the mechanisms of tissue preservation and allow for new applications of Thiel embalming. Vascular embalming with (group 1, n = 15 or without (group 2, n = 20 contrast agent was initiated in pig kidneys. The distribution of Thiel embalming solution in group 1 was visualized using computed tomography. The kidneys in both groups were then immersed in concentrated salt solutions to reduce their weight and volume. Afterwards, to mimic a lifelike circulation in the vessels, group 2 underwent pump-driven reperfusion for 120 minutes with either paraffinum perliquidum or diluted polyethylene glycol. The circulation was imaged with computed tomography. All of the kidneys were adequately preserved. The embalming solution spread diffusely in the kidney, but fluid accumulation was present. Subsequent immersion in concentrated salt solutions reduced weight (P < 0.01 and volume (P < 0.01. Reperfusion for 120 minutes was established in group 2. Paraffinum perliquidum filled both major vessels and renal tissue, whereas diluted polyethylene glycol spread widely in the kidney. There were no increases in weight (P = 0.26 and volume (P = 0.79; and pressure further decreased (P = 0.032 after more than 60 minutes of reperfusion with paraffinum perliquidum, whereas there were increases in weight (P = 0.005, volume (P = 0.032 and pressure (P < 0.0001 after reperfusion with diluted polyethylene glycol. Arterial embalming of kidneys results in successful preservation due to complete parenchymatous spreading. More research is needed to determine whether other factors affect embalming quality. Dehydration is an effective method to regain the organs' initial status. Prolonged vascular reperfusion with paraffinum perliquidum can be established in this model without increases in weight, volume and pressure.

  19. Impact of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion and lymph drainage on distant organs in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Kai-Guo; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yu-Kang; Chen, Xue-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and lymph drainage on distant organs in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 280-320 g, were randomly divided into blank, sham, I/R, and ischemia/reperfusion and drainage (I/R + D) groups (n = 8). All rats were subjected to 60 min ischemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. The rats in the I/R + D group received intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. In the sham group, the abdominal cavity was opened for 180 min, but the rats received no treatment. The blank group served as a normal and untreated control. A chromogenic limulus assay kit was used for quantitative detection of serum endotoxin. The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1), and high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Histological evaluations of the intestine, liver, kidney, and lung were performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. HMGB1 protein expression was assayed by western blot analysis. RESULTS: The serum levels of endotoxin and HMGB1 in the I/R and I/R + D groups were significantly higher than those in the sham group (endotoxin, I/R and I/R + D vs sham: 0.033 ± 0.004 EU/mL, 0.024 ± 0.003 EU/mL vs 0.017 ± 0.009 EU/mL, respectively, P drainage could block the “gut-lymph” pathway, improve intestinal barrier function, and attenuate distant organ injury incurred by intestinal I/R. PMID:23326132

  20. Enhancement of Na/K pump activity by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protected against reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Cai; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Li-Nan; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Qing; Li, Jun-Xia; Yin, Jian; Wang, Yong-Li

    2011-06-01

    Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has been shown to attenuate intracellular Na(+) accumulation and Ca(2+) overload during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), both of which are closely related to the outcome of myocardial damage. Na/K pump plays an essential role in maintaining the equilibrium of intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) during I/R. It has been shown that enhancement of Na/K pump activity by ischemic preconditioning may be involved in the cardiac protection. Therefore, we tested whether Na/K pump was involved in the cardioprotection by CIHH. We found that Na/K pump current in cardiac myocytes of guinea pigs exposed to CIHH increased 1.45-fold. The K(1) and f(1), which reflect the portion of α(1)-isoform of Na/K pump, dramatically decreased or increased, respectively, in CIHH myocytes. Western blot analysis revealed that CIHH increased the protein expression of the α(1)-isoform by 76%, whereas the protein expression of the α(2)-isoform was not changed significantly. Na/K pump current was significantly suppressed in simulated I/R, and CIHH preserved the Na/K pump current. CIHH significantly improved the recovery of cell length and contraction during reperfusion. Furthermore, inhibition of Na/K pump by ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by CIHH. Collectively, these data suggest that the increase of Na/K pump activity following CIHH is due to the upregulating α(1)-isoform of Na/K pump, which may be one of the mechanisms of CIHH against I/R-induced injury.

  1. Distribution of carbon flux within fatty acid utilization during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, S.H.; Liedtke, A.J.; Renstrom, B.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-nine intact, working pig hearts were extracorporeally perfused and divided into two study groups (16 Aerobic and 13 Ischemic/Reflow hearts). Step function, equilibrium labeling with [14C]palmitate was used to develop uptake and washout curves of radioactive fatty acid products contained in coronary effluent during either aerobic perfusion or reperfusion after ischemia (60% reduction in left anterior descending coronary flow for 30 minutes). Left anterior descending control flows were slightly overperfused in Aerobic hearts (18% higher than in Ischemic/Reflow hearts); otherwise, circumflex and right coronary flows, left ventricular pressure, and serum fatty acids and blood sugar levels were comparable between groups. As expected in Ischemic/Reflow hearts, recovery of regional systolic shortening and myocardial oxygen consumption in reperfusion was only modestly impaired (-20% and -19%, respectively, not significant and p less than 0.011 compared with preischemic values, not significant from Aerobic hearts). The only significant metabolized product to be released from labeled fatty acid utilization in either group was 14CO2. A smaller fatty acid pool also was measured and accounted for by that contained in the coronary intravascular volume. The authors could determine no significant back diffusion of fatty acids from myocardium in either perfusion condition. Uptake time constants of the early phase of 14CO2 production also were virtually identical in both groups (19.9 ± 3.2 versus 16.7 ± 3.2 minutes in Aerobic and Ischemic/Reflow hearts, respectively) and strongly correlated with hemodynamics as described by heart rate. In washout studies, tissue radioactivity in the aqueous soluble and fatty acid pools declined in both study groups, and counts in complex lipids and cholesterol/cholesteryl esters remained steady, whereas those in triacylglycerols varied

  2. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  3. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J

    1974-03-26

    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  4. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  5. Gaseous nitrogen and carbon losses from pig manure derived from different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Nelemans, J.A.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication July 23, 2004. Manipulation of the diets of pigs may alter the composition of the manure and thereby the environmental and agricultural qualities of the manure. Laboratory studies were performed to quantify the effect of manipulation of pig diets on the chemical composition

  6. Female and male pigs' performance in a spatial holeboard and judgment bias task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the cognitive abilities of pigs are increasing in number, due to their relevance for the fields of animal welfare and biomedical research. While both female and male pigs have been used in cognitive tasks, possible sex differences in performance have not yet received extensive attention.

  7. Interaction between carbohydrates and fat in pigs : impact on energy evaluation of feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    In marketing pigs, nearly 50% of the costs are those of the feed. Therefore, it is necessary to know the nutritional value as accurately as possible.

    In the Netherlands, pigs receive in general (99%) compound feeds, containing all the nutrients they require. Cereals used to be the

  8. Curcumin-loaded embryonic stem cell exosomes restored neurovascular unit following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Maldonado, Claudio; Bauer, Philip; Joshua, Irving G; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo cur ), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo cur for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo cur treatment. The study determined that MESC-exo cur treatment reduced neurological score, infarct volume and edema following IR-injury. As compared to untreated IR group, MESC-exo cur treated-IR group showed reduced inflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expression. Treatment of MESC-exo cur also reduced astrocytic GFAP expression and alleviated the expression of NeuN positive neurons in IR-injured mice. In addition, MESC-exo cur treatment restored vascular endothelial tight (claudin-5 and occludin) and adherent (VE-cadherin) junction proteins in IR-injured mice as compared to untreated IR-injured mice. These results suggest that combining the potentials of embryonic stem cell exosomes and curcumin can help neurovascular restoration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  10. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n =100 pigs received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n =100 pigs received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P 0.05 by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  11. Failure of antiarrhythmic drugs to prevent experimental reperfusion ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, M; Michelson, E L; Kmetzo, J J; Kaplinsky, E; Dreifus, L S

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-nine adult mongrel dogs underwent acute ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty minutes later, the occlusion was released to evaluate the effectiveness of five antiarrhythmic protocols in eliminating reperfusion ventricular fibrillation. The five protocols included: protocol 1 --i.v. lidocaine, preligation and prerelease (n = 19); protocol 2 -- i.v. lidocaine, prereperfusion only (n = 22); protocol 3 -- chronic, oral, daily amiodarone for 2 weeks preligation (n = 19); protocol 4 -- i.v. procainamide, preligation and prereperfusion (n = 21); and protocol 5 -- i.v. verapamil, prereperfusion (n = 18). Each regimen was evaluated with respect to the incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation in dogs that survived to reperfusion, and the results were compared to 77 control dogs that underwent identical coronary artery occlusion and release procedures without drug therapy. The incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation was as follows: protocol 1 -- seven of 15 dogs (47%); protocol 2 -- six of 18 (33%); protocol 3 -- 11 of 16 dogs (69%); protocol 4 -- eight of 17 dogs (47%); and protocol 5 -- 10 of 17 dogs (59%), compared with 36 of 60 (60%) in control dogs. Using chi-square analysis, protocol 2 was beneficial (p antecedent coronary artery ligation periods, and predictive risk indexes for the occurrence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation were developed. the Mantel-Haenszel method of statistical analysis revealed that none of these protocols resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of reperfusion ventricular fibrillation. Thus, use of these predictive indexes plus appropriate statistical methods has revealed, unexpectedly, limitations in the efficacy of a spectrum of antiarrhythmic agents in preventing reperfusion ventricular fibrillation.

  12. Temporal Trends of Reperfusion Strategies and Hospital Mortality for Patients With STEMI in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention-Capable Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat T; Welsh, Robert C; Ohinmaa, Arto; Thanh, Nguyen X; Kaul, Padma

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine temporal trends and provincial variations in reperfusion strategies and in-hospital mortality among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at hospitals in Canada capable of performing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included patients aged ≥ 20 years who were hospitalized between fiscal years 2009 and 2013 in all provinces except Quebec. We categorized patients as receiving fibrinolysis (lysis), primary PCI (pPCI), or no reperfusion. Patients undergoing lysis were further categorized as (1) lysis + PCI ≤ 90 minutes, (2) lysis + PCI > 90 minutes, and (3) lysis only. Patients undergoing pPCI were further categorized as (1) pPCI ≤ 90 minutes and (2) pPCI > 90 minutes. We used logistic regression to examine the baseline-adjusted association between reperfusion strategy and in-hospital mortality. Among 44,650 STEMI episodes in 44,373 patients, 66.3% received pPCI (annual increase of 7.8%; P 90 minutes (adjusted odds ratio of 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.55 compared with pPCI ≤ 90 minutes). The use of pPCI in STEMI has increased significantly in Canada; however, significant interprovincial variation remains. Changes in reperfusion strategies do not appear to have had an impact on in-hospital mortality rates. Patients who underwent lysis followed by PCI in a systematic fashion had the lowest mortality. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was

  14. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  15. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.; Choi, B.J.; Kang, D.K.; Sun, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD TM ) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD sub ) or subendocardial DE (DE sub ) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p TM (0.761) and DE TM (0.771). The presence of EPD TM , DE TM , and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD TM was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  17. Suv39h1 Protects from Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of ischemic events. Suv39h1 is a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 9, which is associated with the suppression of inflammatory genes in diabetes. However, the role of Suv39h1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury under diabetic condition has not been evaluated. Methods: To generate diabetic model, male SD rats were fed with 60% fat diet followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40mg/kg streptozotocin. Adenovirus encoding Suv39h1 gene was used for Suv39h1 overexpression. Each rat received injections of adenovirus at five myocardial sites. Three days after gene transfection, each rat was subjected to left main coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion for 4 h, the rats were euthanized for real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemical staining, and morphometric analysis. Results: Delivery of Ad-Suv39h1 into the hearts of diabetic rats could markedly increase Suv39h1 expression. Up-regulation of Suv39h1 significantly reduced infarct size and tissue damage after I/R injury, which was associated with protection from apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and reduction of inflammatory response. In addition, compared with injury group, Ad-Suv39h1 led to a decreased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase family and its down-steam transcriptional factor NF-κB. Conclusion: Overexpression of Suv39h1 results in the de-activation of proinflammatory pathways and reduced apoptosis and myocardial injury. Therefore, Suv39h1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce I/R injury under diabetic condition.

  18. Pomegranate extract protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and preserves brain DNA integrity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maha A E; El Morsy, Engy M; Ahmed, Amany A E

    2014-08-21

    Interruption to blood flow causes ischemia and infarction of brain tissues with consequent neuronal damage and brain dysfunction. Pomegranate extract is well tolerated, and safely consumed all over the world. Interestingly, pomegranate extract has shown remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models. Many investigators consider natural extracts as novel therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of standardized pomegranate extract against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, and two other groups that received standardized pomegranate extract at two dose levels (250, 500 mg/kg) for 15 days prior to ischemia/reperfusion (PMG250+I/R, and PMG500+I/R groups). After I/R or sham operation, all rats were sacrificed and brains were harvested for subsequent biochemical analysis. Results showed reduction in brain contents of MDA (malondialdehyde), and NO (nitric oxide), in addition to enhancement of SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPX (glutathione peroxidase), and GRD (glutathione reductase) activities in rats treated with pomegranate extract prior to cerebral I/R. Moreover, pomegranate extract decreased brain levels of NF-κB p65 (nuclear factor kappa B p65), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), caspase-3 and increased brain levels of IL-10 (interleukin-10), and cerebral ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production. Comet assay showed less brain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in rats protected with pomegranate extract. The present study showed, for the first time, that pre-administration of pomegranate extract to rats, can offer a significant dose-dependent neuroprotective activity against cerebral I/R brain injury and DNA damage via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and ATP-replenishing effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  19. Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feifei; Myers, Valerie D.; Knezevic, Tijana; Wang, JuFang; Gao, Erhe; Madesh, Muniswamy; Tahrir, Farzaneh G.; Gupta, Manish K.; Gordon, Jennifer; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Tilley, Douglas G.; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed at high levels in the heart and the vasculature and in many cancers. While altered BAG3 expression has been associated with cardiac dysfunction, its role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that BAG3 protects the heart from reperfusion injury, in vivo cardiac function was measured in hearts infected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9–expressing (rAAV9-expressing) BAG3 or GFP and subjected to I/R. To elucidate molecular mechanisms by which BAG3 protects against I/R injury, neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (NMVCs) in which BAG3 levels were modified by adenovirus expressing (Ad-expressing) BAG3 or siBAG3 were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). H/R significantly reduced NMVC BAG3 levels, which were associated with enhanced expression of apoptosis markers, decreased expression of autophagy markers, and reduced autophagy flux. The deleterious effects of H/R on apoptosis and autophagy were recapitulated by knockdown of BAG3 with Ad-siBAG3 and were rescued by Ad-BAG3. In vivo, treatment of mice with rAAV9-BAG3 prior to I/R significantly decreased infarct size and improved left ventricular function when compared with mice receiving rAAV9-GFP and improved markers of autophagy and apoptosis. These findings suggest that BAG3 may provide a therapeutic target in patients undergoing reperfusion after myocardial infarction. PMID:27882354

  20. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  1. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  2. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  3. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  4. Heart Protection by Combination Therapy with Esmolol and Milrinone at Late-Ischemia and Early Reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ming-He; Wu, Yewen; Nguyen, Vincent; Rastogi, Saurabh; McConnell, Bradley K.; Wijaya, Cori; Uretsky, Barry F.; Poh, Kian-Keong; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Fujise, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The present study determined whether late-ischemia/early reperfusion therapy with the β1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker esmolol and phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial infarct size (IS). Methods and Results In an ischemia/reperfusion rat model (30-min ischemia/4-hr reperfusion), esmolol, milrinone or esmolol + milrinone were intravenous (IV) infused over 10 min (from the last 5min of ischemia to the first 5min of reperfusion). LV-I...

  5. Antiarrhythmic effect of heat adaptation in ischemic and reperfusion injury to the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaya, E A; Belkina, L M; Manukhina, E B; Malyshev, I Yu

    2007-01-01

    Study on a model of 6-day dosed adaptation to heat in rats showed that this adaptation decreased the severity of cardiac arrhythmias during ischemic and reperfusion injury. The duration of arrhythmias decreased not only in the ischemic period, but also under conditions of reperfusion. Adaptation delayed the development of arrhythmias during ischemia, decreased the number of animals with late reperfusion arrhythmias, and improved recovery of the heart after ischemia and reperfusion.

  6. Controlled reperfusion decreased reperfusion induced oxidative stress and evoked inflammatory response in experimental aortic-clamping animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancsó, G; Arató, E; Hardi, P; Nagy, T; Pintér, Ö; Fazekas, G; Gasz, B; Takacs, I; Menyhei, G; Kollar, L; Sínay, L

    2016-09-12

    Revascularization after long term aortic ischaemia in vascular surgery induces reperfusion injury accompanied with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The hypothesis of this study was that the aortic occlusion followed by controlled reperfusion (CR) can reduce the ischaemia-reperfusion injury, the systemic and local inflammatory response induced by oxidative stress.Animal model was used. animals underwent a 4-hour infrarenal aortic occlusion followed by continuous reperfusion. Treated group: animals were treated with CR: after a 4-hour infrarenal aortic occlusion we made CR for 30 minutes with the crystalloid reperfusion solution (blood: crystalloid solution ratio 1:1) on pressure 60 Hgmm. Blood samples were collected different times. The developing oxidative stress was detected by the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathion, thiol groups and superoxide dismutase. The inflammatory response was measured by phorbol myristate acetate-induced leukocyte reactive oxygen species production and detection of change in myeloperoxidase levels. The animals were anaesthetized one week after terminating ligation and biopsy was taken from quadriceps muscle and large parenchymal organs.CR significantly reduced the postischaemic oxydative stress and inflammatory responses in early reperfusion period. Pathophysiological results: The rate of affected muscle fibers by degeneration was significantly higher in the untreated animal group. The infiltration of leukocytes in muscle and parenchymal tissues was significantly lower in the treatedgroup.CR can improve outcome after acute lower-limb ischaemia. The results confirm that CR might be also a potential therapeutic approach in vascular surgery against reperfusion injury in acute limb ischaemia. Supported by OTKA K108596.

  7. Early microvascular changes in the preterm neonate: a comparative study of the human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Lakkundi, Anil; de Waal, Koert; Latter, Joanna L; Clifton, Vicki L; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-09-17

    Dysfunction of the transition from fetal to neonatal circulatory systems may be a major contributor to poor outcome following preterm birth. Evidence exists in the human for both a period of low flow between 5 and 11 h and a later period of increased flow, suggesting a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle over the first 24 h following birth. Little is known about the regulation of peripheral blood flow during this time. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative study between the human and guinea pig to characterize peripheral microvascular behavior during circulatory transition. Very preterm (≤28 weeks GA), preterm (29-36 weeks GA), and term (≥37 weeks GA) human neonates underwent laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow at 6 and 24 h from birth. Guinea pig neonates were delivered prematurely (62 day GA) or at term (68-71 day GA) and laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow was assessed every 2 h from birth. In human preterm neonates, there is a period of high microvascular flow at 24 h after birth. No period of low flow was observed at 6 h. In preterm animals, microvascular flow increased after birth, reaching a peak at 10 h postnatal age. Blood flow then steadily decreased, returning to delivery levels by 24 h. Preterm birth was associated with higher baseline microvascular flow throughout the study period in both human and guinea pig neonates. The findings do not support a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle in the microcirculation during circulatory transition. The guinea pig model of preterm birth will allow further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microvascular function and dysfunction during the initial extrauterine period. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Oxidized tissue proteins after intestinal reperfusion injury in rats

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    Schanaider Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyse if the carbonyl proteins measurement could be validated as a method that allows the identification of an intestinal oxidative stress after ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats (n =21 weighting 200 to 250g were divided into three groups. Group I - control (n = 10. Group II - sham (n = 5 and Group III (n = 10 subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and equal period of reperfusion. For this purpose it was clamped the superior mesenteric artery in its distal third. Histological changes and carbonyl protein levels were determined in the samples of all groups. In group III, samples of both normal and reperfused ileal segment were studied. RESULTS: All the reperfused segments showed mucosal and submucosal swelling and inflammatory infiltrate of the lamina propria. Levels of carbonyl protein rose in group III, including in the non-ischemic segments. The sensitivity and specificity of the carbonyl protein tissue levels were respectively 94% and 88%. CONCLUSION: The carbonyl protein method is a useful biologic marker of oxidative stress after the phenomenon of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in rats. It was also noteworthy that the effects of oxidative stress could be seen far from the locus of the primary injury.

  9. Postconditioning attenuates acute intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury

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    Ilker Sengul

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postconditioning (POC would reduce the detrimental effects of the acute intestinal ischemia–reperfusion (I/R compared to those of the abrupt onset of reperfusion. POC has a protective effect on intestinal I/R injury by inhibiting events in the early minutes of reperfusion in rats. Twenty-four Wistar–Albino rats were subjected to the occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 30 minutes, then reperfused for 120 minutes, and randomized to the four different modalities of POC: (1 control (no intervention; (2 POC-3 (three cycles of 10 seconds of reperfusion–reocclusion, 1 minute total intervention; (3 POC-6 (six cycles of 10 seconds of reperfusion–reocclusion, 2 minutes total intervention; and (4 sham operation (laparotomy only. The arterial blood samples [0.3 mL total creatine kinase (CK and 0.6 mL malondialdehyde (MDA] and the intestinal mucosal MDA were collected from each after reperfusion. POC, especially POC-6, was effective in attenuating postischemic pathology by decreasing the intestinal tissue MDA levels, serum total CK activity, inflammation, and total histopathological injury scores. POC exerted a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa by reducing the mesenteric oxidant generation, lipid peroxidation, and neutrophil accumulation. The six-cycle algorithm demonstrated the best protection.

  10. The response of the pig kidney to the combined effects of cisplatin and unilateral renal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Rezvani, M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Golding, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Seven mature Large White female pigs, approximately 10 months of age received a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), c-DDP (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Prior to, and 4 weeks after c-DDP administration, individual kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured. Of the 5 pigs surviving the c-DDP treatment most exhibited a reduction in both GFR and ERPF; the mean reduction in GFR (36.2±18.9%) was more pronounced than that for ERPF (12.6±19.4%). The right kidneys of these 5 pigs, plus 5 pigs which did not receive c-DDP, were irradiated with a single dose of 11.9 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. Animals that received c-DDP prior to irradiation failed to exhibit the hyperaemic response 2 weeks after irradiation. Moreover, the degree of reduction in renal function was greater than that observed in the irradiated kidneys of pigs receiving radiation alone. Prior treatment with c-DDP did not prevent a compensatory hypertrophic response by the contralateral unirradiated kidney; indeed the GFR in the unirradiated kidney of c-DDP treated pigs increased at a greater rate than in those pigs which did not receive c-DDP. Thus prior treatment with c-DDP enhances the radiation-induced reduction in individual kidney GFR and ERPF. 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  11. The Role of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Dihydrobiopterin in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury When Given at Reperfusion

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    Qian Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increased oxidative stress are major factors mediating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 is an essential cofactor of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS to produce NO, whereas dihydrobiopterin (BH2 can shift the eNOS product profile from NO to superoxide, which is further converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and cause I/R injury. The effects of BH4 and BH2 on oxidative stress and postreperfused cardiac functions were examined in ex vivo myocardial and in vivo femoral I (20 min/R (45 min models. In femoral I/R, BH4 increased NO and decreased H2O2 releases relative to saline control, and these effects correlated with improved postreperfused cardiac function. By contrast, BH2 decreased NO release relative to the saline control, but increased H2O2 release similar to the saline control, and these effects correlated with compromised postreperfused cardiac function. In conclusion, these results suggest that promoting eNOS coupling to produce NO and decrease H2O2 may be a key mechanism to restore postreperfused organ function during early reperfusion.

  12. Influência do antibiótico nas lesões de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos The influence of antibiotics on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion: experimental study in rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2000-01-01

    reperfusion have been studied. Free radicals appear to be envolved in the phisiopathology of the ischemia and reperfusions lesions. The intestinal barrier disruption would allow bacterial translocation and increase in the severity of such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intestinal injury after ischemia and reperfusion with and without antibiotic coverage. Under ether anesthesia forty-two Wistar male rats were submitted to an abdominal midline incision. The mesenteric arteries were clamped for 30 minutes. After this period of ischemia, reperfusion was induced for equal period of time. Twenty-one rats received eritromicin, 50mg/kg orally, 24 hours before the operation. The remain animals were operated without antibiotics coverage. Each of the two groups animals were divided into 3 others groups: control, ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion groups. After the reperfusion period, a intestinal segment was excised for histopathological studies. Results were evaluated according to the criteria of CHIU and col. and were submitted to statical analysis. In the control group any difference was found in the intestines of the animals with and without antibiotic coverage. The ischemia group, with or without antibiotic, showed lesions that ranged from vilos loss to mucosal infarction. The lesions were similar in the ischemia-reperfusion group. We verified that intestines submitted to reperfusion under antibiotic coverage showed more severe lesions than ischemic intestines without antibiotics coverage (p= 0,0303. We can conclude that the administrations of antibiotics before the induction of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion does not improve the severity of histological lesions.

  13. Treatment of pneumonia in pigs with long-acting injectable tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, A; Cromie, L; Neeve, S; Pommier, P; Keïta, A; Pagot, E

    2006-12-09

    A blinded, randomised clinical trial was carried out in Brittany, France on three commercial pig farms with a history of pneumonia. Pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups; 100 pigs received a single intramuscular injection of a long-acting formulation of tylosin at a dose rate of 20 mg tylosin/kg bodyweight, and 101 pigs received three consecutive daily intramuscular injections of 10 mg tylosin/kg bodyweight. The pigs' rectal temperatures and other clinical variables were recorded at intervals and a scoring system was used to evaluate the results of the treatments. Relapses were recorded for up to nine days after the treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatments in terms of clinical scores, rectal temperatures, or cure or relapse rates.

  14. Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta; Armando Emiliano Gonzalez; Cesar Gavidia; Viterbo Ayvar; Hector Hugo Garcia; Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups;untreated group (n=142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n=506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5%(39/142) and 2.0%(10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.

  15. Metallothionein-II Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation and Improves Functional Recovery after Transient Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

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    Araceli Diaz-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R, damaging mechanisms, such as excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, lead to irreversible neurological deficits. The induction of metallothionein-II (MT-II protein is an endogenous mechanism after I/R. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of MT-II after I/R in rats. Male Wistar rats were transiently occluded at the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Rats received either MT (10 μg per rat i.p. or vehicle after ischemia. Lipid peroxidation (LP was measured 22 h after reperfusion in frontal cortex and hippocampus; also, neurological deficit was evaluated after ischemia, using the Longa scoring scale. Infarction area was analyzed 72 hours after ischemia. Results showed increased LP in frontal cortex (30.7% and hippocampus (26.4%, as compared to control group; this effect was fully reversed by MT treatment. Likewise, we also observed a diminished neurological deficit assessed by the Longa scale in those animals treated with MT compared to control group values. The MT-treated group showed a significant (P<0.05 reduction of 39.9% in the infarction area, only at the level of hippocampus, as compared to control group. Results suggest that MT-II may be a novel neuroprotective treatment to prevent ischemia injury.

  16. Correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents

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    Ming-Min Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents. Methods: Patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were treated in Nanchong Central Hospital between June 2014 and August 2016 were selected and divided into the PCI group who received emergency PCI surgery and the control group who accepted selective PCI or refused emergency PCI after the medical data were retrospectively analyzed. The fQRS as well as the contents of ischemia reperfusion injury indexes and apoptosis molecules was determined after 1 week of treatment. Results: The incidence of fQRS in PCI group was significantly lower than that in control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group were greatly lower than those of control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group of patients with fQRS complex (+ were greatly higher than those of patients with fQRS complex (-. Conclusion: The occurrence of fQRS after PCI is closely related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis.

  17. Adrenal hormones and circulating leukocyte subtypes in stroke patients treated with reperfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Zhao, Yashu; Amaro, Sergio; Llull, Laura; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2018-03-13

    Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1. It was associated with enhanced infarct growth (p = 0.002) and poor outcome [OR (95% CI) 5.30 (1.30-21.69)], and correlated with less lymphocytes and T cells at follow up. Likewise, fewer circulating lymphocytes, T cells, and Tregs were associated with infarct growth. By contrast, metanephrines did not increase at clinical onset, and decreased over time. Higher levels of NMN correlated with more Treg and B cells. Eventually, complete reperfusion at the end of therapy headed the identification of more circulating Tregs at day 1. Then activation of cortical or medullar compartments of the adrenal gland result in specific signatures on leukocyte subpopulations. Manipulation of the adrenal gland hormone levels warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparative Effects of Triflusal, S-Adenosylmethionine, and Dextromethorphan over Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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    Carlos R. Cámara-Lemarroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is a condition that stimulates an intense inflammatory response. No ideal treatment exists. Triflusal is an antiplatelet salicylate derivative with anti-inflammatory effects. S-adenosylmethionine is a metabolic precursor for glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant. Dextromethorphan is a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor. There is evidence that these agents modulate some of the pathways involved in I/R physiopathology. Intestinal I/R was induced in rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Rats either received saline or the drugs studied. At the end of the procedure, serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, malonaldehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were determined and intestinal morphology analyzed. I/R resulted in tissue damage, serum TNF-alpha and MDA elevations, and depletion of TAC. All drugs showed tissue protection. Only triflusal reduced TNF-alpha levels. All drugs lowered MDA levels, but only triflusal and S-adenosylmethionine maintained the serum TAC.

  19. The protective effects of tadalafil on renal damage following ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

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    Bulent Erol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury can cause renal damage, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to regulate antioxidant activity. We investigated the prevention of renal damage using tadalafil after renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury in rats. A total of 21 adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups of seven, including Group 1-control, Group 2-I/R, and Group 3-tadalafil + I/R group (I/R-T group received tadalafil intraperitoneally at 30 minutes before ischemia. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity levels were evaluated, and histopathological changes and apoptosis in the groups were examined. Tadalafil decreased malondialdehyde levels in the I/R group and increased the total antioxidant capacity level. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings revealed that tadalafil decreased renal injury scores and the ratios of injured cells, as measured through apoptotic protease activating factor 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. We suggest that tadalafil has protective effects against I/R-related renal tissue injury.

  20. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics During Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, María I; Bonazzola, Patricia; Colareda, Germán A

    2017-01-01

    During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca 2+ . Their free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na + (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm. Nevertheless, a better estimation of heart energy consumption is the total heat release associated to ATP hydrolysis, metabolism, and binding reactions, which is measurable either in the presence or the absence of oxygenation or perfusion. Consequently, a mechano-calorimetrical approach on isolated hearts gives a tool to evaluate muscle economy. The mitochondrial role during I/R depends on the injury degree. We investigated the role of the mitochondrial Ca 2+ transporters in the energetic of hearts stunned by a model of no-flow I/R in rat hearts. This chapter explores an integrated view of previous and new results which give evidences to the mitochondrial role in cardiac stunning by ischemia o hypoxia, and the influence of thyroid alterations and cardioprotective strategies, such as cardioplegic solutions (high K-low Ca, pyruvate) and the phytoestrogen genistein in both sex. Rat ventricles were perfused in a flow-calorimeter at either 30 °C or 37 °C to continuously measure the left ventricular pressure (LVP) and total heat rate (Ht). A pharmacological treatment was done before exposing to no-flow I and R. The post-ischemic contractile (PICR as %) and energetical (Ht) recovery and muscle economy (Eco: P/Ht) were determined during stunning. The functional interaction between mitochondria (Mit) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was evaluated with selective mitochondrial inhibitors in hearts reperfused with Krebs-10 m

  1. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; Feng Jiang; Ning Li; You-Sheng Li; Xiao-Ming Wang; Jie-Shou Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented.METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved.Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed.RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10±1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplantation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation.

  2. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion

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    Nahid Jivad

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  3. CURRENT REPERFUSION THERAPY POSSIBILITIES IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ISCHEMIC STROKE

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    E. V. Konstantinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke remain to be of the greatest medical and social importance because of their high prevalence, disability, and mortality rates. Intractable thrombotic occlusion of the respective artery leads to the formation of an ischemic lesion focus in the tissue of the heart or brain. Emergency reperfusion serves to decrease a necrotic focus, makes its formation reversible, and reduces patient death rates. The paper considers main reperfusion therapy lines: medical (with thrombolytic drugs and mechanical (with primary interventions one and their combination in treating patients with acute myocardial and cerebral ischemia. Each reperfusion procedure is discussed in view of its advantages, disadvantages, available guidelines, and possibilities of real clinical practice. Tenecteplase is assessed in terms of its efficacy, safety, and capacities for bolus administration, which allows its use at any hospital and at the pre-hospital stage. Prehospital thrombolysis permits reperfusion therapy to bring much closer to the patient and therefore aids in reducing time to reperfusion and in salvaging as much the myocardial volume as possible. The rapidest recovery of myocardial and cerebral perfusion results in a decreased necrotic area and both improved immediate and late prognosis. The results of randomized clinical trials studying the possibilities of the medical and mechanical methods to restore blood flow are analyzed in the context of evidence-based medicine. The reason why despite the available contraindications, limited efficiency, and the risk of hemorrhagic complications, thrombolytic therapy remains the method of choice for prehospital reperfusion, an alternative to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI if it cannot be carried out in patients with myocardial infarction at the stated time, and the only treatment ischemic stroke treatment that has proven its efficiency and safety in clinical trials is under

  4. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  5. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K.; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des

    2012-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-13C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, 13C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion. PMID:22180654

  6. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  7. Growth Performance and Behaviour in Grouped Pigs Fed Fibrous Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter. Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively (p<0.05. Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05 compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05. Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05. Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05. It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided.

  8. Milrinone and levosimendan administered after reperfusion improve myocardial stunning in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Itsuko; Cho, Sungsam; Yoshitomi, Osamu; Ureshino, Hiroyuki; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya; Sumikawa, Koji

    2013-02-01

    We assessed the effect of milrinone application timing after reperfusion against myocardial stunning as compared with levosimendan in swine. Furthermore, we examined the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the milrinone-induced cardioprotection. All swine were subjected to 12-minutes ischemia followed by 90-minutes reperfusion to generate stunned myocardium. Milrinone or levosimendan was administered intravenously either for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion or for 70 minutes starting 20 minutes after reperfusion. In another group, SB203580, a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, was administered with and without milrinone. Regional myocardial contractility was assessed by percent segment shortening (%SS). Milrinone starting just after reperfusion, but not starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, improved %SS at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after reperfusion compared with that in the control group. SB203580 abolished the beneficial effect of milrinone. On the other hand, levosimendan starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, but not for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion, improved %SS at 60 and 90 minutes after reperfusion. Milrinone should be administered just after reperfusion to protect myocardial stunning through p38 MAPK, whereas levosimendan improvement of contractile function could be mainly dependent on its positive inotropic effect.

  9. Determinants of myocardial hemorrhage after coronary reperfusion in the anesthetized dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, L.A.J.; White, F.; Heggtveit, H.A.; Sanders, T.M.; Bloor, C.M.; Covell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Intramyocardial hemorrhage often occurs with reperfusion in experimental acute myocardial infarction and is thought to be associated with extension of necrosis. To determine if hemorrhage was associated with extension of necrosis, 10 anesthetized dogs were reperfused after 6 hours of circumflex coronary artery occlusion and 10 others had control occlusion with no reperfusion. Fifteen of the 20 reperfused dogs had gross hemorrhage and none of the control dogs did. In 12 reperfused and 10 control dogs, radioactive microspheres were injected after coronary occlusion to quantitate collateral flow and in the reperfusion group microspheres were injected to quantitate reflow. Complete flow data were available in eight reperfused and 10 analyzed for hemorrhage, collateral flow and creatine kinase activity. Serial microscopic examination was performed in eight additional dogs reperfused after 6 hours to determine if hemorrhage occurs into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. Pathologic examination indicatd that hemorrhage did not occur into otherwise microscopically normal myocardium. These studies indicate that hemorrhage or reperfusion is associated with severe myocardial necrosis and markedly depressed flow before reperfusion and this occurs only into myocardium already markedly compromised at the time of reperfusion

  10. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism

  11. Pharmacologic Effects of Cannabidiol on Acute Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Rabbits: Evaluated With 3.0T Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanbo; Chen, Feng; Yin, Ting; Xia, Qian; Liu, Yewei; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-inflammatory effects. We explored its therapeutic effects on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury with an experimental imaging platform. Reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in rabbits with a 90-minute coronary artery occlusion followed by 24-hour reperfusion. Before reperfusion, rabbits received 2 intravenous doses of 100 μg/kg CBD (n = 10) or vehicle (control, n = 10). Evans blue was intravenously injected for later detection of the AMI core. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate cardiac morphology and function. After euthanasia, blood troponin I (cTnI) was assessed, and the heart was excised and infused with multifunctional red iodized oil dye. The heart was sliced for digital radiography to quantify the perfusion density rate, area at risk (AAR), and myocardial salvage index, followed by histomorphologic staining. Compared with controls, CBD treatment improved systolic wall thickening (P CBD therapy reduced AMI size and facilitated restoration of left ventricular function. We demonstrated that this experimental platform has potential theragnostic utility.

  12. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Postconditioning Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D; Cummings, L J

    2017-11-01

    Reperfusion (restoration of blood flow) after a period of ischemia (interruption of blood flow) can paradoxically place tissues at risk of further injury: so-called ischemia-reperfusion injury or IR injury. Recent studies have shown that postconditioning (intermittent periods of further ischemia applied during reperfusion) can reduce IR injury. We develop a mathematical model to describe the reperfusion and postconditioning process following an ischemic insult, treating the blood vessel as a two-dimensional channel, lined with a monolayer of endothelial cells that interact (respiration and mechanotransduction) with the blood flow. We investigate how postconditioning affects the total cell density within the endothelial layer, by varying the frequency of the pulsatile flow and the oxygen concentration at the inflow boundary. We find that, in the scenarios we consider, the pulsatile flow should be of high frequency to minimize cellular damage, while oxygen concentration at the inflow boundary should be held constant, or subject to only low-frequency variations, to maximize cell proliferation.

  14. Testicular reperfusion injury, post ligation of the spermatic cord in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was aimed at investigating the level of tissue regeneration following sanguineous reperfusion post ligation of the spermatic cord in dogs. A total of 5 adult Nigerian local dogs conditioned for 3 weeks, laboratorily evaluated twice weekly prior to surgery were maintained for 1month. Dogs were aseptically ...

  15. Effect of desferrioxamine on reperfusion damage of rat heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... ... deferrioxamine on rat heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation after normothermic ischemic cardiac arrest and of reperfusion. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1988;. 62: 419-434. IL Sordahl LA, Johnson C, Blailock ZR. Schwartz A. The mitochondrion. Mechods Phannacol1971; 1: 247-286.

  16. Mobilisation of satellite cells following ischaemia and reperfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the morphological and morphometric features of activated skeletal muscle satellite cells in primates, using an ischaemic reperfusion model. Setting. The study was undertaken at the Biomedical Resource Centre and the Electron Microscopy Unit of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Interventions.

  17. [Correction of a reperfusion dysfunction in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnenko, S F; Sinenchenko, G I; Kurygin, A A; Chupris, V G

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of experimental investigations carried out in 32 dogs and 30 rabbits and laboratory data of 242 patients has shown that the application of antioxidant and antihypoxic medicines decrease reperfusion lesions and endotoxicosis in operative treatment of acute intestinal obstruction.

  18. The sterile immune response during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion elicits an immune response that lacks a microbial constituent yet poses a potentially lethal threat to the host. In this sterile setting, the immune system is alarmed by endogenous danger signals that are release by stressed and dying liver cells. The detection of

  19. Short communication:Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (IIR) injury on semen characteristics in WAD bucks. Six healthy adult male ... Many of the abnormalities involved midpiece and tail abnormalities which are very vital to propulsion and may cause an inability of the sperm cells to fertilize. This hitherto silent ...

  20. The effect of collateral flow and myocardial viability on the distribution of technetium-99m sestamibi in a closed-chest model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareonthaitawee, P.; O'Connor, M.K.; Gibbons, R.J.; Christian, T.F.; Ritman, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of myocardial viability and the degree of collateral blood flow on the uptake and retention of 99m Tc-sestamibi by examining three animal models of coronary occlusion and reperfusion, each reflecting a different state of viability and collateral blood flow. Three closed-chest animal models were studied: canine (high collateral flow, preserved viability), porcine (low collateral flow, absent viability) and porcine with slowly occlusive coronary stents producing infarction and enhanced collateral blood flow (high collateral flow, absent viability). There were seven dogs, seven pigs and six pigs, respectively, in each animal model. Animals from all three models were subjected to a 40-min total left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. 99m Tc-sestamibi and radiolabelled microspheres were injected during LAD occlusion 10 min prior to reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 2 h of reperfusion flow. Ex situ heart slice imaging to determine risk area was followed by viability staining to determine infarct size. Slices were subsequently sectioned into equally sized radial segments and placed in a gamma well counter. Risk area as determined by ex situ 99m Tc-sestamibi imaging was not significantly different by model. Pathological infarct size differed significantly by model [canine = 1%±1% of the left ventricle (LV); porcine = 13%±8% LV; porcine with stent = 14%±7% LV; P=0.002]. Collateral blood flow by microspheres during occlusion tended to differ among models (overall P=0.08), with the canine and porcine with stent models having relatively high flow rates compared with the acute porcine model. 99m Tc-sestamibi activity correlated with microsphere blood flow in all three models, with r values for individual animals (n=20) ranging from 0.86 to 0.96 (all P 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake with myocardial blood flow. 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake overestimated blood flow to a greater extent

  1. Reperfusion injury protection during Basic Life Support improves circulation and survival outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaty, Guillaume; Lurie, Keith; Metzger, Anja; Lick, Michael; Bartos, Jason A; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott; Puertas, Laura; Pepe, Paul; Fowler, Raymond; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PC) using three intentional pauses at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in pigs when epinephrine (epi) is used before defibrillation. We hypothesized PC, performed during basic life support (BLS) in the absence of epinephrine, would reduce reperfusion injury and enhance 24h functional recovery. Prospective animal investigation. Animal laboratory Female farm pigs (n=46, 39±1kg). Protocol A: After 12min of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 28 pigs were randomized to four groups: (A) Standard CPR (SCPR), (B) active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device (ACD-ITD), (C) SCPR+PC (SCPR+PC) and (D) ACD-ITD CPR+PC. Protocol B: After 15min of VF, 18 pigs were randomized to ACD-ITD CPR or ACD-ITD+PC. The BLS duration was 2.75min in Protocol A and 5min in Protocol B. Following BLS, up to three shocks were delivered. Without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), CPR was resumed and epi (0.5mg) and defibrillation delivered. The primary end point was survival without major adverse events. Hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were also measured. Data are presented as mean±SEM. Protocol A: ACD-ITD+PC (group D) improved coronary perfusion pressure after 3min of BLS versus the three other groups (28±6, 35±7, 23±5 and 47±7 for groups A, B, C, D respectively, p=0.05). There were no significant differences in 24h survival between groups. LVEF 4h post ROSC was significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs ACD-ITD alone (52.5±3% vs. 37.5±6.6%, p=0.045). Survival rates were significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs. ACD-ITD alone (p=0.027). BLS using ACD-ITD+PC reduced post resuscitation cardiac dysfunction and improved functional recovery after prolonged untreated VF in pigs. 12-11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of 51 Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po 2 blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po 2 blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po 2 . These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach

  3. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  4. Dexmedetomidine protects from post-myocardial ischaemia reperfusion lung damage in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Gülay; Çelik, Ali; Bilge, Mustafa; Alkan, Metin; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Özer, Abdullah; Şıvgın, Volkan; Erdem, Özlem; Arslan, Mustafa; Kavutçu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic complications and lipid peroxidation are known to have a close association. Lipid peroxidation commonly occurs at sites exposed to ischaemia, but distant organs and tissues also get damaged during ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Some of these targets are vital organs, such as the lung, liver, and kidney; the lung is the most frequently affected. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on I/R damage in lung tissue and on the oxidant/anti-oxidant system in diabetic rats. Material and methods Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in 18 Wistar Albino rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups (diabetes control (DC), diabetes plus ischaemia-reperfusion (DIR), and diabetes plus dexmedetomidine-ischaemia/reperfusion (DIRD)) after the effects of diabetes were clearly evident. The rats underwent a left thoracotomy and then ischaemia was produced in the myocardium muscle by a left anterior descending artery ligation for 30 min in the DIR and DIRD groups. I/R was performed for 120 min. The DIRD group received a single intraperitoneal dose of dexmedetomidine (100 µg/kg); the DIR group received no dexmedetomidine. Group DC was evaluated as the diabetic control group and also included six rats (C group) in which diabetes was not induced. These mice underwent only left thoracotomy and were closed without undergoing myocardial ischaemia. Histopathological changes, activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase anti-oxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results Neutrophil infiltration/aggregation was higher in the DIR group than in the C, DC, and DIRD groups (p=0.001, p=0.013, and p=0.042, respectively). The lung injury score was significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DC groups (p<0.0001 and p=0.024, respectively). The levels of MDA were significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DIRD groups. CAT activity

  5. Dexmedetomidine protects from post-myocardial ischaemia reperfusion lung damage in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Kip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetic complications and lipid peroxidation are known to have a close association. Lipid peroxidation commonly occurs at sites exposed to ischaemia, but distant organs and tissues also get damaged during ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R. Some of these targets are vital organs, such as the lung, liver, and kidney; the lung is the most frequently affected. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on I/R damage in lung tissue and on the oxidant/anti-oxidant system in diabetic rats. Material and methods: Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (55 mg/kg in 18 Wistar Albino rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups (diabetes control (DC, diabetes plus ischaemia-reperfusion (DIR, and diabetes plus dexmedetomidine-ischaemia/reperfusion (DIRD after the effects of diabetes were clearly evident. The rats underwent a left thoracotomy and then ischaemia was produced in the myocardium muscle by a left anterior descending artery ligation for 30 min in the DIR and DIRD groups. I/R was performed for 120 min. The DIRD group received a single intraperitoneal dose of dexmedetomidine (100 µg/kg; the DIR group received no dexmedetomidine. Group DC was evaluated as the diabetic control group and also included six rats (C group in which diabetes was not induced. These mice underwent only left thoracotomy and were closed without undergoing myocardial ischaemia. Histopathological changes, activities of catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase anti-oxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were evaluated in the lung tissues of all rats. Results: Neutrophil infiltration/aggregation was higher in the DIR group than in the C, DC, and DIRD groups (p=0.001, p=0.013, and p=0.042, respectively. The lung injury score was significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DC groups (p<0.0001 and p=0.024, respectively. The levels of MDA were significantly higher in the DIR group than in the C and DIRD groups. CAT

  6. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  8. Renoprotective effect of crocin following liver ischemia/ reperfusion injury in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of hepatic ‎ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and ‎histopathological changes in rat kidney, and to investigate the effect of crocin on IR-‎related changes. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8. They were ‎sham-operated, IR, crocin pre-treatment, and crocin pretreatment+IR groups. Sham-operated ‎and Crocin pre-treatment groups received normal saline (N/S, 2 ml/day and crocin (200 mg/kg ‎for seven consecutive days intraperitoneally (IP, respectively, then rats underwent laparotomy, only. ‎IR and crocin pretreatment+IR groups received N/S and crocin with the same dose, time, and route, ‎respectively, then rats underwent partial (70% ischemia for 45 min that was followed by reperfusion ‎for 60 min. At the end of the experiment, kidney specimens were taken for histopathological and ‎antioxidant evaluations and also blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results: The results of the present study showed that crocin pre-treatment significantly increased ‎the activity of antioxidants, decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and blood urea nitrogen ‎following IR-induced hepatic injury. Crocin also ameliorated kidney´s histopathological ‎disturbance beyond IR-induced hepatic injury. Conclusion: Crocin as an antioxidant agent protected renal insult following liver IR injury by ‎increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, reducing serum levels of liver enzymes, and ‎improving histopathological changes.‎

  9. Vildagliptin reduces cardiac ischemic-reperfusion injury in obese orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Kredphoo, Sasiwan; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and testosterone deprivation are associated with coronary artery disease. Testosterone and vildagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) exert cardioprotection during ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effect of these drugs on I/R heart in a testosterone-deprived, obese, insulin-resistant model is unclear. This study investigated the effects of testosterone and vildagliptin on cardiac function, arrhythmias and the infarct size in I/R heart of testosterone-deprived rats with obese insulin resistance. Orchiectomized (O) or sham operated (S) male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups to receive normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Orchiectomized rats in each diet were divided to receive testosterone (2 mg/kg), vildagliptin (3 mg/kg) or the vehicle daily for 4 weeks. Then, I/R was performed by a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, followed by a 120-min reperfusion. LV function, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. HFD groups developed insulin resistance at week 12. At week 16, cardiac function was impaired in NDO, HFO and HFS rats, but was restored in all testosterone- and vildagliptin-treated rats. During I/R injury, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction were prominently increased in NDO, HFO and HFS rats, compared with those in NDS rats. Treatment with either testosterone or vildagliptin similarly attenuated these impairments during I/R injury. These finding suggest that both testosterone replacement and vildagliptin share similar efficacy for cardioprotection during I/R injury by decreasing the infarct size and attenuating cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by I/R injury in testosterone-deprived rats with obese insulin resistance. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle. Methods Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidase (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I ( p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  11. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle.Methods: Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results: In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidise (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I (p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  12. Effect of Intervention in Mast Cell Function Before Reperfusion on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mast cells are sparsely distributed in the kidneys under normal conditions; however, the number of mast cells increases dramatically during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RI/RI. When mast cells are stimulated, numerous mediators are released, and under pathological conditions, they produce a wide range of biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intervention in mast cell function before reperfusion on RI/RI. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n=50 were randomized into five groups: sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, cromolyn sodium treatment group (CS+I/R group, ketotifen treatment group (K+I/Rgroup, and compound 48/80 treatment group (C+I/R group. I/R injury was induced by bilateral renal artery and vein occlusion for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The agents were intravenously administered 5 min before reperfusion through the tail vein. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen(BUN, serum creatinine (Scr and histamine and the kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were assessed. The expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in renal tissue was also measured. Results: I/R injury resulted in severe renal injury, as demonstrated by a large increase in injury scores; serum levels of BUN, Scr and histamine; and kidney levels of MDA, TNF-α, and IL-6; this was accompanied by reduced SOD activity and upregulated ICAM-1 expression. Treatment with cromolyn sodium or ketotifen markedly alleviated I/R-mediated kidney injury, whereas compound 48/80 further aggravated kidney injury. Conclusion: Intervention in mast cell activity prior to reperfusionhas a strong effect on RI/RI.

  13. Role of eicosanoids and white blood cells in the beneficial effects of limited reperfusion after ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.A.; Dikdan, G.; Lysz, T.W.; Hobson, R.W. II

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow has been shown to be beneficial locally in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of this on eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene B4), white blood cell activation, and skeletal muscle injury as quantitated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate after ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in 16 anesthetized dogs. One gracilis muscle in each dog was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of limited reperfusion and then by a second hour of normal reperfusion. The other muscle was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of normal reperfusion. Six dogs each were used as normal reperfusion controls (NR) and limited reperfusion controls (LR), with 5 dogs being treated with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (LR/TSI) and another five with a leukotriene inhibitor (LR/LI). LR in all three groups (LR, LR/TSI, and LR/LI) showed a benefit in skeletal muscle injury as measured by triphenyltetrazolim chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate when compared with NR. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with LR regarding eicosanoid levels and white blood cell activation when compared with NR. These results demonstrate that LR produces benefits by mechanisms other than those dependent upon thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, or white blood cell activation

  14. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  15. Effects of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine A on Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiac Markers of Rat Isolated Heart After Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the important causes of death during old ages. Gallic acid as an antioxidant or cyclosporine A (CsA) as inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) alone could prevent these complications to some extent, but their combination effect has not been investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of gallic acid and CsA on antioxidant capacity of isolated heart tissues during ischemia reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to different groups: sham, control (Ca, received saline, 1 mL/kg); 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid (G1a: 7.5, G2a: 15, G3a: 30 mg/kg) for 10 days, and the other 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid and received CsA (0.2 µM) for 10 minutes before induction of ischemia and during the first 10 minutes of reperfusion (G1b, G2b and G3b) and the last group received CsA alone (Cb). After 10 days of pretreatment, the heart was isolated and transferred to the Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. After that cardiac markers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed in cardiac tissues. Results: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased in animals pretreated with gallic acid significantly. However, pretreatment with gallic acid followed by CsA during reperfusion improved the antioxidant capacity and cardiac marker enzymes and restored the lipid peroxidation more effective than gallic acid or CsA alone. Nevertheless, CsA did not change the cardiac marker enzymes significantly. Conclusions: Gallic acid and CsA combination improved antioxidant capacity and cell membrane integrity more than each one alone. Therefore, it can be a therapeutic approach to reduce the I/R injury. PMID:25068044

  16. A porcine ex vivo lung perfusion model with maximal argon exposure to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Martens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Argon (Ar is a noble gas with known organoprotective effects in rodents and in vitro models. In a previous study we failed to find a postconditioning effect of Ar during ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP on warm-ischemic injury in a porcine model. In this study, we further investigated a prolonged exposure to Ar to decrease cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation in a porcine model with EVLP assessment. Domestic pigs (n = 6/group were pre-conditioned for 6 hours with 21% O 2 and 79% N 2 (CONTR or 79% Ar (ARG. Subsequently, lungs were cold flushed and stored inflated on ice for 18 hours inflated with the same gas mixtures. Next, lungs were perfused for 4 hours on EVLP (acellular while ventilated with 12% O 2 and 88% N 2 (CONTR group or 88% Ar (ARG group. The perfusate was saturated with the same gas mixture but with the addition of CO 2 to an end-tidal CO 2 of 35-45 mmHg. The saturated perfusate was drained and lungs were perfused with whole blood for an additional 2 hours on EVLP. Evaluation at the end of EVLP did not show significant effects on physiologic parameters by prolonged exposure to Ar. Also wet-to-dry weight ratio did not improve in the ARG group. Although in other organ systems protective effects of Ar have been shown, we did not detect beneficial effects of a high concentration of Ar on cold pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury in a porcine lung model after prolonged exposure to Ar in this porcine model with EVLP assessment.

  17. Time-dependent alterations in serum NO concentration after oral administration of L-arginine, L-NAME, and allopurinol in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia E Yanni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Amalia E Yanni1, Eleutherios Margaritis2, Nikolaos Liarakos2, Alkisti Pantopoulou2, Maria Poulakou2, Maria Kostakis2, Despoina Perrea2, Alkis Kostakis31Department of Science of Dietetics and Nutrition, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 2Laboratory of Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 32nd Department of Propedeutic Surgery, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, GreeceObjective: To study the effect of oral administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor L-arginine (L-Arg, a NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, allopurinol (Allo, on serum NO concentration and catalase activity after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R in rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats received per os L-Arg (800 mg/kg or L-NAME (50 mg/kg or Allo (100 mg/kg 24 hrs, 12 hrs and 1 hr before underwent 1 hr occlusion of superior mesenteric artery followed by 1 hr of reperfusion (L-Arg(IR1, L-NAME(IR1 and Allo(IR1 respectively or 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (L-Arg(IR8, L-NAME(IR8 and Allo(IR8 respectively. There was one group underwent 1 hr occlusion (I, a group underwent 1 hr occlusion followed by 1 hr reperfusion (IR1, a group subjected to 1 hr occlusion followed by 8 hrs of reperfusion (IR8 and a last group that served as control (C. Serum NO concentration and catalase activity were measured.Results: After 1 hr of reperfusion serum NO concentration was elevated in IR1 and L-Arg(IR1 groups compared with group C but not in L-NAME(IR1 and Allo(IR1 group. Catalase activity was enhanced in L-NAME(IR1 group. Interestingly, serum NO concentration was increased after 8 hrs of reperfusion in all groups (IR8, L-Arg(IR8, L-NAME(IR8 and Allo(IR8 compared with control while catalase activity did not show significant difference in any group.Conclusions: The results of the

  18. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  19. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  20. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Vinther, Jens; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul

    2014-04-16

    A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators.The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae.

  1. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  2. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous Reperfusion after In Situ Thromboembolic Stroke in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Hee; Bolbos, Radu; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Hermitte, Laure; Wiart, Marlène; Berthezène, Yves; Nighoghossian, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Injection of thrombin into the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of mice has been proposed as a new model of thromboembolic stroke. The present study used sequential multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA), Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI), to document MCA occlusion, PWI-DWI mismatch, and lesion development. In the first experiment, complete MCA occlusion and reproducible hypoperfusion were obtained in 85% of animals during the first hour after stroke onset. In the second experiment, 80% of animals showed partial to complete reperfusion during a three-hour follow-up. Spontaneous reperfusion thus contributed to the variability in ischemic volume in this model. The study confirmed the value of the model for evaluating new thrombolytic treatments, but calls for extended MRI follow-up at the acute stage in therapeutic studies. PMID:23166825

  4. Oxidative Stress and Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salatti Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury is directly related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, endothelial cell injury, increased vascular permeability, and the activation of neutrophils and platelets, cytokines, and the complement system. Several studies have confirmed the destructiveness of the toxic oxygen metabolites produced and their role in the pathophysiology of different processes, such as oxygen poisoning, inflammation, and ischemic injury. Due to the different degrees of tissue damage resulting from the process of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, several studies in animal models have focused on the prevention of IR injury and methods of lung protection. Lung IR injury has clinical relevance in the setting of lung transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass, for which the consequences of IR injury may be devastating in critically ill patients.

  5. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P...

  6. Purified natural pig immunoglobulins can substitute dietary zinc in reducing piglet post weaning diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2017-01-01

    antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection. In the present study we were able to reproduce these results...... as it was observed that oral ppIgG accelerated clearance of faecal haemolytic bacteria in pigs challenged with E. coli in comparison with pigs not receiving ppIgG. This effect was observed upon feeding ppIgG for seven days postweaning suggesting that ppIgG does not have to be used prophylactically for several days...

  7. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  8. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zheng

    Full Text Available Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI. 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1 and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore

  9. Cardiovascular MR T2-STIR imaging does not discriminate between intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular obstruction during the subacute phase of a reperfused myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2016-01-01

    ) and T2 weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) imaging have been used to detect IMH and to explore its clinical importance. IMH is typically identified within the area-at-risk as a hypointense signal core on T2-STIR images. Because MVO will also appear as a hypointense signal core, T2-STIR...... imaging may not be an optimal method for assessing IMH. In this study, we sought to investigate the ability of T2-STIR to discriminate between MVO with IMH in a porcine myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion model that expressed MVO with and without IMH. METHOD: MVO with and without IMH (defined from both...... MVO in all hearts. CMR and pathology showed that IMH was present in 6 of 13 (46%) infarcts. The sensitivity and specificity of T2-STIR hypointense signal core for identification of IMH was 100% and 29%, respectively. T2-values between hypointense signal core in the pigs with and without IMH were...

  10. Dynamic mechanisms of cardiac oxygenation during brief ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.J.; Rembert, J.C.; Bauman, R.P.; Greenfield, J.C. Jr.; Piantadosi, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Myocardial oxygenation may be altered markedly by changes in tissue blood flow. During brief ischemia and reperfusion produced by transient occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in 10 open-chest dogs, changes in the oxygenation of tissue hemoglobin (Hb) plus myoglobin (Mb) and the oxidation-reduction (redox) state of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. The nondestructive optical technique indicated that coronary occlusion produced an abrupt drop in tissue oxygen stores (tHb02 + Mb02), tissue blood volume (tBV), and the oxidation level of cytochrome aa3. Changes in the cytochrome oxidation state were related inversely to transmural collateral blood flow within the ischemic region (r = 0.77) measured with radiolabeled microspheres. Furthermore, there was a direct relationship (r = 0.91) between collateral blood flow and the tissue level of desaturated Hb and Mb (tHb + Mb). Reperfusion after 2 min of ischemia led to a synchronous overshoot of baseline in coronary flow and tBV followed by supranormal increases in tHb + Mb02 and the oxidation level of cytochrome aa3. The tHb + Mb level increased transiently during reperfusion. This response correlated inversely with collateral flow during ischemia (r = 0.91). Accordingly, the time required to reach peak tHb + Mb levels was shortest in dogs with high collateral flows (r = 0.75). Thus collateral blood flow partially sustains myocardial oxygenation during coronary artery occlusion and influences tissue reoxygenation early during reperfusion

  11. [Ishemic-reperfusion syndrome prophylaxis in general hypothermia in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, V I; Khytryĭ, H P; Luk'ianchuk, V D; Shalamaĭ, A S

    2009-05-01

    The influence of general supercooling on rats were studied. The action of corvitin and pentoxiphillin on the prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis for conditions of general supercooling were analysed. On the based of investigations results analysis of lipids peroxide oxidation indexes and antioxidant protection system in animals it were established, that corvitin in difference of pentoxiphillin give more significant protectory effect in conditions of ishemic-reperfusion syndrome.

  12. Discharge Policy and Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Vlugt, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) has improved over time and the duration of hospital stay has considerably decreased. Early hospital discharge after MI has been promoted for over 25 years. However, the meaning of “early” evolved over time. In the early eighties, before the widespread introduction of reperfusion therapy, patients were hospitalised for approximately 3 weeks and early discharge implemented a reduction to 7 days. Nowadays, the average hospit...

  13. Characterization of Microparticles after Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christopher M.; Quillin, Ralph C.; Wilson, Gregory C.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Johnson, Bobby L.; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Schuster, Rebecca M.; Blanchard, John; Edwards, Michael J.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a well-studied model of liver injury and has demonstrated a biphasic injury followed by recovery and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs) are a developing field of study and these small membrane bound vesicles have been shown to have effector function in other physiologic and pathologic states. This study was designed to quantify the levels of MPs from various cell origins–platelets, neutrophils, and endolethial cells–following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods A murine model was used with mice undergoing 90 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia followed by various times of reperfusion. Following reperfusion, plasma samples were taken and MPs of various cell origins were labeled and levels were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, cell specific MPs were further assessed by Annexin V, which stains for the presence of phosphatidylserine, a cell surface marker linked to apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls test with data presented as the mean and standard error of the mean. Results MPs from varying sources show an increase in circulating levels following hepatic I/R injury. However, the timing of the appearance of different MP subtypes differs for each cell type. Platelet and neutrophil-derived MP levels demonstrated an acute elevation following injury whereas endothelial-derived MP levels demonstrated a delayed elevation. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize circulating levels of cell-specific MPs after hepatic I/R injury and suggests that MPs derived from platelets and neutrophils serve as markers of inflammatory injury and may be active participants in this process. In contrast, MPs derived from endothelial cells increase after the injury response during the reparative phase and may be important in angiogenesis that occurs in the regenerating liver. PMID:24879335

  14. Molecules produced by probiotics prevent enteric colibacillosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo; Tessema, Akalate; Sharma, Sapana; Kovač, Zlatko; Wang, Chuan; Morales, Rocio; Griffiths, Mansel William

    2017-11-15

    With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E. coli. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the bioactive molecules, termed proteobiotics, produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in preventing enterotoxigenic E, coli (ETEC) infection in pigs, which is the etiological agent for enteric colibacillosis, a common disease of nursing and young pigs. To achieve this, piglets were fed a preparation of the bioactive at four levels: 0, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× for 7 days prior to challenge with E. coli K88. There were 36 pigs (18 gilts and 18 barrows) per treatment, resulting in 144 piglets in total for the study. Each pen had 6 piglets (3 gilts and 3 barrows). Only piglets with no physical abnormality or conditions were used in the trial and intact male piglets and ridglings were excluded. The bioactive continued to be fed to the pigs post-challenge. Based of fecal and demeanour scores, pigs fed the low and high dose of the proteobiotic were significanlty less likely to show symptoms of illness than pigs fed no bioactive. While not being significant, the weight gain of pigs given the proteobiotics was improved. At day 4 following challenge, almost 50% of piglets that did not receive the proteobiotic were shedding ETEC in their feces, compared with about 15% of animals receiving the supplement. There was also an indication that the proteobiotics reduced colonization of the ileum by E. coli K88 and improved gut health. This study indicates that the bioactive molecules produced by L. acidophilus reduces

  15. Immune response in pigs treated with therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin at the time of vaccination against Aujeszky's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Czyżewska-Dors, Ewelina; Kwit, Krzysztof; Rachubik, Jarosław; Lipowski, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2015-06-01

    The effect of treatment with enrofloxacin was studied on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs. Forty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C), control vaccinated (CV), vaccinated, received enrofloxacin (ENRO)). From day -1 to day 3 pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended dose. Pigs from ENRO and CV groups were vaccinated twice against Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). There was a significant delay in the production of humoral response of enrofloxacin dosed pigs when compared with CV group. Moreover, in ENRO group the significant decrease in IFN-γ production and significantly lower values of stimulation index after ADV restimulation was noted, as compared with CV group. The secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α by PBMC after recall stimulation was also affected in ENRO group. The results indicate that enrofloxacin, in addition to its antimicrobial properties, possess significant immunomodulatory effects and may alter the immune response to vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  17. Metabolomic profiling to characterize acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. Acute intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (AII/R is an adaptive response to shock. The high mortality rate from AII/R is due to the severity of the disease and, more importantly, the failure of timely diagnosis. The objective of this investigation is to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis to characterize urine metabolomic profile of AII/R injury in a mouse model. Animals were exposed to sham, early (30 min or late (60 min acute intestinal ischemia by complete occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 2 hrs of reperfusion. Urine was collected and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Urinary metabolite concentrations demonstrated that different profiles could be delineated based on the duration of the intestinal ischemia. Metabolites such as allantoin, creatinine, proline, and methylamine could be predictive of AII/R injury. Lactate, currently used for clinical diagnosis, was found not to significantly contribute to the classification model for either early or late ischemia. This study demonstrates that patterns of changes in urinary metabolites are effective at distinguishing AII/R progression in an animal model. This is a proof-of-concept study to further support examination of metabolites in the clinical diagnosis of intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in patients. The discovery of a fingerprint metabolite profile of AII/R will be a major advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of systemic injury in critically ill patients.

  18. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  19. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is increased following probiotic administration to preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard Harvey

    2011-01-01

    with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64–67 vs. 14%; P... immature gut immune system and low NEC incidence in the control group. It remains to be determined whether similar adverse responses to probiotics occur in preterm infants...

  20. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to...

  1. Behavioural and brain responses to flavoured-meals paired with visceral stimulations in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values were studied in twelve 30-kg pigs. During four 30-min conditioning sessions per flavour, the animals received a flavoured-meal paired with intraduodenal infusions of 15% glucose (FG), lithium chloride (FL), or saline (FS). Two-choice feeding tests were performed 1 and 5 weeks later, and in between, anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three PET brain imaging with exposure to the flavours. During conditi...

  2. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI evaluation of porcine femoral head ischemia and reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T. [Clinic for Orthopaedics and Sports Traumatology, Dreifaltigkeits-Krankenhaus GmbH, Aachener Str. 445-449, 50933 Koeln (Germany); Drescher, W. [Department of Orthopaedics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Becker, C. [Department of Orthopaedics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sangill, R.; Stoedkilde-Joergensen, H. [Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tomography, University of Aarhus, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Heydthausen, M. [Computing Center, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hansen, E.S.; Buenger, C. [Spine Section, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Aarhus (Denmark)

    2003-02-01

    To examine the potential of gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced dynamic MRI in the detection of early femoral head ischemia. Furthermore, to apply a three-compartment model to achieve a clinically applicable MR index for femoral head perfusion during the steady state and arterial hip joint tamponade.Design and materials In a porcine model femoral head perfusion was measured by radioactive tracer microspheres and by using a dynamic Gd-enhanced MRI protocol. Femoral head perfusion measurements and MRI tests were performed unilaterally before, during and after the experimentally induced ischemia of one of the hip joints. Ischemia was induced by increasing intra-articular pressure to 250 mmHg. All pigs showed ischemia of the femoral head epiphysis under hip joint tamponade followed by reperfusion to the same level as before joint tamponade. In two cases perfusion after removal of tamponade continued to be low. In dynamic MRI measurements increases in signal intensity were seen after intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA, followed by a slow decrease in signal intensity. The signal-intensity curve during femoral head ischemia had a minor increase. Also the coefficient determined was a helpful indicator of femoral head ischemia. Femoral head blood flow as measured by microspheres fell significantly under joint tamponade. Early detection of this disturbed regional blood flow was possible using a dynamic MRI procedure. A biomathematical model resulted from the evaluation of the intervals of signal intensity over time which allows detection of bone blood flow changes at a very early stage. Using this new method earlier detection of femoral head necrosis may be possible. (orig.)

  3. Experimental and iatrogenic poisoning by sodium selenite in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Following a case of iatrogenic selenium poisoning in a young pig, an experimental study was carry out. Sodium selenite was orally and parenterally administered to 13 pigs that were subdivided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. The animals in groups G1 and G3 received sodium selenite intramuscularly (IM, G1 received a comercial formula, and G3 received sodium selenite mixed with distilled water at different dosages, and those in group G2 were fed commercial sodium selenite. Acute and subacute poisoning was observed in both groups, although the onset of clinical signs was slower in group G2. Only one pig (in group G1 that had received the highest dose showed a peracute course. Apathy, anorexia, dyspnea, vomiting, muscular tremors, proprioceptive deficit, ataxia and paresis of the hind limbs progressing to the front limbs evolving to tetraplegia were observed. Postmortem findings differed whether the animals received the injected (G1 and G3 or oral (G2 sodium selenite. The liver was moderately atrophic in some animals of G2. Some of the animals in groups G1 and G3 presented with lung edema. One pig in G3 had yellowish-brown areas in the ventral horns of the cervical intumescences of the spinal cord. The most important histological changes were present in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescences of the spinal cord. In one animal, changes were present in the brainstem and mesencephalon. The initial lesion was a perivascular and astrocyte edema that progressing to lysis and death of astrocytes and neurons. In the chronic stage of the lesions, there were extensive areas of liquefaction necrosis with perivascular lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration and occasional eosinophils. It seems that disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to astrocyte edema is the most likely mechanism of CNS lesion.

  4. Nebivolol and chrysin protect the liver against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats

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    Sayed M. Mizar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced injury, one of the leading causes of liver damage post-surgical intervention, trauma and transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of nebivolol and chrysin against I/R-induced liver injury via their vasodilator and antioxidant effects, respectively. Adult male Wister rats received nebivolol (5 mg/kg and/or chrysin (25 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for one week then subjected to ischemia via clamping the portal triad for 30 min then reperfusion for 30 min. Liver function enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, as well as hepatic Myeloperoxidase (MPO, total nitrate (NOx, glutathione (GSH and liver malondialdehyde (MDA were measured at the end of the experiment. Liver tissue damage was examined by histopathology. In addition, the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS subtypes, endothelial (eNOS and inducible (iNOS in liver samples were assessed by Western blotting and confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Both chrysin and nebivolol significantly counteracted I/R-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage biomarkers. The combination of these agents caused additive liver protective effect against I/R-induced damage via the up regulation of nitric oxide expression and the suppression of oxidative stress. Chrysin and nebivolol combination showed a promising protective effect against I/R-induced liver injury, at least in part, via decreasing oxidative stress and increasing nitric oxide levels.

  5. The effect of Aqueous Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea Extract on Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat

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    syead Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the previous studies Portulaca oleracea (PO has antioxidative effects and several factors such as oxidative stress is involved in the renal injury caused by ischemia - reperfusion (I/R. Therefore, the goal of present study is to evaluate the renal I/R injury in rats received aqueous extracts of PO (AEPO. Material and Methods: First, the right nephrectomy was performed in adult male Wistar rats and after 20 days they were divided into 5 groups (6=n. Sham operated+vehicle (sham, sham operated+ AEPO300mg/kg (AEPO group, I/R, AEPO150+I/R and AEPO300+I/R. Each group was treated orally for 5 consecutive days by 150 or 300 mg/kg of either AEPO or saline. On the fifth day of treatment, I/R (45 min ischemia/24 hours reperfusion or sham operation was performed on the left kidney and amounts of urea and creatinine in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH and total antioxidant activity (TAA in the kidney tissue were measured. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. P values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of I/R increased urea and creatinine levels. AEPO had no effect on serum urea and creatinine, of non-ischemic animals, but increased the levels of urea and creatinine in I/R and treatment groups. SOD activity was significantly higher in all groups (except AEPO300 group compared to the sham group. However the levels of MDA, GSH and TAA of I/R and treatment groups did not show any significant differences in comparison to sham group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the PO aqueous extract did not ameliorate the I/R injury and even possibly some ingredients in the extract aggravate the renal I/R injury.

  6. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Filiz Ozyigit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group. Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01, levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05 compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  7. Hepatocyte cytoskeleton during ischemia and reperfusion influence of ANP-mediated p38 MAPK activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie Keller; Alexander L Gerbes; Stefanie Kulhanek-Heinze; Tobias Gerwig; Uwe Grützner; Nico van Rooijen; Angelika M Vollmar; Alexandra K Kiemer

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine functional consequences of this activation, whereby we focused on a potential regulation of the hepatocyte cytoskeleton during ischemia and reperfusion.METHODS: For in vivo experiments, animals received ANP (5 μg/kg) intravenously. In a different experimental setting, isolated rat livers were perfused with KH-buffer ±ANP (200 nmol/L)±SB203580 (2 μmol/L). Liverswere then kept under ischemic conditions for 24 h, and either transplanted or reperfused. Actin, Hsp27, and phosphorylated Hsp27 were determined by Western blotting, p38 MAPK activity by in vitro phosphorylation assay. F-actin distribution was determined by confocal microscopy.RESULTS: We first confirmed that ANP preconditioning leads to an activation of p38 MAPK and observedalterations of the cytoskeleton in hepatocytes of ANPpreconditioned organs. ANP induced an increase of hepatic F-actin after ischemia, which could be prevented by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 but had no effect on bile flow. After ischemia untreated livers showed a translocation of Hsp27 towards the cytoskeleton and an increase in total Hsp27, whereas ANP preconditioning prohibited translocation but caused an augmentation of Hsp27 phosphorylation. This effect is also mediated via p38 MAPK, since it was abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580.CONCLUSION: This study reveals that ANP-mediated p38 MAPK activation leads to changes in hepatocyte cytoskeleton involving an elevation of phosphorylated Hsp27 and thereby for the first time shows functional consequences of ANP-induced hepatic p38 MAPK activation.

  8. Levosimendan: a cardiovascular drug to prevent liver ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Onody

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Temporary occlusion of the hepatoduodenal ligament leads to an ischemic-reperfusion (IR injury in the liver. Levosimendan is a new positive inotropic drug, which induces preconditioning-like adaptive mechanisms due to opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. The aim of this study was to examine possible protective effects of levosimendan in a rat model of hepatic IR injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Levosimendan was administered to male Wistar rats 1 hour (early pretreatment or 24 hours (late pretreatment before induction of 60-minute segmental liver ischemia. Microcirculation of the liver was monitored by laser Doppler flowmeter. After 24 hours of reperfusion, liver and blood samples were taken for histology, immuno- and enzyme-histochemistry (TUNEL; PARP; NADH-TR as well as for laboratory tests. Furthermore, liver antioxidant status was assessed and HSP72 expression was measured. RESULTS: In both groups pretreated with levosimendan, significantly better hepatic microcirculation was observed compared to respective IR control groups. Similarly, histological damage was also reduced after levosimendan administration. This observation was supported by significantly lower activities of serum ALT (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.005, AST (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.004 and less DNA damage by TUNEL test (p early = 0.05; p late = 0.034 and PAR positivity (p early = 0.02; p late = 0.04. Levosimendan pretreatment resulted in significant improvement of liver redox homeostasis. Further, significantly better mitochondrial function was detected in animals receiving late pretreatment. Finally, HSP72 expression was increased by IR injury, but it was not affected by levosimendan pretreatment. CONCLUSION: Levosimendan pretreatment can be hepatoprotective and it could be useful before extensive liver resection.

  9. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  10. Prediction of infarction and reperfusion in stroke by flow- and volume-weighted collateral signal in MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, M; Forkert, N D; Brehmer, L; Thomalla, G; Siemonsen, S; Fiehler, J; Kemmling, A

    2015-02-01

    In proximal anterior circulation occlusive strokes, collateral flow is essential for good outcome. Collateralized vessel intensity in TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA is variable due to different acquisition methods. Our purpose was to quantify collateral supply by using flow-weighted signal in TOF-MRA and blood volume-weighted signal in contrast-enhanced MRA to determine each predictive contribution to tissue infarction and reperfusion. Consecutively (2009-2013), 44 stroke patients with acute proximal anterior circulation occlusion met the inclusion criteria with TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA and penumbral imaging. Collateralized vessels in the ischemic hemisphere were assessed by TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA using 2 methods: 1) visual 3-point collateral scoring, and 2) collateral signal quantification by an arterial atlas-based collateral index. Collateral measures were tested by receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression against 2 imaging end points of tissue-outcome: final infarct volume and percentage of penumbra saved. Visual collateral scores on contrast-enhanced MRA but not TOF were significantly higher in patients with good outcome. Visual collateral scoring on contrast-enhanced MRA was the best rater-based discriminator for final infarct volume 50% (area under the curve, 0.67; P = .04). Atlas-based collateral index of contrast-enhanced MRA was the overall best independent discriminator for final infarct volume of collateral index combining the signal of TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA was the overall best discriminator for effective reperfusion (percentage of penumbra saved >50%; area under the curve, 0.89; P collateral assessment, TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA both contain predictive signal information for penumbral reperfusion. This could improve risk stratification in further studies. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. The effect of intermittent fasting and water restriction on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Salih Tunç; BOZDOĞAN, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intermittent fasting and water restriction on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. Materials and methods: Six minutes of ischemia followed by 6 min of reperfusion was produced by the ligation and then releasing of the left coronary artery. Intermittent fasting and water restriction were applied during 1 month for 12 h/day. The duration, type, and incidence of arrhythmias during reperfusion and the survival rate at the end of reperfusion were determined and c...

  12. Hypoperfusion Induced by Preconditioning Treadmill Training in Hyper-Early Reperfusion After Cerebral Ischemia: A Laser Speckle Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijie; Lu, Hongyang; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Li; Wu, Yi; Niu, Wenxiu; Ding, Li; Wang, Guili; Tong, Shanbao; Jia, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Exercise preconditioning induces neuroprotective effects during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, which involves the recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of re-established CBF following ischemia and reperfusion are unclear. The present study investigated CBF in hyper-early stage of reperfusion by laser speckle contrast imaging, a full-field high-resolution optical imaging technique. Rats with or without treadmill training were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. CBF in arteries, veins, and capillaries in hyper-early stage of reperfusion (1, 2, and 3 h after reperfusion) and in subacute stage (24 h after reperfusion) were measured. Neurological scoring and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were further applied to determine the neuroprotective effects of exercise preconditioning. In hyper-early stage of reperfusion, CBF in the rats with exercise preconditioning was reduced significantly in arteries and veins, respectively, compared to rats with no exercise preconditioning. Capillary CBF remained stable in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, though it increased significantly 24 h after reperfusion in the rats with exercise preconditioning. As a neuroprotective strategy, exercise preconditioning reduced the blood perfusion of arteries and veins in the hyper-early stage of reperfusion, which indicated intervention-induced neuroprotective hypoperfusion after reperfusion onset.

  13. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  14. Evaluation of adenosine preconditioning with 99mTc-His10-annexin V in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fei; Fang Wei; Wang Feng; Hua Zichun; Wang Zizheng; Yang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V for the detection of acute myocardial cell death and to assess the effect of adenosine preconditioning in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury (RI). Materials and Methods: 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V was prepared by one-step direct labeling, and RCP and radiostability were tested. The binding of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V to apoptosis was validated in vitro using camptothecin-induced Jurkat cells. In vivo biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method. Ischemia of 20-30 min was induced by balloon occlusion of the epicardial coronary artery of the porcine model (n=14). Adenosine was infused intravenously in six pigs before coronary occlusion. 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V (n=12) was injected intravenously at 1 h after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 3 h postinjection. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 99m Tc-MIBI was also performed 1 day after His 10 -annexin V imaging. Cardiac tissues were analyzed postmortem using hematoxylin-and-eosin and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity was measured to confirm the presence of apoptosis. Results: 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V had a RCP >98% and high stability 2 h after radiolabeling; it could bind to apoptotic cells with high affinity. Biodistribution of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin V showed a predominant uptake in the kidney and relatively low uptake in the myocardium, liver and gastrointestinal tract; rapid clearance from blood and kidney was observed. In the untreated group, intense uptake of His 10 -annexin V was visualized in the defect which was shown in MPI, whereas in the adenosine group a mild uptake of 99m Tc-His 10 -annexin was found in the risk area which showed no defects in the 99m Tc-MIBI image. TUNEL staining and activated caspase-3 confirmed the ongoing apoptosis in RI. Adenosine preconditioning significantly diminished the level of apoptosis. Uptake of His 10 -annexin V in RI correlated

  15. Measurement of ischaemia-reperfusion in patients with intermittent claudication using NMR-based metabonomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, S.A.; Daykin, C.A.; Duynhoven, J.P. van; Dorsten, F.A. van; Wulfert, F.; Mathot, J.; Scheltinga, M.R.M.; Stroosma, O.; Vader, H.L.; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent claudication has proved to be a good in vivo model for ischaemia-reperfusion. For assessment of ischaemia-reperfusion damage, the known biochemical markers all have disadvantages with respect to sensitivity and interference with other physiological events. In this work, we studied the

  16. Effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on myocardial capillary permeability following ischaemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høst, N B

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on myocardial capillary permeability for small hydrophilic molecules after ischaemia and reperfusion.......The aim was to evaluate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on myocardial capillary permeability for small hydrophilic molecules after ischaemia and reperfusion....

  17. Reperfusion therapy for ST elevation acute myocardial infarction 2010/2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steen D; Laut, Kristina G; Fajadet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the preferred reperfusion therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We conducted this study to evaluate the contemporary status on the use and type of reperfusion therapy in patients admitted with STEMI in the European Society...

  18. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury by phosphorylating the gap junction protein Connexin43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morel, Sandrine; Christoffersen, Christina; Axelsen, Lene N

    2016-01-01

    recruitment seems only indirectly affected. Importantly, short-term S1P treatment at the onset of reperfusion was sufficient to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused hearts. Mechanistic in vitro and ex vivo studies revealed that 5 min of S1P treatment induced phosphorylation of the gap...

  19. Sustained benefit of temporary limited reperfusion in skeletal muscle following ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.; Kerr, J.; Hobson, R.W. II

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow following prolonged ischemia in skeletal muscle has been shown beneficial. However, the persistence of this benefit with reinstitution of normal blood flow remains undefined. We investigated the role of temporary limited reperfusion on ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in six anesthetized dogs. Both gracilis muscles were subjected to 6 hr of ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Reperfusion blood flow was limited for the first hour in one gracilis muscle to its preischemic rate followed by a second hour of normal reperfusion (LR/NR). The contralateral muscle underwent 2 hr of normal reperfusion (NR/NR). Muscle injury was quantified by technetium-99m pyrophosphate (TcPyp) uptake and by histochemical staining using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) with planimetry of the infarct size. Capillary permeability was evaluated by muscle weight gain. Results are reported as the mean +/- SEM. These data demonstrate a sustained benefit from temporary limited reperfusion. This methodology should be considered in the surgical management of the acutely ischemic limb

  20. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M

    1997-05-01

    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  1. Reduced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Canxiang; Yang Qingwu; Lv Fenglin; Cui Jie; Fu Huabin; Wang Jingzhou

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our study aims to explore the function of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We made middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion model in mice with line embolism method. Compared with C3H/OuJ mice, scores of cerebral water content, cerebral infarct size and neurologic impairment in C3H/Hej mice were obviously lower after 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. Light microscopic and electron microscopic results showed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in C3H/Hej mice was less serious than that in C3H/OuJ mice. TNF-α and IL-6 contents in C3H/HeJ mice were obviously lower than that in C3H/OuJ mice with ELISA. The results showed that TLR4 participates in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably through decrease of inflammatory cytokines. TLR4 may become a new target for prevention of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our study suggests that TLR4 is one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury besides its important role in innate immunity

  2. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. MMP-2 participates in the sclera of guinea pig with form-deprivation myopia via IGF-1/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-X; Sun, Y

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the expression changes of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinases-2) mediated by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factors-1) STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway in the sclera of the form-deprivation myopia guinea pigs. Twenty-four three-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (Control), B, C and D. Guinea pigs in group A were sacrificed after 21 days without any special treatment. Guinea pigs in group B were sacrificed 7 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group C were sacrificed 14 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group D were sacrificed 21 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Eyeball refraction and axial length of guinea pigs were measured before sacrifice. Eyeballs of guinea pigs were enucleated after sacrifice. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral tissue were detected by Western blot. Axial length extension and myopia appeared in the right eye of guinea pigs in group B. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera significantly increased after 7 days of occlusion compared with that in control group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in sclera significantly increased compared with that in group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral significantly upregulated 21 days after occlusion (pIGF-1 in sclera were positively correlated (r = 0.962, pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera and myopia of guinea pigs. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 increased progressively over the time of deprivation. Additionally, overexpression of MMP-2 mediated by IGF-1/STAT3 pathway in sclera might promote the formation of myopia.

  4. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  5. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  6. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Parsa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI, and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA by assessing nitric oxide (NO and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia, followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR. The five experimental groups (n=12 included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  7. The Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10 Combination on Ovarian Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid and/or coenzyme Q10 can protect the prepubertal ovarian tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat model of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods. Forty-two female preadolescent Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups randomly. The sham group had laparotomy without torsion; the other groups had torsion/detorsion procedure. After undergoing torsion, group 2 received saline, group 3 received olive oil, group 4 received alpha-lipoic acid, group 5 received coenzyme Q10, and group 6 received both alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 orally. The oxidant-antioxidant statuses of these groups were compared using biochemical measurement of oxidized/reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, pathological evaluation of damage and apoptosis within the ovarian tissue, and immunohistochemical assessment of nitric oxide synthase. Results. The left ovaries of the alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly lower apoptosis scores and significantly higher nitric oxide synthase content than the left ovaries of the control groups. The alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly higher glutathione peroxidase levels and serum malondialdehyde concentrations than the sham group. Conclusions. The combination of alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 has beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury related to ovarian torsion.

  8. Honey improves spermatogenesis and hormone secretion in testicular ischaemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, M; Abbaszadeh, A; Khanipour Khayat, Z; Anbari, K; Baharvand, P; Gharravi, A M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to survey the protective effect of pre-treatment with Persian honey during post-ischaemia reperfusion on ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced testis injury. Animals were divided into four groups of IR, honey + ischaemia- reperfusion (HIR), vitamin C + ischaemia- reperfusion (VIR) and carbohydrates + ischaemia- reperfusion (CIR). The testes were examined for spermatogenesis index. Detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at the early stages of apoptosis was performed. Total serum concentration of FSH, LH and testosterone was measured using ELISA. All data were expressed as mean ± SD in each group, and significance was set at p ≤ .05. Spermatogenesis index was significant in the HIR group (p honey decreases the cellular damage and apoptosis during testicular I/R injury, with significant protective effects on reproductive hormone production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Protective Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning against Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Myocardium Oxidative Injury in IR Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwei Ma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR employed during reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic insult may attenuate the total ischemia-reperfusion injury. This phenomenon has been termed ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we studied the possible effect of ischemic postconditioning on an ischemic reperfusion (IR-induced myocardium oxidative injury in rat model. Results showed that ischemic postconditioning could improve arrhythmia cordis, reduce myocardium infarction and serum creatin kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and aspartate transaminase (AST activities in IR rats. In addition, ischemic postconditioning could still decrease myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA level, and increased myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione reductase (GR activities. It can be concluded that ischemic postconditioning possesses strong protective effects against ischemia reperfusion-induced myocardium oxidative injury in IR rats.

  10. Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Ruby, Annette L; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2009-01-15

    To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Cross-sectional study. 127 guinea pigs. Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD). 83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples. Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.

  11. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  12. Post ischemic reperfusion and anoxic perfusion in the isolated heart: alteration in distribution of radionuclides and in protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, S S; Oratz, M; Rothschild, M A [Veterans Administration Hospital, New York (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Reperfusion after ischemia and perfusion with total anoxia were studied in the isolated guinea pig heart model, Deprivation of oxygen in both situations resulted in a marked shift of circulation from the left to the right ventricle, with markedly increased spaces of distribution of sup(99m)Tc radionuclides and albumin in the latter. In view of the complexities of measuring protein synthesis during ischemia, continuous anoxic perfusion was used to evaluate this parameter in anoxic induced arrest. There was a profound fall in protein synthesis associated with this arrest, accompanied by a fall in ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen, potassium, and a rise in lactate production. The fall in protein synthesis was more marked in the left ventricle. The changes in synthesis were almost completely prevented by initiating cardiac arrest with high K/sup +/ (16 meq/l) at the same time as anoxia; energy metabolism remained near normal, and recovery of contractility was nearly complete. The studies demonstrated the differences in vascular distribution between the ventricles after ischemia or with perfusion anoxia, the possible difference in availability of substrate to the two ventricles under these conditions, as well as the difference in protein synthetic response, and further support the protective effect of potassium induced arrest on the hypoxic heart.

  13. The effects of dexketoprofen on endogenous leptin and lipid peroxidation during liver ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Koksal, Ersin; Kaya, Cengiz; Sener, Elif Bengi; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Yarim, Gul; Kabak, Yonca; Gulbahar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury has complex mechanisms. We investigated the effect of dexketoprofen on endogenous leptin and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups and were subjected to 1-hour ischemia and different subsequent reperfusion intervals. Dexketoprofen was administered in a dose of 25 mg/kg 15 minutes before ischemia induction and 1-hour reperfusion to the Dexketoprofen one-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (DIR1) group and 6-hour reperfusion to the Dexketoprofen six-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (DIR6) group. In the control groups, 0.9% physiologic serum (SF) was administered 15 minutes before ischemia induction and 1-hour reperfusion to the one-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (IR1) group and 6-hour reperfusion to the six-hour reperfusion group, n = 6 (IR6) group. Although serum leptin (P = 0.044) and hepatic tissue MDA levels (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the IR6 group than in the IR1 group, there were no significant differences in dexketoprofen pretreatment between the DIR1 and DIR6 groups. There were no differences in serum MDA levels among the 4 groups, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were significantly higher in the IR1 (P = 0.026 and P = 0.018, respectively) and IR6 (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively) groups than in the DIR1 and DIR6 groups. Dexketoprofen pretreatment can protect the liver from IR injury by decreasing inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Our study shows that dexketoprofen has no effects on endogenous leptin during IR injury.

  14. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (P dose renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats.

  15. The anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of gallic acid against mucosal inflammation- and erosions-induced by gastric ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Mojadami, Shahnaz; Farbood, Yaghoob; Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Kazem

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on gastric mucosal lesions caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat. Forty male rats were randomly divided into sham, control (I/R injury) and three gallic acid-pretreated groups. To induce I/R lesions, the celiac artery was clamped for 30 min and then the clamp was removed to allow reperfusion for 6 hr. Pretreated rats received gallic acid (15, 30 or 60 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally) 30 min prior to the induction of I/R injury. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the areas of ulceration were compared. Samples of gastric mucosa were collected to evaluate the protein expression of pro-apoptotic factor, caspase-3, and pro-inflammatory enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) using western blot. Pretreatment with gallic acid decreased the total area of gastric lesions. Gallic acid at 30 mg kg(-1) decreased the levels of protein expression of caspase-3 and iNOS induced by I/R injury. Our findings showed the protective effect of gallic acid on gastric mucosa against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect of gallic acid was mainly mediated by reducing protein expression of iNOS and caspase-3.

  16. Protective effect of Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchange blocker KB-R7943 on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Ren, Yongkui; Sun, Lufan; Wang, Shaojun; Wei, Minjie; Jia, Dalin

    2013-06-01

    Reverse-mode activation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) during reperfusion following ischemia contributes to Ca(2+) overload and cardiomyocyte injury. KB-R7943, a selective reverse-mode NCX inhibitor, reduces lethal reperfusion injury under non-ischemic conditions. However, the effectiveness of this compound under ischemic conditions is unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of KB-R7943 in an animal model of hyperlipidemia. We further assessed whether the K ATP (+) channels are involved in potential protective mechanisms of KB-R7943. Twelve rats were fed normal chow, while 48 animals were fed a high cholesterol diet. The hearts from the control and hypercholesterolemic rats were subjected to 25 min of global ischemia followed by a 120-min reperfusion. Before this, hearts from hypercholesterolemic rats either received no intervention (cholesterol control group) or were pre-treated with 1 μM KB-R7943 and 0.3 μM of K ATP (+) blocker glibenclamide or glibenclamide alone. The infarction sizes (triphenyltetrazolium assay) were 35 ± 5.0 % in the control group, 46 ± 8.7 % in the cholesterol control group (p KB-R7943 group (p KB-R7943 and glibenclamide group, and 47 ± 8.5 % in the glibenclamide group (p KB-R7943 attenuated the magnitude of cell apoptosis (p KB-R7943 reduces the infarction size and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic animals through the activation of K ATP (+) channels.

  17. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of erdosteine in a rat model of ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ugurel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To evaluate the protective effect of erdosteine, an antiapoptotic and antioxidant agent, on torsion–detorsion evoked histopathological changes in experimental ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female Wistar albino rats were used in control, IR, and IR+Edosteine (IR-E groups, (n=6 in each. The IR-E group received the erdosteine for seven days before the induction of torsion/retorsion, (10 mg/kg/days. The IR and IR-E groups were exposed to right unilateral adnexal torsion for 3 hr. Three hours later, re-laparotomy was performed, and the right ovaries were surgically excised. Oxidant and antioxidants levels were determined in serum. The ovarian tissue samples were received and fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin. The sections were stained with H&E, anti-PCNA, and TUNEL. Results: The IR group were showed severe acute inflammation, polynuclear leukocytes and macrophages, stromal oedema and haemorrhage. Treatment with erdosteine in rats significantly retained degenerative changes in the ovaryPCNA (+ cell numbers were significantly decreased in the IR and IR-E groups unlike the control group. However, its numbers were significantly increased in the IR-E group unlike the IR group. TUNEL (+ cell numbers were significantly increased in the IR group unlike the control and the IR-E groups. In erdosteine treated group, TUNEL (+ cells were detected significantly less than the IR group (P

  18. Anamnestic responses in pigs to the Taenia solium TSOL18 vaccine and implications for control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, Marshall W; Donadeu, Meritxell; Elaiyaraja, M; Maithal, Kapil; Kumar, K Anand; Gauci, Charles G; Firestone, Simon M; Sarasola, Patxi; Rowan, Tim G

    2016-04-01

    Specific antibody responses were assessed in pigs immunized with the Taenia solium vaccine TSOL18. Anti-TSOL18 responses were compared 2 weeks after secondary immunization, where the interval between primary and secondary immunization was 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 weeks. All animals responded to the vaccine and there was no diminution in antibody responses in animals receiving their second injection after an interval up to 20 weeks. Pigs receiving vaccinations at an interval of 12 weeks developed significantly increased antibody responses compared with animals receiving immunizations 4 weeks apart (P = 0.046). The ability to deliver TSOL18 vaccination effectively where the revaccination schedule can be delayed for up to 12-16 weeks in pigs increases the options available for designing T. solium control interventions that incorporate TSOL18 vaccination.

  19. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  20. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  1. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  2. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  3. Melatonin Protective Effects against Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khonakdar-Tarsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a common phenomenon during liver surgery, transplantation, infection and trauma which results in damage and necrosis of the hepatic tissue through different pathways. Mechanisms involved in I/R damage are very intricate and cover several aspects. Several factors are involved in I/R-induced damages; briefly, decrease in sinusoidal perfusion and ATP generation because of low or no O2 supply, increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory factors and destruction of parenchymal cells resulted by these molecules are of the main causes of liver tissue injury during reperfusion. Melatonin’s antioxidant effect, and regulatory roles in the expression of different genes in the I/R insulted liver have been investigated by several studies. Melatonin and its metabolites are of the powerful direct scavengers of free radicals and ROS, so it can directly protect liver cell impairment from oxidative stress following I/R. In addition, this bioactive molecule up-regulates anti-oxidant enzyme genes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1, as potent pro-inflammatory factors, are generated in huge amounts during reperfusion. Melatonin is able to alleviate TNF-α generation and has hepatoprotective effect during I/R. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via reducing the binding of NF-κB to DNA. Imbalance between vasodilators (nitric oxide, NO and vasoconstrictors (endothelin, ET during I/R was shown to be the primary cause of liver microcirculation disturbance. Melatonin helps maintaining the stability of liver circulation and reduces hepatic injury during I/R through preventing alteration of the normal balance between ET and NO. The aim of this review was to explore the mechanisms of liver I/R injuries and the protective effects of melatonin against them.

  4. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  5. The role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in beneficial effects of stem cells in hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Masoumy

    Full Text Available Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR injury of limb remains a significant clinical problem causing secondary complications and restricting clinical recovery, despite rapid restoration of blood flow and successful surgery. In an attempt to further improve post ischemic tissue repair, we investigated the effect of a local administration of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs in the presence or absence of immune-regulatory enzyme, IDO, in a murine model. A whole limb warm ischemia-reperfusion model was developed using IDO sufficient (WT and deficient (KO mice with C57/BL6 background. Twenty-four hours after injury, 5 × 105 cells (5×105 cells/200 µL of PBS solution BMDSCs (Sca1 + cells were injected intramuscularly while the control group received just the vehicle buffer (PBS. Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after limb BMDSC injection, recovery status including the ratio of intrinsic paw function between affected and normal paws, general mobility, and inflammatory responses were measured using video micrometery, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry techniques. Additionally, MRI/MRA studies were performed to further study the inflammatory response between groups and to confirm reconstitution of blood flow after ischemia. For the first time, our data, showed that IDO may potentially represent a partial role in triggering the beneficial effects of BMDSCs in faster recovery and protection against structural changes and cellular damage in a hind limb IR injury setting (P = 0.00058.

  6. Antioxidant Action of Mangrove Polyphenols against Gastric Damage Induced by Absolute Ethanol and Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Meira de-Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle, the red mangrove, has long been known as a traditional medicine. Its bark has been used as astringent, antiseptic, hemostatic, with antifungic and antiulcerogenic properties. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a buthanolic fraction of the R. mangle bark extract (RM against experimental gastric ulcer in rats. Unib-Wh rats received pretreatment of R. mangle after the induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol and ischemia-reperfusion. Gastric tissues from both methods were prepared to the enzymatic assays, the levels of sulfhydril compounds (GSH, lipid peroxides (LPO, and the activities of glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured. The RM protected the gastric mucosa in both methods used, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and ischemia-reperfusion, probably, by modulating the activities of the enzymes SOD, GPx, and GR and increasing or maintaining the levels of GSH; in adittion, LPO levels were reduced. The results suggest that the RM antioxidant activity leads to tissue protection; thus one of the antiulcer mechanisms present on the pharmacological effects of R. mangle is the antioxidant property.

  7. Involvement of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases in experimental normothermic liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursio, R; Filippa, N; Miele, C; Van Obberghen, E; Gugenheim, J

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of protein kinase B (PKB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in normothermic ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced apoptosis in rat liver. Rats were divided into two groups that received either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-2,6-dichorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-cmk), injected intravenously 2 min before the induction of 120 min of normothermic liver ischaemia. Liver apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. PI3-K, PKB, BAD and MAPK activities were measured in ischaemic and non-ischaemic lobes at various times after reperfusion. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased after pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. In controls, PI3-K and PKB activities and BAD phosphorylation were inhibited in ischaemic liver lobes. The MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38) showed different patterns of activation during IR. PKB activity was not modified by pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. Induction of apoptosis during IR liver injury might be triggered by inactivation of the antiapoptotic PI3-K-PKB pathway and activation of the proapoptotic MAPKs. Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects Of Ischemic Preconditioning On The Renal Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyamanesh S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available  During kidney and other organ transplantation, the organ to be transplanted, must inevitably remain out of the body with little or no blood perfusion at all for a long period of time (ischemia. These events have been suggested to cause the formation of oxygen- derived free radicals (OFR. Reperfusion (reintroduction of blood flow will further exacerbate the initial damage caused by the ischemic insult and may result in the production of free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether induction of brief periods of renal artery occlusion (ischemic pre¬conditioning, IPC can provide protection from the effects of a subsequent period of ischemia and reperfusion (IR in the rat kidney."nMaterials and Methods: In this regard, 28 white, male rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: Control (sham- operated, IPC alone, IR alone (30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion, and IPC- IR. Preconditioning involved the sequential clamping of the right renal artery for 5 min and declamping for 5 min for a total of 3 cycles. To demonstrate the effectiveness of IPC regimen, vitamin E as an endogenous antioxidant and an index of lipid peroxidation was measured by HPLC after its extraction from right renal venous plasma and right renal tissue."nResults: Results of this study showed that the amount of vitamin E of renal tissue and venous plasma in the IR group had a significant decrease when compared to the control group (P< 0.0001. Whereas the amount of this vitamin in both renal tissue and venous plasma of the IPC- IR group was significantly higher than that in the IR group (P< 0.0001, but did not show any significant difference with the control group."nConclusion: In this study, preconditioning method prevented the reduction of the endogenous antioxidant (Vit. E in encountering the following sustained ischemic insult. Therefore, we suggest that ischemic preconditioning can be used to protect the Vit. E level of kidney from its

  9. Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the content of IL-8 in serum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wei; Zhu Zunping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (Pns) against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia-reperal ischemia-reperfusion model in rat was established by occlusion the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, after 3 h reperfusion. The serum concentration of IL-8 was detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Png 50 mg·kg -1 ip, qd x 7d before MCAO decreased the serum content of IL-8 after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion: Pns has protective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by decreased the serum content of IL-8

  10. Hydrogen sulfide reduces neutrophil recruitment in hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion injury in an L-selectin and ADAM-17 dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carissa J.; Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Chintalapani, Sathvika; Kim, Minsoo; Spector, Jason A.; King, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reperfusion following ischemia leads to neutrophil recruitment injured tissue. Selectins and β2 integrins regulate neutrophil interaction with the endothelium during neutrophil rolling and firm adhesion. Excessive neutrophil infiltration into tissue is thought to contribute to IRI damage. NaHS mitigates the damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). This study's objective was to determine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) on neutrophil adhesion receptor expression. Methods Human neutrophils were either left untreated or incubated in 20 μM NaHS, and/or 50 μg/mL pharmacological ADAM-17 inhibitor TAPI-0; activated by IL-8, fMLP, or TNF-α; and labeled against PSGL-1, LFA-1, Mac-1 α, L-selectin and β2 integrin epitopes CBRM1/5 or KIM127 for flow cytometry. Cohorts of 3 C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous dose of saline vehicle, or 20 μM NaHS with or without 50 μg/mL TAPI-0 before unilateral tourniquet induced hind-limb ischemia for 3 hours followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Bilateral gastrocnemius muscles were processed for histology before neutrophil infiltration quantification. Results NaHS treatment significantly increased L-selectin shedding from human neutrophils following activation by fMLP and IL-8 in an ADAM-17 dependent manner. Mice treated with NaHS to raise bloodstream concentration by 20 μM prior to ischemia or reperfusion showed a significant reduction in neutrophil recruitment into skeletal muscle tissue following tourniquet-induced hindlimb IRI. Conclusions NaHS administration results in the downregulation of L-selectin expression in activated human neutrophils. This leads to a reduction in neutrophil extravasation and tissue infiltration and may partially account for the protective effects of NaHS seen in the setting of IRI. PMID:23446563

  11. Chronic Co-Administration of Sepiapterin and L-Citrulline Ameliorates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Shelley L; Paterson, Mark; Leucker, Thorsten M; Fang, Juan; Zhang, David X; Bosnjak, Zeljko J; Warltier, David C; Kersten, Judy R; Ge, Zhi-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic heart disease is associated with tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation and high arginase activity, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction. Sepiapterin (SEP) is a tetrahydrobiopterin precursor, and L-citrulline (L-Cit) is converted to endothelial nitric oxide synthase substrate, L-arginine. Whether SEP and L-Cit are effective at reducing diabetic heart disease is not known. The present study examined the effects of SEP and L-Cit on diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury in obese type 2 diabetic mice. Db/db and C57BLKS/J mice at 6 to 8 weeks of age received vehicle, SEP, or L-Cit orally alone or in combination for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated with echocardiography. Db/db mice displayed hyperglycemia, obesity, and normal blood pressure and cardiac function compared with C57BLKS/J mice at 6 to 8 weeks of age. After vehicle treatment for 8 weeks, db/db mice had reduced ejection fraction, mitral E/A ratio, endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries, tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations, ratio of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dimers/monomers, and nitric oxide levels compared with vehicle-treated C57BLKS/J mice. These detrimental effects of diabetes mellitus were abrogated by co-administration of SEP and L-Cit. Myocardial infarct size was increased, and coronary flow rate and ± dP/dt were decreased during reperfusion in vehicle-treated db/db mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury compared with control mice. Co-administration of SEP and L-Cit decreased infarct size and improved coronary flow rate and cardiac function in both C57BLKS/J and db/db mice. Co-administration of SEP and L-Cit limits diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury in db/db mice through a tetrahydrobiopterin/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Altering CO2 during reperfusion of ischemic cardiomyocytes modifies mitochondrial oxidant injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavani, Romeen; Chang, Wei-Tien; Anderson, Travis; Shao, Zuo-Hui; Wojcik, Kimberly R; Li, Chang-Qing; Pietrowski, Robert; Beiser, David G; Idris, Ahamed H; Hamann, Kimm J; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2007-07-01

    Acute changes in tissue CO2 and pH during reperfusion of the ischemic heart may affect ischemia/reperfusion injury. We tested whether gradual vs. acute decreases in CO2 after cardiomyocyte ischemia affect reperfusion oxidants and injury. Comparative laboratory investigation. Institutional laboratory. Embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. Microscope fields of approximately 500 chick cardiomyocytes were monitored throughout 1 hr of simulated ischemia (PO2 of 3-5 torr, PCO2 of 144 torr, pH 6.8), followed by 3 hrs of reperfusion (PO2 of 149 torr, PCO2 of 36 torr, pH 7.4), and compared with cells reperfused with relative hypercarbia (PCO2 of 71 torr, pH 6.8) or hypocarbia (PCO2 of 7 torr, pH 7.9). The measured outcomes included cell viability (via propidium iodide) and oxidant generation (reactive oxygen species via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation and nitric oxide [NO] via 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate oxidation). Compared with normocarbic reperfusion, hypercarbia significantly reduced cell death from 54.8% +/- 4.0% to 26.3% +/- 2.8% (p < .001), significantly decreased reperfusion reactive oxygen species (p < .05), and increased NO at a later phase of reperfusion (p < .01). The NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (200 microM) reversed this oxidant attenuation (p < .05), NO increase (p < .05), and the cardioprotection conferred by hypercarbic reperfusion (increasing death to 54.3% +/- 6.0% [p < .05]). Conversely, hypocarbic reperfusion increased cell death to 80.4% +/- 4.5% (p < .01). It also increased reactive oxygen species by almost two-fold (p = .052), without affecting the NO level thereafter. Increased reactive oxygen species was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex III inhibitor stigmatellin (20 nM) when given at reperfusion (p < .05). Cell death also decreased from 85.9% +/- 4.5% to 52.2% +/- 6.5% (p < .01). The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin (300 microM) had no effect on reperfusion reactive oxygen

  13. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non...

  14. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  15. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  16. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  17. Does Omegaven have beneficial effects on a rat model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ayse N Cakir; Turkon, Hakan; Albayrak, Aynur; Ovali, Mehmet; Islimye, Mine; Gencer, Meryem; Hacivelioglu, Servet; Cevizci, Sibel; Cesur, Ismet; Cosar, Emine

    2014-10-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of parenteral omega-3 fatty acids, a safe and inexpensive product, on a rat model of ovarian I/R. A group of 39 rats was divided into six groups. Group 1 (Sham Group; n=6) underwent two laparotomies with a 3-h interval and their ovaries were removed 3h later. Group 2 (torsion-detorsion Group; n=7) had their ovaries torsioned clockwise and fixed at 720°; 3h later a detorsion operation was done and after another 3h, their ovaries were removed. Group 3 (n=7) and Group 4 (n=7) received the same treatment as Group 2; however, half an hour prior to detorsion, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. Group 5 (n=6) and Group 6 (n=6) received the same treatment as Group 1; however, half an hour prior to the second laparotomy, these rats received Omegaven at 1mL/kg and 5mL/kg, respectively. One ovary from each rat was evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the other ovary was homogenized and evaluated for total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI). While we failed to show any significant relationship among groups in oxidative parameters, there was a significant worsening in the torsion-detorsion group in histological evaluation. High Omegaven doses, but not low doses, improved tissue injury scores of torsioned and detorsioned ovaries to the levels observed in the control group. Omegaven improves the detrimental effects of ovarian I/R when used in sufficient doses. Its effects and dose adjustment on women with ovarian torsion must be investigated by further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of doxycycline treatment on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata, E-mail: mpomorska@piwet.pulawy.pl; Kwit, Krzysztof; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-07-01

    The effect of a seven-day antibiotic therapy with doxycycline was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs. The selected parameters of non-specific immunity were also studied. Fifty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 10), control vaccinated (CV, n = 20), and experimental — received doxycycline (DOXY, n = 20)). For vaccination live-attenuated vaccine against pseudorabies (PR) was used. From day − 1 to day 5 pigs from DOXY group received doxycycline orally with drinking water, at the recommended dose. Pigs from DOXY and CV groups were vaccinated at 8 and 10 weeks of age. The results of the present study showed that cell-mediated postvaccinal immune response can be modulated by oral treatment with doxycycline. Significantly lower values of stimulation index were observed after PRV restimulation in doxycycline-treated pigs. Moreover, in the DOXY group a significant decrease in IFN-γ production after PRV restimulation was noted. The significantly lower number of CD4+CD8 + cells was also observed in doxy-treated, vaccinated pigs, 2 weeks after final vaccination. Simultaneously, specific humoral response was not disturbed. This study demonstrated the importance of defining the immune modulatory activity of doxycycline because it may alter the immune responses to vaccines. The exact mechanism of T-cell response suppression by doxycycline remains to be elucidated, however the influence of doxycycline on the secretion of various cytokines, including IFN-γ, may be considered as a possible cause. The present observations should prompt further studies on the practical significance of such phenomena in terms of clinical implications. - Highlights: • We examine the postvaccinal immune response in pigs treated with doxycycline. • Doxycycline negatively influenced the specific proliferation after recall stimulation. • Doxycycline negatively influenced secretion of IFN-γ after recall stimulation. • The lower number of

  19. The effect of doxycycline treatment on the postvaccinal immune response in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a seven-day antibiotic therapy with doxycycline was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs. The selected parameters of non-specific immunity were also studied. Fifty pigs were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 10), control vaccinated (CV, n = 20), and experimental — received doxycycline (DOXY, n = 20)). For vaccination live-attenuated vaccine against pseudorabies (PR) was used. From day − 1 to day 5 pigs from DOXY group received doxycycline orally with drinking water, at the recommended dose. Pigs from DOXY and CV groups were vaccinated at 8 and 10 weeks of age. The results of the present study showed that cell-mediated postvaccinal immune response can be modulated by oral treatment with doxycycline. Significantly lower values of stimulation index were observed after PRV restimulation in doxycycline-treated pigs. Moreover, in the DOXY group a significant decrease in IFN-γ production after PRV restimulation was noted. The significantly lower number of CD4+CD8 + cells was also observed in doxy-treated, vaccinated pigs, 2 weeks after final vaccination. Simultaneously, specific humoral response was not disturbed. This study demonstrated the importance of defining the immune modulatory activity of doxycycline because it may alter the immune responses to vaccines. The exact mechanism of T-cell response suppression by doxycycline remains to be elucidated, however the influence of doxycycline on the secretion of various cytokines, including IFN-γ, may be considered as a possible cause. The present observations should prompt further studies on the practical significance of such phenomena in terms of clinical implications. - Highlights: • We examine the postvaccinal immune response in pigs treated with doxycycline. • Doxycycline negatively influenced the specific proliferation after recall stimulation. • Doxycycline negatively influenced secretion of IFN-γ after recall stimulation. • The lower number of

  20. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion

  1. Estudo da isquemia e reperfusão em retalhos cutâneos de ratos The study of the ischemia and reperfusion in skin flaps of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alonso Sabino de Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Múltiplos fatores têm sido implicados na patogênese da lesão de isquemia/reperfusão da pele, incluindo as espécies reativas de oxigênio. OBJETIVO: Estudar a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão em retalhos cutâneos de ratos avaliando os níveis teciduais do malonildialdeído (MDA e xantina oxidase (XO. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 8 ratos Wistar, com peso entre 300 - 400g, sendo confeccionados 2 retalhos epigástricos por animal (controle e experimento, um deles submetido à 16h de isquemia (RI seguida de 45 min de reperfusão (RR e o outro controle (RC. Foram colhidas 3 biópsias de pele dos retalhos (RC, RI, RR e encaminhadas para dosagem de MDA e XO. RESULTADOS: A análise bioquímica mostrou aumento significativo dos níveis teciduais de MDA e XO após a reperfusão em relação aos retalhos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Retalhos epigástricos de ratos submetidos à 16h de isquemia e 45min de reperfusão apresentam elevação dos níveis teciduais de MDA e XO, caracterizando a lipoperoxidação da membrana celular.INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of reperfusion injury in the skin, including the reactive oxygen species. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of reperfusion injury in the rat skin flap evaluated by tissue assay for malonyldialdehyde (MDA and xanthine oxidase (XO. METHODS: 8 Wistar rats were used, between 300-400g weight and two identical epigastric flaps were raised in each animal (control and experiment, the vasculature of one flap was left intact and in the second flap the arterial pedicle was clamped for 16 hours and reperfused for 45 minutes. Skin samples were obtained from each flap after these periods of time and submitted to MDA and XO analysis. RESULTS: Reperfused flaps had significantly increased MDA and XO values compared to the control flaps biopsies. CONCLUSION: The lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the rat epigastric skin flaps subjected to 16 hours of

  2. Toluene-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2009-10-01

    Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.

  3. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  4. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  5. Methimazole protects lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: an effect not induced by hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütüncü, Tanju; Demirci, Cagatay; Gözalan, Ugur; Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2007-05-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may lead to remote organ failure with mortal respiratory dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible protective effects of methimazole on lungs after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into five groups: a control group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done; a hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion; a thyroidectomy-ischemia-reperfusion group (total thyroidectomy followed by, 7 days later, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); a methimazole-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); and a methimazole +L-thyroxine-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole and L-thyroxine administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was performed after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion). Pulmonary tissue specimens were evaluated histopathologically and for myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels. All of the ischemia-reperfusion intervention groups had higher pulmonary injury scoring indices than the control group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary injury index of the ischemia-reperfusion group was higher than that of both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups (P = 0028; P = 0,038, respectively) and was similar to that of the thyroidectomized group. Pulmonary tissue myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in the ischemia-reperfusion group were similar with that in the thyroidectomized rats but were significantly higher than that in the control, and both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups. Methimazole exerts a protective role on lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which can be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects rather than hypothyroidism alone.

  6. Blockade of Death Ligand TRAIL Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Takaomi; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Gondai, Tatsuro; Yagita, Hideo; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many investigators have reported that cell death via apoptosis significantly contributed to the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and induces apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of TRAIL in renal IRI is unclear. Here, we investigated whether TRAIL contributes to renal IRI and whether TRAIL blockade could attenuate renal IRI. AKI was induced by unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 60 min in male FVB/N mice. We found that the expression of TRAIL and its receptors were highly upregulated in renal tubular cells in renal IRI. Neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibody or its control IgG was given 24 hr before ischemia and a half-dose booster injection was administered into the peritoneal cavity immediately after reperfusion. We found that TRAIL blockade inhibited tubular apoptosis and reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, TRAIL blockade attenuated renal fibrosis and atrophy after IRI. In conclusion, our study suggests that TRAIL is a critical pathogenic factor in renal IRI, and that TRAIL could be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of renal IRI

  7. The effect of dexketoprofen on ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Y; Karakaya, D; Kelsaka, E; Aksoy, A; Gülbahar, M Y; Bedir, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of dexketoprofen on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury induced in rat testicles. Twenty-four male Wistar albino-type rats were randomly separated into three groups. To develop testicular torsion, the right testicle was rotated 720° clockwise. After five hours of rotation, reperfusion was applied for 24 hours. The control group rats (Group C) had no procedures or treatments; basal numbers were used. Intraperitoneal 25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (1 cc) (Group D) or the same volume of serum physiologic (Group SP) were given to the Group D and Group SP rats 40 minutes before and 12 hours after detorsion. Twenty-four hours after detorsion, histopathological evaluation was performed by bilateral orchiectomy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected in testicular tissue and in serum. Histopathologic changes in the spermatic cells of torsioned testicles in Group D were significantly less than those of Group SP (p dexketoprofen decreases I/R injury in both the torsion-formed testicle and the contralateral testicle. Thus, in patients who have urgent surgery for testicular detorsion, dexketoprofen can be preferred as an analgesic to reduce I/R injury. Further study is warranted to demonstrate this effect of dexketoprofen (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 30).

  8. Ligustrazine monomer against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-jun Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligustrazine (2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine is a major active ingredient of the Szechwan lovage rhizome and is extensively used in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of action of ligustrazine use against ischemic cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear at present. This study summarizes its protective effect, the optimum time window of administration, and the most effective mode of administration for clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We examine the effects of ligustrazine on suppressing excitatory amino acid release, promoting migration, differentiation and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells. We also looked at its effects on angiogenesis and how it inhibits thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. We consider that ligustrazine gives noticeable protection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The time window of ligustrazine administration is limited. The protective effect and time window of a series of derivative monomers of ligustrazine such as 2-[(1,1-dimethylethyloxidoimino]methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, CXC137 and CXC195 after cerebral ischemia were better than ligustrazine.

  9. Myocardial hypoperfusion/reperfusion tolerance with exercise training in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Patricia O; Barbe, Mary F; Amin, Mamta; Renna, Brian F; Hewston, Leigh Ann; MacDonnell, Scott M; Houser, Steven R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise training, superimposed on compensated-concentric hypertrophy, could increase myocardial hypoperfusion-reperfusion (H/R) tolerance. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (age: 4 mo; N = 40) were placed into a sedentary (SED) or exercise training (TRD) group (treadmill running; 25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 16 wk). Four groups were studied: WKY-SED (n = 10), WKY-TRD (n = 10), SHR-SED (n = 10), and SHR-TRD (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were determined, and in vitro isolated heart performance was measured with a retrogradely perfused, Langendorff isovolumic preparation. The H/R protocol consisted of a 75% reduction in coronary flow for 17 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Although the rate-pressure product was significantly elevated in SHR relative to WKY, training-induced bradycardia reduced the rate-pressure product in SHR-TRD (P Endurance training superimposed on hypertension-induced compensated hypertrophy conferred no further cardioprotection to H/R. Postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was enhanced in WKY-TRD and both groups of SHR relative to WKY-SED (P hypertension and endurance training individually improved H/R and that increased postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was, in part, associated with the cardioprotective phenotype observed in this study.

  10. REPERFUSION THERAPY IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH ST SEGMENT ELEVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Alyavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effect of percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PCA and a systemic thrombolysis (STL on the central and intracardiac hemodynamics in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS with ST segment elevation.Material and methods. 80 patients with ACS with ST segment elevation were included in the study. Patients were split into 2 groups depending on reperfusion strategy. PCA was performed in 55 patients (first group. 25 patients of the second group had STL with Streptokinase, i/v, 1 500 000 units per hour. Echocardiography was performed in all patients at admission and after 3 and 7 days of treatment to evaluate intracardiac hemodynamics.Results. Both reperfusion methods significantly increase of ejection fraction (EF and maximal output speed of left ventricle (LV. Increase of LV EF in patients after PCA was higher than this in patients after STL. PCA improved LV diastolic function; STL did not change this characteristic. After PCA working diagnosis of ACS was transformed to the following final diagnosis: acute myocardial infarction (AMI with Q, AMI without Q and unstable angina in 37,5, 30,4 and 32,1% of patients, respectively. After STL diagnosis of AMI with Q was defined in all patients.Conclusion. PCA in patients with ACS with ST segment elevation results in fast improvement of global systolic and diastolic LV function. Besides, PCA prevents AMI with Q in a half of these patients.

  11. Effects of kefir on ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, A U; Sehitoglu, M H; Ozkan, M T A; Bekler, A; Ekin, A; Cokkalender, O; Deniz, M; Sacar, M; Karaca, T; Ozcan, S; Kurt, T

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of kefir on Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injury on rats. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats between 250-350 g were selected. Rats were divided into three groups, and there were eight rats in each group. Rats were fed for 60 days. All of the rats were fed with the same diet for the first 30 days. In the second thirty days, kefir [10 cc/kg/day body weight (2 x 109 cfu/kg/day)] was added to the diet of the study group by gavage method. In all groups, lung and kidney tissues were removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed in the lung and kidney within the samples. Serum urea, creatinine and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were determined. Kefir + I/R groups was compared with I/R groups, a significant decrease (p Kefir + I/R groups of renal tissues were significantly (p Kefir reduced the levels of serum urea, creatinine and TNF-α significantly.   This would be useful in this model against ischemia/reperfusion, and shows the protective effect of kefir in tissue and serum functions.

  12. Effects of reperfusion intervals on skeletal muscle injury beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Gershuni, D H; Fridén, J; Garfin, S R; Rydevik, B L; Hargens, A R

    1992-03-01

    To date there have been no experimental studies specifically directed at effects of reperfusion intervals on skeletal muscle injury beneath the tourniquet. 99mTechnetium pyrophosphate (Tc 99) incorporation and correlative histology were used to assess injury 2 days after tourniquet application in muscles beneath (thigh) and distal (leg) to the cuff. Tourniquets were applied to rabbit hindlimbs for a total of either 2 or 4 hours. In the 4-hour series, tourniquet compression (either 125 mm Hg or 350 mm Hg cuff inflation pressure) was either continuous or interrupted by 10-minute reperfusion intervals after 2 hours or after every hour of cuff inflation. In the 2-hour series, tourniquet compression (350 mm Hg) was either continuous or interrupted by 10-minute reperfusion intervals after 2 hours or after every hour of cuff inflation. In the 2-hour series, tourniquet compression (350 mm Hg) was either continuous or interrupted by a 10-minute reperfusion interval after 1 hour. Pyrophosphate incorporation (Tc 99 uptake) was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region in all of the 4-hour tourniquet groups. Tc 99 uptake was significantly reduced by reperfusion after each hour of cuff inflation. With 350 mm Hg tourniquet pressure, a reperfusion interval after 2 hours of cuff inflation tended to exacerbate tourniquet compression injury. Reperfusion intervals did not significantly affect Tc 99 uptake in the leg region of these groups. With a 2-hour tourniquet time, Tc 99 uptake in the thigh was significantly decreased by reperfusion after 1 hour of cuff inflation. Previous clinical recommendations, based on serum creatine phosphokinase abnormalities after experimental tourniquet ischemia, probably reflected tourniquet compression injury. Hourly reperfusion limits skeletal muscle injury during extended periods of tourniquet use.

  13. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  14. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  15. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  16. Protective effect of edaravone for tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury on skeletal muscle in murine hindlimb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) produces free radicals leading to lipid peroxidation and damage to skeletal muscle. The purposes of this study were 1) to assess the histological findings of gastrocnemius muscle (GC) and tibialis anterior muscle (TA) in I/R injury model mice, 2) to histologically analyze whether a single pretreatment of edaravone inhibits I/R injury to skeletal muscle in murine models and 3) to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on these muscles. Methods C57BL6 mice were divided in two groups, with one group receiving 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of edaravone (I/R + Ed group) and the other group receiving an identical amount of saline (I/R group) 30 minutes before ischemia. Edaravone (3-methy-1-pheny1-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a potent and novel synthetic scavenger of free radicals. This drug inhibits both nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway, in addition to having potent antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion. The duration of the ischemia was 1.5 hours, with reperfusion at either 24 or 72 hours (3 days). Specimens of gastrocnemius (GC) and anterior tibialis (TA) were removed for histological evaluation and biochemical analysis. Results This model of I/R injury was highly reproducible in histologic muscle damage. In the histologic damage score, the mean muscle fibers and inflammatory cell infiltration in the I/R + Ed group were significantly less than the corresponding values of observed in the I/R group. Thus, pretreatment with edaravone was observed to have a protective effect on muscle damage after a period of I/R in mice. In addition, the mean muscle injury score in the I/R + Ed group was also significantly less than the I/R group. In the I/R + Ed group, the mean malondialdehyde (MDA) level was lower than in the I/R group and western-blotting revealed that edaravone pretreatment decreased the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Conclusions Edaravone

  17. Administration of FTY720 during Tourniquet-Induced Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI of the extremities leads to local and systemic inflammatory changes which can hinder limb function and can be life threatening. This study examined whether the administration of the T-cell sequestration agent, FTY720, following hind limb tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle IRI in a rat model would attenuate systemic inflammation and multiple end organ injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia via application of a rubber band tourniquet. Animals were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either vehicle control or FTY720 15 min after band placement. Rats (n=10/time point were euthanized at 6, 24, and 72 hr post-IRI. Peripheral blood as well as lung, liver, kidney, and ischemic muscle tissue was analyzed and compared between groups. FTY720 treatment markedly decreased the number of peripheral blood T cells (p<0.05 resulting in a decreased systemic inflammatory response and lower serum creatinine levels and had a modest but significant effect in decreasing the transcription of injury-associated target genes in multiple end organs. These findings suggest that early intervention with FTY720 may benefit the treatment of IRI of the limb. Further preclinical studies are necessary to characterize the short-term and long-term beneficial effects of FTY720 following tourniquet-induced IRI.

  18. Antioxidant effect of erdosteine and lipoic acid in ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuyucu, R; Karateke, A; Gokce, H; Kurt, R K; Ozcan, O; Ozturk, S; Tas, Z A; Karateke, F; Duru, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of erdosteine and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in a rat model of ovarian ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Forty-eight female Wistar albino rats were separated, at random, into six groups of eight rats. The groups were classified as: sham, torsion, detorsion, detorsion+erdosteine 100mg/kg, detorsion+alpha lipoic acid (ALA) 100mg/kg, and detorsion+erdosteine+ALA. The investigators executing the biochemical and histological analyses were blinded to the randomization until the end of the study. The TOS (Total Oxidant Status) and OSI (Oxidative Stress Index) levels are higher in the Torsion and Detorsion groups when compared with the ones in the Sham group (pOSI and total histological score in the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (r=0.765, pOSI in the rats that received erdosteine and/or ALA were significantly lower compared with the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (pOSI were lower in the detorsion+erdosteine+ALA group compared with the detorsion+erdosteine and detorsion+ALA groups (pmodel; combination treatment had a greater effect than either agent alone. Treatment with erdosteine and/or ALA was found to preserve the loss of reproductive capacity normally observed after ovarian torsion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of morphine preconditioning and nitric oxide following brain ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Arabian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Morphine dependence (MD potently protects heart against ischemia reperfusion (IR injury through specific signaling mechanisms, which are different from the pathways involved in acute morphine treatment or classical preconditioning. Since opioid receptor density changes post cerebral ischemia strongly correlated with brain histological damage, in the present study, we tried to elucidate the possible role of opioid receptors in IR injury among morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Accordingly, incremental doses (10 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day of morphine sulphate were subcutaneously administered for 5 days before global brain ischemia induction through bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Animals were received naloxone (5 mg/kg or L-NAME (20 mg/kg 30 min after the last morphine dose. Twenty four hr after the ischemia induction, Retention trial of passive avoidance test and western blot analysis were done. histological analysis (TUNEL and NISSL staining performed 72 hr after ischemia. Results: MD improved post ischemia memory performance (P

  20. Anti-anaphylactic action of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in antigen sensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Dale R; Valentine, Jimmie L

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SR AW ) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SR AW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0.9% aerosol (w/vol) attenuated the increase in SR AW resulting from OA challenge. In the anesthetized guinea pig pretreated with indomethacin, pyrilamine and propranolol, intravenous OA injection increased intra-tracheal pressure above vehicle injection. Intravenous NDGA administration (5mg/kg) reduced the intra-tracheal pressure increases. In a third series of experiments plasma leukotriene C 4 was measured by radio-immunoassay in 3 groups challenged with OA aerosol: vehicle-treated OA-sensitized, OA-sensitized receiving NDGA and vehicle treated guinea pigs. NDGA pretreatment reduced plasma LTC 4 in response to OA challenge in OA sensitized guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that NDGA is an effective antigenic agent when given by aerosol or intravenous injection in either conscious or anesthetized guinea pigs, respectively. The mechanism of action of NDGA is presumed primarily be due to the blockage of 5-lipoxygenase and therefore the synthesis of leukotrienes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ROLES AND EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPANTS IN PIG MARKETING IN THE NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ajala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  2. The protective effect of huperzine A against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Yang, J; Jiang, Q

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury is regarded as a serious concern in clinical practices. Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese folk medicine huperzia serrate, which has possessed diverse pharmacological actions. A mouse model of HI/R was caused by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein, and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 6 hours under anesthesia. The sham group experienced the identical procedure without hepatic ischemia. The HupA group received an injection into the tail vein 5 minutes prior to HI/R at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg. The vehicle group was injected with physiological saline instead of HupA. The liver function was assessed by determinations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the activities of hepatic inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 were also measured. Furthermore, the apoptotic damage was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity in hepatic tissues. Treatment with HupA in mice at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg remarkably reduced serum ALT and AST activities in HupA-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, HupA treatment could enhance the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT, and GSH but decrease MDA tissue content. The activities of inflammatory cytokines including NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were all decreased in ischemic mice treated with HupA. Colorimetric test results illustrated that a marked reduction of caspase-3 activity was found in the HupA-treated group compared with the vehicle group. Our present data suggest that HupA has a protective role against HI/R injury of mice and antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic

  3. An Observational study of prehospital and hospital delay in reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction at a University Hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among Indian adults, and approximately 50% of deaths usually occur during the 1st hour after symptom onset before arriving at the hospital. A study was planned to evaluate the prehospital and hospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 390 patients with AMI admitted to the Department of Cardiology between March 2014 and August 2015. Detailed patient demographics, socioeconomic status, and prehospital and hospital delay were reviewed. Results: The mean age of presentation for male and female was 57 ± 12.91 and 61.5 ± 12.83 years, respectively. The mean prehospital delay, time to act after chest pain, and travel time were 9.08 ± 6.3, 7.16 ± 6.1, and 1.84 ± 0.8 h, respectively, and only three (9.7% patients reached the hospital within 2 h after symptom onset. Out of 300 patients who received reperfusion therapy, thrombolysis was done in 276 (92% patients while primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in only 24 (8% patients. Mean door-to-needle (D-N time and door-to-device time for those who received reperfusion therapy were 27.8 ± 4.3 and 78.95 ± 9.5 min, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the prehospital delay was significantly associated with older age, female sex, rural background, diabetes, having atypical pain, and lack of knowledge regarding the seriousness of chest pain. Conclusion: Approximately 79% of total prehospital delay was due to patient-related factors; old age, female sex, rural background, diabetes, atypical angina, and lack of knowledge being the significant attributes. D-N time and door-to-device time were within the limits of those recommended by current guidelines.

  4. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  5. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  6. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  7. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  8. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  9. Cellular infiltrates and injury evaluation in a rat model of warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putte, BP; Kesecioglu, J; Hendriks, JMH; Persy, VP; van Marck, E; Van Schil, PEY; De Broe, ME

    Introduction Beside lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, isolated lung perfusion and sleeve resection result in serious pulmonary ischemia - reperfusion injury, clinically known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Very little is known about cells infiltrating the lung during ischemia -

  10. The pathways by which mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that mild hypothermia exhibits a neuroprotective role and it can inhibit endothelial cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by decreasing casp-ase-3 expression. It is hypothesized that mild hypothermia exhibits neuroprotective effects on neurons exposed to ischemia/reperfusion condition produced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Mild hypothermia significantly reduced the number of apoptotic neurons, decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, with the peak of anti-apoptotic effect appearing between 6 and 12 hours after the injury. These findings indicate that mild hypothermia inhibits neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury by protecting the mitochondria and that the effective time window is 6-12 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury

  11. Reperfusion delay in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M; Sejersten, Maria; Hvelplund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    identification number to emergency medical services (EMS) and National Board of Health databases in the period of 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to transfer distances to PPCI into zone 1 (0-25 km), zone 2 (65-100 km) and zone 3 (101-185 km) and according to referral by pre-hospital triage. System...... the local hospital (219 (171-250)). System delay was an independent predictor of mortality (ppatients. PCI-related delay exceeded European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for patients living >100 km away and for non-directly referred......BACKGROUND: Reperfusion delay in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) predicts adverse outcome. We evaluated time from alarm call (system delay) and time from first medical contact (PCI-related delay), where fibrinolysis could be initiated, to balloon inflation in a pre...

  12. Edaravone enhances the viability of ischemia/reperfusion flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Yi; Kang, Shen-Song; Zhang, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to study the efficacy of edaravone in enhancing flap viability after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) and its mechanism. Forty-eight adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (n=16), IR group (n=16), and edaravone-treated IR group (n=16). An island flap at left lower abdomen (6.0 cm×3.0 cm in size), fed by the superficial epigastric artery and vein, was created in each rat of all the three groups. The arterial blood flow of flaps in IR group and edaravone-treated IR group was blocked for 10 h, and then the blood perfusion was restored. From 15 min before reperfusion, rats in the edaravone-treated IR group were intraperitoneally injected with edaravone (10 mg/kg), once every 12 h, for 3 days. Rats in the IR group and control group were intraperitoneally injected with saline, with the same method and frequency as the rats in the edaravone-treated IR group. In IR group and edaravone-treated IR group, samples of flaps were harvested after reperfusion of the flaps for 24 h. In the control group, samples of flaps were harvested 34 h after creation of the flaps. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined, and changes in organizational structure and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, apoptotic cells of vascular wall were marked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall was calculated. The ultrastructural changes of vascular endothelial cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Seven days after the operation, we calculated the flap viability of each group, and marked vessels of flaps by immunohistochemical staining for calculating the average number of subcutaneous vessels. The results showed that the content of MDA, the number of multicore inflammatory cells and apoptotic rate of cells in vascular wall

  13. Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zhenlong; Di, Wencheng; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Reiter, Russel J; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions of melatonin against IR injury in brain, heart, liver, and others. Finally, we explore several potential future directions of research in this area. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of melatonin in IR injury identified to date and will hopefully aid in the design of future research and increase the potential of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Effectiveness of sugammadex for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilgin, Sule; Yılmaz, Osman; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Hancı, Volkan; Ozbal, Seda; Yurtlu, Serhan; Gunenc, Sakize Ferim; Kuvaki, Bahar; Kucuk, Burcu Ataseven; Sisman, Ali Rıza

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral ischemia may cause permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The efficacy and mechanisms of pharmacological treatments administered immediately after cerebral damage are not fully known. Sugammadex is a licensed medication. As other cyclodextrins have not passed the necessary phase tests, trade preparations are not available, whereas sugammadex is frequently used in clinical anesthetic practice. Previous studies have not clearly described the effects of the cyclodextrin family on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect against transient global cerebral ischemia. Animals were assigned to control, sham-operated, S 16 and S 100 groups. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by 10-minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, neurological behavior scoring was performed on the rats, followed by evaluation of histomorphological and biochemical measurements. Sugammadex 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg improved neurological outcome, which was associated with reductions in both histological and neurological scores. The hippocampus TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) and caspase results in the S 16 and S 100 treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the I/R group. Neurological scores in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the I/R group. The study showed that treatment with 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect in a transient global cerebral I/R rat model. However, 100 mg/kg sugammadex was more neuroprotective in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Effectiveness of sugammadex for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Ozbilgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia may cause permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The efficacy and mechanisms of pharmacological treatments administered immediately after cerebral damage are not fully known. Sugammadex is a licensed medication. As other cyclodextrins have not passed the necessary phase tests, trade preparations are not available, whereas sugammadex is frequently used in clinical anesthetic practice. Previous studies have not clearly described the effects of the cyclodextrin family on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect against transient global cerebral ischemia. Animals were assigned to control, sham-operated, S 16 and S 100 groups. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by 10-minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, neurological behavior scoring was performed on the rats, followed by evaluation of histomorphological and biochemical measurements. Sugammadex 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg improved neurological outcome, which was associated with reductions in both histological and neurological scores. The hippocampus TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and caspase results in the S 16 and S 100 treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the I/R group. Neurological scores in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the I/R group. The study showed that treatment with 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect in a transient global cerebral I/R rat model. However, 100 mg/kg sugammadex was more neuroprotective in rats.

  16. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  17. Borax partially prevents neurologic disability and oxidative stress in experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Emine Rabia; Gökce, Emre Cemal; Sönmez, Mehmet Akif; Namuslu, Mehmet; Gökce, Aysun; Bodur, A Said

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of borax on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (no ischemia/reperfusion), ischemia/reperfusion, and borax (ischemia/reperfusion + borax); each group was consist of 7 animals. Infrarenal aortic cross clamp was applied for 30 minutes to generate spinal cord ischemia. Animals were evaluated functionally with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scoring system and inclined-plane test. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status and to perform histopathological examination. At the 72nd hour after ischemia, the borax group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan and inclined-plane scores than those of ischemia/reperfusion group. Histopathological examination of spinal cord tissues in borax group showed that treatment with borax significantly reduced the degree of spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury disclosed by light microscopy. Xanthine oxidase activity and total oxidant status levels of the ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly higher than those of the sham and borax groups (P borax group were significantly higher than those of the ischemia/reperfusion group (P borax groups in terms of total antioxidant capacity levels (P > .05). The nitric oxide levels and nitric oxide synthase activity of all groups were similar (P > .05). Borax treatment seems to protect the spinal cord against injury in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model and improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhe; He, Zhiyi; Deng, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA) may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist) was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (Pprotective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a significant but partial neuroprotective effect. UA can act as a PPARγ agonist to improve the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance, possibly by inhibiting the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, thereby attenuating cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Therefore, UA may serve as a novel neuroprotective therapeutic agent.

  19. Isoproterenol reduces ischemia-reperfusion lung injury despite beta-blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Seiki; Schlidt, Scott A; Koukoulis, Giovanna; Sevala, Mayura; Egan, Thomas M

    2005-06-01

    If lungs could be retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs), the shortage of lungs for transplantation could be alleviated. The use of lungs from NHBDs is associated with a mandatory warm ischemic interval, which results in ischemia-reperfusion injury upon reperfusion. In an earlier study, rat lungs retrieved 2-h postmortem from NHBDs had reduced capillary leak measured by filtration coefficient (Kfc) when reperfused with isoproterenol (iso), associated with an increase in lung tissue levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The objective was to determine if this decrease in Kfc was because of beta-stimulation, or would persist despite beta-blockade. Donor rats were treated intraperitoneally with beta-blockade (propranolol or pindolol) or carrier, sacrificed, and lungs were retrieved immediately or 2 h postmortem. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso and the beta-blockers in the reperfusate. Outcome measures were Kfc, wet:dry weight ratio (W/D), lung levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP. Lungs retrieved immediately after death had normal Kfc and W/D. After 2 h of ischemia, Kfc and W/D were markedly elevated in controls (no drug) and lungs reperfused with beta-blockers alone. Isoproterenol-reperfusion decreased Kfc and W/D significantly (P < 0.01) even in the presence of beta-blockade. Lung cAMP levels were increased only with iso in the absence of beta-blockade. The attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury because of iso occurs even in the presence of beta-blockade, and may not be a result of beta-stimulated increased cAMP.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-1 improves cardiac functional recovery and enhances cell survival after ischemia and reperfusion: a fibroblast growth factor receptor, protein kinase C, and tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, Meindert; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; de Windt, Leon J.; Willems, Jodil; Dassen, Willem R. M.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Zimmermann, Rene; van Bilsen, Marc; Doevendans, Pieter A.

    2004-01-01

    We sought to investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. The FGFs display cardioprotective effects during ischemia and reperfusion. We investigated FGF-1-induced cardioprotection during ischemia and reperfusion and the intracellular

  1. Effect of helicopter transport on neurological outcomes in a mouse model of embolic stroke with reperfusion: AIR-MICE pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leira, Enrique C; Zaheer, Asgar; Schnell, Thomas; Torner, James C; Olalde, Heena M; Pieper, Andrew A; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Marks, Nancy L; Adams, Harold P

    2015-10-01

    Patients often suffer a stroke at a significant distance from a center capable of delivering endovascular therapy, thus requiring rapid transport by helicopter emergency medical services while receiving a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion that was initiated locally. But little is known about how a helicopter flight may impact the safety and efficacy of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-induced reperfusion and patient outcomes. To establish a new animal method to address with fidelity the safety and overall effect of helicopter emergency medical services during thrombolysis. Prospective randomized open blinded end-point study of an actual helicopter flight exposure. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with a 10 mg/kg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion two-hours after an embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mice were randomized in pairs to simultaneously receive the infusion during a local helicopter flight or in a ground hangar. Eighteen mice (nine pairs) were analyzed. The paired t-test analysis showed nonsignificant smaller infarction volumes in the helicopter-assigned animals (mean pair difference 33 mm(3) , P = 0·33). The amount of hemorrhagic transformation between the helicopter and ground groups was 4·08 vs. 4·56 μl, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0·45). This study shows that helicopter emergency medical services do not have an inherent adverse effect on outcome in a mouse model of ischemic stroke with reperfusion. These results endorse the safety of the practice of using helicopter emergency medical services in stroke patients. The observed potential synergistic effect of helicopter-induced factors, such as vibration and changes in altitude, with reperfusion merits further exploration in animal experimental models and in stroke patients. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pigs of similar genetics (PIC were used. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ENRO, n = 10 and control (C, n = 10. From day 0 to day 4, pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended therapeutic dose. Pigs from C group received PBS instead of enrofloxacin. Blood samples were collected on days 0 (before antibiotic administration, 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy, 9, and 13 of the study (after enrofloxacin administration. Haematological examination and flow cytometry were used to establish the relative and absolute counts of various leukocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by fluorochrom-labelled antibodies according to following definitions: CD3+ (T cells, CD21+ (B cells, CD4+CD8- (helper T cells, Th, CD4-CD8+ (cytolytic T cells, CLT, CD4+CD8+ (cytolytic and memory T cells. The present study revealed the modulating effect of enrofloxacin on the composition of circulating lymphocytes in pigs. Concentration and percentage of CD8+ cells decreased significantly after treatment with enrofloxacin and as a result the absolute CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly as compared to control group (P < 0.05.These findings should prompt further studies on the practical significance of the results obtained in terms of clinical implications. In view of the results, it cannot be excluded that enrofloxacin may also have immunomodulatory effects on host response to infection.

  4. Attenuation of ischemia/reperfusion-induced inhibition of the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current by Isosteviol through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chunxia; Chen, Yaoxu; Wu, Huanlin; Xu, Danping; Tan, Wen

    2017-12-01

    Isosteviol has been demonstrated to play a protective role during ischemia reperfusion (I/R) myocardial infarction. However, the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms of isosteviol are still unknown. Our previous study showed that the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel (I Kr ) plays an important role in the prolongation of I/R-induced QT interval-related arrhythmia. This study aimed to investigate whether isosteviol could attenuate I/R-induced prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) along with inhibition of I Kr , and we aimed to clarify the electrophysiological mechanism of isosteviol to determine its cardioprotective effects in guinea pigs. We observed that the APD 90 were 298.5±41.6ms in control, 528.6±56.7ms during I/R, and reduced to 327.8±40.5ms after 10μmol/L of isosteviol treatment. The I Kr currents were 1.44±0.06 pA·pF -1 in the control group, 0.50±0.07pA·pF -1 during I/R, and recovered to 1.20±0.12pA·pF -1 after 10μmol/L of isoteviol treatment. Moreover, isosteviol reduced the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during I/R. Importantly, isosteviol does not affect the I Kr and human ether-a-go-go-related gene currents of normal cardiomyocytes. It attenuated the I/R-induced inhibition of I Kr due to reduced over-production of ROS. Furthermore, isosteviol is safe and has no cardiotoxicity, and it might be beneficial for coronary reperfusion therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Selective cerebral perfusion prevents abnormalities in glutamate cycling and neuronal apoptosis in a model of infant deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2016-10-01

    Rationale: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is often required for the repair of complex congenital cardiac defects in infants. However, DHCA induces neuroapoptosis associated with later development of neurocognitive abnormalities. Selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) theoretically provides superior neural protection possibly through modifications in cerebral substrate oxidation and closely integrated glutamate cycling. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that SCP modulates glucose entry into the citric acid cycle, and ameliorates abnormalities in glutamate flux which occur in association neuroapoptosis during DHCA. Methods and Results: Eighteen male Yorkshire piglets (age 34-44 days) were assigned randomly to 2 groups of 7 (DHCA or DHCA with SCP for 60 minutes at 18 °C) and 4 control pigs without cardiopulmonary bypass support. After the completion of rewarming from DHCA, 13-Carbon-labeled (13C) glucose as a metabolic tracer was infused. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance for metabolic analysis in the frontal cortex. Following 2.5 hours of cerebral reperfusion, we observed similar cerebral ATP levels, absolute levels of lactate and citric acid cycle intermediates, and 13C-enrichment. However, DHCA induced significant abnormalities in glutamate cycling resulting in reduced glutamate/glutamine and elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate along with neuroapoptosis (TUNEL), which were all prevented by SCP. Conclusions: DHCA alone induces abnormalities in cycling of the major neurotransmitters in association with neuroapoptosis, but does not alter cerebral glucose utilization during reperfusion. The data suggest that SCP prevents these modifications in glutamate/glutamine/GABA cycling and protects the cerebral cortex from neuroapoptosis.

  6. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  7. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  8. Reperfusion therapy of myocardial infarction in Mexico: A challenge for modern cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Arias-Mendoza, Alexandra; González-Pacheco, Héctor; Araiza-Garaygordobil, Diego; Marroquín-Donday, Luis Alfonso; Padilla-Ibarra, Jorge; Sierra-Fernández, Carlos; Altamirano-Castillo, Alfredo; Álvarez-Sangabriel, Amada; Azar-Manzur, Francisco Javier; Briseño-de la Cruz, José Luis; Mendoza-García, Salvador; Piña-Reyna, Yigal; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    Mexico has been positioned as the country with the highest mortality attributed to myocardial infarction among the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This rate responds to multiple factors, including a low rate of reperfusion therapy and the absence of a coordinated system of care. Primary angioplasty is the reperfusion method recommended by the guidelines, but requires multiple conditions that are not reached at all times. Early pharmacological reperfusion of the culprit coronary artery and early coronary angiography (pharmacoinvasive strategy) can be the solution to the logistical problem that primary angioplasty rises. Several studies have demonstrated pharmacoinvasive strategy as effective and safe as primary angioplasty ST-elevation myocardial infarction, which is postulated as the choice to follow in communities where access to PPCI is limited. The Mexico City Government together with the National Institute of Cardiology have developed a pharmaco-invasive reperfusion treatment program to ensure effective and timely reperfusion in STEMI. The model comprises a network of care at all three levels of health, including a system for early pharmacological reperfusion in primary care centers, a digital telemedicine system, an inter-hospital transport network to ensure primary angioplasty or early percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis and a training program with certification of the health care personal. This program intends to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventive Treatment with Ketamine Attenuates the Ischaemia-Reperfusion Response in a Chronic Postischaemia Pain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryamin Liman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and inflammation may be pathophysiological mechanisms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Ketamine has proposed anti-inflammatory effects and has been used for treating CRPS. This study aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketamine after ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a chronic postischaemia pain (CPIP model of CRPS-I. Using this model, ischemia was induced in the hindlimbs of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Ketamine, methylprednisolone, or saline was administered immediately after reperfusion. Physical effects, (oedema, temperature, and mechanical and cold allodynia in the bilateral hindpaws, were assessed from 48 hours after reperfusion. Fewer (56% rats in the ketamine group developed CPIP at the 48th hour after reperfusion (nonsignificant. Ketamine treated rats showed a significantly lower temperature in the ischaemic hindpaw compared to saline (P<0.01 and methylprednisolone (P<0.05 groups. Mechanical and cold allodynia were significantly lower in the ischaemic side in the ketamine group (P<0.05. Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-2 were significantly lower at the 48th hour after reperfusion in ketamine and methylprednisolone groups, compared to saline (all P<0.05. In conclusion, immediate administration of ketamine after an ischaemia-reperfusion injury can alleviate pain and inflammation in the CPIP model and has potential to treat postischaemic pain.

  10. Sildenafil citrate protects skeletal muscle of ischemia-reperfusion injury: immunohistochemical study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira Armstrong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: vehicle-treated control (CTG, sildenafil citrate-treated (SCG, and sham group (SG. CTG and SCG had femoral artery occluded for 6 hours. Saline or 1 mg/kg of SC was given 5.5 hours after occlusion. SG had a similar procedure without artery occlusion. Soleus muscle samples were acquired 4 or 24h after the reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry caspase-3 analysis was used to estimate apoptosis using the apoptotic ratio (computed as positive/negative cells. Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Eighteen animals were included in the 4h reperfusion groups and 21 animals in the 24h reperfusion groups. The mean apoptotic ratio was 0.18±0.1 for the total cohort; 0.14±0.06 for the 4h reperfusion groups and 0.19±0.08 for the 24h groups (p<0.05. The SCG had lower caspase-3 ratio compared to the control groups at the 24h reperfusion time point (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate administration after the onset of the ischemic injury reduces IR-induced cellular damage in skeletal muscle in this rat hindlimb ischemia model.

  11. Targeting reactive nitrogen species: a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-miao; Chen, Han-sen; Xu, Ming-jing; Shen, Jian-gang

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke accounts for nearly 80% of stroke cases. Recanalization with thrombolysis is a currently crucial therapeutic strategy for re-building blood supply, but the thrombolytic therapy often companies with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which are mediated by free radicals. As an important component of free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), play important roles in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ischemia-reperfusion results in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in ischemic brain, which trigger numerous molecular cascades and lead to disruption of the blood brain barrier and exacerbate brain damage. There are few therapeutic strategies available for saving ischemic brains and preventing the subsequent brain damage. Recent evidence suggests that RNS could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress regarding the roles of RNS in the process of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury and discussed the potentials of drug development that target NO and ONOO(-) to treat ischemic stroke. We conclude that modulation for RNS level could be an important therapeutic strategy for preventing cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  12. Reperfusion of specific cortical areas is associated with improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Shaan; Trupe, Lydia A; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Molitoris, John J; Medina, Jared; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E

    2012-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that restoring blood flow to specific right cortical regions in acute stroke results in improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect distinguished by reference frame: viewer-centered versus stimulus-centered neglect. Twenty five patients with acute right stroke were evaluated at Day 1 and Day 3-5 with a battery of neglect tests and Diffusion- and Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed Brodmann areas (BAs) where reperfusion predicted degree of improvement in scores on each type of neglect, independently of reperfusion of other areas, total change in the volume of infarct or hypoperfusion, and age. Reperfusion of dorsal frontoparietal cortex (including BAs 40, 46, and 4) independently predicted improvement in viewer-centered neglect, such as detecting stimuli on left in line cancellation and scene copying (r=.951; p<.0001). Reperfusion of a more ventral temporo-occipital cortex, including right BAs 37, 38, 21 and 18, independently contributed to improvement in stimulus-centered neglect, such as detecting left gaps in circles (r=.926; p<.0001). Reperfusion of right midfusiform gyrus (temporal occipital cortex), change in total volume of ischemia, change in volume of hypoperfusion and age predicted degree of improvement in reading (reduction in "neglect dyslexic" errors; r=.915; p<.0001). Results demonstrate that reperfusing specific cortical regions yields improvement in different types of neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of defibrotide, a novel oligodeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia and reperfusion injury of the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Song, Jin Ho; Oh, Byung Kwon; Choi, Myung Sup; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2002-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the liver using a rat model. 2. Ischaemia of the left and median lobes was created by total inflow occlusion for 30 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Hepatic injury was assessed by the release of liver enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and lactic dehydrogenase, LDH). Hepatic oxidant stress was measured by superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate formation. Leukocyte-endothelium interaction and Kupffer cell mobilization were quantified by measuring hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and immunostaining of Kupffer cell. 3. Defibrotide treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of postreperfusion superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, serum ALT activity, serum LDH activity, MPO activity, serum nitrite/nitrate level, leukocyte adherence to SMA, and Kupffer cell mobilization, indicating a significant attenuation of hepatic dysfunction. 4. A significant correlation existed between liver ischaemia/reperfusion and hepatic injury, suggesting that liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury is mediated predominantly by generation of oxygen free radicals and mobilization of Kupffer cells. 5. We conclude that defibrotide significantly protects the liver against liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury by interfering with Kupffer cell mobilization and formation of oxygen free radicals. This study provides strong evidence that defibrotide has important beneficial effects on acute inflammatory tissue injury such as that occurring in the reperfusion of the ischaemic liver.

  14. Metabolic variations of fatty acid in isolated rat heart reperfused after a transient global ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Michel Comet; Zhao Huiyang; Zhu Cuiying; Yuan Jimin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The fatty acid metabolism and the effect of glucose on it were studied in isolated and reperfused rat heat. Methods: 32 isolated working rat hearts were perfused in Langengdorff device with modified Krebs and were divided into normal and ischemia-reperfused group. Each group was also classified into two subgroups, modified krebs with or without glucose subgroup. 131 I-HA was injected into aorta of isolated working rat heart and then the radio-residue curves were acquired. Results: When the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs plus glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid was significantly decreased in normal group, but a remarkable increase of fatty acid catabolism was found in ischemia-reperfused group. While the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart was less than that in normal group. Conclusions: Transient ischemia damages the catabolism of myocardial fatty acid in mitochondria in some degree. In normal isolated working rat heart, the principal energy source is glucose. However, the major energy source is switched to catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart. This phenomenon may be related to compensative increase of fatty acid catabolism for replenishing the loss of energy during ischemia

  15. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (paloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental study of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhai Renyou; Zhang Dongpo; Huang Qiang; Yu Ping; Dai Dingke; Bao Na

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish a canine model of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia- reperfusion injury (PTE IRI) that may be used for imaging study. Methods: Ten male and 10 female healthy mongrel canines with (18.6±0.8) kg/body weight, were used. A Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced into the right internal jugular vein via a preset percutaneous sheath using the Seldinger technique, and then was with further insertion the pulmonary artery. Balloon occlusion of the right inferior lobe pulmonary artery for 4 hours was followed by removing the catheter and ending with 4 hours of reperfusion. CT was performed before ischemia, 4 h after ischemia and 4 h after reperfusion. At last, dogs were killed and the bilateral inferior lung tissues were prepared for the examination by light and electronic microscopy. Results: All canine models were successfully developed pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury. The examination of CT, light and electron microscopy consistently indicated the presence of permeability pulmonary edema after reperfusion. Conclusions: A closed-chest canine model in vivo of pulmonary thromboembolism ischemia-reperfusion injury can be established with virtual pathophysiological process in human and be as well as for imaging experimental study. (authors)

  17. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  18. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  19. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously administ...

  20. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  2. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Therapy Provides Cardioprotection Via Control of Post-Ischemic Inflammation: An Experimental Study in a Pre-Clinical Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Rabea; Lange, Philipp; Petersen, Björn; Gottlieb, Elena; Ng, Judy King Man; Finger, Stefanie; Horstkotte, Jan; Lee, Seungmin; Thormann, Michael; Knorr, Maike; El-Aouni, Chiraz; Boekstegers, Peter; Reichart, Bruno; Wenzel, Philip; Niemann, Heiner; Kupatt, Christian

    2015-07-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-responsive enzyme converting heme to bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and free iron, which exerts anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Although efficient cardioprotection after HO-1 overexpression has been reported in rodents, its role in attenuating post-ischemic inflammation is unclear. This study assessed the efficacy of recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV)-encoding human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in attenuating post-ischemic inflammation in a murine and a porcine ischemia/reperfusion model. Murine ischemia was induced by 45 min of left anterior descending occlusion, followed by 24 h of reperfusion and functional as well as fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis. Porcine hearts were subjected to 60 min of ischemia and 24h of reperfusion before hemodynamic and histologic analyses were performed. Human microvascular endothelial cells transfected with hHO-1 displayed an attenuated interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, resulting in reduced monocytic THP-1 cell recruitment in vitro. In murine left anterior descending occlusion and reperfusion, the post-ischemic influx of CD45(+) leukocytes, Ly-6G(+) neutrophils, and Ly-6C(high) monocytes was further exacerbated in HO-1-deficient hearts and reversed by rAAV.hHO-1 treatment. Conversely, in our porcine model of ischemia, the post-ischemic influx of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils and CD14(+) monocytes was reduced by 49% and 87% after rAAV.hHO-1 transduction, similar to hHO-1 transgenic pigs. Functionally, rAAV.hHO-1 and hHO-1 transgenic left ventricles displayed a smaller loss of ejection fraction than control animals. Whereas HO-1 deficiency exacerbates post-ischemic cardiac inflammation in mice, hHO-1 gene therapy attenuates inflammation after ischemia and reperfusion in murine and porcine hearts. Regional hHO-1 gene therapy provides cardioprotection in a pre-clinical porcine ischemia/reperfusion model. Copyright © 2015 American

  4. Digestibilidade de nutrientes e balanço de Ca e P em suínos recebendo dietas com ácido butírico, fitase e diferentes níveis de cálcio Nutrient digestibility and Ca and P balance in pigs receiving butyric acid, phytase and different calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane Golfetto Machinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o uso do ácido butírico (AB e da fitase em dietas de suínos na fase de crescimento, variando no nível de cálcio. O experimento foi subdivido no tempo em dois períodos de 17 dias, sendo três de adaptação e 14 de mensurações. Em cada período, foram utilizados 16 suínos machos castrados, com peso de 24,6±0,7kg no primeiro e 43,2±1,77kg no segundo período. As dietas diferiam no nível de cálcio (0,5 ou 0,72%, de AB (0 ou 0,3% de butirato de sódio 84% e de fitase (0 ou 500 FTU kg-1, fitase de origem bacteriana derivada de Escherichia coli. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados (períodos, em decomposição fatorial 2x2x2, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta e o balanço de Ca e P. O AB melhorou a digestibilidade da proteína bruta, mas, de forma individual ou em combinação com a fitase, não aumentou a retenção de minerais. A fitase aumentou a retenção de P, reduzindo sua excreção fecal e urinária. O menor nível de Ca na dieta proporcionou maior retenção de Ca e menor retenção de P, em decorrência do aumento da excreção de P na urina (PIt was studied the use of butyric acid (BA and phytase in growing pigs diets, varying calcium level. The experiment was divided into two periods of time, of 17 days, with 3 days of adaptation and 14 of measurements. In each period, it was used 16 barrows weighing 24.6±0.7kg in the first and 43.2±1.77kg in the second. Diets were different in calcium level (0.5 or 0.72%, AB (0 or 0.3% sodium butyrate 84% and phytase (0 or 500FTU kg-1 phytase of bacterial origin derived from Escherichia coli. The experimental design was in randomized blocks (periods, decomposed in 2x2x2 factorial, with four replications. It was evaluated the apparent digestibility of nutrients, gross energy and balance of Ca and P. AB improved crude protein digestibility, but individually or in combination with phytase did not increase

  5. Effect of a critical coronary stenosis on myocardial neutrophil accumulation during ischemia and early reperfusion in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, V.J.; Brooks, S.E.; Jennings, R.B.; Reimer, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    In many experimental models of ischemia and reperfusion, reperfusion is performed abruptly, allowing full reactive hyperemia to occur. In the clinical setting, however, reperfusion after thrombolysis is often limited by residual stenosis. Some experimental models attempt to mimic this situation with a critical stenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preventing reactive hyperemia during the initial phase of reperfusion would modify the transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow or the myocardial accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The left circumflex artery was occluded for 90 minutes and then reperfused for 60 minutes in anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Autologous PMNs were isolated, labeled with 111In, and reinjected 1 hour before coronary occlusion. 125I-labeled albumin was injected simultaneously to correct for 111In associated with plasma proteins and to permit calculation of the number of PMNs in the inner, middle, and outer thirds of nonischemic and ischemic-reperfused tissue. The presence of a critical stenosis abolished reactive hyperemia during the first 5 minutes of reperfusion, but did not substantially affect blood flow measured after 55 minutes of reperfusion. In both groups, there was a significant accumulation of PMNs in all layers of the ischemic-reperfused bed compared with the nonischemic bed, and the magnitude of this PMN accumulation was not altered by the presence of a critical stenosis. Moreover, infarct size, estimated by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) loss after 60 minutes of reperfusion, was not affected by the presence of a critical stenosis. Thus, the presence of a critical stenosis abolished the hyperemic blood flow after reperfusion but did not influence the early PMN response to ischemia and reperfusion or the early loss of TTC staining

  6. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  7. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  8. Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S group (n = 5 each. In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4°C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37°C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups or immediately after sacrifice (Control, the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells. Results Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation: CE: 160 mm3 (0.61 vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75; p 3 (0.90 vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p 3 (0.39 vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43; p 3(0.10 and CE+S (481 μm3(0.10 compared with controls (323 μm3(0.07; p Conclusion Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of

  9. Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on the protection of ischemia reperfusion injury of bile duct in rats after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xi; Zhang, Zhiqing; Huang, Hanfei; Zhang, Yujun; Zeng, Zhong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on the ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) of bile duct in rat models after liver transplantation. 320 SD rats were equally and randomly divided into 5 groups, which were group A receiving injection of 3×10 8 /pfu/ml adenovirus (adv), group B with donor receiving Adv-HO-1 and recipient receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA, group C with donor and recipient both receiving Adv-HO-1, group D with donor receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA and recipient receiving Adv-HO-1, and group E with donor and recipient both receiving Adv-HO-1-siRNA at 24h before liver transplantation. Donor liver was stored in UW liquid at 4°C followed by measuring HO-1 level by western blot before transplantation. On d1, d3, d7 and d14, serum and liver was isolated for analysis of liver function, inflammatory cell infiltration by H&E staining, ultrastructure of liver by transmission electron microscopy as well as the expression of HO-1, Bsep, Mrp2 and Ntcp by western blot. Compared with group D and E, group B and C displayed improved liver function as demonstrated by lower level of ALT, AST, LDH, TBIL, ALP and GGT, increased secretion of TBA and PL as well as expression of transporter proteins (Bsep, Mrp2 and Ntcp), reduced inflammatory cells infiltration and liver injury. Our study demonstrated that overexpression of HO-1 in donor liver can ameliorate the damage to bile duct and liver, and improved liver function, suggesting HO-1 might be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IRI after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A quantitative spatiotemporal analysis of microglia morphology during ischemic stroke and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Helena W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia cells continuously survey the healthy brain in a ramified morphology and, in response to injury, undergo progressive morphological and functional changes that encompass microglia activation. Although ideally positioned for immediate response to ischemic stroke (IS and reperfusion, their progressive morphological transformation into activated cells has not been quantified. In addition, it is not well understood if diverse microglia morphologies correlate to diverse microglia functions. As such, the dichotomous nature of these cells continues to confound our understanding of microglia-mediated injury after IS and reperfusion. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of microglia morphology during the evolution of cerebral injury after IS and reperfusion. Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia and periods of reperfusion (0, 8 and 24 h. The microglia process length/cell and number of endpoints/cell was quantified from immunofluorescent confocal images of brain regions using a skeleton analysis method developed for this study. Live cell morphology and process activity were measured from movies acquired in acute brain slices from GFP-CX3CR1 transgenic mice after IS and 24-h reperfusion. Regional CD11b and iNOS expressions were measured from confocal images and Western blot, respectively, to assess microglia proinflammatory function. Results Quantitative analysis reveals a significant spatiotemporal relationship between microglia morphology and evolving cerebral injury in the ipsilateral hemisphere after IS and reperfusion. Microglia were both hyper- and de-ramified in striatal and cortical brain regions (respectively after 60 min of focal cerebral ischemia. However, a de-ramified morphology was prominent when ischemia was coupled to reperfusion. Live microglia were de-ramified, and, in addition, process activity was severely blunted proximal to

  11. Change in iron metabolism in rats after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1 and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI. From 1 to 24 h after renal reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were found to be time-dependently increased with different degrees of kidney injury. Regular variations in iron metabolism indexes in the blood and kidneys were observed in renal IRI. Renal iron content, serum iron and serum ferritin increased early after reperfusion and then declined. Hepcidin expression in the liver significantly increased early after reperfusion, and its serum concentration increased beginning at 8 h after reperfusion. The splenic iron content decreased significantly in the early stage after reperfusion and then increased time-dependently with increasing reperfusion time, and the hepatic iron content showed a decrease in the early stage after reperfusion. The early decrease of the splenic iron content and hepatic iron content might indicate their contribution to the increase in serum iron in renal IRI. In addition, the duodenal iron content showed time-dependently decreased since 12 h after reperfusion in the IRI groups compared to the control group. Along with the spleen, the duodenum might contribute to the decrease in serum iron in the later stage after reperfusion. The changes in iron metabolism indexes observed in our study demonstrate an iron metabolism disorder in renal IRI, and hepcidin might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in renal IRI. These

  12. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R.G.A. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/ reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/ Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine-and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/ Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endotheliumdependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

  14. PIG's Speed Estimated with Pressure Transducers and Hall Effect Sensor: An Industrial Application of Sensors to Validate a Testing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo F; Freitas, Victor C G; Araújo, Renan P; Maitelli, André L; Salazar, Andrés O

    2017-09-15

    The pipeline inspection using a device called Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) is safe and reliable when the PIG is at low speeds during inspection. We built a Testing Laboratory, containing a testing loop and supervisory system to study speed control techniques for PIGs. The objective of this work is to present and validate the Testing Laboratory, which will allow development of a speed controller for PIGs and solve an existing problem in the oil industry. The experimental methodology used throughout the project is also presented. We installed pressure transducers on pipeline outer walls to detect the PIG's movement and, with data from supervisory, calculated an average speed of 0.43 m/s. At the same time, the electronic board inside the PIG received data from odometer and calculated an average speed of 0.45 m/s. We found an error of 4.44%, which is experimentally acceptable. The results showed that it is possible to successfully build a Testing Laboratory to detect the PIG's passage and estimate its speed. The validation of the Testing Laboratory using data from the odometer and its auxiliary electronic was very successful. Lastly, we hope to develop more research in the oil industry area using this Testing Laboratory.

  15. The Protective Effect of γ-aminobutyric Acid on Kidney Injury Induced by Renal Ischemia-reperfusion in Ovariectomized Estradiol-treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Vafapour, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the most important causes of kidney injury, which is possibly gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against IRI in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Thirty-five ovariectomized Wistar rats were used in six experimental groups. The first three groups did not subject to estradiol treatment and assigned as sham-operated, control, and GABA-treated groups. GABA (50 μmol/kg) and saline were injected in the treated and control groups 30 min before the surgery, respectively. The second three groups received the same treatments but received estradiol valerate (500 μg/kg, intramuscularly) 3 days prior to the surgery. The IRI was induced in the control and treated groups by clamping the renal artery for 45 min and then 24 h of reperfusion. All animals were sacrificed for the measurements. The serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score significantly increased in the IRI rats (P GABA significantly decreased the aforementioned parameters (P levels of nitrite (nitric oxide metabolite) did not alter significantly. Serum level of malondialdehyde increased significantly in the ovariectomized rats exposed to IRI (P GABA improved IRI in ovariectomized rats. Estradiol was also nephroprotective against IRI. However, co-administration of estradiol and GABA could not protect the kidney against IRI.

  16. The Effect of Salvia Rhytidea Extract on the Number of Cells of Different Layers of Cerebellar Cortex Following Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Salvia has anti-oxidant oxygen free radicals which are generated during the interruption and reestablishment of ischemia reperfusion.  The aim of study was to investigate the effect of Salvia Rhytidea extract on the number of cells of different layers of cerebellar cortex following ischemia reperfusion in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 adult male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 5: Group 1 (control-: Sampling without ischemia. Group 2 (control +: Cerebellar ischemia with administration of normal saline. Group 3(sham: Manipulation without ischemia with normal saline administration. Group 4   received (3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 2 hours after ischemia. Group 5 received 50 mg/kg silymarin drug, 2 hours after ischemia. Group 6 received 3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 72, 48, 24 and 0 h before ischemia and group 7 received silymarin drug (50 mg/kg, 0, 24, 48, and 72, hrs. before ischemia. 24 hrs. following reperfusion, the rats were euthanized and samples of the cerebellum were obtained. By using routine histological technique, the sections were stained by H&E. The measurement of cell count in cerebellar cortex were accomplished. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA and Tukey diagnostic tests. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of neural cells in granular layer in the non-treated ischemia group and in the groups which received Salvia extract and silymarin, two hours after the ischemia (p< 0.05. No significant decrease was observed in the number of cells of this layer in the groups which received salvia extract before ischemia. But regarding the cell number of molecular and purkinje layers in above groups, no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (P˃0.05. However, no significant differences was seen in the number of cells layers compared to the control group (P˃0.05. Conclusion: Finally, administration of

  17. Effect of intraosseous anesthesia on control of hemostasis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tyler F; Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Schwartz, Stephen F; Wolf, David

    2009-11-01

    Intraosseous anesthesia is used to deliver anesthetic into cancellous bone adjacent to the root apices. No study has assessed the effect of this anesthetic technique on hemostasis. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of bleeding from soft tissue and bone in pig jaws after preoperative intraosseous or infiltration anesthesia with 2% lidocaine containing 1:50,000 epinephrine. Twelve pigs were divided into 3 groups. The first group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The second group received intraosseous anesthesia on one half of the jaw and no anesthesia on the other half. The third group received infiltration anesthesia on one half of the jaw and intraosseous anesthesia on the second half. Blood was collected during flap reflection to measure the volume of soft tissue bleeding. Osteotomies were then prepared with blood collected from the surgical site to measure the volume of osseous bleeding. The median soft tissue blood loss observed in animals receiving infiltration anesthesia (1.14 mL) was significantly less as compared with animals that received no anesthesia (4.49 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (2.45 mL). Compared with median hard tissue blood loss observed in animals without anesthesia (1.51 mL), significantly less blood loss was observed in animals receiving either infiltration anesthesia (0.67 mL) or intraosseous anesthesia (0.76 mL). Infiltration anesthesia resulted in significantly less soft tissue bleeding (p = .004) as compared with no anesthesia. Infiltration and intraosseous anesthesia resulted in significantly less osseous bleeding than the use of no anesthetic (p < .001). The volume of blood loss for each animal was shown to be below the maximum safe volume of blood loss for a single procedure.

  18. Protective perioperative strategy using a third generation hydroxyethyl starch during surgery in a murine model of liver reperfusion injury Estratégia protetora perioperatória usando um hidroxietilamido de terceira geração para expansão volêmica durante a cirurgia em modelo murino de lesão de reperfusão hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Catré

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether a third generation colloid, hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4, used for perioperative fluid therapy, protects the rat liver against the late-phase response of ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI and if inhibition of neutrophil hepatic infiltration plays a part in this mechanism. METHODS: Wistar rats were used (8 in each group. Three groups had IRI induced by lobar vascular occlusion (60 minutes and reperfusion (24 hours and received HES (13 mL/kg iv, 7.5% saline (HS (13 mL/kg iv or no fluid. Three other groups were sham-operated and received the same fluid as the test groups. After 24 hours of reperfusion, blood was drawn for alanine aminotransferase (ALT quantification and ischemic liver samples were taken for histological study (hematoxylin and eosin and chloroacetate staining of neutrophils. RESULTS: HES treatment attenuated the elevation in serum ALT (P=0.001 and reduced the extent of hepatocellular necrosis (P0.05. CONCLUSION: Hydroxyethyl starch suppresses inflammatory response and ameliorates the late-phase response of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.OBJETIVO: Investigar se um colóide de terceira geração (HES 130/0.4, utilizado para fluidoterapia perioperatória, protege o fígado de rato contra a resposta da fase tardia de isquemia/reperfusão e se a inibição da infiltração hepática de neutrófilos desempenha um papel neste mecanismo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar (8 em cada grupo. Três grupos tiveram lesão de isquemia/reperfusão (IRI induzida por oclusão vascular lobar (60 minutos e reperfusão (24 horas e receberam HES (13 ml / kg iv, soro fisiológico a 7,5% (HS (13 ml / kg iv ou nenhum fluido. Três outros grupos foram sham-operados e receberam o mesmo tipo de fluido dos grupos de teste. Após 24 horas de reperfusão, o sangue foi retirado para quantificação da alanina aminotransferase (ALT e amostras de fígado isquêmico foram retiradas para estudo histológico (hematoxilina e

  19. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    the specifics of modern datasets available on the Web, which often use the RDF data model. Graph patterns, for instance, are one of the core concepts of SPARQL but have to be formulated as explicit joins, which burdens the user with the details of efficient query processing strategies. In this paper, we address......In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...

  20. Combined Vildagliptin and Metformin Exert Better Cardioprotection than Monotherapy against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Obese-Insulin Resistant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chinda, Kroekkiat; Palee, Siripong; Chattipakorn, Siriporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese-insulin resistance caused by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Metformin and vildagliptin have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of these drugs on the hearts under obese-insulin resistance with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear. We hypothesized that combined vildagliptin and metformin provide better protective effects against I/R injury than monotherapy in obese-insulin resistant rats. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either HFD or normal diet. Rats in each diet group were divided into 4 subgroups to receive vildagliptin, metformin, combined vildagliptin and metformin, or saline for 21 days. Ischemia due to left anterior descending artery ligation was allowed for 30-min, followed by 120-min reperfusion. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), LV function, infarct size, mitochondrial function, calcium transient, Bax and Bcl-2, and Connexin 43 (Cx43) were determined. Rats developed insulin resistance after 12 weeks of HFD consumption. Vildagliptin, metformin, and combined drugs improved metabolic parameters, HRV, and LV function. During I/R, all treatments improved LV function, reduced infarct size and Bax, increased Bcl-2, and improved mitochondrial function in HFD rats. However, only combined drugs delayed the time to the first VT/VF onset, reduced arrhythmia score and mortality rate, and increased p-Cx43 in HFD rats. Conclusion Although both vildagliptin and metformin improved insulin resistance and attenuate myocardial injury caused by I/R, combined drugs provided better outcomes than single therapy by reducing arrhythmia score and mortality rate. PMID:25036861

  1. Combined vildagliptin and metformin exert better cardioprotection than monotherapy against ischemia-reperfusion injury in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattayaporn Apaijai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese-insulin resistance caused by long-term high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with left ventricular (LV dysfunction and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Metformin and vildagliptin have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of these drugs on the hearts under obese-insulin resistance with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is unclear. We hypothesized that combined vildagliptin and metformin provide better protective effects against I/R injury than monotherapy in obese-insulin resistant rats. METHODOLOGY: Male Wistar rats were fed either HFD or normal diet. Rats in each diet group were divided into 4 subgroups to receive vildagliptin, metformin, combined vildagliptin and metformin, or saline for 21 days. Ischemia due to left anterior descending artery ligation was allowed for 30-min, followed by 120-min reperfusion. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV, LV function, infarct size, mitochondrial function, calcium transient, Bax and Bcl-2, and Connexin 43 (Cx43 were determined. Rats developed insulin resistance after 12 weeks of HFD consumption. Vildagliptin, metformin, and combined drugs improved metabolic parameters, HRV, and LV function. During I/R, all treatments improved LV function, reduced infarct size and Bax, increased Bcl-2, and improved mitochondrial function in HFD rats. However, only combined drugs delayed the time to the first VT/VF onset, reduced arrhythmia score and mortality rate, and increased p-Cx43 in HFD rats. CONCLUSION: Although both vildagliptin and metformin improved insulin resistance and attenuate myocardial injury caused by I/R, combined drugs provided better outcomes than single therapy by reducing arrhythmia score and mortality rate.

  2. Protective effects of phosphodiesterase-4-specific inhibitor rolipram on acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Emin; Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Izol, Volkan; Acikalin, Arbil; Abat, Deniz; Tuli, Abdullah; Bayazit, Yildirim

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor, on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Thirty rats were divided into 5 different groups of 6 rats. Nothing was done to the control group. In the second group, the renal pedicle was clamped for 30 minutes. In the third group, 1 mg/kg of Rolipram was given by intraperitoneal injection 30 minutes before clamping. The fourth group received the same injection when the clamp was placed, as did the fifth group 30 minutes after the clamp was opened. Clamping time was set at 30 minutes. Twenty-four hours later, nephrectomy was performed in all the groups. Half of each kidney was examined histopathologically. Levels of biochemical agents, such as malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, were measured in the other half. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly decreased and reached control levels in the group in which Rolipram was administered 30 minutes after reperfusion (P = .07). The catalase and superoxide dismutase activities obtained from renal homogentisates of the ischemia groups were evaluated; there were striking increases in tissue levels of these 2 enzymes in the groups in which Rolipram was administered during ischemia and 30 minutes after ischemia (P < .001). Histopathologically, there was no significant difference in inflammation between the Rolipram-administrated groups compared with group 1 (control) and group 2 (IRI). Tubular necrosis and apoptosis was significantly lower in group 5 than the other groups, except group 1 (P < .001). We suggest that in surgical procedures that can lead to renal IRI, the administration of Rolipram can decrease oxidative renal tissue damage and the severe deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    , which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  4. The Effect of PM 10 on Ischemia- Reperfusion Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that particulate matter (PM is the principal instigator of some adverse clinical symptoms involving cardiovascular diseases. PM exposure can increase experimental infarct size and potentiate myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias in experimental MI models such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury.The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of particulate matter (PM10 on ischemia- reperfusion induced arrhythmias with emphasis on the protective role of VA as an antioxidant on them. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, VAc, Sham, VA, PM1 (0.5 mg/kg, PM2 (2.5 mg/kg, PM3 group (5 mg/kg, PM3 + VA group. Within 48 hours, PM10 was instilled into trachea in two stages. Then the hearts were isolated, transferred to a Langendorff apparatus, and subjected to global ischemia (30 minutes followed by reperfusion (60 minutes. The ischemia- reperfusion induced ventricular arrhythmias were assessed according to the Lambeth conventions.In the present study,the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmiasduring30 minutes ischemia were demonstrated to be more than those in the reperfusion stage. PM exposure increased significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias in the ischemia and reperfusion duration. Vanillic acid reduced significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias during the ischemia and reperfusion period.In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that the protective and dysrhythmic effects of VA in the PM exposure rats in I/R model are probably related to its antioxidant properties.

  5. Sustained nonoxidative glucose utilization and depletion of glycogen in reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Neese, R.A.; Araujo, L.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemically injured reperfused myocardium is characterized by increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake as demonstrated by positron emission tomography. To elucidate the metabolic fate of exogenous glucose entering reperfused myocardium, D-[6-14C] glucose and L-[U-13C] lactate were used to determine glucose uptake, glucose oxidation and the contribution of exogenous glucose to lactate production. The pathologic model under investigation consisted of a 3 h balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 24 h of reperfusion in canine myocardium. The extent and severity of myocardial injury after the ischemia and reperfusion were assessed by histochemical evaluation (triphenyltetrazolium chloride and periodic acid-Schiff stains). Thirteen intervention and four control dogs were studied. The glucose uptake in the occluded/reperfused area was significantly enhanced compared with that in control dogs (0.40 +/- 0.14 versus 0.15 +/- 0.10 mumol/ml, respectively). In addition, a significantly greater portion of the glucose extracted immediately entered glycolysis in the intervention group (75%) than in the control dogs (33%). The activity of the nonoxidative glycolytic pathway was markedly increased in the ischemically injured reperfused area, as evidenced by the four times greater lactate release in this area compared with the control value. The dual carbon-labeled isotopes showed that 57% of the exogenous glucose entering glycolysis was being converted to lactate. Exogenous glucose contributed to greater than 90% of the observed lactate production. This finding was confirmed by the histochemical finding of sustained glycogen depletion in the occlusion/reperfusion area. The average area of glycogen depletion (37%) significantly exceeded the average area of necrosis

  6. Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning and Atorvastatin in the Prevention of Remote Lung Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of ischemic postconditioning, atorvastatin and both associated to prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in the lung of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aortic clamping. Methods: We used 41 Wistar norvegic rats, which were distributed into 5 groups: ischemia and reperfusion (I/R, ischemic postcondictioning (IPC, postconditioning + atorvastatin (IPC+A, atorvastatin (A and SHAM. It was performed a medium laparotomy, dissection and isolation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta; except for the SHAM group, all the others were submitted to the aortic clamping for 70 minutes (ischemia and posterior clamp removal (reperfusion, 70 minutes. In the IPC and IPC+A groups, postconditioning was performed between the ischemia and reperfusion phases by four cycles of reperfusion and ischemia lasting 30 seconds each. In the IPC+A and A groups, preceding the surgical procedure, administration of 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was performed for seven days by gavage. After the surgical procedure, the right caudal lobe was removed from the lung for histological study, using tissue injury score ranging from grade 1 (normal tissue to grade 4 (intense lesion. Results: The mean lung injury was 3.6 in the I/R group, 1.6 in the IPC group, 1.2 in the IPC+A group, 1.2 in the A group, and 1 in the SHAM group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were able to minimize lung reperfusion injury, alone or in combination.

  7. Gender difference and sex hormone production in rodent renal ischemia reperfusion injury and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence suggest a protective effect of female sex hormones in several organs subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to investigate sex hormone production in male rats after a renal ischemia-reperfusion sequence and analyze the influence of gender differences on tissue remodelling during the recovery process. Method Age-matched sexually mature male and female rats were subjected to 60 min of renal unilateral ischemia by pedicle clamping with contralateral nephrectomy and followed for 1 or 5 days after reperfusion. Plasma creatinine, systemic testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels were determined. Tubular injury, cell proliferation and inflammation, were evaluated as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin and translocator protein (TSPO expressions by immunohistochemistry. Results After 1 and 5 days of reperfusion, plasma creatinine was significantly higher in males than in females, supporting the high mortality in this group. After reperfusion, plasma testosterone levels decreased whereas estradiol significantly increased in male rats. Alterations of renal function, associated with tubular injury and inflammation persisted during the 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion, and a significant improvement was observed in females at 5 days of reperfusion. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and vimentin expression were upregulated in kidneys from males and attenuated in females, in parallel to injury development. TSPO expression was transiently increased in proximal tubules in male rats. Conclusions After ischemia, renal function recovery and tissue injury is gender-dependent. These differences are associated with a modulation of sex hormone production and a modification of tissue remodeling and proliferative cell processes.

  8. Intratracheal Administration of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Fas Reduces Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Costamagna, Andrea; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Civiletti, Federica; Vizio, Barbara; Bosco, Ornella; Martin Conte, Erica L; Frati, Giacomo; Delsedime, Luisa; Lupia, Enrico; Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V Marco

    2016-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Fas-mediated apoptosis is one of the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Fas gene expression in lungs by intratracheal administration of small interfering RNA could reduce lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo model reproducing the procedural sequence of lung transplantation. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. C57/BL6 mice weighing 28-30 g. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in lungs isolated from mice, 48 hours after treatment with intratracheal small interfering RNA targeting Fas, control small interfering RNA, or vehicle. Isolated lungs were exposed to 6 hours of cold ischemia (4°C), followed by 2 hours of warm (37°C) reperfusion with a solution containing 10% of fresh whole blood and mechanical ventilation with constant low driving pressure. Fas gene expression was significantly silenced at the level of messenger RNA and protein after ischemia-reperfusion in lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas compared with lungs treated with control small interfering RNA or vehicle. Silencing of Fas gene expression resulted in reduced edema formation (bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration and lung histology) and improvement in lung compliance. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of pulmonary cell apoptosis of lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas, which did not affect cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Fas expression silencing in the lung by small interfering RNA is effective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This approach represents a potential innovative strategy of organ preservation before lung transplantation.

  9. Effects of dexmedetomidine on microregional O2 balance during reperfusion after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Oak Z; Grayson, Jeremy; Barsoum, Sylviana; Liu, Xia; Dinani, Aliraza; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether there is an association between microregional O2 balance and neuronal survival in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion using dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist and a sedative. Rats were subjected to 1 hour middle cerebral artery occlusion and a 2-hour reperfusion. During reperfusion, normal saline (n = 14) or dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg/minute (n = 14) was infused intravenously. At 2 hours of reperfusion, regional cerebral blood flow using (14)C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, microregional arterial and venous (20-60 μm in diameter) O2 saturation (SvO2) using cryomicrospectrophotometry, and the size of cortical infarction were determined. Ischemia-reperfusion decreased microregional SvO2 (52.9 ± 3.7% vs. 61.1 ± .6%, P < .005) with increased variation or heterogeneity (P < .0001) with similar regional cerebral blood flow and O2 consumption. Dexmedetomidine during reperfusion decreased the heterogeneity of SvO2 that was analyzed with an analysis of variance (P < .01) and reported as coefficient of variation (100 × standard deviation/Mean) (11.8 vs. 16.4). The number of veins with O2 saturation less than 50% decreased with dexmedetomidine (13/80 vs. 27/81, P < .01). The percentage of cortical infarct in total cortex was smaller with dexmedetomidine (8.3 ± 2.2% vs. 12.6 ± 1.5%, P < .005). In the cerebral ischemic reperfused cortex, dexmedetomidine decreased the heterogeneity of SvO2 and the number of small veins with low O2 saturation suggesting improved microregional O2 supply/consumption balance. The improvement was accompanied by the reduced size of cortical infarction. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antithrombin III prevents deleterious effects of remote ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of colonic anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Koray; Aytekin, Faruk; Ozden, Akin; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Erdem, Ergün; Sungurtekin, Ugur; Güney, Yildiz

    2002-08-01

    Antithrombin III is known as the most important natural inhibitor of thrombin activity and has been shown to attenuate local harmful effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury in many organs. In recent animal studies, delaying effect of remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of intestinal anastomoses has been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated whether antithrombin III reduces deleterious systemic effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. Anastomosis of the left colon was performed in 24 rats that were divided into three groups: sham operated control (group I, n = 8), 30 minutes of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group II, n = 8), antithrombin III treated group (250 U/kg before and after the ischemia-reperfusion, group III, n = 8). On postoperative day 6, all animals were sacrificed, and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline content of the anastomoses were assessed and compared. On postoperative day 6 the mean bursting pressures were 149.6 +/- 4.8, 69.8 +/- 13.5, and 121.8 +/- 8.7 mm Hg for groups I, II, and III, respectively (P = 0.000). Mean tissue hydroxyproline concentration values were 389.5 +/- 29.6, 263.1 +/- 10.0, and 376.0 +/- 33.8 microg/mg for groups I, II, III respectively (P = 0.005). This study showed that, antithrombin III treatment significantly prevented the delaying effect of remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury on anastomotic healing in the colon. Further clinical studies are needed to clarify whether antithrombin may be a useful therapeutic agent to increase the safety of the anastomosis during particular operations where remote organ ischemia-reperfusion injury takes place.

  11. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  12. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, L B; Golden, J A; Finkbeiner, W E; Matthay, M A

    1999-03-01

    Reperfusion lung injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of the alveolar epithelium in the setting of reperfusion lung injury. Simultaneous samples of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were collected from eight patients with severe post-transplantation reperfusion edema. The edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was measured, an indicator of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. The initial edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was > 0.75 in six of eight patients, confirming the presence of increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Graft ischemic time was positively correlated with the degree of permeability (r = 0.77, p mean +/- SD). Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated from serial samples in six patients. Intact alveolar fluid clearance correlated with less histologic injury, rapid resolution of hypoxemia, and more rapid resolution of radiographic infiltrates. The two patients with no net alveolar fluid clearance had persistent hypoxemia and more severe histologic injury. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased permeability to protein is the usual cause of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation, with longer ischemic times associated with greater permeability to protein in the transplanted lung. The high rates of alveolar fluid clearance indicate that the fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium may be well preserved in the allograft despite reperfusion lung injury. The ability to reabsorb fluid from the alveolar space was a marker of less severe reperfusion injury, whereas the degree of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability to protein was not. Measurement of alveolar fluid clearance may be useful to assess the severity of reperfusion lung injury and to predict outcome when pulmonary edema develops after lung transplantation.

  13. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  14. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  15. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  16. Selected hematological and immunological parameters in pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected from 64 healthy growing pigs one week before and one week after they were transferred to the finishing house. The following tests were performed: complete blood count with machine differential, immunoglobulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and cortisol level. Pigs were divided into two groups.

  17. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  18. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  19. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  20. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  1. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  3. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  4. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury: a major protagonist in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticelli, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a frequent event in kidney transplantation, particularly when the kidney comes from a deceased donor. The brain death is usually associated with generalized ischaemia due to a hyperactivity of the sympathetic system. In spite of this, most donors have profound hypotension and require administration of vasoconstrictor agents. Warm ischaemia after kidney vessels clamping and the cold ischaemia after refrigeration also reduce oxygen and nutrients supply to tissues. The reperfusion further aggravates the state of oxidation and inflammation created by ischaemia. IRI first attacks endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells. The lesions may be so severe that they lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and delayed graft function (DGF), which can impair the graft survival. The unfavourable impact of DGF is worse when DGF is associated with acute rejection. Another consequence of IRI is the activation of the innate immunity. Danger signals released by dying cells alarm Toll-like receptors that, through adapter molecules and a chain of kinases, transmit the signal to transcription factors which encode the genes regulating inflammatory cells and mediators. In the inflammatory environment, dendritic cells (DCs) intercept the antigen, migrate to lymph nodes and present the antigen to immunocompetent cells, so activating the adaptive immunity and favouring rejection. Attempts to prevent IRI include optimal management of donor and recipient. Calcium-channel blockers, l-arginine and N-acetylcysteine could obtain a small reduction in the incidence of post-transplant DGF. Fenoldopam, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Dopamine proved to be helpful in reducing the risk of AKI in experimental models, but there is no controlled evidence that these agents may be of benefit in preventing DGF in kidney transplant recipients. Other antioxidants have been successfully used in experimental models of AKI but only a few studies of poor

  5. VENOUS AIR-EMBOLISM, PRESERVATION REPERFUSION INJURY, AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAVASCULAR AIR COLLECTIONS IN HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; SLUITER, WJ; BALLAST, A; VANDAM, RM; SLOOFF, MJH

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase, We retrospectively

  6. Diet-Dependent Effects of Minimal Enteral Nutrition on Intestinal Function and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: A rapid advance in enteral feeding is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Therefore, minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) is common clinical practice, but the effects on NEC and intestinal function remain poorly...... characterized. It was hypothesized that a commonly used MEN feeding volume (16-24 mL/kg/d) prevents NEC and improves intestinal structure, function, and microbiology in preterm pigs. Methods: After preterm birth pigs were stratified into 4 nutrition intervention groups that received the following treatments: (1...... later formula-induced gut dysfunction and NEC. However, in CF pigs, intestinal lesions were restricted to the colon, compared with all regions in OF and FF pigs, which indicated proximal protection of colostrum MEN. Bacterial composition was not affected by MEN, diet, or NEC outcomes, but bacterial load...

  7. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  8. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  10. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  11. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  12. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  13. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  14. Adrenaline reveals the torsadogenic effect of combined blockade of potassium channels in anaesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2008-08-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced in several species by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) blockade could induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs and whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, adrenaline-stimulated male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either vehicle, the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (3, 10 and 30 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the I(Ks) blocker HMR1556 (75, 250, 750 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. Phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs were also treated with the K(+) channel blockers in combination. Arterial blood pressure, ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded. TdP was observed in 75% of adrenaline-stimulated guinea pigs given the K(+) channel blockers in combination, but was not observed in guinea pigs treated with either I(K) blocker alone, or in phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs. Salvos and ventricular tachycardia occurred with adrenaline but not with phenylephrine. No changes in STV or triangulation of the MAP signals were observed before TdP. Combined blockade of both I(Kr) and I(Ks) plus the addition of adrenaline were required to induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs. This suggests that there must be sufficient depletion of repolarization reserve and an appropriate trigger for TdP to occur.

  15. Diarrhea-like condition and intestinal muscosal responses in susceptible homozygous and heterozygous F4R+ pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    with E. coli F4 or not as the 2 factors. Within genotype, 4 pigs were inoculated with E. coli F4 and the other 4 pigs received saline buffer on days 7 and 8 after weaning. Fecal score and DM and bacterial counts were conducted from days 7 to 12 after weaning. Blood was obtained on days 3 and 10 after...

  16. The cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid on hemodynamic parameters, malondialdehyde, and infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion isolated rat heart exposed to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Particulate matter (PM exposure can promote cardiac ischemia and myocardial damage. The effects of PM10 on hemodynamic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and infarct size induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA in isolated rat heart were investigated. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats (250–300 g were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, Sham, VAc, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMb (2.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMc (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, and PMc + VA (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation; and 10 mg/kg vanillic acid, gavage for 10 days. PM10 was instilled into the trachea in two stages, within 48 hr. After isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters (±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP, and RPP, production of lipid peroxidation (MDA, and infarct size were assessed. Results: A significant decrease in ±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP and RPP occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in MDA and myocardial infarct size occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in LVDP, LVSP, ±dp/dt, RPP and decrease in infarct size, MDA, and myocardial dysfunction was observed in groups that received vanillic acid after ischemia–reperfusion. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PM10 increases MDA, as well as the percentage of cardiac infarct size, and has negative effects on hemodynamic parameters. This study suggests that vanillic acid may serve as an adjunctive treatment in delaying the progression of ischemic heart disease.

  17. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on mitigating lung injury induced by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsui-Chin; Jan, Woan-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2011-05-15

    Lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) imposes oxidative stress, elicits inflammatory response, and subsequently induces acute lung injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IP), a process of transient I/R, mitigates the acute lung injury induced by I/R. We sought to elucidate whether the protective effects of IP involve heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Adult male rats were randomized to receive I/R, I/R plus IP, I/R plus IP plus the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) (n = 12 in each group). Control groups were run simultaneously. I/R was induced by applying rubber band tourniquet high around each thigh for 3 h followed by reperfusion for 3 h. To achieve IP, three cycles of bilateral lower limb I/R (i.e., ischemia for 10 min followed by reperfusion for 10 min) were performed. IP was performed immediately before I/R. After sacrifice, degree of lung injury was determined. Histologic findings, together with assays of leukocyte infiltration (polymorphonuclear leukocytes/alveoli ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) and lung water content (wet/dry weight ratio), confirmed that I/R induced acute lung injury. I/R also caused significant inflammatory response (increases in chemokine, cytokine, and prostaglandin E(2) concentrations), imposed significant oxidative stress (increases in nitric oxide and malondialdehyde concentrations), and up-regulated HO-1 expression in lung tissues. IP significantly enhanced HO-1 up-regulation and, in turn, mitigated oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and acute lung injury induced by I/R. In addition, the protective effects of IP were counteracted by SnPP. The protective effects of IP on mitigating acute lung injury induced by lower limb I/R are mediated by HO-1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Maria do

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group] or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]. Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  19. Electroacupuncture modulates stromal cell-derived factor-1α expression and mobilization of bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chenchen; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Yong; Pang, Yueshan; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF-1α) plays a crucial role in regulating the mobilization, migration and homing of endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs). Electroacupuncture(EA), a modern version of Traditional Chinese Medicine, can improve neurological recovery and angiogenesis in cerebral ischemic area. This study aimed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture(EA) on the mobilization and migration of bone marrow EPCs and neurological functional recovery in rats model after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the potentially involved mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats received filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 2h followed by reperfusion for 12h, 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d respectively. Rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group and EA group. After 2h of the reperfusion, EA was given at the "Baihui" (GV 20)/Siguan ("Hegu" (LI 4)/"Taichong" (LR 3)) acupoints in the EA group. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was used to assess the neurological functional recovery. EPCs number and SDF-1α level in bone marrow(BM) and peripheral blood(PB) were detected by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) respectively. An mNSS test showed that EA treatment significantly improved the neurological functional outcome. EPCs number in PB and BM were obviously increased in the EA group. After cerebral ischemia, the SDF-1α level was decreased in BM while it was increased in PB, which implied a gradient of SDF-1α among BM and PB after ischemia. It suggested that the forming of SDF-1α concentration gradient can induce the mobilization and homing of EPCs. Eletroacupuncture as a treatment can accelerate and increase the forming of SDF-1α concentration gradient to further induce the mobilization of EPCs and angiogenesis in ischemic brain and improve the neurological function recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. IFN-γ and TNF-α producing CD4+ T-cells in the blood after Mycoplasma hyosynoviae challenge of vaccinated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hansen, Mette Sif; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    In a vaccine trial against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection, pigs were vaccinated with formalin fixed whole-cell-antigen formulated with adjuvant DDA/TDB (SSI). Placebo pigs received adjuvant with saline. Vaccinations were performed at five and eight weeks of age, followed by an intranasal M....... hyosynoviae challenge inoculation three weeks later. Vaccination induced both antibodies and a cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in vaccinated pigs compared to placebo pigs as shown by M. hyosynoviae antigen (Ag) specific IFN-γ response in an IL-18 potentiated whole-blood IFN-γ stimulation assay (mean IFN......-γ level 1936 pg/ml vs. 82 pg/ml (p=0.0001)). A central memory T cell phenotype with polyfunctional capacity to produce all three cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 has recently been linked to development of vaccine induced protection in several infections. In a subset of seven vaccinated pigs and four...

  1. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  2. Consequences of dietary calcium and phosphorus depletion and repletion feeding sequences on growth performance and body composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, E; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Bernier, J F; Pomar, C

    2018-06-01

    The effect of a calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) depletion and repletion strategy was studied in four consecutive feeding phases of 28 days each. In all, 60 castrated male pigs (14±1.6 kg initial BW) received 60% (low (L) diet; depletion) or 100% (control (C) diet; repletion) of their Ca and digestible P requirements according to six feeding sequences (CCCC, CCCL, CLCC, CCLC, LCLC and LLLL; subsequent letters indicate the diet received in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Pigs bone mineral content in whole-body (BMCb) and lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 (BMCv) was measured in every feeding phase by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Growth performance was slightly (depletion, however, dietary treatments did not affect overall growth. Compared with control pigs, depletion reduced BMCb (34%, 38%, 33% and 22%) and BMCv (46%, 54%, 38% and 26%) in phases 1 to 4, respectively. Depletion increased however digestible P retention efficiency from the second to the fourth phases allowing LLLL pigs to present no differences in BMCb and BMCv gain compared with CCCC pigs in phase 4. Growth performance in repleted compared with control pigs was lower in phase 2, was no different in phase 3 and was lower in CLCC pigs in phase 4. Repletion increased body P and Ca retention efficiency when compared with control pigs (respectively, 8% and 10% for LC v. CC, Pdepletion and repletion sequences than BMCb especially in the first phase probably due to a higher proportion of metabolically active trabecular bone in vertebrae than in the whole skeleton. Dietary Ca was, however, oversupply in L compared with C diets (3.1 v. 2.5 Ca:digestible P ratio, respectively) suggesting that P has probably driven the regulations. Phosphorus and Ca depletion and repletion increases dietary P utilization efficiency and can help to reduce dietary P supply, but the underlying mechanisms need elucidation before its practical application.

  3. Prophylactic Treatment with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Attenuate Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini D.P.K. Manne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion is one the main causes for graft failure following transplantation. Although, the molecular events that lead to hepatic failure following ischemia reperfusion (IR are diverse and complex, previous studies have shown that excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS are responsible for hepatic IR injury. Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been previously shown to act as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: Control, CeO2 nanoparticle only, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR group and hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR plus CeO2 nanoparticle group (IR+ CeO2. Partial warm hepatic ischemia was induced in left lateral and median lobes for 1h, followed by 6h of reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 6h of reperfusion and blood and tissue samples were collected and processed for various biochemical experiments. Results: Prophylactic treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5mg/kg i.v (IR+CeO2 group 1 hour prior to hepatic ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury lead to a decrease in serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase at 6 hours after reperfusion. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in hepatocyte necrosis along with reduction in several serum inflammatory markers such as macrophage derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC/GRO, myoglobin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, immunoblotting demonstrated no significant changes in the levels of apoptosis related protein markers such as bax, bcl2 and caspase 3 in IR and IR+ CeO2 groups at 6 hours suggesting necrosis as the main pathway for hepatocyte death. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles attenuate IR induced cell death and can be used as a prophylactic

  4. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  5. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  6. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  7. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Refocusing Neuroprotection in Cerebral Reperfusion Era: New Challenges and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yi Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological processes of stroke have revealed that the damaged brain should be considered as an integral structure to be protected. However, promising neuroprotective drugs have failed when translated to clinical trials. In this review, we evaluated previous studies of neuroprotection and found that unsound patient selection and evaluation methods, single-target treatments, etc., without cerebral revascularization may be major reasons of failed neuroprotective strategies. Fortunately, this may be reversed by recent advances that provide increased revascularization with increased availability of endovascular procedures. However, the current improved effects of endovascular therapy are not able to match to the higher rate of revascularization, which may be ascribed to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and lacking of neuroprotection. Accordingly, we suggest various research strategies to improve the lower therapeutic efficacy for ischemic stroke treatment: (1 multitarget neuroprotectant combinative therapy (cocktail therapy should be investigated and performed based on revascularization; (2 and more efforts should be dedicated to shifting research emphasis to establish recirculation, increasing functional collateral circulation and elucidating brain–blood barrier damage mechanisms to reduce hemorrhagic transformation. Therefore, we propose that a comprehensive neuroprotective strategy before and after the endovascular treatment may speed progress toward improving neuroprotection after stroke to protect against brain injury.

  9. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration.

  10. Bilirubin nanoparticle preconditioning protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Kang, Sukmo; Miao, Wenjun; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major concern in liver transplantation and resection, despite continuing efforts to prevent it. Accumulating evidence suggests that bilirubin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, despite obvious potential health benefits of bilirubin, its clinical applications are limited by its poor solubility. We recently developed bilirubin nanoparticles (BRNPs) consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bilirubin. Here, we sought to investigate whether BRNPs protect against IRI in the liver by preventing oxidative stress. BRNPs exerted potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity in primary hepatocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide, a precursor of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a model of hepatic IRI in mice, BRNP preconditioning exerted profound protective effects against hepatocellular injury by reducing oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and recruitment of neutrophils. They also preferentially accumulated in IRI-induced inflammatory lesions. Collectively, our findings indicate that BRNP preconditioning provides a simple and safe approach that can be easily monitored in the blood like endogenous bilirubin, and could be a promising strategy to protect against IRI in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stem cells and their role in renal ischaemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Atul; Frost, Jodie H; Drage, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). IRI is an underlying multifactorial pathophysiological process which affects the outcome in both native and transplanted patients. The high morbidity and mortality associated with IRI/AKI and disappointing results from current available clinical therapeutic approaches prompt further research. Stem cells (SC) are undifferentiated cells that can undergo both renewal and differentiation into one or more cell types which can possibly ameliorate IRI. To carry out a detailed literature analysis and construct a comprehensive literature review addressing the role of SC in AKI secondary to IRI. Evidence favouring the role of SC in renal IRI and evidence showing no benefits of SC in renal IRI are the two main aspects to be studied. The search strategy was based on an extensive search addressing MESH terms and free text terms. The majority of studies in the field of renal IRI and stem cell therapy show substantial benefits. Studies were mostly conducted in small animal models, thus underscoring the need for further pre-clinical studies in larger animal models, and results should be taken with caution. SC therapy may be promising though controversy exists in the exact mechanism. Thorough scientific exploration is required to assess mechanism, safety profile, reproducibility and methods to monitor administered SC. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Noscapine protects OLN-93 oligodendrocytes from ischemia-reperfusion damage: Calcium and nitric oxide involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafi, S; Ebrahimi, S-A; Rahbar-Roshandel, N

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from opium poppy, on oligodendrocyte during ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury. Changes in intracellular calcium levels due to chemical ischemia and nitric oxide (NO) production during ischemia/reperfusion were evaluated as the hallmarks of ischemia-derived excitotoxic event. OLN-93 cell line (a permanent immature rat oligodendrocyte) was used as a model of oligodendrocyte. 30- or 60-minute-oxygen-glucose deprivation/24 hours reperfusion were used to induce excitotoxicity. MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Ratiometric fluorescence microscopy using Ca(2+)-sensitive indicator Fura-2/AM was utilized to assess intracellular calcium levels. NO production was evaluated by Griess method. Noscapine (4 μM) significantly attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) elevation (P < 0.001). Also, noscapine significantly decreased NO production during a 30-minute oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (P < 0.01). The inhibitory effect of noscapine (4 μM) on intracellular Ca(2+) was greater than ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists. Noscapine is protective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced excitotoxic injury in OLN-93 oligodendrocyte. This protective effect seems to be related to attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) overload and NO production.

  13. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  14. [Protective effects of endogenous carbon monoxide against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Jie; Ji, Qiao-Rong; Cao, Cheng-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Na; Tang, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-04-25

    The present study is aimed to explore the effects of endogenous carbon monoxide on the ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with protoporphyrin cobalt chloride (CoPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide agonist, 5 mg/kg), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide inhibitor, 5 mg/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model was made by Langendorff isolated cardiac perfusion system, and cardiac function parameters were collected. Myocardial cGMP content was measured by ELISA, and the endogenous carbon monoxide in plasma and myocardial enzymes in perfusate at 10 min after reperfusion were measured by colorimetry. The results showed that before ischemia the cardiac functions of CoPP, ZnPP and control groups were stable, and there were no significant differences. After reperfusion, cardiac functions had significant differences among the three groups (P endogenous carbon monoxide can maintain cardiac function, shorten the time of cardiac function recovery, and play a protective role in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion.

  15. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  16. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty liver: role of nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, P; Nardo, B; Domenicali, M; Turi, P; Vici, M; Simoncini, M; De Maria, N; Trevisani, F; Van Thiel, D H; Derenzini, M; Cavallari, A; Bernardi, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty livers are more sensitive to the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion than normal livers. Nutritional status greatly modulates this injury in normal livers, but its role in the specific setting of fatty liver is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat fatty livers. Fed and fasted rats with normal or fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet underwent 1 hour of lobar ischemia and reperfusion. Rat survival was determined for 7 days. Serum transaminases, liver histology and cell ultrastructure were assessed before and after ischemia, and at 30 minutes, 2 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours after reperfusion. Survival was also determined in fatty fasted rats supplemented with glucose before surgery. The preischemic hepatic glycogen was measured in all groups. Whereas survival was similar in fasted and fed rats with normal liver (90% vs. 100%), fasting dramatically reduced survival in rats with fatty liver (14% vs. 64%, P nutritional repletion procedure may be part of a treatment strategy aimed to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in fatty livers.

  17. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  18. Dynamic alteration of the colonic microbiota in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R plays an important role in critical illnesses. Gut flora participate in the pathogenesis of the injury. This study is aimed at unraveling colonic microbiota alteration pattern and identifying specific bacterial species that differ significantly as well as observing colonic epithelium change in the same injury model during the reperfusion time course.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to monitor the colonic microbiota of control rats and experimental rats that underwent 0.5 hour ischemia and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours following reperfusion respectively. The microbiota similarity, bacterial diversity and species that characterized the dysbiosis were estimated based on the DGGE profiles using a combination of statistical approaches. The interested bacterial species in the gel were cut and sequenced and were subsequently quantified and confirmed with real-time PCR. Meanwhile, the epithelial barrier was checked by microscopy and D-lactate analysis. Colonic flora changed early and differed significantly at 6 hours after reperfusion and then started to recover. The shifts were characterized by the increase of Escherichia coli and Prevotella oralis, and Lactobacilli proliferation together with epithelia healing.This study shows for the first time that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion results in colonic flora dysbiosis that follows epithelia damage, and identifies the bacterial species that contribute most.

  19. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O 2 - generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O 2 - scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O 2 - , which is then converted by SOD to H 2 O 2 , and subsequent Akt activation by H 2 O 2 attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  20. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shintani-Ishida, Kaori, E-mail: kaori@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O{sub 2}{sup -} generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O{sub 2}{sup -}, which is then converted by SOD to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and subsequent Akt activation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  1. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of SMADs in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-fang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 results in neuroprotective effects. However, the role of the transforming growth factor β1 downstream molecule, SMAD2/3, following ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SMAD2/3 by analyzing the relationships between SMAD2/3 expression and cell apoptosis and inflammation in the brain of a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Levels of SMAD2/3 mRNA were up-regulated in the ischemic penumbra 6 hours after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, reached a peak after 72 hours and were then decreased at 7 days. Phosphorylated SMAD2/3 protein levels at the aforementioned time points were consistent with the mRNA levels. Over-expression of SMAD3 in the brains of the ischemia/reperfusion model rats via delivery of an adeno-associated virus containing the SMAD3 gene could reduce tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β mRNA levels, down-regulate expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, capase-3, and up-regulate expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The SMAD3 protein level was negatively correlated with cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that SMAD3 exhibits neuroprotective effects on the brain after ischemia/reperfusion through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

  3. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  4. Chronic heat improves mechanical and metabolic response of trained rat heart on ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E; Hasin, Y; Navon, G; Horowitz, M

    1997-05-01

    Cardiac mechanics and metabolic performance were studied in isolated perfused hearts of rats subjected to a combined chronic stress of heat acclimation and swimming training (EXAC) or swimming training alone (EX). Diastolic (DP) and systolic pressures (SP), coronary flow (CF), and oxygen consumption were measured during normoperfusion (80 mmHg), and the appearance of ischemic contracture (IC), DP, and SP were measured during progressive graded ischemia, total ischemia (TI), and reperfusion insults. ATP, phosphocreatine, and intracellular pH were measured during TI and reperfusion with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During normoperfusion, SP and cardiac efficiency (derived from rate-pressure product-oxygen consumption relationships) were the highest in the 2-mo EXAC hearts (P pool and there was a delayed decline in intracellular pH. On reperfusion, these hearts also displayed improved ATP and phosphocreatine recovery, the 2-mo EXAC heart demonstrating significantly faster high-energy phosphate salvage, improved diastolic function, and pulse pressure recovery. The data attest to the beneficial effects of heat acclimation on cardiac mechanics of trained rats during normoperfusion and cardiac protection on ischemia and reperfusion. Possibly, energy sparing, lesser acidosis, and shorter duration of IC on ischemia and improved energy salvage on reperfusion contribute synergistically to this potent beneficial effect.

  5. The Effects of α-Lipoic Acid against Testicular Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Seda Ozbal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion is one of the urologic emergencies occurring frequently in neonatal and adolescent period. Testis is sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, and, therefore, ischemia and consecutive reperfusion cause an enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species that result in testicular cell damage and apoptosis. α-lipoic acid is a free radical scavenger and a biological antioxidant. It is widely used in the prevention of oxidative stress and cellular damage. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid on testicular damage in rats subjected to testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, sham operated, ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion +lipoic acid groups, 2 h torsion and 2 h detorsion of the testis were performed. Testicular cell damage was examined by H-E staining. TUNEL and active caspase-3 immunostaining were used to detect germ cell apoptosis. GPx , SOD activity, and MDA levels were evaluated. Histological evaluation showed that α-lipoic acid pretreatment reduced testicular cell damage and decreased TUNEL and caspase-3-positive cells. Additionally, α-lipoic acid administration decreased the GPx and SOD activity and increased the MDA levels. The present results suggest that LA is a potentially beneficial agent in protecting testicular I/R in rats.

  6. Protective effects of Rosmarinic acid against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.; Ozturk, H.; Terzi, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential protective effects of Rosmarinic acid (RA) on rats exposed to ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey, and comprised 21 male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 250-270g each. They were divided into three equal groups. Unilaterally nephrectomised rats were subjected to 60 minutes of left renal ischaemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Group 1 had shamoperated animals; group 2 had ischaemia/reperfusion untreated animals; and group 3 had ischaemia/reperfusion animals treated with rosmarinic acid. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and light microscopic findings were evaluated. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Treatment of rats with rosmarinic acid produced a reduction in the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen compared to the other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found. The levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were decreased in the renal tissue of group 3, while glutathione peroxidose and superoxide dismutase levels remained unchanged. The injury score decreased in the treatment group rats compared to the untreated group. Rosmarinic acid significantly decreased focal glomerular necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, and tubular dilatation. Conclusions: Rosmarinic acid prevented ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the kidneys by decreasing oxidative stress. (author)

  7. Effects of dietary fat on the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The effect of dietary fats differing in fatty acid (FA) composition on the metabolism of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) in growing pigs was investigated. The deposition of FA in the body and the fate of individual dietary FA were assessed after slaughter. Gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 60 kg were used as experimental animals. Six pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW, while further 18 pigs received three isoenergetic and isonitrogen experimental diets containing linseed oil, rapeseed oil or beef tallow at 50 g/kg diet until they reached 105 kg (six pigs per group). The chemical composition and the content of FA in the whole body were determined and compared across groups. Regardless of dietary treatment, the whole body contained similar amounts of protein, fat and total FA. The total accumulation (percentage of net intake and de novo production) of SFA and MUFA was similar in all groups, but the processes of elongation and desaturation of SFA and MUFA depended upon the type of FA added to the diet. A high dietary content and intake of MUFA inhibits desaturation compared to SFA- and PUFA-rich diets, whereas a high SFA content and intake lowers elongation rate. The increasing net intake of total SFA and MUFA was associated with a lower total de novo production of these FA in the whole body of pigs.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi: partial prevention of the natural infection of guinea pigs with a killed parasite vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basombrio, M A

    1990-07-01

    Guinea pigs are natural reservoirs of Chagas' disease. Domestic breeding and local trade of these animals are common practices among andean communities in South America. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi occurs when the animals live in triatomine-infested houses or yards. The preventive effect of a vaccine consisting of cultured T. cruzi killed by freezing and thawing plus saponin was tested both in mice and in the guinea pig ecosystem. Resistance against T. cruzi challenge in mice was improved by increasing the trypomastigote/epimastigote ratio in live attenuated vaccines but not in killed parasite vaccines. Although the killing of attenuated parasites sharply reduced their immunogenicity for mice, a protective effect against natural T. cruzi infection was detected in guinea pigs. A total of 88 guinea pigs were vaccinated in four intradermal sites on three occasions. Eighty controls received similar inoculations of culture medium plus saponin. All animals were kept in a triatomine-infested yard. Parasitemia was studied with the capillary microhematocrit method. After an exposure time averaging 4 months, natural T. cruzi infection occurred in 55% (44/80) of the controls and in 33% (29/88) of the vaccinated group (P less than 0.01). The number of highly parasitemic guinea pigs was also significantly decreased (6/80 vs 0/88, P less than 0.01). Thus, immunizing protocols which are only partially protective against artificial callenge with T. cruzi may nevertheless constrain the exchange of parasites between natural hosts and vectors.

  9. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

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    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  10. Does sucralfate prevent apoptosis occurring in the ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, A; Yilmaz, O; Ozer, E; Günşar, C; Genç, K; Ulukuş, C; Taneli, C; Mir, E

    2003-08-01

    We have shown in a previous study that sucralfate is beneficial in the prophylaxis and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention of apoptosis in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury. Rats were randomized into three groups. Group 1 and 2 were subjected to I/R. Group 1 (treatment group) received sucralfate while group 2 (treatment control group) did not. Group 3 served as a normal control group (sham group). The terminal ileum was harvested for histopathologic investigation by light microscopy. The presence of apoptotic enterocytes (DNA fragmentation in cell nuclei) was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) reaction. In treatment control group, 3 of 7 rats had severe inflammation. None of the sucralfate-treated rats showed severe inflammation, 6 of them only showed mild inflammatory changes (p < 0.05). The apoptotic percentage was found to be 37.1 +/- 9.4 in the sucralfate-treated group (group 1), whereas it was 45.4 +/- 3.9 in the untreated group (group 2) (p < 0.05). The sham group had a completely normal intestinal architecture. The present study shows that 1) the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury induces enterocyte apoptosis; 2) sucralfate decreases enterocyte apoptosis in the experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury which may play a key role in the pathophysiological events leading to failure of the intrinsic gut barrier defense mechanisms.

  11. Nicotine protects kidney from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Sadis

    Full Text Available Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R is characterized by renal dysfunction and tubular damages resulting from an early activation of innate immunity. Recently, nicotine administration has been shown to be a powerful inhibitor of a variety of innate immune responses, including LPS-induced toxaemia. This cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway acts via the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR. Herein, we tested the potential protective effect of nicotine administration in a mouse model of renal I/R injury induced by bilateral clamping of kidney arteries. Renal function, tubular damages and inflammatory response were compared between control animals and mice receiving nicotine at the time of ischemia. Nicotine pretreatment protected mice from renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner and through the alpha7nAChR, as attested by the absence of protection in alpha7nAChR-deficient mice. Additionally, nicotine significantly reduced tubular damages, prevented neutrophil infiltration and decreased productions of the CXC-chemokine KC, TNF-alpha and the proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 protein. Reduced tubular damage in nicotine pre-treated mice was associated with a decrease in tubular cell apoptosis and proliferative response as attested by the reduction of caspase-3 and Ki67 positive cells, respectively. All together, these data highlight that nicotine exerts a protective anti-inflammatory effect during kidney I/R through the cholinergic alpha7nAChR pathway. In addition, this could provide an opportunity to overcome the effect of surgical cholinergic denervation during kidney transplantation.

  12. Effects of FTY720 on Lung Injury Induced by Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangrong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid mediator involved in modulating inflammatory process. We investigated the effects of FTY720, a structural analogue of S1P after phosphorylation, on lung injury induced by hindlimb ischemia reperfusion (IR in rats. Methods. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups SM, IR, F3, F5, and F10. Group SM received sham operation, and bilateral hindlimb IR was established in group IR. The rats in groups F3, F5, and F10 were pretreated with 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d FTY720 for 7 days before IR. S1P lyase (S1PL, sphingosine kinase (SphK 1, and SphK2 mRNA expressions, wet/dry weight (W/D, and polymorphonuclear/alveolus (P/A in lung tissues were detected, and the lung injury score was evaluated. Results. W/D, P/A, and mRNA expressions of S1PL, SphK1, and SphK2 were higher in group IR than in group SM, while these were decreased in both groups F5 and F10 as compared to IR (p<0.05. The lung tissue presented severe lesions in group IR, which were attenuated in groups F5 and F10 with lower lung injury scores than in group IR (p<0.05. Conclusions. FTY720 pretreatment could attenuate lung injury induced by hindlimb IR by modulating S1P metabolism and decreasing pulmonary neutrophil infiltration.

  13. Influence of acidosis and hypoxia on liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in an in vivo rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Bob H. M.; Elkhaloufi, Yasser; Straatsburg, Irene H.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of acidosis to the development of reperfusion injury is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of respiratory acidosis and hypoxia in a frequently used in vivo liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury rat model. Rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal

  14. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  16. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  17. Pre-ischemic mitochondrial substrate constraint by inhibition of malate-aspartate shuttle preserves mitochondrial function after ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Nichlas Riise; Yokota, Takashi; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxiacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We examined whether transient inhibition of the MAS during ischaemia......, but not IPC, reduced the myocardial interstitial concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the onset of reperfusion. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that metabolic regulation by inhibition of the MAS at the onset of reperfusion may be beneficial for the preservation...... of mitochondrial function during late reperfusion in an IR-injured heart. ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pre-ischaemic administration of aminooxyacetate (AOA), an inhibitor of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS), provides cardioprotection against IR...

  18. Improvements in launchings and recipients of PIG in Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional; Melhorias nos lancamentos e recebedores de PIG da Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Jairo A.C.; Lemos, Francisco A.C.; Lima, Artur W.R. de S. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the study that resulted in the preparation of a project for improvement of launchers and receivers of PIG in facilities maintained and operated by PETROBRAS S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in the Malha de Gasodutos Nordeste Meridional (Malha NEM). The improvements are part of the component in cleaner production system and reduce the risks of accidents and the costs of hazardous waste management.

  19. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands and Denmark are the two biggest pig meat exporters in Europe, both with a strong focus on the German market. The structure of pig farms is very different: an average Danish pig farm has 3500 pigs, 170 ha of agricultural land on which a major part of the feed cereals are grown...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...... pig farmers are less sensitive to nutrient policies and feed prices than those in the Netherlands, but the high debt rate makes the sector vulnerable to low pig prices....

  20. Assessment of protective effects of methylprednisolone and pheniramine maleate on reperfusion injury in kidney after distant organ ischemia: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Serdar; Yurekli, Ismail; Gokalp, Orhan; Kiray, Muge; Bademci, Mehmet Senel; Ozcem, Barcin; Besir, Yuksel; Yilik, Levent; Kestelli, Mert; Gurbuz, Ali

    2012-05-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of tissues is a common problem that cardiovascular surgeons are faced with. Suppression of inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of I/R injury, may reduce this damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone (MP)--a potent anti-inflammatory agent--and pheniramine maleate (FM)--an antihistamine that also has some anti-inflammatory effects--on reperfusion injury of kidneys developing after ischemia of the left lower extremity of rats. Twenty-eight randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 320 to 370 g were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 was the sham group. Rats in group 3 were subjected to I/R and given FM, and rats in group 4 were subjected to I/R and given MP. A tourniquet was applied at the level of the left groin to subjects in group 2 after induction of anesthesia. One hour of ischemia was performed, and no drug was administered. In group 3, half of a total dose of 10 mg/kg FM was administered before ischemia, and the remaining half was given intraperitoneally before reperfusion. In group 4, subjects received a single dose of 50 mg/kg MP intraperitoneally in the 30th minute of ischemia. Kidneys of all subjects were removed after 24 hours. Extracted tissues were investigated regarding histological and biochemical parameters. Malondialdehyde--the end product of lipid peroxidation as an important indicator of I/R injury--levels were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (P 0.05). Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were found to be significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference between group 4 and group 2 in terms of these activities. Histological examination demonstrated that both MP and FM had protective effects against I/R injury, but this effect was more potent for FM than for MP. FM has a protective

  1. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  2. Protective Effect of Extract of Folium Ginkgo on Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of extract of Folium Ginkgo (FGE) on repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: The model in waking mice induced by repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were used in the experiment to observe the effect of FGE on behavior, oxygen free radical metabolism and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content by step-through experiment, diving stand and colorimetric method. Results: FGE could obviously improve the learning ability and memory of model animals, and could lower obviously the content of malonyldialdehyde, nitric oxide and PGE2, restore the lowered activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral tissue. Conclusion: FGE has highly protective effect against repeated ischemia-reperfusion injury, the mechanism might be related with its action on anti-lipid oxidatin, improve the activity of antioxidase and inhibit the producing of PGE2.

  3. Research progress of NLRP3 inflammasome in organ ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-lei LI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathophysiological process in organ transplantation, ischemic stroke and organ resection surgery, and also an important factor causing organ dysfunction and severe postoperative complications. How to avoid or mitigate organ ischemia-reperfusion injury has always been a research hotspot. NLRP3 Inflammasome has been considered to be an important link in inflammatory response. It has an indispensable role in maturation process of IL -1βand IL -18. We reviewed the research in recent yeas about the role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in organ ischemia-reperfusion injury in this paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.17

  4. Lower limb ischaemia and reperfusion injury in healthy volunteers measured by oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halladin, N. L.; Busch, Sarah Victoria Ekeløf; Alamili, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partly caused by the release of reactive oxygen species and cytokines and may result in remote organ injury. Surgical patients are exposed to surgical stress and anaesthesia, both of which can influence the IR response. An IR model without these int......OBJECTIVE: Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is partly caused by the release of reactive oxygen species and cytokines and may result in remote organ injury. Surgical patients are exposed to surgical stress and anaesthesia, both of which can influence the IR response. An IR model without...... at any sampling time. CONCLUSION: Twenty minutes of lower limb ischaemia does not result in an ischaemia-reperfusion injury in healthy volunteers, measurable by oxidative and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in muscle biopsies and in the systemic circulation....

  5. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung; Huang, Kun-Lun; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chu, Shi-Jye

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits.

  6. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkels, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 ( 23 Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  7. Rapamycin preconditioning attenuates transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lele; Ye, Shasha; Chen, Zhen; Zeng, Yaoying

    2012-12-01

    Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and immunosuppressive agent in clinic, has protective effects on traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. But, its effects on transient focal ischemia/reperfusion disease are not very clear. In this study, we examined the effects of rapamycin preconditioning on mice treated with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion operation (MCAO/R). We found that the rapamycin preconditioning by intrahippocampal injection 20 hr before MCAO/R significantly improved the survival rate and longevity of mice. It also decreased the neurological deficit score, infracted areas and brain edema. In addition, rapamycin preconditioning decreased the production of NF-κB, TNF-α, and Bax, but not Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein in the ischemic area. From these results, we may conclude that rapamycin preconditioning attenuate transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits apoptosis induced by MCAO/R in mice.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  9. Evaluation of adenosine preconditioning with {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Fei [Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); Fang Wei [Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, No. 167 Bei-Li-Shi-Lu, Beijing 100037 (China); Wang Feng, E-mail: fengwang1972cn@gmail.co [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hua Zichun [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Zizheng [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); Yang Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V for the detection of acute myocardial cell death and to assess the effect of adenosine preconditioning in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury (RI). Materials and Methods: {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V was prepared by one-step direct labeling, and RCP and radiostability were tested. The binding of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V to apoptosis was validated in vitro using camptothecin-induced Jurkat cells. In vivo biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method. Ischemia of 20-30 min was induced by balloon occlusion of the epicardial coronary artery of the porcine model (n=14). Adenosine was infused intravenously in six pigs before coronary occlusion. {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V (n=12) was injected intravenously at 1 h after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 3 h postinjection. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was also performed 1 day after His{sub 10}-annexin V imaging. Cardiac tissues were analyzed postmortem using hematoxylin-and-eosin and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity was measured to confirm the presence of apoptosis. Results: {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V had a RCP >98% and high stability 2 h after radiolabeling; it could bind to apoptotic cells with high affinity. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V showed a predominant uptake in the kidney and relatively low uptake in the myocardium, liver and gastrointestinal tract; rapid clearance from blood and kidney was observed. In the untreated group, intense uptake of His{sub 10}-annexin V was visualized in the defect which was shown in MPI, whereas in the adenosine group a mild uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin was found in the risk area which showed no defects in the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI image. TUNEL staining and activated caspase-3 confirmed the ongoing apoptosis in RI. Adenosine preconditioning significantly

  10. Selective cerebral perfusion prevents abnormalities in glutamate cycling and neuronal apoptosis in a model of infant deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Olson, Aaron K; Isern, Nancy G; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is often required for the repair of complex congenital cardiac defects in infants. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induces neuroapoptosis associated with later development of neurocognitive abnormalities. Selective cerebral perfusion theoretically provides superior neural protection possibly through modifications in cerebral substrate oxidation and closely integrated glutamate cycling. We tested the hypothesis that selective cerebral perfusion modulates glucose utilization, and ameliorates abnormalities in glutamate flux, which occur in association with neuroapoptosis during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Eighteen infant male Yorkshire piglets were assigned randomly to two groups of seven (deep hypothermic circulatory arrest or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective cerebral perfusion for 60 minutes at 18℃) and four control pigs without cardiopulmonary bypass support. Carbon-13-labeled glucose as a metabolic tracer was infused, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used for metabolic analysis in the frontal cortex. Following 2.5 h of cerebral reperfusion, we observed similar cerebral adenosine triphosphate levels, absolute levels of lactate and citric acid cycle intermediates, and carbon-13 enrichment among three groups. However, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest induced significant abnormalities in glutamate cycling resulting in reduced glutamate/glutamine and elevated γ-aminobutyric acid/glutamate along with neuroapoptosis, which were all prevented by selective cerebral perfusion. The data suggest that selective cerebral perfusion prevents these modifications in glutamate/glutamine/γ-aminobutyric acid cycling and protects the cerebral cortex from apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Sildenafil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in a Porcine Model: Possible Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoxing; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Wei; Wu, Junyuan; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sold as Viagra, is a cardioprotector against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our study explored whether sildenafil protects against I/R-induced damage in a porcine cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR) model via modulating the renin-angiotensin system. Male pigs were randomly divided to three groups: Sham group, Saline group, and sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg) group. Thirty min after drug infusion, ventricular fibrillation (8 min) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (up to 30 min) was conducted in these animals. We found that sildenafil ameliorated the reduced cardiac function and improved the 24-h survival rate in this model. Sildenafil partly attenuated the increases of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang (1–7) levels after CAR. Sildenafil also decreased apoptosis and Ang II expression in myocardium. The increases of expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and the Ang (1–7) receptor Mas in myocardial tissue were enhanced after CAR. Sildenafil suppressed AT1R up-regulation, but had no effect on ACE, ACE2, and Mas expression. Sildenafilfurther boosted the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Collectively, our results suggest that cardioprotection of sildenafil in CAR model is accompanied by an inhibition of Ang II-AT1R axis activation. PMID:26569234

  12. Sildenafil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in a Porcine Model: Possible Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sold as Viagra, is a cardioprotector against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Our study explored whether sildenafil protects against I/R-induced damage in a porcine cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR model via modulating the renin-angiotensin system. Male pigs were randomly divided to three groups: Sham group, Saline group, and sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg group. Thirty min after drug infusion, ventricular fibrillation (8 min and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (up to 30 min was conducted in these animals. We found that sildenafil ameliorated the reduced cardiac function and improved the 24-h survival rate in this model. Sildenafil partly attenuated the increases of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II and Ang (1–7 levels after CAR. Sildenafil also decreased apoptosis and Ang II expression in myocardium. The increases of expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE, ACE2, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, and the Ang (1–7 receptor Mas in myocardial tissue were enhanced after CAR. Sildenafil suppressed AT1R up-regulation, but had no effect on ACE, ACE2, and Mas expression. Sildenafilfurther boosted the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS. Collectively, our results suggest that cardioprotection of sildenafil in CAR model is accompanied by an inhibition of Ang II-AT1R axis activation.

  13. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  14. Effect of arginase inhibition on ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients with coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Kövamees

    Full Text Available Arginase competes with nitric oxide synthase for their common substrate L-arginine. Up-regulation of arginase in coronary artery disease (CAD and diabetes mellitus may reduce nitric oxide bioavailability contributing to endothelial dysfunction and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Arginase inhibition reduces infarct size in animal models. Therefore the aim of the current study was to investigate if arginase inhibition protects from endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion in patients with CAD with or without type 2 diabetes (NCT02009527.Male patients with CAD (n = 12 or CAD + type 2 diabetes (n = 12, were included in this cross-over study with blinded evaluation. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the radial artery before and after 20 min ischemia-reperfusion during intra-arterial infusion of the arginase inhibitor (Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, 0.1 mg/min or saline.The forearm ischemia-reperfusion was well tolerated. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation was assessed by sublingual nitroglycerin. Ischemia-reperfusion decreased FMD in patients with CAD from 12.7±5.2% to 7.9±4.0% during saline administration (P<0.05. Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine administration prevented the decrease in FMD in the CAD group (10.3±4.3% at baseline vs. 11.5±3.6% at reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion did not significantly reduce FMD in patients with CAD + type 2 diabetes. However, FMD at reperfusion was higher following nor-NOHA than following saline administration in both groups (P<0.01. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation did not differ between the occasions.Inhibition of arginase protects against endothelial dysfunction caused by ischemia-reperfusion in patients with CAD. Arginase inhibition may thereby be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  15. Influence of Androgen Receptor in Vascular Cells on Reperfusion following Hindlimb Ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxi Wu

    Full Text Available Studies in global androgen receptor knockout (G-ARKO and orchidectomised mice suggest that androgen accelerates reperfusion of the ischaemic hindlimb by stimulating angiogenesis. This investigation used novel, vascular cell-specific ARKO mice to address the hypothesis that the impaired hindlimb reperfusion in G-ARKO mice was due to loss of AR from cells in the vascular wall.Mice with selective deletion of AR (ARKO from vascular smooth muscle cells (SM-ARKO, endothelial cells (VE-ARKO, or both (SM/VE-ARKO were compared with wild type (WT controls. Hindlimb ischaemia was induced in these mice by ligation and removal of the femoral artery. Post-operative reperfusion was reduced in SM-ARKO and SM/VE-ARKO mice. Immunohistochemistry indicated that this was accompanied by a reduced density of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels but no change in the density of isolectin B4-positive vessels in the gastrocnemius muscle. Deletion of AR from the endothelium (VE-ARKO did not alter post-operative reperfusion or vessel density. In an ex vivo (aortic ring culture model of angiogenesis, AR was not detected in vascular outgrowths and angiogenesis was not altered by vascular ARKO or by exposure to dihydrotestosterone (DHT 10-10-10-7M; 6 days.These results suggest that loss of AR from vascular smooth muscle, but not from the endothelium, contributes to impaired reperfusion in the ischaemic hindlimb of G-ARKO. Impaired reperfusion was associated with reduced collateral formation rather than reduced angiogenesis.

  16. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Aijun; Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  17. Interrupted reperfusion reduces the activation of NADPH oxidase after cerebral I/R injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; Bai, Xiao-Yin; Qin, Yuan; Jin, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Jing-Yin; Zhou, Ji-Ping; Yan, Ying-Gang; Wang, Qiong; Bruce, Iain C; Chen, Jiang-Hua; Xia, Qiang

    2011-06-15

    Interrupted reperfusion reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was designed to determine whether NADPH oxidase participates in the neural protection against global I/R injury after interrupted reperfusion. Mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham (sham-operated), I/R (20-min global I/R), RR (I/R+interrupted reperfusion), Apo (I/R+apocynin administration), and RR+Apo. Behavioral tests (pole test, beam walking, and Morris water maze) and Nissl staining were undertaken in all five groups; superoxide levels, expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox), p47(phox) translocation, and Rac1 activation were measured in the sham, I/R, and RR groups. The motor coordination, bradykinesia, and spatial learning and memory, as well as the neuron survival rates, were better in the RR, Apo, and RR+Apo groups than in the I/R group. The NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide levels, p47(phox) and gp91(phox) expression, p47(phox) translocation, and Rac1 activation were lower in the RR group than in the I/R group. In conclusion, the neural protective effect of interrupted reperfusion is at least partly mediated by decreasing the expression and assembly of NADPH oxidase and the levels of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide. The most striking reduction Rac1-GTP in the RR group suggests that interrupted reperfusion also acts on the activation of assembled NADPH oxidase by reducing the availability of Rac1-GTP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials: An Opportunity for Improved Design of Stroke Reperfusion Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Seewald, Nicholas J; Kidwell, Kelley

    2017-04-01

    Modern clinical trials in stroke reperfusion fall into 2 categories: alternative systemic pharmacological regimens to alteplase and "rescue" endovascular approaches using targeted thrombectomy devices and/or medications delivered directly for persistently occluded vessels. Clinical trials in stroke have not evaluated how initial pharmacological thrombolytic management might influence subsequent rescue strategy. A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is a novel trial design that can test these dynamic treatment regimens and lead to treatment guidelines that more closely mimic practice. To characterize a SMART design in comparison to traditional approaches for stroke reperfusion trials. We conducted a numerical simulation study that evaluated the performance of contrasting acute stroke clinical trial designs of both initial reperfusion and rescue therapy. We compare a SMART design where the same patients are followed through initial reperfusion and rescue therapy within 1 trial to a standard phase III design comparing 2 reperfusion treatments and a separate phase II futility design of rescue therapy in terms of sample size, power, and ability to address particular research questions. Traditional trial designs can be well powered and have optimal design characteristics for independent treatment effects. When treatments, such as the reperfusion and rescue therapies, may interact, commonly used designs fail to detect this. A SMART design, with similar sample size to standard designs, can detect treatment interactions. The use of SMART designs to investigate effective and realistic dynamic treatment regimens is a promising way to accelerate the discovery of new, effective treatments for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aijun [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J. [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249 (United States); Chen, Qun, E-mail: qchen8@vcu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  20. Impact of perfusion lesion in corticospinal tract on response to reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhang, Sheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Lou, Min [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Ze [Hangzhou Normal University, Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Institutes of Neurological Science, Hangzhou (China); Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou (China); Campbell, Bruce C.V. [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine and Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Liebeskind, David S. [Los Angeles Stroke Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    We aimed to examine the impact of corticospinal tract (CST) involvement in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients on functional outcome and the interaction with reperfusion. We retrospectively examined data in consecutive anterior circulation AIS patients undergoing thrombolysis. MR perfusion (time to maximum of tissue residue function, Tmax) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images were transformed into standard space and the volumes of CST involvement by Tmax > 6 s (CST-Tmax) and ADC < 620 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s (CST-ADC) lesions were calculated. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale ≤ 2 at 3 months. Reperfusion was defined as a reduction in Tmax > 6 s lesion volume of ≥70% between baseline and 24 h. 82 patients were included. Binary logistic regression revealed that both CST-Tmax and CST-ADC volume at baseline were significantly associated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). The 24-h CST-ADC volume was correlated with baseline CST-ADC volume in patients with reperfusion (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and baseline CST-Tmax volume in patients without reperfusion (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). In patients with CST-Tmax volume > 0 mL and CST-ADC volume < 3 mL, the rate of good outcome was higher in patients with reperfusion than those without (70.4% vs 38.1%, p = 0.04). The use of CST-Tmax in combination with CST-ADC provides prognostic information in patients considered for reperfusion therapies. (orig.)

  1. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Haiyan; Huh, Jin; Wang, Huihua; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi; Xu, Zhelong

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine reduced

  2. The possible protective effects of dipyridamole on ischemic reperfusion injury of priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersagun Karaguzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury of dipyridamole in a model of induced priapism in rats. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, control, P/R, P/R+DMSO and P/R+D. 3ml blood specimens were collected from vena cava inferior in order to determine serum MDA, IMA, TAS, TOS and OSI values, and penile tissue was taken for histopathological examination in control group. Priapism was induced in P/R group. After 1h, priapism was concluded and 30 min reperfusion was performed. In P/R+DMSO group 1ml/kg DMSO was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before reperfusion, while in P/R+D group 10mg/kg dipyridamole was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before reperfusion. Blood and penis specimens were collected after the end of 30 min reperfusion period. Sinusoidal area (µm2, tears in tunica albuginea and injury parameters in sinusoidal endothelium of penis were investigated. Results Histopathological examination revealed no significant changes in term of sinusoidal area. A decrease in tears was observed in P/R+D group compared to P/R group (p0.05. There were no significant differences in MDA and IMA values between groups. A significant increase in TOS and OSI values was observed in P/R+D group compared to P/R group. A significant decrease in TAS levels was observed in P/R+D group compared to the P/R group. Conclusions The administration of dipyridamole before reperfusion in ischemic priapism model has a potential protective effect against histopathological injury of the penis.

  3. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Haiyan [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Huh, Jin [Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Medical College, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon City (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Huihua [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi [Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Xu, Zhelong, E-mail: zxu@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  5. Crosstalk between complement and Toll-like receptor activation in relation to donor brain death and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Jeffrey; Daha, Mohamed R; van Son, Willem J; Leuvenink, Henri G; Ploeg, Rutger J; Seelen, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    Two central pathways of innate immunity, complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. Recent findings indicate close crosstalk between complement and TLR signaling pathways. It is suggested that mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) might be the key molecules linking both the complement and TLR pathways together. Complement and TLRs are important mediators of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Besides IRI, complement C3 can also be upregulated and activated in the kidney before transplantation as a direct result of brain death (BD) in the donor. This local upregulation and activation of complement in the donor kidney has been proven to be detrimental for renal allograft outcome. Also TLR4 and several of its major ligands are upregulated by donor BD compared to living donors. Important and in line with the observations above, kidney transplant recipients have a benefit when receiving a kidney from a TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile genotypic donor. The role of complement and TLRs and crosstalk between these two innate immune systems in relation to renal injury during donor BD and ischemia-reperfusion are focus of this review. Future strategies to target complement and TLR activation in kidney transplantation are considered. ©2011 The Authors Journal compilation©2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  7. Ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusÃo intestinal em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia GonÃalves

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os efeito da ornitina α-cetoglutarato (OKG) no sangue e tecido intestinal de ratos submetidos à isquemia/reperfusÃo intestinal atravÃs da determinaÃÃo das concentraÃÃes in vivo no sangue e no tecido do intestino delgado, submetido a isquemia/reperfusÃo, de glicose, G 6 PDH, piruvato, acetoacetato, lactato, 3 HBDH, glutationa, T-Bars, mieloperoxidase, CPK e LDH. MÃtodo: Sessenta ratos (Rattus norvergicus albinus, Rodentia Mammalia) foram distribuÃdos aleatoriamente em ci...

  8. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Young Ha; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, including a sham operated group (n=3). Renal ischemia was induced for 30 minutes (group 1), 60 minutes (group 2) and 120 minutes (group 3). MR imaging was performed before ischemia as well as one hour, 24 hours, and 72 hours after reperfusion. A 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy was performed before ischemia, as well as 24 hours and 72 hours after reperfusion. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the T2WI, time-relative signal intensity (%RSI) curve on dynamic enhanced images, and relative left renal uptake (%) on DMSA scan were obtained and compared to the histologic findings. The SNR of the cortex on the T2WI changed significantly over the course of the reperfusion time (p<0.001), but was not significantly different among the ischemia groups. The area under the time-%RSI curve gradually decreased from cortex to inner medulla before ischemia, which was reversed and gradually increased after reperfusion. The areas under the time-%RSI curve of outer and inner medulla were significantly different among the ischemia groups (p=0.04, p=0.008). The relative renal uptake (%) of left kidney decreased significantly over the reperfusion time (p=0.03), and was also significantly different among the ischemia groups (p=0.005). Tubular cell necrosis was observed in 16 rabbits (76.2%). The histologic grades of group 3 were higher than those of group 1 and group 2 (p=0.002). Even in rabbits without tubular cell necrosis, the areas under the time-%RSI curves of the cortex, outer, and inner medulla after a 72 hour reperfusion time were significantly lower than those before ischemia (p=0.007, p=0.005, p=0.004). The results of this study suggest that dynamic enhanced MR imaging could be a useful tool for the evaluation of renal ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  9. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhe Wang, Zhiyi He, Shumin Deng Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods: The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results: UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01. Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01. Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01 but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01. UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a

  10. Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Feifei; Myers, Valerie D.; Knezevic, Tijana; Wang, JuFang; Gao, Erhe; Madesh, Muniswamy; Tahrir, Farzaneh G.; Gupta, Manish K.; Gordon, Jennifer; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Ramsey, Frederick V.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed at high levels in the heart and the vasculature and in many cancers. While altered BAG3 expression has been associated with cardiac dysfunction, its role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that BAG3 protects the heart from reperfusion injury, in vivo cardiac function was measured in hearts infected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9–expressing (rAAV9-expre...

  11. Effects of intranasal corticosteroids on radiated nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhua; Liu Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a mechanism protected radiation-induce injure for radiated guinea pigs'nasal mucosa treated with intranasal corticosteroids(fluticasone nasal cavity spray). Methods: 50 health guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups randomly: the irradiated group (control group) with 25 guinea pigs and the administration group after irradiation (test group)with 25 guinea pigs. The nasal part of all guinea pigs were performed irradiation by the 6 MV X-ray with single 5 Gy, one time each week for three weeks. The guinea pigs of test group received intranasal corticosteroids with one time every day and one spray each side nasal cavity on the second day after three weeks irradiation. Five guinea pigs in each group were sacrificed randomly at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 4 months after irradiation, and the histopathologic changes were observed under optical microscope and electron microscope. At the same time, blood were drawn from the heart and the concentration of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were measured by ELISA. Results: The early nasal mucosa inflammatory reaction of the test group was less than the control group. The coverage rate of cilia of the test group was much than that of the control group (72.9% vs 50.2%) at four months after irradiation. The atrophy of submucosal glandular organ was lessened and they displayed some extent secretory function. The concentration of IL-1 in serum was increased very much in the test group compared with the control group after irradiation and kept higher level in the first two months. After two months, it began to decrease; on four months, it still kept equivalency level with the control group. The concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced all the while. Conclusions: The intranasal corticosteroids with fluticasone nasal cavity spray can reduce radiation- induced injury of guinea pigs' nasal mucosa. The concentration change of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum may be one of mechanism protected

  12. Myocardial imaging with sup 99m Tc-2-methoxyisobutilisonitrile in the assessment of reperfusion after intravenous thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Favilli, R.; Bertelli, P.; Burroni, L.; Gaddi, R.; Ferretti, A.; Baldi, L. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit)

    1989-08-01

    The effect of reperfusion with intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed by myocardial scintigraphy in 6 patients using {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI injected before and 48 hours after the thrombolysis. All patients showed 3 to 4 segmental defects consistent for AMI in the baseline study. The post-thrombolytic study showed an intense reperfusion in 3 patients, a moderate reperfusion in 2 patients and absence of reperfusion in one patient. These findings indicate that the dual imaging strategy with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI is an effective non-invasive technique to assess the effectiveness of reperfusion in acute myocardial infarcted areas. (orig.).

  13. Myocardial imaging with 99mTc-2-methoxyisobutilisonitrile in the assessment of reperfusion after intravenous thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Favilli, R.; Bertelli, P.; Burroni, L.; Gaddi, R.; Ferretti, A.; Baldi, L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of reperfusion with intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed by myocardial scintigraphy in 6 patients using 99m Tc-MIBI injected before and 48 hours after the thrombolysis. All patients showed 3 to 4 segmental defects consistent for AMI in the baseline study. The post-thrombolytic study showed an intense reperfusion in 3 patients, a moderate reperfusion in 2 patients and absence of reperfusion in one patient. These findings indicate that the dual imaging strategy with 99m Tc-MIBI is an effective non-invasive technique to assess the effectiveness of reperfusion in acute myocardial infarcted areas. (orig.) [de

  14. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  15. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  16. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  17. Ischemia and reperfusion in skin flaps: effects of mannitol and vitamin C in reducing necrosis area in a rat experimental model Isquemia e reperfusão de retalhos cutâneos: efeitos do manitol e vitamina C na redução de áreas de necrose em modelo experimental no rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Bonetti Yoshida

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat skin flap and to verify the effect of mannitol and vitamin C on reducing necrosis area. METHODS: A 6-x 3-cm groin skin flap was raised and submitted to 8 hours of ischemia by clamping the vascular pedicle and to 7 days of reperfusion. The animals were divided in four groups: S1 and S2 (10 animals each and C and T (14 animals each. In groups S1 and S2 skin flaps were not submitted to ischemia and animals received lactated Ringer's solution (S1 and antioxidant solution (S2 . In groups C and T, flaps were subjected to 8 hours of warm ischemia and animals received Lactated Ringer's solution (Group C and antioxidant solution immediately before reperfusion, (Group T. Flap survival was evaluated on the seventh day using a paper template technique and computer-assistant imaging analysis of necrotic and normal areas. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed no area differences between groups C and T. CONCLUSION: The experimental model provided consistent necrotic area in control groups and drugs used were not effective in improving skin flap survival.OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho foi padronizado modelo experimental de isquemia e reperfusão em retalho cutâneo em ratos no qual estudou-se possibilidade de uma solução antioxidante, composta por Ringer lactato, vitamina C e manitol de reduzir a área de necrose. MÉTODOS: O modelo consistiu de levantamento de retalho cutâneo axial de 6,0 x 3,0cm, submetido à isquemia de 8 horas e reperfusão de 7 dias. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupos S1, S2 (10 animais cada, C e T (14 animais cada. Nos grupos S1 e S2 todos os procedimentos dos demais grupos foram efetuados, exceto a isquemia e reperfusão: S1 recebeu apenas Ringer lactato e S2 a solução antioxidante. Os grupos C e T foram submetidos à isquemia. O grupo C recebeu somente Ringer lactato e o grupo T a solução antioxidante. No 7

  18. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

    2005-07-21

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (psocial confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, psocial confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (psurplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress.

  19. Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine for the control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivara, A; Kritas, S K; Bourriel, A R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2007-02-17

    The efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated at two M hyopneumoniae-infected farrow-to-finish commercial farms (A and B) in Greece. In a prospective, randomised double-blind study, two groups on each farm received intramuscular doses of either the vaccine or the adjuvant when they were one and four weeks of age. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs of disease; morbidity and mortality were recorded; and bodyweight was recorded at intervals. At slaughter, the lungs of the animals were examined and the chest cavities were examined for signs of pleuritis. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in any of the pigs. On farm A the vaccinated pigs were on average 6 kg heavier at slaughter, and on farm B they were on average 4 kg heavier; on both farms the average daily gain of the pigs was greater than that of the unvaccinated pigs. The prevalence and severity of enzootic pneumonia in the affected lungs were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated pigs.

  20. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...