WorldWideScience

Sample records for repelling captive canada

  1. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013.

  2. Bug repellent safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insect is gone. Alternative Names Insect repellent safety Images Bee sting References Fradin MS. Insect repellents. In: Wolverton SE, ed. Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. Repellency Awareness Graphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies can apply to use the voluntary new graphic on product labels of skin-applied insect repellents. This graphic is intended to help consumers easily identify the protection time for mosquitoes and ticks and select appropriately.

  4. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China

  5. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,

  6. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  7. Using Ethanol to Investigate Dynamic Soil Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.; Beatty, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    Large gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of the behaviour of water in dynamically repellent soils. By investigating these systems using other miscible fluids that minimize or eliminate repellency, e.g. ethanol, we seek to better understand and quantify soil water repellency. The advantages of the enhanced wettability of water repellent soils to other miscible fluids, however, come with complications including shifts in effective pore water pressures induced through variable interfacial tensions as well as differences in fluid mobility due to variable fluid viscosities and densities. With these considerations in mind, we compare and contrast the observed behaviours of fluid infiltration and retention in dynamically hydrophobic soils and hydrophilic soils. We conducted field and laboratory studies using tension disc infiltrometers along with water and ethanol solutions to investigate dynamic repellency in post-wildfire soils from Northern Ontario, Canada. Tension infiltrometers maintain a constant negative liquid pressure at the surface which proved to be useful for isolating wettable behaviours sensitive to dynamic changes in wettability. We present the data and system conceptualised and explained through contact angle dynamics and variable fractional wettability of the soil. The limitations of extending hydrophilic concepts and hydraulic functions to hydrophobic soils are discussed along with persistent challenges to advance our ability to simulate and predict system behaviours in naturally occurring water repellent soils.

  8. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  9. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  10. Captive elephants - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently a significant portion of the world’s elephant population is in captivity, mainly in Asia. Elephants have a long history of captivity in both Africa and Asia, and have adapted to many environments. Today, due to evolving needs and philosophies, some changes have occurred in the use of captive elephants, and debate about their welfare and management is increasing. To address this, several countries are developing higher standards of care via policies and guidelines; unfortunately most elephant range countries do not have a national strategy concerning their captive elephant population. Challenges in elephant medicine are always present, yet there is a lack of standardized requirements for veterinary care in elephant range countries, and the ability of veterinarians to treat elephant diseases is often limited. In recent years, much has been learned about elephant physiology, biology, and communication from captive elephants, and this knowledge supports management decisions affecting both captive and wild populations. Captive elephants present important educational and fundraising opportunities in support of conservation, but these are often not fully leveraged. Future considerations include implementing changes to improve staff support and training, establishing comprehensive registration of all captive populations, and ensuring that captive management does not negatively impact wild elephant populations.

  11. Repelling Point Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    There is a body of conventional wisdom that holds that a solvable quantum problem, by virtue of its solvability, is pathological and thus irrelevant. It has been difficult to refute this view owing to the paucity of theoretical constructs and experimental results. Recent experiments involving equivalent ions trapped in a spatial conformation of extreme anisotropic confinement (longitudinal extension tens, hundreds or even thousands of times transverse extension) have modified the view of relevancy, and it is now possible to consider systems previously thought pathological, in particular point Bosons that repel in one dimension. It has been difficult for the experimentalists to utilize existing theory, mainly due to long-standing theoretical misunderstanding of the relevance of the permutation group, in particular the non-commutativity of translations (periodicity) and transpositions (permutation). This misunderstanding is most easily rectified in the case of repelling Bosons.

  12. FAQ: Insect Repellent Use and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mosquito Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Insect Repellent Use & Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the repellent with you. Top of Page Can insect repellents be used on children? Yes. Most products ...

  13. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CAPTIVE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) AND WALRUS (ODOBENUS ROSMRUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii infection was detected in captive marine mammals at a seaquarium in Canada. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in all 7 bottlenose ...

  14. Rabies in Captive Deer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Brett Petersen, a medical officer at CDC, discusses rabies in captive deer.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/30/2012.

  15. Sharks senses and shark repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 70 years of research on shark repellents, few practical and reliable solutions to prevent shark attacks on humans or reduce shark bycatch and depredation in commercial fisheries have been developed. In large part, this deficiency stems from a lack of fundamental knowledge of the sensory cues that drive predatory behavior in sharks. However, the widespread use of shark repellents is also hampered by the physical constraints and technical or logistical difficulties of deploying substances or devices in an open-water marine environment to prevent an unpredictable interaction with a complex animal. Here, we summarize the key attributes of the various sensory systems of sharks and highlight residual knowledge gaps that are relevant to the development of effective shark repellents. We also review the most recent advances in shark repellent technology within the broader historical context of research on shark repellents and shark sensory systems. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may enhance the efficacy of shark repellent devices, in particular, the continued need for basic research on shark sensory biology and the use of a multi-sensory approach when developing or deploying shark repellent technology.

  16. Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Similar abnormalities in the skulls of captive Arctic Wolves (Canis lupus arctos) and a wild Arctic wolf found dead on Ellesmere Island, Canada, in 1986 are described. The malocclusion is likely to be recessively inherited and would be expressed more frequently in association with increased levels of inbreeding. A re-shaping of the skulls may have occurred due to the effects of the malocclusive trait. The Ellesmere skull was short and wide in comparison to the captive skulls which were long and narrow. The focus of effect was in a foreshortening of the rostrum and the resulting shortened toothrow.

  17. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  18. [Prevention with repellent in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, F

    2009-10-01

    Use of topical insect repellent is an important component in prophylaxis of arthropod bite vector borne diseases. Topical insect repellent are used in a three part management regimen, along with impregnated clothing and mosquito netting. Parental training for efficacious and secure use of repellents for their children is essential part of a successful strategy to combat Lyme borreliosis, dengue fever, Chikungunya, West Nile virus infection and malaria, amongst children, according to local epidemiological risks. Rational repellent prescription for a child must take into account age, active substance concentration, topical substance tolerance, nature and surface of the skin to protect, number of daily applications, and the length of use in a benefit-risk ratio assessment perspective. The 4 currently repellents recommended by Whopes (Who) for their long lasting efficacy and patient tolerance are: 1) Citriodiol (PMD), 2) DEET, 3) Icaridine (KB3023), and 4) IR3535. In field trials the minimum required concentration of each four of these agents to be effective for 3 hours against most arthropods is 20% (in cream, roll-on or spray vehicle). Described side effects of these agents are mild, being limited to local irritative dermatitis and allergy. The risk of severe side effects has been related to DEET misused and neurotoxicity. The international recommendations concerning utilization of topical repellent amongst children for prophylaxis of arthropod borne diseases is concerning short term usage (several weeks). But the use of repellent is sub chronic or chronic amongst the majority of children living in subtropical regions where these vector borne diseases are endemic. And toxicity of topical repellent when used sub-chronically and chronically is not well studied in pediatric age groups. Taking into account these considerations, the current recommendations of the French Group of Tropical Paediatrics are to teach the parents of children who live in arthropod vector disease

  19. Mastering Adobe Captivate 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive tutorial packed with examples, which is divided into small subtopics that follows a clear and logical outline to help you get to grips with Adobe Captivate 7. Readers are also encouraged to develop their understanding of the tool through practical exercises and experimentations in every chapter. A lot of external references and tips and tricks from established e-Learning professionals are also included. If you are a designer, e-Learning developer, or webmaster who wants to construct an interactive and fun-filled e-Learning project using Adobe Captivate 7, this book is ideal for

  20. Repellents Against Land Leeches for Military Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koshy

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available A short account of the habits and nature of depredations of the leeches in the Himalayan region is given. The requirements for a leech repellent, to be of use in a hot humid and rainy area are stressed. A brief survey of the repellents and the need for their suitable screening for use in this area is made. Mention is made of some newer insect and mite repellents, which are likely to prove leech repellents as well.It is suggested that emphasis should be made on the choice of a impregnated repellent for military use in the area rather than on a 'skin repellent.

  1. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  2. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  3. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  4. Chlamydiosis in captive raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M E; Schulz, T; Ardans, A; Reynolds, B; Behymer, D

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. One hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. C. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. Forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 19% were suspects. The ELISA was repeated on 54 raptors in 1986. Forty-one percent of the birds were considered positive, and 35% were suspect, indicating that C. psittaci is endemic in the population.

  5. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, I. Baruah, P.K. Talukdar & S.C. Das

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Repellent properties of three plant extracts—essential oil (steam distillate of Zanthoxylumlimonella (fruits, Citrus aurantifolia (leaf and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruitswere evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara and coconut(Parachute oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations—10, 20 and 30% of therepellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against thebites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296–304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents incoconut oil exhibited 223.5–245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonellagave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S. albopictus mosquitoes at all theconcentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  6. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris; Awang Soh Yusuff Mamat; Muhammad Shahzad Aslam; Muhammad Syarhabil Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repel...

  7. Rodent-repellent studies. I. Method for the evaluation of chemical repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1949-01-01

    A biological assay procedure and a method for the numerical expression of results have been devised for the determination of the repellency to rodents of different chemical compounds. The procedure is based upon the degree of acceptability of foods containing the candidate repellents,. and has been shown. to offer a rapid, reliable measure of repellent activIty.

  8. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    potential of neem seed oil cream as mosquito repellent particularly at higher ... In the present study, neem Seed oil extracted from Azadirachta indica plant .... repellency was in two phases, first to determine the repellency properties of.

  9. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  10. Structural optimization of super-repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    Micro-patterning is an effective way to achieve surfaces with extreme liquid repellency. This technique does not rely on chemical coatings and is therefore a promising concept for application in food processing and bio-compatibile coatings. This super-repellent behaviour is obtained by suspending...

  11. Novel Carboxamides as Potential Mosquito Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    deet) is themost ef- fective andbest-studied arthropod repellent currently on the market . However, it does not provide a long duration of protection...Gaudin, J. M., T. Lander, and O. Nikolaenko. 2008. Carbox- amides combining favorable olfactory properties with insect repellency. Chem. Biodivers. 5

  12. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  13. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  14. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repellent properties. Some experiments were done on tea tree oil to determine its insect repellent properties and the suitable concentration that can be used to make sure its repelling effect is optimum. The purpose of this determination is to avoid its harmful effect on humans because it can be toxic if it is used at high concentration. The results showed that tea tree oil repelled Tribolium castaneum. Furthermore, the toxicity assays also gave positive result where the tea tree oil has toxic properties against Solenopsis invicta. The lethal dose (LD of tea tree oil to kill 50% of a group of S. invicta is 23.52 µL/mL. This LD50 is determined by using the arithmetic method of Karber. Broadly, the results showed that M. alternifolia has insect repellent properties and shows toxicity against certain insects.

  15. Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Nath, D R; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    1999-12-01

    Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.

  16. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. MEHTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. That is why it has been necessary to understand the various aspects of selected rural areas and consumption pattern for such a fast growing market i.e. mosquito repellants and rural buyers’ perception towards such urban products. The present paper aims to find out the factors influencing the purchase decisions of rural buyers for mosquito repellants and to study the perceptions of present and potential rural buyers' of selected mosquito repellant brands.

  17. Liquid repellency by a moving plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillant, Ambre; Anais Gauthier Team; David Quere Team; Christophe Clanet Team

    2016-11-01

    Moving solids can repel impacting drops, owing to their motion. Provided the solid velocity is larger than a threshold value, air entrained at the vicinity of the moving plate prevents the drop from wetting, and makes it bounce. In addition, the rebound is oblique, which enhances the evacuation of liquid. We discuss experiments and models on this theme, and extend them to case of small droplets (such as formed in a spray) found to be even more efficiently repelled by the moving plate.

  18. Bird-repellent effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive mammal pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Phil; Brown, Sam; Forrester, Guy; Booth, Lynn; Crowell, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    Repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively, but their efficacy in reducing risk to non-target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. We assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d-pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials. For possums, anthraquinone at 0.25% reduced acceptability and palatability but not the efficacy of poison baits, whereas d-pulegone at 0.17% had no significant effects. Rats showed little response to d-pulegone, but developed a marked aversion to prefeed baits containing anthraquinone at both 0.1 and 0.25%, such that almost no exposed rats ate poison baits and mortality was reduced significantly. The aversion induced by anthraquinone was generalised to the bait, as anthraquinone-exposed rats did not eat bait with only d-pulegone. Anthraquinone is not suitable for inclusion in bait for rat control at the concentrations tested, and also presents some risk to efficacy for possum control. D-pulegone would be suitable for inclusion in bait for possums and rats, but problems related to its volatility in bait manufacture and storage would need to be overcome. Further studies should focus on an alternative secondary repellent, or on establishing the maximum anthraquinone concentration that does not reduce efficacy for rats and testing whether or not that concentration is sufficient to repel native birds from baits reliably. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Kap-Ho; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2005-03-01

    Five monoterpenes (carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, and thymol) derived from the essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were examined for their repellency against the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens. All 5 monoterpenes effectively repelled mosquitoes based on a human forearm bioassay. Alpha-terpinene and carvacrol showed significantly greater repellency than a commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (deet), whereas thymol showed similar repellency to that of deet. The duration of repellency after application for all these monoterpenes was equal to or higher than that of deet. These findings indicate that a spray-type solution containing 2% alpha-terpinene may serve as an alternative mosquito repellent.

  20. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Application of ethnobotanical repellents and acaricides in prevention, control and management of livestock ticks: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies. However, the former is limited by the development of growing resistances as well as environmental concerns. Exploiting plants and plant products as sources of effective tick repellents and acaricides represents a promising strategy. In this scenario, the preservation of ethnobotanical information on repellent and acaricidal potential of plants is crucial. Here, we evaluated relevant information published in recent years, focused on plants used as repellents and acaricides against tick vectors in different regions worldwide. We selected a total of 238 plant species, which are traditionally used against ticks by native and local communities of Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, South Africa), Europe (Serbia, Macedonia, Romania), Asia (Pakistan, India) and America (Brazil, Canada), from 56 families. However, only 7 families (i.e. Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae, Apocynaceae and Solanaceae) represent the major quote (46%) of all plant species. We evaluated the differences in acaricidal and repellent efficacy of different formulations used. In the final section, implications arising from the surveyed anti-tick ethnobotanical knowledge and challenges for its future are discussed.

  2. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  3. Repellence and toxicity of Schinus molle extracts on Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A A; Chopa, C Sánchez; González, J O Werdin; Alzogaray, R A

    2007-06-01

    The biological activities of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by repellence test and topical application. All extracts produced significant repellent effect and mortality.

  4. Buffer zone water repellency: effects of the management practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa, Kimmo; Räty, Mari; Nikolenko, Olga; Horn, Rainer; Yli-Halla, Markku; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Pietola, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Water repellency index R was measured in a heavy clay and a sandy loam, used as arable land or buffer zone (BZ). Further, effect of management practise and ageing of BZs were studied. Water repellency was proved to be a common phenomenon on these soils. Harvesting and grazing increased water repellency as does ageing.Low water repellency is supposed to prevent preferential flows and provide evenly distributed water infiltration pattern through large soil volume, which favours nutrient retention.

  5. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency can lead to the development of unstable wetting and preferential flow paths. Preferential flow has wide-ranging significance for rapi...

  6. The hydrology of water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, R.; Berli, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Moore, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of wildfire throughout the western U.S. is expected to increase. So, too, will flooding and erosion associated with the aftereffects of the fires. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) has frequently been observed after fires and is believed to increase the post-fire runoff potential, although current runoff models cannot directly account for this effect. Many physically-based runoff models incorporate an infiltration reduction factor or manipulate the soil hydraulic conductivity parameter to account for water-repellent soils in runoff generation. Beginning with fundamental principles, we developed a methodology to physically account for soil water repellency and directly account for it in the Kineros2 runoff and erosion model.

  7. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water in

  8. Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard

  9. Water repellent soils: a state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1981-01-01

    Water repellency in soils was first described by Schreiner and Shorey (1910), who found that some soils in California could not be wetted and thereby were not suitable for agriculture. Waxy organic substances were responsible for the water repellency. Other studies in the early 1900's on the fairy ring phenomenon suggested that water repellency could be caused by...

  10. Envoys, Princesses, Seamen and Captives

    OpenAIRE

    Kemnitz, Eva-Maria von

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing opinion has it that there were no Muslims in Portugal after the expulsion decree of 1496. However, while working on Portuguese–North African diplomatic and commercial relations in the 18th and 19th centuries, quite a contrary picture emerged revealing differentiated categories of Muslims. Apart from the most numerous group constituted by captives as a result of war, the Muslim universe also encompassed envoys, princesses and seamen. Their presence derived from the specific legal ...

  11. Soft, elastic, water-repellent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coux, Martin; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2017-06-01

    Small hydrophobic textures at solid surfaces provide water repellency, a situation whose detailed properties critically depend on the geometry of textures. Depending on their size, density, and shape, water slip, rain repellency, or antifogging can be achieved. Here, we discuss how the use of soft, elastic materials allows us to tune reversibly the texture density by stretching or relaxing the materials, which is found to impact water adhesion and rebounds. In addition, solid deformations can also be exploited to largely vary the shape of Wenzel drops, a consequence of the strong pinning of water in this state.

  12. Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Stock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.

  13. Mosquito repellency of novel Trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human diseases caused by mosquito-transmitted pathogens include malaria, dengue and yellow fever and are responsible for several million human deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Our current research projects focus on the development of new insecticides and repellent...

  14. Uneven moisture patterns in water repellent soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, water-repellent soils are widespread and they often show irregular moisture patterns, which cause accelerated transport of water and solutes to the groundwater and surface water. Under grass cover, spatial variability in soil moisture content is high owing to fingered flow; in ar

  15. Mode of action of insect repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of action of DEET and other insect repellents has been a topic of interest since the discovery of DEET in the mid twentieth century. Nearly 60 years have passed since DEET applied topically to the skin was shown to be effective in preventing mosquito bites. With the discovery and characte...

  16. Methods for determining actual soil water repellence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Moore, D.; Wesseling, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a simple and quick method for determining the presence of water repellency in a soil by using a small core sampler (1.5 cm in diameter, 25 cm long) and applying the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test at different depths on the sandy soil cores. Obtained results provide

  17. Manufacturing and characterisation of water repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Botija, Pablo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    design criteria for such surfaces. The problem of adapting this behaviour to artificially roughened surfaces is addressed by providing design criteria for superhydrophobic, water-repellent and self-cleaning surfaces according to the concrete performance desired for them. Different kind of manufacturing...

  18. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  19. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. PMID:26527362

  20. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen L. Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies.

  1. PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIFITAS REPELLENT KOMERSIL DENGAN EKSTRAK KULIT JERUK PURUT UNTUK MENCEGAH GIGITAN NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Wana; Ishak, Hasanuddin; Manyullei, Syamsuar

    2015-01-01

    Repellent merupakan bahan yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk melindungi manusia dari gigitan nyamuk. Repellent kimia yang paling sering digunakan adalah repellent yang mengandung DEET yang beredar di supermarket, pasaran maupun warung-warung kecil. Selain itu adapula repellent alami yang dapat digunakan, yaitu kandungan minyak atsiri pada kulit jeruk purut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan efektivitas repellent komersil yaitu repellent merek SL dan repellent alami yaitu minyak at...

  2. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  3. Limitation of using synthetic human odours to test mosquito repellents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbeyela Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repellents using a synthetic blend of human derived attractants for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Different concentrations of known repellents, N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet and Para-methane-3, 8, diol (PMD were added into traps baited with the synthetic blend, and resulting changes in mosquito catches were measured. Results All test concentrations of deet (0.001% to 100% reduced the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. However, PMD was repellent only at 0.25%. Above this concentration, it significantly increased the attractiveness of the blend. There was no relationship between the repellent concentrations and the change in mosquito catches when either deet (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.302 or PMD (r2 = 0.020, P = 0.578 was used. Conclusion It is concluded that while some repellents may reduce the attractiveness of synthetic human odours, others may instead increase their attractiveness. Such inconsistencies indicate that even though the synthetic attractants may provide exposure-free and consistent test media for repellents, careful selection and multiple-repellent tests are necessary to ascertain their suitability for use in repellent screening. The synthetic odour blend tested here is not yet sufficiently refined to serve as replacement for humans in repellent testing, but may be developed further and evaluated in different formats for exposure free repellent testing purposes.

  4. Captive-breeding of captive and wild-reared Gunnison sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apa, Anthony D; Wiechman, Lief A

    2016-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) distribution in North America has decreased over historical accounts and has received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. We investigated captive-breeding of a captive-flock of Gunnison sage-grouse created from individuals reared in captivity from wild-collected eggs we artificially incubated. We also introduced wild-reared individuals into captivity. Our captive-flock successfully bred and produced fertile eggs. We controlled the timing and duration of male-female breeding interactions and facilitated a semi-natural mating regime. Males established a strutting ground in captivity that females attended for mate selection. In 2010, we allowed females to establish eight nests, incubate, and hatch eggs. Females in captivity were more successful incubating nests than raising broods. Although there are many technical, financial, and logistic issues associated with captive-breeding, we recommend that federal biologists and managers work collaboratively with state wildlife agencies and consider developing a captive-flock as part of a comprehensive conservation strategy for a conservation-reliant species like the Gunnison sage-grouse. The progeny produced from a captive-rearing program could assist in the recovery if innovative approaches to translocation are part of a comprehensive proactive conservation program.

  5. Soil water repellency changes with depth and relationship to physical properties within wettable and repellent soil profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehrnia Nasrollah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of soil water repellency (SWR on soil hydrophysical properties with depth. Soils were sampled from two distinctly wettable and water repellent soil profiles at depth increments from 0-60 cm. The soils were selected because they appeared to either wet readily (wettable or remain dry (water repellent under field conditions. Basic soil properties (MWD, SOM, θv were compared to hydrophysical properties (Ks, Sw, Se, Sww, Swh, WDPT, RIc, RIm and WRCT that characterise or are affected by water repellency. Our results showed both soil and depth affected basic and hydrophysical properties of the soils (p <0.001. Soil organic matter (SOM was the major property responsible for water repellency at the selected depths (0-60. Water repellency changes affected moisture distribution and resulted in the upper layer (0-40 cm of the repellent soil to be considerably drier compared to the wettable soil. The water repellent soil also had greater MWDdry and Ks over the entire 0-60 cm depth compared to the wettable soil. Various measures of sorptivity, Sw, Se, Sww, Swh, were greater through the wettable than water repellent soil profile, which was also reflected in field and dry WDPT measurements. However, the wettable soil had subcritical water repellency, so the range of data was used to compare indices of water repellency. WRCT and RIm had less variation compared to WDPT and RIc. Estimating water repellency using WRCT and RIm indicated that these indices can detect the degree of SWR and are able to better classify SWR degree of the subcritical-repellent soil from the wettable soil.

  6. Rural buyers' perception about mosquito repellants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, D.; Anand GARG; Naveen K MEHTA

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito repellants prevent mosquito bites and prevention of "man-mosquito contact" is a critical factor in transmission and spread of any disease through mosquitoes particularly in rural area. There has been a long standing 'bias' towards rural buyers. The rural markets are considered rigid in the nature but it is not the case in real sense. Marketing to rural buyers is not only a challenge to the marketers but to the manufacturers, communicators, national planners and economists as well. Th...

  7. Water repellency diminishes peatland evaporation after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettridge, Nick; Lukenbach, Max; Hokanson, Kelly; Devito, Kevin; Hopkinson, Chris; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are a critically important global carbon reserve. There is increasing concern that such ecosystems are vulnerable to projected increases in wildfire severity under a changing climate. Severe fires may exceed peatland ecological resilience resulting in the long term degradation of this carbon store. Evaporation provides the primary mechanisms of water loss from such environments and can regulate the ecological stress in the initial years after wildfire. We examine variations in evaporation within burned peatlands after wildfire through small scale chamber and large scale remote sensing measurements. We show that near-surface water repellency limits peatland evaporation in these initial years post fire. Water repellent peat produced by the fire restricts the supply of water to the surface, reducing evaporation and providing a strong negative feedback to disturbance. This previously unidentified feedback operates at the landscape scale. High surface temperatures that result from large reductions in evaporation within water repellent peat are observed across the 60,000 ha burn scar three months after the wildfire. This promotes high water table positions at a landscape scale which limit the rate of peat decomposition and supports the post fire ecohydrological recovery of the peatlands. However, severe burns are shown to exceed this negative feedback response. Deep burns at the peatland margins remove the hydrophobic layer, increasing post fire evaporation and leaving the peatland vulnerable to drying and associated ecological shifts.

  8. EFFECTS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito bite transmits diseases like Malaria, Filaria, Dengue etc. and usage of repellents is very common and has been in use for a long time. The smoke contains Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes and Ketones. Review of literature has shown ill effects of this smoke. Hence we intended to study the effect of mosquito repellents on lung functions. This study would be important to create awareness regarding usage of mosquito repellent and to adapt to non-harmful methods of preventing mosquito bites. PFT parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC %, FEF 25-75 and PEFR were recorded in mosquito coil users, liquidator’s users and controls that used neither. It was found that FVC and FEV1 were significantly less in coil and liquidators users compared to controls (P < 0.05. Also it was found that in both coil users and liquidator users FVC, FEV1, FEF 25 -75 and PEFR and showed progressive decline with increased duration of usage (P < 0.05. Hence it was concluded that mosquito coils and liquidators can cause progressive decline in lung functions. Alternative methods to combat mosquito menace, like personal and environmental hygiene and non-chemical methods of protection are therefore recommended.

  9. Nootkatone is a repellent for Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Maistrello, L; Laine, R A

    2001-03-01

    We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termites toward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 micrograms/g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.

  10. Measurements of infiltration and water repellency on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrač, Rožle

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration is a process of water entering soil from its surface. Field measurements of infiltration are performed with infiltrometers. Calculation of hydraulic conductivity can be done by different equations. Infiltration exhibits large spatial and temporal variability due to many affecting factors. One of those effects is soil water repellency (hydrophobicity). Water-repellent soils do not wet up spontaneously. The intensity and persistence of water repellency vary widely due to variabilit...

  11. Mini Review: Mode of Action of Mosquito Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mini review: Mode of action of mosquito repellents Joseph C. Dickens ⇑, Jonathan D. Bohbot United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural...Modulation a b s t r a c t The mode of action of mosquito repellents remains a controversial topic. However, electrophysiological studies and molecular...annoyance that can disrupt outdoor activities. The use of repellents decreases contacts between mosquitoes and their hosts, and may even lower the rate of

  12. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmin Choi; Hyunwook Choo; Tae Sup Yun; Changho Lee; Woojin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10%...

  13. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  15. Rodent-repellent studies. III. Advanced studies in the evaluation of chemical repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1949-01-01

    In order to bridge the gap between preliminary screening of chemicals for potential rodent repellency and the application ofthese compounds to paper cartons, more advanced studies in the evaluation ofpromising materials have been carried out. These studies have resulted in: (1) a modification of the food acceptance technique which eliminates doubtful compounds and also provides a closer analogy to the ultimate goal, and (2) a method for rapidly testing chemicals incorporated in paper. When the results of these latter tests are expressed as a function of time, it can be shown that a distinct correlation exists between the deterrency exhibited by treated paper and the repellency of treated food.

  16. Observations on Snake Repellent Property of Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Renapurkar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The repellent property of certain plant extracts and oils against snakes has been investigated. For this purpose 15 hexane extracts of plants and 11 oils were tested in the laboratory in a specially designed cage. Out of the materials tested. Across calamus extract and pine oil were found to exhibit excellent snake repellent property.

  17. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  18. Water repellency of soils; the influence of ambient relative humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doerr, S.H.; Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Shakesby, R.A.; Bryant, R.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) are of concern during or following rainfall or irrigation, and are often preceded by conditions of high atmospheric relative humidity (RH). Assessments of repellency are, however, commonly conducted on air-dried samples at ambient laboratory

  19. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Teun; Ignell, Rickard; Ghebru, Maedot; Glinwood, Robert; Hopkins, Richard

    2011-09-22

    Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-α-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

  20. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active.

  1. Novel protein-repellent and biofilm-repellent orthodontic cement containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Ke; Melo, Mary Anne S; Chen, Chen; Fouad, Ashraf F; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop the first protein-repellent resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI) by incorporating 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) for orthodontic applications, and to investigate the MPC effects on protein adsorption, biofilm growth, and enamel bond strength. MPC was incorporated into RMGI at 0% (control), 1.5%, 3%, and 5% by mass. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 1 and 30 days. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was measured, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were assessed. Protein adsorption onto the specimens was determined by a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used. The results showed that adding 3% of MPC into RMGI did not significantly reduce the SBS (p > 0.1). There was no significant loss in SBS for RMGI containing 3% MPC after water-aging for 30 days, as compared to 1 day (p > 0.1). RMGI with 3% MPC had protein adsorption that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with 3% MPC greatly reduced the bacterial adhesion, and lactic acid production and colony-forming units of biofilms, while substantially increasing the medium solution pH containing biofilms. The protein-repellent and biofilm-repellent effects were not decreased after water-aging for 30 days. In conclusion, the MPC-containing RMGI is promising to reduce biofilms and white spot lesions without compromising orthodontic bracket-enamel bond strength. The novel protein-repellent method may have applicability to other orthodontic cements, dental composites, adhesives, sealants, and cements to repel proteins and biofilms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 949-959, 2016.

  2. Super toner and ink repellent superoleophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Law, Kock-Yee

    2012-08-01

    Offset of imaging material from a fuser surface to paper during fusing is highly undesirable in printing. Here the wetting and repellent characteristics of three imaging materials (a solid wax ink, a waxy polyester toner, and a polyester toner) in their molten states have been studied on three model print surfaces: a transparency (surrogate for paper), a PTFE film, and a model superoleophobic surface, with the aim of assessing their performance in fusing. The superoleophobic surface, with water and hexadecane contact angles of ∼156° and sliding angles at ∼10°, comprises 3 μm diameter pillar arrays on silicon wafer and was fabricated by photolithography followed by surface modification with a fluorosilane. The contact angles of the three imaging materials range from 40 to 79° on the transparency and the sessile drops do not slide even at 90° tilted angle, indicating that they all wet, adhere, and pin on the transparency. Although the contact angles of the three imaging materials are slightly higher (63-85°) on PTFE, the sessile drops do not slide on PTFE either. Because PTFE is widely used as a fuser surface material in combination with different waxy imaging materials commercially, we attribute the successful implementation of PTFE to the use of the wax additive. With the superoleophobic surface, there is a dramatic increase in advancing and static contact angles for all three imaging materials. The advancing and static contact angles are in the 150-168° range for waxy toner, indicative of superhigh repellency. Although the advancing and static contact angles for the polyester toner decrease slightly at 147 and 130°, respectively, the repellency is still very high. More importantly, the sessile drops of all three imaging materials are mobile upon tilting and they all have high receding contact angles. The overall results suggest that the adhesion between the superoleophobic surface and the ink and toner materials are very small relative to those with

  3. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water

  4. Application of actinomycetes to soil to ameliorate water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, F; El-Tarabily, K A; Petrie, S; Chen, C; Dell, B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel isolation technique using a mixture of Bacillus and Streptomyces phages to selectively isolate wax-utilizing non-streptomycete actinomycetes effective in ameliorating water repellency in a problem soil. Phages added to a soil suspension reduced the dominance of Bacillus and Streptomyces isolates and significantly increased the number of non-streptomycete actinomycetes on isolation plates. Promising isolates, grown on a medium containing beeswax as sole carbon source, were selected for application to water repellent soil. Their addition significantly reduced water repellency. Phage application significantly increased the isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Wax-utilizing isolates were found to significantly reduce water repellency in a problem soil. The phage technique can be used for the routine isolation of non-streptomycete actinomycetes. Beeswax medium can be used to selectively isolate wax-utilizing micro-organisms with the potential to ameliorate water repellency in soil.

  5. Repellents Inhibit P450 Enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ramirez, Gloria Isabel; Logan, James G.; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Stashenko, Elena; Moores, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s) underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES) arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils. PMID:23152795

  6. The mysterious multi-modal repellency of DEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGennaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    DEET is the most effective insect repellent available and has been widely used for more than half a century. Here, I review what is known about the olfactory and contact mechanisms of DEET repellency. For mosquitoes, DEET has at least two molecular targets: Odorant Receptors (ORs) mediate the effect of DEET at a distance, while unknown chemoreceptors mediate repellency upon contact. Additionally, the ionotropic receptor Ir40a has recently been identified as a putative DEET chemosensor in Drosophila. The mechanism of how DEET manipulates these molecular targets to induce insect avoidance in the vapor phase is also contested. Two hypotheses are the most likely: DEET activates an innate olfactory neural circuit leading to avoidance of hosts (smell and avoid hypothesis) or DEET has no behavioral effect on its own, but instead acts cooperatively with host odors to drive repellency (confusant hypothesis). Resolving this mystery will inform the search for a new generation of insect repellents. PMID:26252744

  7. Repellents inhibit P450 enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Jaramillo Ramirez

    Full Text Available The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils.

  8. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  9. Water repellency induced by pulmonary surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, B A

    1982-04-01

    1. Pure cotton fabric was partially carboxylated to produce a tough, porous, hydrophilic sub-phase to stimulate the epithelial membrane of the alveolar wall from a permeability standpoint. 2. Two of the predominant pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), were found to inhibit wetting of this synthetic membrane and of human cutaneous epithelium as manifest by a large contact angle. 3. When treated with DPL at physiological concentrations, the porous synthetic membrane was found to support a head of saline well in excess of systolic pulmonary artery pressure with no penetration and could do so for periods well in excess of 1 hr; untreated control samples allowed almost immediate fluid filtration. 4. Filtration could be initiated in the DPL-treated membranes by wetting the reverse side, confirming that the threshold pressure for fluid penetration was afforded by capillarity and, hence, by water repellency induced by the surfactant. 5. Water repellency induced by the amphoteric surfactants occurring naturally in the lung is discussed as a possible factor contributing to the pressure threshold to be exceeded for alveolar oedema to form. 6. Evidence is reviewed and several advantages discussed for the implied concept of an essentially dry lining to the alveolus with a discontinuous liquid layer largely confined to convex corners which could slowly resolve any oedema by surface forces.

  10. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  11. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  12. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates.

  13. Soil water repellency in north-eastern Greece with adverse effects of drying on the persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziogas, A.K.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Many soils may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency often leads to the development of unstable

  14. Soil water repellency in north-eastern Greece with adverse effects of drying on the persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziogas, A.K.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Many soils may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency often leads to the development of unstable

  15. Correlation between chemical structure and rodent repellency of benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn, J.E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-five benzoic acid derivatives were either prepared or obtained from commercial concerns, tested for rat repellency, and their indices of repellency computed. The data from these tests were considered analytically for any correlation between chemical structure and rat repellency. The results suggest a qualitative relationship which is useful in deciding probability of repellency in other compounds.

  16. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  17. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products.

  18. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  19. Adobe Captivate 7 for mobile learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruyndonckx, Damien

    2013-01-01

    A tutorial-based approach to learning the basics of Adobe Captivate to help bring your existing eLearning content to mobile platforms. The book will help readers to learn at their own pace with practical examples and step-by-step instructions.This book has been primarily written for teachers, course designers, professors, curriculum experts, subject matter experts, and eLearning developers who want to provide mobile-friendly content to their students.A basic knowledge of your operating system is required to follow the exercises of this book. No prior knowledge of Captivate is required, althoug

  20. Nectar Theft and Floral Ant-Repellence: A Link between Nectar Volume and Ant-Repellent Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Gavin; Willmer, Pat

    2012-01-01

    As flower visitors, ants rarely benefit a plant. They are poor pollinators, and can also disrupt pollination by deterring other flower visitors, or by stealing nectar. Some plant species therefore possess floral ant-repelling traits. But why do particular species have such traits when others do not? In a dry forest in Costa Rica, of 49 plant species around a third were ant-repellent at very close proximity to a common generalist ant species, usually via repellent pollen. Repellence was positively correlated with the presence of large nectar volumes. Repellent traits affected ant species differently, some influencing the behaviour of just a few species and others producing more generalised ant-repellence. Our results suggest that ant-repellent floral traits may often not be pleiotropic, but instead could have been selected for as a defence against ant thieves in plant species that invest in large volumes of nectar. This conclusion highlights to the importance of research into the cost of nectar production in future studies into ant-flower interactions. PMID:22952793

  1. 蚊虫驱避剂的驱避机理研究%Repelling mechanism of mosquitoes repellent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖圣良; 姜志宽; 宋杰; 王宗德; 韩招久; 陈金珠

    2012-01-01

    A review about the research of repelling mechanism is presented.Two mainstream hypotheses possible repelling mechanisms have been proposed:repellent interferes with the mosquitoes olfactory system to block the recognition of the host odor,therefore,mosquitoes can' t detect the existance of the host ; or mosquitoes evade host after its olfactory neuron is activated by repellent.Some research relating repellent in the author(s) laboratory was introduced as well,especially the investigation on repelling mechanism from the perspective of association between repellent and attractant.%本文就蚊虫驱避机理的研究进行了综述,详细介绍了目前两类主流的驱避机理假说:驱避剂干扰嗅觉系统以阻断蚊虫对宿主气味的识别、驱避剂激活嗅觉神经元引起蚊虫的主动躲避行为.介绍了笔者所在实验室近几年对驱避剂进行的相关研究,以及从驱避剂与引诱剂缔合作用的角度对驱避机理的研究.

  2. Essential Oil Repellents- A short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V GEETHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the most important of insects in terms of public health importance which transmit a number of diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Japanese B encephalitis, filariasis and malaria, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control and personal protection from mosquito bites are currently the most important measures to prevent these diseases. Essential oils from plants have been recognized as important natural resources of insecticides because some are selective, biodegrade to non-toxic products and have few effects on non-target organisms and environment. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of mono - terpenes and sesquiterpenes. In some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Azadirchata indica, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita for control of vector- borne disease

  3. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many ant species are efficient control agents against a wide range of pest insects in many crops. They control pest insects via predation; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may be eavesdropped by potential prey and serve as chemical warning signals. Thus, the presence...... of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  4. Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses More Information CDC-Avoid Mosquito Bites ... safety precautions . Top of Page Finding EPA-Registered Mosquito Adulticides and Larvicides The National Pesticide Information Center's ...

  5. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Rochel

    2012-08-01

    Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent.

  6. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  7. Relative efficacy of various oils in repelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M A; Razdan, R K

    1995-09-01

    Field studies were carried out to determine the relative efficacy of repellant action of vegetable, essential and chemical base oils against vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that essential oils viz. Cymbopogan martinii martinii var. Sofia (palmarosa), Cymbopogan citratus (lemon grass) and Cymbopogan nardus (citronella) oils are as effective as chemical base oil namely mylol. These oils provide almost complete protection against Anopheles culicifacies and other anopheline species. Per cent protection against Culex quinquefasciatus ranged between 95-96%. Camphor (C. camphora) oil also showed repellent action and provided 97.6% protection against An. culicifacies and 80.7% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Vegetable oils namely mustard (B. compestris) and coconut (C. nucisera) showed repellent action, however the efficacy of these oils was not much pronounced against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant difference between vegetable and essential oils (p mosquitoes. Essential oils were found marginally superior in repellancy than camphor and mylol (p < 0.01) against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  8. Surface Treatment of Building Materials with Water Repellent Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Wittman, F.H.; Siemes, T.A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Water repellent agents have been applied to proteet building materials and structural elements for thousands ofyears. Initially, natural products, such as oils and fats were used exclusively. More recently, synthetic organic compounds are being developed for special applications.

  9. A Water-repellent Silanization Coating Technique for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, Keiichi; Hosokawa, Hideki; Funabashi, Hirohumi; Mitsushima, Yasuichi

    A gas-phase water-repellent silanization coating technique, which prevents the microscopic structures used for micro-sensors and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) from sticking to the silicon substrates and other microscopic structures during operation, have been developed. Use of a water-repellent coating is one method that prevents sticking by reducing the surface energy of the structure. The water-repellency characteristics of three types of organosilicon compounds were evaluated. It was found that a water-repellent silanization coating layer using (tridecafluoro - 1, 1, 2, 2 -tetrahydrooctyl) trichlorosilane (C8H4Cl3F13Si) had most excellent durability. It was confirmed that the water contact angle of C8H4Cl3F13Si coating layer is exceeding 90 degrees at surface of standard semiconductor materials except nickel. In addition, the C8H4Cl3F13Si coating layer can be patterned by ultraviolet irradiation.

  10. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  11. Evaluation of the Repellent and Insecticidal Activities of the Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    high repellent and insecticidal activities demonstrated by the root powder ... generally low as a result of serious insect pest attacks ..... to have clear insecticidal properties (DeGeyter, 2012) ... nematicidal ingredients from neem leaves, siam.

  12. Mitigation of water repellency in burned soils applying hydrophillic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; de la Torre, Sara; Vidal-Vazquez, Eva; Lado, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effect of fire on water repellency was analyzed in soils from different parent materials, as well as the suitability of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to reduce water repellency in these soils. Samples were collected in four different sites where wildfires took place: two in the Canary Islands, with soils developed on volcanic materials, and two in Galicia (NW Spain), with soils developed on plutonic rocks. In Galicia, two soil samples were collected in each site, one in the burnt area and one in an adjacent unburnt area. In the Canary Islands, four samples were collected from each site, three inside the burnt area where the soils were affected by different fire intensities, and one in an unburnt adjacent area. Samples were air-dried and sieved by a 2-mm mesh sieve. Water repellency was measured using the Water Drop Penetration Time test. An amount of 10 g of soil was placed in a tray. Five drops of deionized water were place on the soil surface with a pipette, and the time for each drop to fully penetrate into the soil was recorded. PAM solution was applied to the burnt soils simulating a field application rate of 1gm-2. The polymer used was Superfloc A-110 (Kemira Water Solutions BV, Holland) with 1x107 Da molecular weigth and 15% hydrolysis. PAM was sprayed on the soil surface as solution with a concentration 0.2 g/L. After the application, the samples were dried and the WDPT test was performed. Three replicates for each treatment and soil were used, and the treatments included: dry soil, dry soil after a wetting treatment, dry PAM-treated soil. The results showed that water repellency was modified by fire differently in the various soils. In hydrophilic soils and soils with low water repellency, water repellency was increased after the action of fire. In soils with noticeable initial water repellency, this was reduced or eliminated after the fire. Wetting repellent soils caused a decrease in water repellency most probably because of the spatial

  13. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the

  14. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  16. A repellent for protecting corn seed from blackbirds and crows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, A.R.; Guarineo, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Methiocarb [4-(methylthio)-3,-5-xylyl N-methylcarbamate] was tested as a seed treatment for repelling blackbirds and crows (Corvus sp.) from sprouting corn in South Carolina. The test was conducted on eight fields within a 0.25-square-mile area. Marked repellency occurred; sprout damage averaged 44 percent in the control fields and 0.3 percent in the fields treated with methiocarb.

  17. Strange Quasi-Repeller in a Kicked Rotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of crisis was observed in a system where a transition from conservative toquasi-dissipative can be observed. The crisis signifies a sudden and intrinsic change of a stochasticweb, which is formed by the end-results of the images of the discontinuous borderlines of the systemfunction. In the crisis, a strange quasi-repeller can be defined. When changing the controllingparameter, the variation of the fractile dimension of the quasi-repeller obeys a logarithmic rule.

  18. Measurements of water repellency and infiltration of the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency is a reduction in the rate of wetting caused by the presence of hydrophobic coatings on soil particles. The occurrence of the absorption of water from the surface of the ground in its interior is called infiltration. Water resistance and infiltration are dependent on a number of influences. All measurements were done on three different soil types at each at the ground level and in the trench. Water repellency measurements were performed by two methods, namely with wat...

  19. REPELLERS FOR MULTIFUNCTIONS OF SEMI-BORNOLOGICAL SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Molaei; T. Waezizadeh

    2008-01-01

    In this article the notion of repeller for multifunctions from the viewpoints of semi-bornological spaces is considered. The concept of lower semi-continuous multifunc-tions is extended by the use of semi-bornological spaces. Semi-bornological vector spaces are studied. The notion of conjugacy for semi-bornological multifunctions is considered. The persistence of repeller under conjugate relation is proved.

  20. DEET Insect Repellent: Effects on Thermoregulatory Sweating and Physiological Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    standard skin repellent, as it is effective against a wide variety of disease-transmitting insects, including mosquitoes, flies, fleas , ticks and chigger...evaporation, thus impeding evaporative heat loss. To our knowledge, only one study has experimentally examined the impact of an insect repellent on...body fat was then calculated using the Siri equation (1993). During heat acclimation and all experimental testing sessions, heart rate (HR) was

  1. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    products include the active ingredients N,N- diethyl -3-methylbenzamide (DEET), Insect Repellent 3535 (IR3535), and more recently Picaridin and 2...than the odorant. DEET and indole share an aromatic ring and a nitrogen-linked function. 2-U and octenol share a similar carbon backbone, and 2-U has a...effects of all four repellents were reversible upon fresh exposure to the odorant alone, suggesting that the interaction between the inhibitors and the ORs

  2. Canada`s oceans: Experiences and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Canada has the world`s longest coastline. In recent years, growth in Canada`s oceans sector has resulted in increased pressures on the ocean environment. In many areas the biodiversity and ecological integrity of marine ecosystems are being threatened. There is a need to proactively conserve, restore, and protect marine ecosystem functions, species, and habitats for future generations. This document provides an overview of the economic contributions of the oceans sector to Canada`s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), explains Canada`s oceans management strategy, the national system of marine protected areas, and programs of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities. The broad objectives of Canada`s Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, and the Program of Living Marine Resource Management are reviewed. Harmonization of Canada`s shipping policy and its marine safety and environmental policies with international maritime laws are discussed, along with offshore energy and mineral resource development, and the integral role that oceans play in the earth`s climate. Oceans management and development assistance provided by Canada through the Canadian International Development Agency and the International Development Research Centre, especially in the areas of management of the uses of the ocean and seabed, protection of the marine environment, and fisheries management and development are also highlighted. Establishing a framework for sustainable ocean development, an ocean policy and related law, and further development of the knowledge bases in fisheries and marine science are some of the other priorities of CIDA`s oceans-related programs. 21 refs.

  3. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

  4. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community? Health equity implications of topical repellents as a mosquito bite prevention tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Onyango, Sangoro Peter; Thele, Max; Simfukwe, Emmanuel Titus; Turner, Elizabeth Louise; Moore, Sarah Jane

    2013-01-01

    Repellents do not kill mosquitoes--they simply reduce human-vector contact. Thus it is possible that individuals who do not use repellents but dwell close to repellent users experience more bites than otherwise. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion occurs from households that use repellents to those that do not use repellents. The study was performed in three Tanzanian villages using 15%-DEET and placebo lotions. All households were given LLINs. Three coverage scenarios were investigated: complete coverage (all households were given 15%-DEET), incomplete coverage (80% of households were given 15%-DEET and 20% placebo) and no coverage (all households were given placebo). A crossover study design was used and coverage scenarios were rotated weekly over a period of ten weeks. The placebo lotion was randomly allocated to households in the incomplete coverage scenario. The level of compliance was reported to be close to 100%. Mosquito densities were measured through aspiration of resting mosquitoes. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression models. Repellent-users had consistently fewer mosquitoes in their dwellings. In villages where everybody had been given 15%-DEET, resting mosquito densities were fewer than half that of households in the no coverage scenario (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.60); pmosquitoes (IRR=4.17; 95% CI: 3.08-5.65; pmosquitoes are diverted from households that use repellent to those that do not. Therefore, if repellents are to be considered for vector control, strategies to maximise coverage are required.

  5. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  6. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  7. Do topical repellents divert mosquitoes within a community? Health equity implications of topical repellents as a mosquito bite prevention tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira Maia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Repellents do not kill mosquitoes--they simply reduce human-vector contact. Thus it is possible that individuals who do not use repellents but dwell close to repellent users experience more bites than otherwise. The objective of this study was to measure if diversion occurs from households that use repellents to those that do not use repellents. METHODS: The study was performed in three Tanzanian villages using 15%-DEET and placebo lotions. All households were given LLINs. Three coverage scenarios were investigated: complete coverage (all households were given 15%-DEET, incomplete coverage (80% of households were given 15%-DEET and 20% placebo and no coverage (all households were given placebo. A crossover study design was used and coverage scenarios were rotated weekly over a period of ten weeks. The placebo lotion was randomly allocated to households in the incomplete coverage scenario. The level of compliance was reported to be close to 100%. Mosquito densities were measured through aspiration of resting mosquitoes. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression models. FINDINGS: Repellent-users had consistently fewer mosquitoes in their dwellings. In villages where everybody had been given 15%-DEET, resting mosquito densities were fewer than half that of households in the no coverage scenario (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.60; p<0.001. Placebo-users living in a village where 80% of the households used 15%-DEET were likely to have over four-times more mosquitoes (IRR=4.17; 95% CI: 3.08-5.65; p<0.001 resting in their dwellings in comparison to households in a village where nobody uses repellent. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that high coverage of repellent use could significantly reduce man-vector contact but with incomplete coverage evidence suggests that mosquitoes are diverted from households that use repellent to those that do not. Therefore, if repellents are to be considered for

  8. Asymptomatic Enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in captive mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2007-02-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing chromotrope 2R stain and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques for testing feces from 193 captive mammals demonstrated that 3 animals (1.6%) shed Encephalitozoon bieneusi spores. These include two critically endangered species (i.e., black lemurs, Eulemur macaco flavifrons; and Visayan warty pig, Sus cebifrons negrinus) and a threatened species (mongoose lemur, Eulemur mongoz). The concentration of spores varied from 2.7 x 10(5) to 5.7 x 10(5)/g of feces, and all infections were asymptomatic. The study demonstrates that E. bieneusi spores can originate from captive animals, which is of particular epidemiologic importance because the close containment of zoological gardens can facilitate pathogen spread to other animals and also to people such as zoo personnel and visitors.

  9. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  10. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Das; A. Srivastav; Chakraborty, D.; Gupta, S. K.; Nigam, P

    2009-01-01

    Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis) at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4...

  11. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  12. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  13. Approaches to characterize the degree of water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letey, J.; Carrillo, M. L. K.; Pang, X. P.

    2000-05-01

    Measurement techniques that quantify the degree of soil water repellency are important for research and for the communication of research findings. The water drop penetration time (WDPT) is a commonly used measurement. If a water drop does not enter the soil spontaneously, the soil-water contact angle is greater than 90° and the soil is considered to be water repellent. The time for the drop to enter the soil (WDPT) provides an indication of the stability of the repellency. The liquid-air surface tension of an aqueous ethanol concentration series that enters the soil in approximately 5 s is identified as the ninety degree (ND) surface tension, γND, of the soil. The γND number can be used to calculate the solid-air surface tension, γs, by γs= γND/4. The water-soil contact angle can also be calculated from the γs value by the relationship cos θ=[(γ ND/γ w) 1/2-1], where θ is the contact angle and γw the water-air surface tension. The water entry pressure, hp, which is a function of both the soil water repellency and pore size, is an important parameter for predicting infiltration and the stability of water flow in the field. Measurements of WDPT, γND, and hp provide a complete characterization of the degree of water repellency.

  14. Repellent effect of Lagenaria siceraria extracts against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Fouda, Mohamad A; Hammad, Kotb M; Tanani, Mohamad A; Shehata, Ahmed Z

    2014-04-01

    Ethanolic, acetone and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and stems of Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae) were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens L. mosquito. The repellent action of the present plant extracts were varied depending on the plant parts and the dose of extract. The petroleum ether extract of leaves showed the same repellency percent (100%) of commercial formulation, N. N.diethyl toulamide (DEET) at the higher dose (3.33 mg/cm2), while petroleum ether extract from stems exhibiting the repellent action (89.6%) at the same dose, respectively. Ethanolic extracts of leaves and stems exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded (81.3% and 69.1%) at (6.67 mg/cm2), respectively. Results of this study may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  15. Insect repellents and associated personal protection for a reduction in human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal protection measures against biting arthropods include topical insect repellents, area repellents, insecticide-treated bednets and treated clothing. The literature on the effectiveness of personal protection products against arthropods is mainly limited to studies of prevention of bites, rat...

  16. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Marta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently, commercial repellent products containing plant-based ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers, as these are commonly perceived as “safe” in comparison to long-established synthetic repellents although this is sometimes a misconception. To date insufficient studies have followed standard WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme guidelines for repellent testing. There is a need for further standardized studies in order to better evaluate repellent compounds and develop new products that offer high repellency as well as good consumer safety. This paper presents a summary of recent information on testing, efficacy and safety of plant-based repellents as well as promising new developments in the field.

  17. Coating for Nano Super Soil-repellency of Cashmere Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin-mei; ZHU Chang-chun

    2005-01-01

    The nano-size metal oxide was prepared by the single-disperse technique on liquid phase, and formed sol clusters, its uniform film was covered on the surface of cashmere fibers by coating, and it had good oil repellency and water repellency. The results of IR(infrared) Spectrometer analysis revealed: The nano material combines through the strong bonds with the surface of cashmere fibers by the live groups.These analyses by SEM techniques showed that the nano material was distributed on the fiber surface even, and the nano material formed the strong peak of the regular crystal phase structure using the X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) to analysis the fabric. The optimum techniques were selected by a series of experiments, coated cashmere fabric not only has preserved original properties of softness and comfort,but also has good properties of Bi-repellency function.Therefore, the technique will have potential application in engineers.

  18. Development of novel repellents using structure-activity modeling of compounds in the USDA archival database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. Repellency and toxicity data for over 30,000 compounds are contained within the USDA archive. Repellency data from subsets of similarly structured compounds were used to dev...

  19. Fire-induced water repellency: An erosional factor in wildland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano

    2000-01-01

    Watershed managers and scientists throughout the world have been aware of fire-induced water-repellent soils for over three decades. Water repellency affects many hydrologic processes, including infiltration, overland flow, and surface erosion (rill and sheet erosion). This paper describes; the formation of fire-induced water-repellent soils, the effect of soil water...

  20. Antennal olfactory sensilla responses to insect chemical repellents in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Haynes, Kenneth F; Appel, Arthur G; Liu, Nannan

    2014-06-01

    Populations of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera; Cimicidae), a temporary ectoparasite on both humans and animals, have surged in many developed countries. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, C. lectularius relies on its olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment, including both attractants and repellents. To elucidate the olfactory responses of the common bed bug to commonly used insect chemical repellents, particularly haematophagous repellents, we investigated the neuronal responses of individual olfactory sensilla in C. lectularius' antennae to 52 insect chemical repellents, both synthetic and botanic. Different types of sensilla displayed highly distinctive response profiles. While C sensilla did not respond to any of the insect chemical repellents, Dγ sensilla proved to be the most sensitive in response to terpene-derived insect chemical repellents. Different chemical repellents elicited neuronal responses with differing temporal characteristics, and the responses of the olfactory sensilla to the insect chemical repellents were dose-dependent, with an olfactory response to the terpene-derived chemical repellent, but not to the non-terpene-derived chemical repellents. Overall, this study furnishes a comprehensive map of the olfactory response of bed bugs to commonly used insect chemical repellents, providing useful information for those developing new agents (attractants or repellents) for bed bug control.

  1. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portugese Shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing fire-i

  2. Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water-Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    windows, optical components, protective eyewear, and clothing, this type of surface is desired for the material to be soil repellent and water ...Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology by Amanda S. Weerasooriya, Jacqueline Yim, Andres A...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-6898 April 2014 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid

  3. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portugese Shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing

  4. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  5. Captive Ancestry Upwardly Biases Estimates of Relative Reproductive Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Janna R; Christie, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    Supplementation programs, which release captive-born individuals into the wild, are commonly used to demographically bolster declining populations. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the reproductive success of captive-born individuals released into the wild is often compared to the reproductive success of wild-born individuals in the recipient population (relative reproductive success, RRS). However, if there are heritable reductions in fitness associated with captive breeding, gene flow from captive-born individuals into the wild population can reduce the fitness of the wild population. Here, we show that when captive ancestry in the wild population reduces mean population fitness, estimates of RRS are upwardly biased, meaning that the relative fitness of captive-born individuals is over-estimated. Furthermore, the magnitude of this bias increases with the length of time that a supplementation program has been releasing captive-born individuals. This phenomenon has long-term conservation impacts since management decisions regarding the design of a supplementation program and the number of individuals to release can be based, at least in part, on RRS estimates. Therefore, we urge caution in the interpretation of relative fitness measures when the captive ancestry of the wild population cannot be precisely measured. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  7. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results.

  8. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  9. Repelling periodic points of given periods of rational functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jianming; FANG Mingliang

    2006-01-01

    Let R(z) be a rational function of degree d ≥ 2. Then R(z) has at least one repelling periodic point of given period k ≥ 2, unless k = 4 and d=2, or k= 3 and d ≤ 3, or k=2 and d≤8. Examples show that all exceptional cases occur.

  10. Olfactory responses to attractants and repellents in tsetse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, KE; Everaarts, E; Den Otter, CJ

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how antennal olfactory cells of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) code odour quality and how they are able to discriminate between attractive and repellent odours. For Glossina pallidipes Austen, a survey is presented of the cells' responses to attractive (1-oc

  11. Visible NearInfrared Spectroscopy Predicts Water Repellency in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Møldrup, Per; Clothier, Brent;

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a property which has consequences for agricultural water management. The SWR is caused by hydrophobic organic coatings on mineral particles and the severity is highly depending on the organic matter quantity and quality and on the moisture status of the soil...

  12. An autopsy case of fatal repellent air freshener poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Tsukada, Chie; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Matsushima, Kazumi; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu; Nagai, Toshiaki

    2015-09-01

    We describe a first fatal case of repellent air freshener ingestion. A 79-year-old Japanese man with Alzheimer-type senile dementia orally ingested repellent air freshener containing three surfactants: polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene (40) hydrogenated castor oil, and lauric acid amidopropyl amine oxide (weight ratio of 1.3%). About 1h after the collapse, he was in cardiopulmonary arrest and subsequently died 10h after his arrival. The forensic autopsy performed 5.5h after death revealed the 380ml of stomach contents with a strong mint perfume identical to that of the repellent air freshener and the findings of acute death. Toxicologically, 9.1μg/ml and 558.2μg/ml of polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether were detected from the serum and stomach contents taken at autopsy. Generally, ingestion of anionic or non-ionic surfactants have been considered as safe. However, because the patient suffered from cardiac insufficiency with a low dose of repellent air freshener ingestion, medical staff members must evaluate the elderly patient for cardiac and circulatory problems regardless of the ingested dose. Not only medical and nursing staff members, but also families who are obliged to care for elderly persons must be vigilant to prevent accidental ingestion of toxic substances generally used in the household.

  13. Insect Repellents: Modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes vector numerous pathogens that cause diseases including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya. DEET, IR3535, Picaridin and 2-undecanone are insect repellents that are used to prevent interactions between humans and a broad array of disease vectors including mosquitoes. While...

  14. Soil surfactant stops water repellency and preferential flow paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effects of a soil surfactant on reduction and prevention of water repellency and preferential flow paths in a sandy soil of a golf course fairway, located at Bosch en Duin near Utrecht, the Netherlands. The golf course is constructed on inland dunes composed of fine sand with

  15. The role of repellents and hydrophobins in Ustilago maydis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is an important model organism to study fungal pathogenicity. U. maydis can grow yeast-like and filamentous. In the latter form this fungus infects maize. In my Thesis the expression and function of hydrophobins and repellents of U. maydis were studied. Hydrophobins are produced by f

  16. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-12-02

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  17. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  18. Water repellency of two forest soils after biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown; J. M. Tirocke

    2015-01-01

    Practical application of black carbon (biochar) to improve forest soil may be limited because biochar is hydrophobic. In a laboratory, we tested the water repellency of biochar application (mixed or surface applied) to two forest soils of varying texture (a granitic coarse-textured Inceptisol and an ash cap fine-textured Andisol) at four different application rates (0...

  19. The role of repellents and hydrophobins in Ustilago maydis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is an important model organism to study fungal pathogenicity. U. maydis can grow yeast-like and filamentous. In the latter form this fungus infects maize. In my Thesis the expression and function of hydrophobins and repellents of U. maydis were studied. Hydrophobins are produced by f

  20. Causes and consequences of fire-induced soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letey, J.

    2001-10-01

    A wettable surface layer overlying a water-repellent layer is commonly observed following a fire on a watershed. High surface temperatures burn off organic materials and create vapours that move downward in response to a temperature gradient and then condense on soil particles causing them to become water repellent. Water-repellent soils have a positive water entry pressure hp that must be exceeded or all the water will runoff. Water ponding depths ho that exceeds hp will cause infiltration, but the profile is not completely wetted. Infiltration rate and soil wetting increase as the value of ho/hp increases. The consequence is very high runoff, which also contributes to high erosion on fire-induced water-repellent soils during rain storms. Grass establishment is impaired by seeds being eroded and lack of soil water for seeds that do remain and germinate. Extrapolation of these general findings to catchment or watershed scales is difficult because of the very high temporal and spatial variabilities that occur in the field.

  1. Fire-induced water-repellent soils, an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalendovsky, M.A.; Cannon, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The development and nature of water-repellent, or hydrophobic, soils are important issues in evaluating hillslope response to fire. The following annotated bibliography was compiled to consolidate existing published research on the topic. Emphasis was placed on the types, causes, effects and measurement techniques of water repellency, particularly with respect to wildfires and prescribed burns. Each annotation includes a general summary of the respective publication, as well as highlights of interest to this focus. Although some references on the development of water repellency without fires, the chemistry of hydrophobic substances, and remediation of water-repellent conditions are included, coverage of these topics is not intended to be comprehensive. To develop this database, the GeoRef, Agricola, and Water Resources Abstracts databases were searched for appropriate references, and the bibliographies of each reference were then reviewed for additional entries. Additional references will be added to this bibliography as they become available. The annotated bibliography can be accessed on the Web at http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/html_files/landslides/ofr97-720/biblio.html. A database consisting of the references and keywords is available through a link at the above address. This database was compiled using EndNote2 plus software by Niles and Associates, and is necessary to search the database.

  2. A Green Route for Substrate-Independent Oil-Repellent Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Han, Da; Wu, Xiuwen; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Shutao

    2016-11-01

    Oil repellent surface have lots of practical applications in many fields. Current oil repellent coating may suffer from limited liquid repellency to oils or environmental risks. In this work, we report an eco-friendly ‘green’ processes for preparing oil-repellent surface using a renewable and environmentally benign bioresource alginate. The oil-repellent coating was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique and showed stable oil repellency to many kinds of oils. The fabrication process was very simple with no need for special equipment, and this approach can be successfully employed to various substrates with different compositions, sizes and shapes, or even substrate-independent oil-repellent materials. The as-prepared coating of calcium alginate may have a good future in packaging oil-containing products and foods.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

    2010-09-01

    Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls.

  4. LARVICIDAL POTENTIAL AND MOSQUITO REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA MIMOSOIDES EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, M A; Femi-Oyewo, M N; Bakre, L G; Fashina, A O

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate larvicidal activities of extracts of Cassia mimosoides leaves and pods as a potential agent in vector control of malaria and to evaluate repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae mosquito of the extract formulated in an aqueous cream base. Petroleum spirit, ethanol, water and dichloromethane extracts were tested against third and fourth instar Anopheles gambiae larvae. The petroleum extract was formulated in an aqueous cream base and repellency determined using N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) as control. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids, and flavonoids but absence of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids in powdered C. mimosoides. A dose related response was observed in the mortality rate of the extracts, with 2 mg/ml petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts achieving 100 % mortality. Larvicidal activity of extracts based on LC50 values was petroleum ether > dichloromethane > ethanol > water. The formulated petroleum ether extract cream had a characteristic odor, hard and smooth texture, skin feeling of smoothness, ease of application by rubbing, easy removal using soap and water, non-irritating effect on skin and an acceptable pH value. The cream containing 2%-6% (w/w) extract and control achieved 100% repellency against mosquitoes after an exposure time of 5 minutes. There was a linear relationship between percent concentration of plant extract in the cream samples and repellent activity. These results suggest that crude extracts of C. mimosoides can be developed as eco-friendly larvicide and mosquito repellent and encourage further effort to investigate the bioactive compounds in the extracts.

  5. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  6. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  7. Field trial of five repellent formulations against mosquitoes in Ahero, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Van; Kioko, Elizabeth; Kasili, Sichangi; Ngumbi, Philip; Hollingdale, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Twelve volunteers, using one leg for repellent application and the other leg as a control, field-tested 5 insect repellent formulations--Avon's (New York, NY) SS220 Spray, SS220 Lotion, and Bayrepel Lotion, and SC Johnson's (Racine, Wisconsin) Autan Bayrepel Lotion--against the standard N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (deet) in a rice-growing district near Kisumu, western Kenya, in 2 trials in May and June 2004. In addition to a control leg for each volunteer, an additional control was introduced into the study by the use of a sixth repellent, a "null repellent," which was literally a treatment application of no repellent at all. The 5 active repellent formulations were uniformly applied at the maximum Environmental Protection Agency recommended dose of 1.5 g per 600 cm2 in the first trial and half that dose in the second trial, and none of them failed during the nightly 12-hour test period over 6 consecutive days, May 19 through May 24, 2004, and June 14 through June 19, 2004. However, the repellent control legs demonstrated a statistically significant increased landing rate compared to both the null repellent and the null repellent control leg. This suggests that, in this approach, active repellents increased the capture rate on an adjacent control leg compared to null controls. A single human volunteer can act as his/her own control provided null treatment controls are included.

  8. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent

  9. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  10. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  11. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  12. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  13. Studies toward the synthesis of the shark repellent pavoninin-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Chai, Deping; Gong, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Wright, Dominic

    2002-12-01

    Sharks are the most dangerous predators of people in the sea, resulting in people being mauled and killed each year. A shark repellent could help to diminish this danger. The aglycone of the shark repellent pavoninin-5, (25R)-cholest-5-en-3beta,15alpha,26-triol (5a), was synthesized from diosgenin (9). Removing mercury from the Clemmensen reduction of 9 gave a higher yield of (25R)-cholest-5-en-3beta,16beta,26-triol, 10a, and was also more environmentally friendly. Attempted methods for the transposition of the C-16beta hydroxyl to the 15alpha position are described. A successful method for this transposition via the 15alpha-hydroxy-16-ketone, 8a, using the Barton deoxygenation reaction on the 16-alcohol 14b, is reported.

  14. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  15. Captivity, citizenship, and the ethics of otherwise in the society-of-captives thesis: a commentary on Arrigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle

    2013-06-01

    In this engagement with Professor Bruce Arrigo's psychological jurisprudence model, I explore his critique of captivity and risk management. I am particularly interested in his claims that incarceration culminates in society's own captivity, that the most destructive aspect of captivity is its foreclosing of human difference and potentiality, and that a praxis that is both clinical and mindful might point a way out. By way of a case anecdote, I interrogate several of the key terms in Arrigo's formulation-citizenship, reform, revolution, and praxis-in an effort to further conjugate from the ground up such an innovative and important set of possibilities.

  16. Insecticidal, Repellent and Fungicidal Properties of Novel Trifluoromethylphenyl Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amidesq Maia Tsikolia a,⇑, Ulrich R. Bernier a, Monique R. Coy a...Swale e, Jeffrey R. Bloomquist e aU.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural , and Veterinary...dU.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, The University of Mississippi, University

  17. Durability of two water repelents applied to granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, T.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of two water-repellents for granitic stonework was determined. Weathered and sound samples of granites widely used in building construction and restoration in Galicia (NW Spain were treated with water repellents of known efficacy, and then subjected to two artificial weathering tests: prolonged exposure to UV light, and sodium sulphate crystallization cycles. In both tests, but especially in the salt crystallization cycles, both treatments rapidly lost their water-repellency. Furthermore, the hydrophobic layer of water repellent impeded salt mobility, favouring fissuration parallel to the treated surface, which was eventually shed in the form of a plaque.

    Se presentan los resultados de la durabilidad de dos tratamientos de hidrofugación aplicados a rocas graníticas ampliamente utilizados en la construcción de edificios en Galicia (Noroeste de España. Tras la evaluación de la eficacia de dichos tratamientos, cuyos resultados se presentaron en un trabajo anterior, se someten las muestras tratadas a dos ensayos diferentes de envejecimiento acelerado: ciclos de exposición a la luz ultravioleta y ciclos de cristalización de sulfato de sodio. Los productos hidrofugantes muestran una escasa resistencia a ambos ensayos, sobre todo a los ciclos de cristalización de sulfato de sodio; esta débil durabilidad se manifiesta en una rápida pérdida de sus propiedades hidrofugantes. Así mismo, se observa que la presencia de la capa hidrófoba en la piedra funciona como una barrera frente a la movilidad de sales, lo que ocasiona el total desprendimiento de aquella y un fuerte deterioro del material rocoso.

  18. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis; Diana Grosu; Dimitra Aslanidou; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (7 nm) were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i) modern, unprinted (blank) paper, (ii) modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii) a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv) Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations ...

  19. A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Palix, R; Kamal, A; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2013-08-01

    Floating row covers or insect-proof nets with fine mesh are effective at protecting vegetable crops against aphids but negatively impact plant health, especially under warm conditions. Furthermore, in control of cabbage insect pests, aphid parasitoids cannot enter the fine-mesh nets, leading to frequent aphid outbreaks. To surmount these difficulties, a 40-mesh-size repellent net treated with alphacypermethrin was studied in laboratory and field tests. Results showed both irritant and repellent effects of the alphacypermethrin-treated net on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Under field conditions, there were no pests on cabbage protected with the repellent net. The repellent net allowed combining a visual and repellent barrier against aphids. Because of this additive effect, repellent nets allowed covering cabbage permanently with adequate protection against all pests.

  20. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Sanford

    Full Text Available The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects.

  1. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  2. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO.

  3. Water repellency in hydrophobic nanocapsules--molecular view on dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Garai, Somenath; Schäffer, Christian; Merca, Alice; Bögge, Hartmut; Al-Karawi, Ahmed Jasim M; Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri

    2014-05-26

    The hydrophobic effect plays a major role in a variety of important phenomena in chemistry, materials science and biology, for instance in protein folding and protein-ligand interactions. Studies--performed within cavities of the unique metal oxide based porous capsules of the type {(pentagon)12(linker)30}≡{(W)W5}12{Mo2(ligand)}30 with different acetate/water ligand ratios--have provided unprecedented results revealing segregation/repellency of the encapsulated "water" from the internal hydrophobic ligand walls of the capsules, while the disordered water molecules, interacting strongly with each other via hydrogen bonding, form in all investigated cases the same type of spherical shell. The present results can be (formally) compared--but only regarding the repellency effect--with the amazing "action" of the (super)hydrophobic Lotus (Nelumbo) leaves, which are self-cleaning based on water repellency resulting in the formation of water droplets picking up dirt. The present results were obtained by constructing deliberately suitable hydrophobic interiors within the mentioned capsules.

  4. Soil water repellency in long term drought and warming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Emmett, Bridget; Tietema, Albert; Robinson, David

    2017-04-01

    Increased global temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and frequently occurring extreme climatic events are already observed globally as a result of the climatic changes and further increases are predicted by the climatic models. Extreme weather events such as prolonged dry spells and heat waves can significantly affect soil ecosystem functions mainly due to decrease in soil moisture. Several studies suggested an increase in soil water repellency severity and spread as a consequence of the warming and drought, however, such understanding is based on the laboratory experimentations with soil treated as a 'black box'. In this study we tested the hypothesis of increased severity of soil water repellency subjected to drought and warming under field conditions. Occurrence and severity of soil water repellency was tested in soils subjected to a long-term (10 years) climatic simulation at two upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK)[1]. Soil plots with similar vegetation were subjected to repeated drought and warming, compared with the control plots. Drought effect was created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self-retracting waterproof curtains while the warming effect was made by using a self-retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight. The results available to date provide a strong indication that climatic conditions do affect the development of SWR.

  5. Bacteria repelling on highly-ordered alumina-nanopore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Zhou, Yan; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Polycarpou, Andreas A.; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria introduce diseases and infections to humans by their adherence to biomaterials, such as implants and surgical tools. Cell desorption is an effective step to reduce such damage. Here, we report mechanisms of bacteria desorption. An alumina nanopore structure (ANS) with pore size of 35 nm, 55 nm, 70 nm, and 80 nm was used as substrate to grow Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. A bacteria repelling experimental method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the area percentage of adherent bacterial cells that represent the nature of cell adhesion as well as desorption. Results showed that there were two crucial parameters: contact angle and contact area that affect the adhesion/desorption. The cells were found to be more easily repelled when the contact angle increased. The area percentage of adherent bacterial cells decreased with the decrease in the contact area of a cell on ANS. This means that cell accessibility on ANS depends on the contact area. This research reveals the effectiveness of the nanopored structures in repelling cells.

  6. Does Zika virus infection affect mosquito response to repellents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Walter S.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Zeng, Fangfang; Faierstein, Gabriel B.; Tan, Kaiming; Paiva, Marcelo H. S.; Guedes, Duschinka R. D.; Crespo, Mônica M.; Ayres, Constância F. J.

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people travelling to or living in areas with Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks or epidemics adopt prophylactic measures to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites, including the use of insect repellents. It is, however, unknown whether repellents are effective against ZIKV-infected mosquitoes, in part because of the ethical concerns related to exposing a human subject’s arm to infected mosquitoes in the standard arm-in-cage assay. We used a previously developed, human subject-free behavioural assay, which mimics a human subject to evaluate the top two recommended insect repellents. Our measurements showed that DEET provided significantly higher protection than picaridin provided against noninfected, host-seeking females of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. When tested at lower doses, we observed a significant reduction in DEET-elicited protection against ZIKV-infected yellow fever mosquitoes from old and recent laboratory colonies. The reduction in protection is more likely associated with aging than the virus infection and could be compensated by applying a 5x higher dose of DEET. A substantial protection against ZIKV-infected and old noninfected mosquitoes was achieved with 5% DEET, which corresponds approximately to a 30% dose in the conventional arm-in-cage assays. PMID:28205633

  7. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  8. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS: Th...

  10. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  11. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  12. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  13. Monthly morphometric data on captive loggerhead sea turtles 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains monthly measurements taken on captive reared sea turtles. Measurements include: straight carapace length nuchal notch to carapace tip, straight...

  14. Snap-Back Repellers and Chaos in Time-delayed Chua's Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chang

    2005-01-01

    The chaotic behavior of one-dimensional, 2-segment and 3-segment piecewise-linear maps is examined by using the concept of snap-back repellers introduced by Marotto and the parameters conditions of existence for snap-back repeller are obtained. Simulation results are presented to show the snap-back repeller,some periodic points and attracting interval cycles with chaotic intervals.

  15. From superhydrophobicity and water repellency to superhydrophilicity: smart polymer-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Emmanuel; Mateescu, Anca; Barberoglou, Marios; Vamvakaki, Maria; Fotakis, Costas; Anastasiadis, Spiros H

    2010-06-21

    pH-responsive surfaces, reversibly switching between superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity/water repellency, are developed by "grafting from" a pH-sensitive polymer onto a hierarchically micro/nano-structured substrate. We quantify the water repellency by investigating the restitution coefficient of water droplets bouncing off the surfaces. The water repellent state requires appropriate hydrophobicity of the functionalizing polymer as well as very low values of contact angle hysteresis.

  16. Field Evaluation of Four Spatial Repellent Devices Against Arkansas Rice-Land Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    FIELD EVALUATION OF FOUR SPATIAL REPELLENT DEVICES AGAINST ARKANSAS RICE-LAND MOSQUITOES DAVID A. DAME,1 MAX V. MEISCH,2 CAROLYN N. LEWIS,2 DANIEL L... mosquitoes to locate a host. There are many commercially available spatial repellent products currently on the market. These products include...a large rice growing area where late-spring and summer agricultural irriga- tion generates dense mosquito populations. Spatial repellent devices

  17. Update on common nutritional disorders of captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Braun, Jana

    2014-09-01

    Nutritional disorders of captive reptiles remain very common despite the increasing knowledge about reptile husbandry and nutrition. Many nutritional disorders are diagnosed late in the disease process; often secondary complications, such as pathologic fractures in reptiles suffering from nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism have occurred. Therefore, every attempt should be made to educate reptile owners and keepers about the proper care and dietary needs of reptiles under their care because all nutritional disorders seen in captive reptiles are preventable.

  18. Substrate-Independent, Transparent Oil-Repellent Coatings with Self-Healing and Persistent Easy-Sliding Oil Repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Chen, George Y; Xu, Haolan; Liu, Xiaokong

    2016-01-26

    Herein we report a simple and substrate-independent approach to fabricate transparent oil-repellent coatings, which involves alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDDA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) onto substrates, followed by incubation of the coated objects into perfluorooctanoate (PFO) aqueous solutions for 2 min. Various low-surface-tension liquids can easily slide down the coating surfaces on flat substrates at a sliding angle lower than 12° for 10 μL droplets. The coatings are applicable to different substrates including Si, glass, plastic, steel, and wood, and those with complex shapes and large surface areas. They are also applicable to rough substrates with roughness at both micro/nanoscale and macroscopic scales to realize the easy-sliding oil repellency. Incubation of the PDDA/PSS polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) into PFO solutions induces an effective but nondestructive substitution of PFO anions for PSS in the PEMs, which results in a composite coating with PFO anions homogeneously interspersed in both the coating surface and the bulk. Thanks to the as-described "repeating-layer" composition/structure of the coatings, their easy-sliding oil repellency can be self-healed after surface decomposition or well maintained after physical damages, due to the replenishing surface. Therefore, the advantageous characteristics of the as-developed oil-repellent coatings and the simplicity of the preparation protocol make the coatings highly practical for real-world applications. It is believed that the coatings can perform as antismudge coatings that shield against oil-borne contaminants, chemical-shield coatings that protect coated plastics from dissolution by organic solvents, and nonstick coatings (of oil tankers or pipelines) that enable loss-free oil transportation.

  19. The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Eleonora; Hatz, Christoph; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Travellers are confronted with a variety of vector-borne threats. Is one type of repellent effective against all biting vectors? The aim of this review is to examine the literature, up to December 31st, 2012, regarding repellent efficacy. We searched PubMed for relevant papers. Repellents of interest were DEET, Icaridin as well as other piperidine-derived products (SS220), Insect Repellent (IR) 3535 (ethyl-butylacetyl-amino-propionat, EBAAP) and plant-derived products, including Citriodora (para-menthane-3,8-diol). As vectors, we considered the mosquito species Anopheles, Aedes and Culex as well as the tick species Ixodes. We selected only studies evaluating the protective efficacy of repellents on human skin. We reviewed a total of 102 publications. Repellents were evaluated regarding complete protection time or as percentage efficacy [%] in a time interval. We found no standardized study for tick bite prevention. Regarding Aedes, DEET at concentration of 20% or more, showed the best efficacy providing up to 10 h protection. Citriodora repellency against this mosquito genus was lower compared to the other products. Also between subspecies a difference could be observed: Ae. aegypti proved more difficult to repel than Ae. Albopictus. Fewer studies have been conducted on mosquito species Anopheles and Culex. The repellency profile against Anopheles species was similar for the four principal repellents of interest, providing on average 4-10 h of protection. Culex mosquitoes are easier to repel and all four repellents provided good protection. Few studies have been conducted on the tick species Ixodes. According to our results, the longest protection against Ixodes scapularis was provided by repellents containing IR3535, while DEET and commercial products containing Icaridin or PMD showed a better response than IR3535 against Ixodes ricinus. Many plant-based repellents provide only short duration protection. Adding vanillin 5% to plant-based repellents and to DEET

  20. Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Jürgen; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20% and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1% additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

  1. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  2. Moisture characteristics of water-repellent consolidants and their applicability to existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Chiemi; Fukui, Kazuma; Hokoi, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Water-repellent agents are considered an effective measure of preventing moisture damage in building materials. However, data on the moisture transfer characteristics of repellent materials are insufficient. This study focused on the transfer of liquid water in a porous building material and quantitatively evaluated the applicability of a water-repellent consolidant as a protection agent via water infiltration experiments and numerical analysis. The experimental results could be reproduced by treating the water-repellent consolidant as having two layers with different water conductivities.

  3. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  4. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  5. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Boonruad, Thidarat; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Mulla, Mir S

    2006-06-01

    Diethyl methyl benzamide, or deet, a commercial plant-based repellent (Repel Care), and essential ils from 3 species of plants (finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes), steam distillated and formulated as insect repellents, were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand. Field trials were conducted against wild mosquitoes in Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi Province, and in the Thap Lan National Park Headquarters, Nadee District, Pranchinburi Province; anthroophilic black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Forestry Fire Control Station in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chomthong district, Chiang Mai Province; and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in the Khao Yai National Park, Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The 3 experimental plant-based essential oil formulations as well as Repel Care and deet provided complete protection from mosquito landing and biting for up to 9 h (duration of the experiment). Similar results were obtained with the 5 products against black flies, providing 100% protection for 9 h but 96-82% protection after 10 and 11 h posttreatment. The 5 repellent products also provided 100% protection against land leeches for at least 8 h. Thi is the 1st report of repellency of plant-based repellents against black flies and land leeches in Thailand. The identification and availability of inexpensive sources of plant-based oils, i.e., finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes providing long-lasting repellency against blood-sucking organisms are promising leads into commercial production of relatively safe and effective repellents.

  6. Substitution of PFAS chemistry in outdoor apparel and the impact on repellency performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philippa J; Taylor, Mark; Goswami, Parikshit; Blackburn, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A zygomycotic infection in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, W; Chandler, F W; Padhye, A A; Hamm, T E

    1983-06-01

    We report disseminated, fatal fungal disease involving subcutaneous and visceral tissues in 4 captive snakes (1 Elaphe guttata, 2 Crotalus horridus, and 1 Pituophis melanoleucus). The etiologic agent, which was abundant in the lesion, had a rounded form in vivo with a prominent nucleus. These cells averaged 17 microns in diameter and reproduced by fission, forming clusters of two or four daughter cells. The etiologic agent was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar from one of the snakes. It also grew well on various mycologic media, forming soft, raised, glabrous, tannish colonies. The colonies were composed of large spherical cells with prominent nuclei that reproduced by fission like those seen in tissue. In addition, some of the cells were observed to germinate, forming rudimentary hyphal filaments that were up to 8 microns in diameter and 100 microns in length, with occasional septa and thick-walled structures regarded as azygospores. We consider the fungus to be a zygomycete that may belong to the order Entomophthorales.

  8. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gemma; Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2016-04-01

    Captive breeding and reintroduction remain high profile but controversial conservation interventions. It is important to understand how such programs develop and respond to strategic conservation initiatives. We analyzed the contribution to conservation made by amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction since the launch of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) in 2007. We assembled data on amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction from a variety of sources including the Amphibian Ark database and the IUCN Red List. We also carried out systematic searches of Web of Science, JSTOR, and Google Scholar for relevant literature. Relative to data collected from 1966 to 2006, the number of species involved in captive breeding and reintroduction projects increased by 57% in the 7 years since release of the ACAP. However, there have been relatively few new reintroductions over this period; most programs have focused on securing captive-assurance populations (i.e., species taken into captivity as a precaution against extinctions in the wild) and conservation-related research. There has been a shift to a broader representation of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians within programs and an increasing emphasis on threatened species. There has been a relative increase of species in programs from Central and South America and the Caribbean, where amphibian biodiversity is high. About half of the programs involve zoos and aquaria with a similar proportion represented in specialist facilities run by governmental or nongovernmental agencies. Despite successful reintroduction often being regarded as the ultimate milestone for such programs, the irreversibility of many current threats to amphibians may make this an impractical goal. Instead, research on captive assurance populations may be needed to develop imaginative solutions to enable amphibians to survive alongside current, emerging, and future threats.

  9. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  10. Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Lichner, Ľubomír

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) reduces affinity of soils to water resulting in detrimental implication for plants growth as well as for hydrological processes. During the last decades, it has become clear that SWR is much more widespread than formerly thought, having been reported for a wide variety of soils, land uses and climatic conditions. The repellency index (RI), based on soil-water to soil-ethanol sorptivity ratio, was proposed to characterize subcritical SWR that is the situation where a low degree of repellency impedes infiltration but does not prevent it. The minidisk infiltrometer allows adequate field assessment of RI inherently scaled to account for soil physical properties other than hydrophobicity (e.g., the volume, connectivity and the geometry of pores) that directly influence the hydrological processes. There are however some issues that still need consideration. For example, use of a fixed time for both water and ethanol sorptivity estimation may lead to inaccurate RI values given that water infiltration could be negligible whereas ethanol sorptivity could be overestimated due to influence of gravity and lateral diffusion that rapidly come into play when the infiltration process is very fast. Moreover, water and ethanol sorptivity values need to be determined at different infiltration sites thus implying that a large number of replicated runs should be carried out to obtain a reliable estimate of RI for a given area. Minidisk infiltrometer tests, conducted under different initial soil moisture and management conditions in the experimental sites of Ciavolo, Trapani (Italy) and Javea, Alicante (East Spain), were used to investigate the best applicative procedure to estimate RI. In particular, different techniques to estimate the water, Sw, and ethanol, Se, sorptivities were compared including i) a fixed 1-min time interval, ii) the slope of early-time 1D infiltration equation and iii) the two-term transient 3D infiltration equation that explicitly

  11. Solute leaching in a sandy soil with a water-repellent surface layer: a simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.; Vries, de P.

    1996-01-01

    Many sandy soils in the Netherlands have a water-repellent surface layer covering a wettable soil with a shallow groundwater table. Fingers form in the water-repellent surface layer and rapidly transport water and solutes to the wettable soil in which the streamlines diverge. Although several field

  12. Odorant receptor modulation: Ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modulation of insect behavior for the purpose of controlling the spread of infectious diseases has been the task of a few insect repellents for which the mechanistic modes of action on odorant receptors (ORs) are unclear. Here, we study the effects of the repellents DEET and IR3535, and a novel ...

  13. Infodisruption of inducible anti-predator defenses through commercial insect repellents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Elert, Eric; Preuss, Katja; Fink, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Commercial insect repellents like DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), EBAAP (IR3535(®), (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester)) or Icaridine (picaridin, Bayrepel, 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl), 1-methylpropyl ester) are used worldwide to protect against biting insects and ticks. The detection of these repellents in surface waters in concentrations up to several μg/L levels has caused concern that these substances might affect non-target organisms in freshwaters. Daphnia sp., a keystone organism in lakes and ponds, is known for diel vertical migration (DVM) and life-history changes (LHCs) as inducible defenses against predation by fish. Here we test whether (i) environmentally relevant concentrations of DEET, EBAPP or Icaridine have repellent effects on Daphnia magna and (ii) if these repellents are infodisruptors for DVM and LHCs. Using concentrations of up to 44 μg/L, the repellents neither had effects on juvenile somatic growth nor on clutch size. In thermally stratified water columns with a repellent-free hypolimnion, no repellent effects of the test compounds on D. magna were observed. The presence of fish-born infochemicals induced LHCs, which are characterized by a reduced size at first reproduction, and DVM in D. magna. These effects were not affected by the presence of either repellent. Hence no evidences for infodisruption of the chemical communication of fish and Daphnia by DEET, EBAAP or Icaridine were found.

  14. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensi...

  15. Soil water repellency in an old and young pasture in relation to N application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ageing of pastures is likely to affect the degree of potential water repellency in the long term, whereas seasonal variation on a shorter term affects the actual repellency of soils. A 1-year study on two pastures of different ages was conducted on a sandy soil to assess changes in the degree of

  16. Water repellency under natural conditions in sandy soils of southern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moral García, F.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence and consequences of fire-induced water repellency have been studied in several regions of Spain since 1989. The occurrence of water repellency formed under natural conditions, however, has only been described for a few areas in Spain since 1998. The purpose of the present study was to

  17. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h

  18. Temporal fluctuations in soil water repellency following wildfire in chaparral steeplands, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Hubbert; V. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is partularly common in unburned chaparral, and its degree and duration can be influenced by seasonal weather conditions. Water repellency tends to increase in dry soils, whil eit decreases or vanishes following precipitation or extended periods of soil moisture. The 15426 ha Williams Fire provided an opportunity to investigate post-fire...

  19. Water quality and surfactant effects on the water repellency of a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in irrigation water quality may affect the water repellency of soils treated or untreated with surfactants. Using simulated irrigations, we evaluated water quality and surfactant application rate effects upon the water repellency of a Quincy sand (Xeric Torripsamment). We used a split ...

  20. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Doerr, S.H.; Oostindie, K.; Ziogas, A.K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the

  1. Pre- and postfire distribution of soil water repellency in a steep chaparral watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Hubbert; P. M. Wohlgemuth; H. K. Preisler

    2008-01-01

    The development and nature of water repellent soils and their spatial distribution on the landscape are not well understood relative to evaluating hillslope response to fire. Soil water repellency is particularly common in chaparral communities, due in part to the coarse-textured soils, and the high resin content of the organic litter. Objectives of this study were 1)...

  2. Surfactant seed coating - a strategy to improve turfgrass establishment on water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfgrass managers can experience poor seeding success when trying to establish golf course greens and sports fields on water repellent soils. Nonionic soil surfactant formulations based on ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymers are commonly used to treat water repellent soils. Rece...

  3. In vitro repellency of DEET against the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma sculptum can parasite humans and domestic animals and are vectors of pathogens, including zoonoses. Repellents are an important tool of tick control. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of N,N-diethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard repell...

  4. Comparative Study of Four Membranes for Evaluation of New Insect/Arthropod Repellents Using Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    test system, and (Armed Forces Pest Management Board. 1996) repellent potencial of the 3D pharmacophore- bascd newly designed and synthesized ten...ethyl- hexyl ester) Repellent test system: A modified inz:itro rest system was used to evaluate the potencial membrane altematives as shown in Fig. 1

  5. Measuring and understanding soil water repellency through novel interdisciplinary approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen; Douglas, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Davies, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become evermore essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency - can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Our research to date involves two new approaches for studying soil wetting. 1) We challenge the theoretical basis of current ideas on the measured water/soil contact angle measurements. Much past and current discussion involves Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models to explain anomalously high contact angles for organics on soils, however here we propose that these anomalously high measured contact angles are a consequence of the measurement of a water drop on an irregular non-planar surface rather than the thermodynamic factors of the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel models. In our analysis we have successfully used a much simpler geometric approach for non-flat surfaces such as soil. 2) Fluorescent and phosphorescent

  6. A Modified Synthesis of the Insect Repellent DEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoess, Peter H.; Neeland, Edward G.

    1998-10-01

    In the preparation of the insect repellent DEET, lab procedures prepare the intermediate m-toluoyl chloride by heating m-toluic acid with thionyl chloride for times ranging from 15 to 45 minutes. The acid chloride is then worked up under Schotten-Baumann conditions to yield DEET. In our students' hands, these procedures gave a darkly colored product which was contaminated with an anhydride by-product. We have shown that the m-toluoyl chloride can be prepared at room temperature in 8 minutes and that the eventual DEET product is obtained in excellent yield without the dark coloration or anhydride by-product.

  7. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  8. Evaluation of Certain Insecticides and Repellents Against Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kapoor

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of two commonly occurring species of Ixodid ticks viz., the cattle tick, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Koch and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latr to certain newer insecticdes was investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The repellency of diethyl toluamide (Deet to the two species of ticks was also investigated by a specially devised laboratory technique. It was found that based on LC/sub 50/ values, the two species were most susceptible to pyrethrins followed by carbaryl whereas malathion was found least toxic to the ticks.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...... and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...

  10. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  11. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2010-04-08

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  12. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test Guidelines... ``Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insects and Other Arthropods'' (OPPTS...

  13. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (Transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes underlaboratory (wind tunn...

  14. Use of repellents formulated in Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT®) for effective insect pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenor Mafra-Neto; Christopher J. Fettig; A. Steven Munson; Lukasz L. Stelinski

    2014-01-01

    Despite the many impediments to commercialization of insect repellents in agriculture and forestry, there are some situations where the use of repellents is desirable and warranted. ISCA Technologies (Riverside, California), together with collaborators from academic, government, and private sectors, is actively developing repellent formulations against several...

  15. The effect of land use on spatial variability of soil water repelency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovský, Andrej; Dlapa, Pavel; Chrenková, Katarína; Šimkovic, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency was identified as a fundamental phenomenon during a soil survey dedicated to soil hydrological properties and processes in watersheds of the Little Carpathians Mts. (SW Slovakia). The investigated area represents the viticulture region with various soil management practices. Thus, soils of the region are influenced by deep ploughing during vineyard establishment, by cultivation of vineyards, by reforestation of abandoned vineyards as well as by long-term forestry practices. The soils developed from granitic rocks are naturally susceptible to water repellency development. The obtained results showed marked variability in physical and chemical soil properties. In particular, the soil pH values, the clay and organic carbon contents differed significantly depending on soil management. Due to these differences, the soil water repellency increased from wettable to extremely water repellent approximately in order: deeply ploughed vineyard soils water repellency on infiltration process was observed by means of field experiments.

  16. Breeding and mass-scale rearing of three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach under captive conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    , necessitated the need to develop techniques for captive breeding and mass-scale rearing for conservation and aquaculture purposes. Data on the reproductive efficiency of captive broodstock and the effect of exogenous factors (light intensity, prey type...

  17. Breeding Management of Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Range Countries and Zoos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatchote THITARAM

    2012-01-01

    .... The low birth and high mortality rate cause the captive population to decline rapidly. Captive breeding programs in Asian elephants range countries and zoos have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining...

  18. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  19. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  20. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol, Myrtus communis (Myrtle, Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kayedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33% as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls.In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42 and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001. In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001. The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils.

  1. Olfactory responses of the antennal trichoid sensilla to chemical repellents in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Li; Appel, Arthur G; Liu, Nannan

    2013-11-01

    Insect repellents are widely used to protect against insect bites and thus prevent allergic reaction and the spread of disease. To gain insight into the mosquito's response to chemicals repellents, we investigated the interaction between the olfactory system of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say and chemical repellents using single sensillum recording. The interactions of 50 repellent chemicals with olfactory receptor neurons were measured in six different types of mosquito sensilla: long sharp trichoid (LST), short sharp trichoid (SST), short blunt trichoid I (SBT-I), short blunt trichoid II (SBT-II), short blunt trichoid-curved (SBT-C), and grooved peg (GP). A single olfactory neuron reacted to the chemical repellents in each of the sensilla except for SBT-I and SBT-II, where two neurons were involved. Other than LST and GP, which showed no or very weak responses to the repellents tested, all the sensilla showed significant excitatory responses to certain types of repellents. Terpene-derived chemicals such as eucalyptol, α-pinene, and camphor, stimulated olfactory receptor neurons in a dose-dependent manner and mosquitoes responded more strongly to terpene-derived chemical repellents than to non-terpene-derived chemicals such as dimethyl phthalate. Mosquitoes also exhibited a similar response to stereoisomers of chemicals such as (-)-β-pinene versus (+)-β-pinene, and (-)-menthone versus (+)-menthone. This study not only demonstrates the effects of chemical repellents on the mosquito olfactory system but also provides important information that will assist those screening new mosquito repellents and designing new mosquito control agents.

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages in setting up and managing a Captive Center in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns factors that Captive Centers would face when they operate in Vietnam. In other words, it purposes to perceive in detail what Vietnam offers to Captive Centers by identifying the advantages and disadvantages in establishing and managing Captive Centers in Vietnam from the perspective of foreign companies. Under the qualitative research method, the authors have done three interviews with the managers of two Captive Centers operating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by sending th...

  3. IYPE in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  4. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  5. Water repellency of clay, sand and organic soils in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Water repellency (WR delays soil wetting process, increases preferential flow and may give rise to surface runoff and consequent erosion. WR is commonly recognized in the soils of warm and temperate climates. To explore the occurrence of WR in soils in Finland, soil R index was studied on 12 sites of different soil types. The effects of soil management practice, vegetation age, soil moisture and drying temperature on WR were studied by a mini-infiltrometer with samples from depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. All studied sites exhibited WR (R index >1.95 at the time of sampling. WR increased as follows: sand (R = 1.8-5.0 < clay (R = 2.4-10.3 < organic (R = 7.9-undefined. At clay and sand, WR was generally higher at the soil surface and at the older sites (14 yr., where organic matter is accumulated. Below 41 vol. % water content these mineral soils were water repellent whereas organic soil exhibited WR even at saturation. These results show that soil WR also reduces water infiltration at the prevalent field moisture regime in the soils of boreal climate. The ageing of vegetation increases WR and on the other hand, cultivation reduces or hinders the development of WR.;

  6. Ultra Water Repellent Polypropylene Surfaces with Tunable Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Guo, Jing; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-03-22

    Polypropylene (PP), including isotactic PP (i-PP) and atactic PP (a-PP) with distinct tacticity, is one of the most widely used general plastics. Herein, ultra water repellent PP coatings with tunable adhesion to water were prepared via a simple casting method. The pure i-PP coating shows a hierarchical morphology with micro/nanobinary structures, exhibiting a water contact angle (CA) larger than 150° and a sliding angle less than 5° (for 5 μL water droplet). In contrast, the pure a-PP coating has a less rough morphology with a water contact angle of about 130°, and the water droplets stick on the coating at any tilted angles. For the composite i-PP/a-PP coatings, however, ultra water repellency with CA > 150° but water adhesion tailorable from slippery to sticky can be realized, depending on the contents of a-PP and i-PP. The different wetting behaviors are due to the various microstructures of the composite coatings resulting from the distinct crystallization ability of a-PP and i-PP. Furthermore, the existence of a-PP in the composite coatings enhances the mechanical properties compared to the i-PP coating. The proposed method is feasible to modify various substrates and potential applications in no-loss liquid transportation, slippery surfaces, and patterned superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

  7. Plant Secondary Metabolites as Rodent Repellents: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sabine C; Stolter, Caroline; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The vast number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) produced by higher plants has generated many efforts to exploit their potential for pest control. We performed a systematic literature search to retrieve relevant publications, and we evaluated these according to PSM groups to derive information about the potential for developing plant-derived rodent repellents. We screened a total of 54 publications where different compounds or plants were tested regarding rodent behavior/metabolism. In the search for widely applicable products, we recommend multi-species systematic screening of PSMs, especially from the essential oil and terpenoid group, as laboratory experiments have uniformly shown the strongest effects across species. Other groups of compounds might be more suitable for the management of species-specific or sex-specific issues, as the effects of some compounds on particular rodent target species or sex might not be present in non-target species or in both sexes. Although plant metabolites have potential as a tool for ecologically-based rodent management, this review demonstrates inconsistent success across laboratory, enclosure, and field studies, which ultimately has lead to a small number of currently registered PSM-based rodent repellents.

  8. Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  9. Laser removal of water repellent treatments on limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael

    2003-12-15

    Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  10. Captivate Your Audience by Turning Powerpoint Presentations into Interactive E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Montessa; Hirnyck, Ronda; Agenbroad, Ariel; Bechinski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Adobe® Captivate software provides educators with a tool to create interactive distance learning modules. This article describes how Adobe® Captivate was used to increase engagement of volunteer learners. An Adobe® Captivate module was created for the University of Idaho Master Gardener program to educate and test new Master Gardener volunteers on…

  11. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  12. Estimation of soil water repellency of different particle size fractions in relation with carbon content by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alleres, María; de Blas, Esther; Benito, Elena

    2007-05-25

    The water repellency of soils with different texture under different types of plant cover was determined by applying the WDPT and MED methods to both whole samples and the following size fractions: 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, 0.25-0.05 and water repellency in the finest fraction (<0.05 mm) as a result of its higher organic carbon content. On the other hand, all fractions in the forest soils, which were extremely water repellent, contributed to the overall repellency; in any case, the MED test revealed that the finest fraction was strongly repellent in the forest soils as well.

  13. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  14. Essential oil based polymeric patch development and evaluating its repellent activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Dhiman, Sunil; Borah, Somi; Rabha, Bipul; Chaurasia, Aashwin Kumar; Veer, Vijay

    2015-07-01

    Essential oil based insect repellents are environment friendly and provide dependable personal protection against the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. In the present study, optimized mixture of three essential oils was embedded into the ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) polymers to develop essential oils based patch type mosquito repellent formulation. The developed formulation was characterized for various physico-chemical properties, oil release efficiency and essential oil-polymer interaction. Repellent activity of the formulation was evaluated against Ae. (S) albopictus mosquitoes and compared with commercially available synthetic insecticide based mosquito repellent cream Odomos(®) in the laboratory. The developed patches were 100% flat and there was no interaction between oil components and the excipients. Patches were smooth, homogenous and provided excellent mosquito repellent activity comparable to Odomos(®) under laboratory condition. Morphological and physico-chemical characterization indicated that the formulation was stable and suitable with the polymeric combination. The patch formulation did not show any inhalation toxicity in experimental Wistar rat. The repellent patches developed and evaluated currently, may provide a suitable, eco-friendly, acceptable and safe alternative to the existing synthetic repellent formulations for achieving protection against mosquitoes.

  15. Potential of eucalyptus oil as repellent against house rat, Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Thind, Ramandeep Kaur; Mahal, Amrit Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. Such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. Mature and healthy house rat, Rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. Each concentration was applied through three different modes of application, that is, daily, once, and alternatively in a week. Repellent effect of the oil was assessed based on food consumption from treated and untreated sides for four days. In overall, food consumption was significantly (P repellent effect of the oil at all the three concentrations tested. Repellent effect of the oil was, however, not found to differ significantly between the two sexes. Percent repellency in both male and female rats was apparently more with daily application of 5 and 10% eucalyptus oil. Present studies reveal the potential of eucalyptus oil in repelling away R. rattus; however, further studies may be conducted to enhance the persistence of repellent effect for longer period of time.

  16. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-05

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  18. Relationship between water repellency and native and petroleum-derived organic carbon in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J L; McGill, W B; Lowen, H A; Johnson, R L

    2003-01-01

    Some soils develop severe and persistent water repellency following contamination with crude oil. This study was conducted to characterize and compare the spatial distribution of soil water repellency and residual oil contamination at 12 such sites. The molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test was used to assess soil water repellency and the content of dichloromethane-extractable organics (DEO) was used to quantify residual oil in soil. We found a relatively strong positive correlation between MED and DEO in soil (r2 = 0.74). Both variables tended to decrease abruptly with depth at 11 of the 12 study sites. Dichloromethane-extractable organics similarly decreased with depth in control adjacent soil (MED = 0 M), but from an average concentration one to two orders of magnitude lower than in water-repellent soil. Using data from corresponding control adjacent and water-repellent soils, we determined that approximately 29 and 10% of measured total organic carbon in water-repellent A- and B-horizon soil, respectively, consists of dichloromethane-insoluble organic carbon of petroleum origin. We propose that this fraction contains most of the causative agents of soil water repellency at the studied sites.

  19. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  20. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Del Fabbro

    Full Text Available Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the "gold standard" repellent DEET appears to be very promising from a practical point of view.

  1. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  3. Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2015-02-01

    Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(®) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(®)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 μl/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The C. odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7±10.4 min. In addition, C. citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of C. quinquefasciatus for 170.0±9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0±7.1-182.0±12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against A. aegypti than C. quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that C. odorata oil and C. citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly.

  4. Soil water repellency induced by long-term irrigation with treated sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, R; Ben-Arie, O; Graber, E R

    2005-01-01

    This study describes soil water repellency developed under prolonged irrigation with treated sewage effluent in a semiarid environment. Soil surface layer (0-5 cm) and soil profile (0-50 cm) transects were sampled at a high resolution at the close of the irrigation season and rainy winter season. Samples from 0- to 5-cm transects were subdivided into 1-cm slices to obtain fine scale resolution of repellency and organic matter distribution. Extreme to severe soil water repellency in the 0- to 5-cm soil surface layer persisted throughout the 2-yr study period in the effluent-irrigated Shamouti orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Shamouti] orchard plot. Nearby Shamouti orange plots irrigated with tap water were either nonrepellent or only somewhat repellent. Repellency was very variable spatially and with depth, appearing in vertically oriented "repellency tongues." Temporal and spatial variability in repellency in the uppermost 5-cm soil surface layer was not related to seasonality, soil moisture content, or soil organic matter content. Nonuniform distribution of soil moisture and fingered flow were observed in the soil profile after both seasons, demonstrating that the repellent layer had a persistent effect on water flow in the soil profile. A lack of correlation between bulk density and volumetric water content in the soil profile demonstrates that the observed nonuniform spatial distribution of moisture results from preferential flow and not heterogeneity in soil properties. Soil water repellency can adversely affect agricultural production, cause contamination of underlying ground water resources, and result in excessive runoff and soil erosion.

  5. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  6. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  8. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 9 CFR 50.4 - Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed, or suspect. 50.4 Section 50.4 Animals and... Indemnity § 50.4 Classification of cattle, bison, captive cervids, and other livestock as infected, exposed... captive cervids are classified as exposed to tuberculosis when such cattle, bison, and captive cervids...

  10. Uji Efek Repellent Nabati Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Yanti

    2016-01-01

    Repellent is a substance used as a repellent or insect or other pest deterrent. Repellent is one part of the pesticide.Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control pests. In fact, the use of chemical pesticides that are not rational cause negative effects in terms of the environment, especially in terms of human health. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a natural substance that has many benefits and rewards. Bulb of garlic (Allium sativum L.) contain substances that are toxic to ins...

  11. Mella (Olax zeylanica Leaves as an Eco-friendly Repellent for Storage Insect Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. D. Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the cereals, rice is the most important staple food supplying energy requirements for mostof the worlds’ population. However during storage a loss of about 10-20% rice grains occurs due to storedgrain pests. Repellents are considered as the best source of protection against insect attack upon storedproducts as they have potential for the exclusion of stored product pests from grain, and therebypreventing insect feeding and oviposition on food materials. Various plant materials have been utilizedeffectively through time as safe and ecofriendly insect pest control measures due to their repellentactivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of powdered leaves and leaf extractsof Olax zeylanica as repellents against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. All the experiments were carriedout under laboratory conditions using 1-7 day old unsexed adults. Four different doses (1.0g, 3.0g, 5.0gand 7.0g.of powdered leaves were tested for fumigant repellency in a dual-choice bio-assay apparatus.Repellent action of leaf extracts was evaluated by means of an area preference test using methanol,ethanol and n- hexane as solvents. Repellent effect of powdered leaves against the adult rice weevils wasfound to be significantly high (P< 0.05 at all doses. The highest repellent effect was produced by 7.0g ofleaf powder resulting in repellency of 97%, while the lowest dose (1.0g also elicited more than 50%repellency in weevils indicating a very strong repellent action of the powdered leaves. In comparison,methanol extract of leaves produced the highest repellent effect (96% on weevils whereas n-hexaneextract elicited the lowest. Nevertheless, at higher concentrations all three extracts produced more or lesssignificantly similar repellent effect on the weevils. The findings of the present study suggest that certainactive materials of Olax zeylanica leaves have potential to act as a grain protectant and may be exploitedfor the control of

  12. Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. aurantifolia in the lotion formulations were evaluated against mosquito bites. Essential oils and N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were encapsulated by using interfacial pre- cipitation techniques before incorporation into lotion base to form microencapsulated (ME) formulation. The pure essential oil and DEET were also prepared into lotion base to produce non-encapsulated (NE) formulation. All the prepared formulations were assessed for their repellent activity against Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory condition. Field evaluations also were conducted in three different study sites in Peninsular Malaysia. In addi- tion, Citriodiol® (Mosiquard®) and citronella-based repellents (KAPS®, MozAway® and BioZ Natural®) were also included for comparison. In laboratory conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils showed no significant difference with regard to the duration of repellent effect compared to the microencapsulated DEET used at the highest con- centration (20%). It exhibited >98% repellent effect for duration of 4 h (p = 0.06). In the field conditions, these formulations demonstrated comparable repellent effect (100% for a duration of 3 h) to Citriodiol® based repellent (Mosiguard®) (p = 0.07). In both test conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils presented longer duration of 100% repellent effect (between 1 and 2 h) compared to NE formulations. The findings of the study demonstrate that the application of the microencapsulation technique during the preparation of the formulations significantly increases the duration of the

  13. Odorant Receptor Modulation: Ternary Paradigm for Mode of Action of Insect Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Dickens, J.C., 2010. Insect repellents : modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity. PLoS ONE 5, e12138. Bohbot, J.D., Fu, L., Le, T.C., Chauhan...K.R., Cantrell, C.L., Dickens, J.C., 2011. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes . Med. Vet. Entomol. doi...detectors in Culex quinquefasciatus. Chem. Senses 32, 727e738. Syed, Z., Leal, W.S., 2008. Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET. Proc

  14. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Service Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2042- PDM, 4401...

  16. Genetic assessment of captive elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchart; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Angkavanich, Taweepoke; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Thongtip, Nikorn; Colenbrander, Ben; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of 136 captive Thai elephants (Elephas maximus) with known region of origin were investigated by analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We did not detect significant indications of inbreeding and only a low differentiation of elephants

  17. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  18. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  19. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  20. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  1. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  2. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  4. POLY(N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE)-MODIFIED SURFACES REPEL PLASMA PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-li Liu; Zhao-qiang Wu; Dan Li; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the interaction between plasma proteins and PVP-modified surfaces under more complex protein conditions.In the competitive adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA),the modified surfaces showed preferential adsorption of HSA.In 100% plasma,the amount of Fg adsorbed onto PVP-modified surfaces was as low as 10 ng/cm2,suggesting the excellent protein resistance properties of the modified surfaces.In addition,immunoblots of proteins eluted from the modified surfaces after plasma contact confirmed that PVP-modified surfaces can repel most plasma proteins,especially proteins that play important roles in the process of blood coagulation.

  5. Interacting tilt and kink instabilities in repelling current channels

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, Rony; Xia, Chun

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study in resistive magnetohydrodynamics where the initial equilibrium configuration contains adjacent, oppositely directed, parallel current channels. Since oppositely directed current channels repel, the equilibrium is liable to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic tilt instability. This tilt evolution, previously studied in planar settings, involves two magnetic islands or fluxropes, which on Alfvenic timescales undergo a combined rotation and separation. This in turn leads to the creation of (near) singular current layers, posing severe challenges to numerical approaches. Using our open-source grid-adaptive MPI-AMRVAC software, we revisit the planar evolution case in compressible MHD, as well as its extension to 2.5D and full 3D scenarios. As long as the third dimension remains ignorable, pure tilt evolutions result which are hardly affected by out of plane magnetic field components. In all 2.5D runs, our simulations do show secondary tearing type disruptions throughout the near singular cur...

  6. Development of surfaces repelling negatively buoyant solid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Carina; Alexeev, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Using a hybrid computational method that integrates the lattice Boltzmann model for fluid dynamics and the lattice spring model for solids, we examine the motion of negatively buoyant solid microparticles in shear flow near a solid wall decorated with regularly distributed rigid posts. The posts are arranged in a square pattern and tilted relative to the flow direction. We show that when rigid posts are tilted against flow, secondary flows emerge that prevent the deposition of suspended particles on the solid surface. We probe the effect of post geometry on the development of secondary flows and identify the optimal post architecture in terms of the mass of levitated solid particles. Our results are useful for designing anti-fouling surfaces that repel colloidal particles carried by fluid.

  7. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  8. Room temperature synthesis of water-repellent polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yonggang; Jiang Dong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang Xia; Zhang Zhijun [Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China); Wang Qihua, E-mail: wangqh@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A stable superhydrophobic polystyrene nanocomposite coating was fabricated by means of a very simple and easy method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The wettability of the products was also investigated. By adding the surface-modified SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, the wettability of the coating changed to water-repellent superhydrophobic, not only for pure water, but also for a wide pH range of corrosive liquids. The influence of the drying temperature and SiO{sub 2} content on the wettability of the nanocomposite coating was also investigated. It was found that both factors had little or no significant effect on the wetting behavior of the coating surface.

  9. Interacting tilt and kink instabilities in repelling current channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Xia, C., E-mail: rony.keppens@wis.kuleuven.be [Centre for mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical study in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) where the initial equilibrium configuration contains adjacent, oppositely directed, parallel current channels. Since oppositely directed current channels repel, the equilibrium is liable to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic tilt instability. This tilt evolution, previously studied in planar settings, involves two magnetic islands or flux ropes, which on Alfvénic timescales undergo a combined rotation and separation. This in turn leads to the creation of (near) singular current layers, posing severe challenges to numerical approaches. Using our open-source grid-adaptive MPI-AMRVAC software, we revisit the planar evolution case in compressible MHD, as well as its extension to two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D) and full three-dimensional (3D) scenarios. As long as the third dimension can be ignored, pure tilt evolutions result that are hardly affected by out of plane magnetic field components. In all 2.5D runs, our simulations do show secondary tearing type disruptions throughout the near singular current sheets in the far nonlinear saturation regime. In full 3D runs, both current channels can be liable to additional ideal kink deformations. We discuss the effects of having both tilt and kink instabilities acting simultaneously in the violent, reconnection-dominated evolution. In 3D, both the tilt and the kink instabilities can be stabilized by tension forces. As a concrete space plasma application, we argue that interacting tilt-kink instabilities in repelling current channels provide a novel route to initiate solar coronal mass ejections, distinctly different from the currently favored pure kink or torus instability routes.

  10. Canada Finance Minster:Welcome China's Investment in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ To forward the relationship between China and Canada in financial and trade sectors and strengthen the cooperation in avoiding the worse impact of international financial crisis,Canadian financial high-level leaders involving Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney,Canada's Minister of Finance Jim Flaherty,Federal Superintendent of Financial Institutions Julie Dickson.as well as tive malor banks and the two biggest insurance companies in Canada,who are lpoking to strengthen and expand business ties with China,visited China from August 8 to August 14,2009.

  11. Magritte's Captivity in Robbe-Grillet's "La Belle Captive:" The Subjugation of the Image by the Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortquist, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Offers Alain Robbe-Grillet's novel "La Belle Captive" (which employs 77 paintings by the Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte) as playful interchange between word and image. Argues that the novel may be understood to demonstrate a fundamental relationship of inequality between word and image. (RS)

  12. ANALYSIS AND APPLIED STUDY OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAOTIC REPELLER IN COMPLICATED SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-hai; REN Biao; CHEN Yu-shu

    2005-01-01

    Fractal characters and fractal dimension of time series created by repeller in complicated system were studied and the time series were reconstructed by applying the theory of phase space reconstruction for chaotic time series. The influence of zero-mean treatment, Fourier filter on prediction for time series were studied. The choice of prediction sample affects the relative error and the prediction length which were also under good concern. The results show that the model provided here are practical for the modeling and prediction of time series created by chaotic repellers. Zero-mean treatment has changed prediction result quantitatively for chaotic repeller sample data. But using Fourier filter may decrease the prediction precision. This is theoretical and practical for study on chaotic repeller in complicated system.

  13. Biomimetic ultra-bubble-repellent surfaces based on a self-organized honeycomb film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Jun; Saito, Yuta; Yabu, Hiroshi

    2014-12-02

    The adhesion of bubbles underwater remains the greatest cause of malfunctions in applications such as microfluidics, medical devices and heat exchangers. There is therefore an emerging need for ultra-bubble-repellent surfaces. Inspired by fish scales, which show high bubble repellency due to their hydrophilic nature and surface microstructures, we propose a novel method for preparing ultra-bubble-repellent surfaces by the hydrophilic treatment of self-organized microstructures. When in contact with air bubbles underwater, the artificial hydrophilic microstructured surfaces had a higher contact angle and a lower adhesion force than a flat surface. The mechanism leading to these properties is also investigated. Our method for the fabrication of ultra-bubble-repellent, hydrophilic, microstructured surfaces is simple and cost-effective, opening the way for its application in artificial devices, such as the inner surfaces of tubes, medical devices, and heat exchangers.

  14. Impacts of grass removal on wetting and actual water repellency in a sandy soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaas Oostindie; Louis W. Dekker; Jan G. Wesseling; Violette Geissen; Coen J. Ritsema

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content and actual water repellency were assessed for soil profiles at two sites in a bare and grasscovered plot of a sand pasture, to investigate the impact of the grass removal on both properties...

  15. Repellent and Anti-quorum Sensing Activity of Six Aromatic Plants Occurring in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Ceballos, Leonor; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are widely used as biopesticides and to control bacterial infections. This study describes the ability of six EOs isolated from plants cultivated in Colombia to perform as repellents against Ulomoides dermestoides and as quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. EOs from Aloysia triphylla, Cymbopogon nardus, Lippia origanoides, Hyptis suaveolens, Swinglea glutinosa and Eucalyptus globulus were repellents classified as Class IV, IV, IV, III, II, and II, respectively, whereas the commercial repellent IR3535 only reached Class II after 2 h exposure. All EOs presented small, but significant inhibitory properties against the QS system in Escherichia coli (pJBA132) at 25 μg/mL after 4 h exposure. These data suggest evaluated EOs from Colombia are sustainable, promising new sources of natural repellents and could be important as anti-quorum sensing molecules.

  16. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  17. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  18. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds.

  19. Formation process of a strong water-repellent alumina surface by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Libang, E-mail: lepond@hotmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 88 West Anning Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Li Hui; Song Yongfeng; Wang Yulong [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 88 West Anning Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel strong water-repellent alumina thin film is fabricated by chemically adsorbing stearic acid (STA) layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The formation process and the structure of the strong water-repellent alumina film are investigated by means of contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM). Results show that the water contact angles for the alumina films increase with the increase of the immersion time in the boiling water, and meanwhile, the roughness of the alumina films increases with the dissolution of the boehmite in the boiling water. Finally, the strong water-repellent film with a high water contact angle of 139.1 deg. is obtained when the alumina films have distinct roughened morphology with some papillary peaks and porous structure. Moreover, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic materials of the STA endow the alumina films with the strong water-repellence.

  20. Water content and water repellency in a field. Implications for irrigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, L. A.; de Rooij, G. H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2010-05-01

    The degree of water repellency of soil material depends on its water content. Irrigated soils preferably should be kept sufficiently wet to render the soil wettable, in order to prevent irrigation water bypassing the root zone. But if this leads to overirrigation, the risk of groundwater pollution increases. We applied three irrigation regimes to individual trees in a Eucalyptus plantation on water-repellent soil. The resulting unimodal distribution of shallow water contents produced a bimodal distribution in the degree of water repellency: at any location, the soil would most likely be either wettable, or strongly water-repellent. We developed a procedure to estimate from both distributions the area of wettable soil based on a population of locally determined water contents.

  1. Formation process of a strong water-repellent alumina surface by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Li, Hui; Song, Yongfeng; Wang, Yulong

    2010-03-01

    A novel strong water-repellent alumina thin film is fabricated by chemically adsorbing stearic acid (STA) layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The formation process and the structure of the strong water-repellent alumina film are investigated by means of contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM). Results show that the water contact angles for the alumina films increase with the increase of the immersion time in the boiling water, and meanwhile, the roughness of the alumina films increases with the dissolution of the boehmite in the boiling water. Finally, the strong water-repellent film with a high water contact angle of 139.1° is obtained when the alumina films have distinct roughened morphology with some papillary peaks and porous structure. Moreover, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic materials of the STA endow the alumina films with the strong water-repellence.

  2. Evaluation of Cardboard Coated with Natural Substances in Combination with Ink on Rat Repellency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong; Suwaporn Daendee; Boonrit Thongsong; Vivat Chavananikul

    2011-01-01

      An effective repellent for rodent-proof cardboard-container is considered interesting especially in packaging and transport business as rat usually gnaws through the container, resulting in food...

  3. Tetranychus urticae‐triggered responses promote genotype‐dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore‐induced plant volatiles ( HIPV s) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes...

  4. Indicateurs cles au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  5. Bioactivity-Guided Investigation of Geranium Essential Oils as Natural Tick Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    from amyris essential oil suggested that it had potential as a repellent against Aedes aegypti (L.). While (−)-10-epi-γ- eudesmol has been tested against...M.; Hayes, E. B.; Ertel, S.; Shapiro, E. D. Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2008, 14...picaridin. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2008, 51, 31−36. (11) Shapiro, R. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent. J. Pediatr

  6. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-12-01

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents.

  7. Advancing the science of EPA guidelines for sponsor-financed topical insect repellent efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda J; Fisher, Celia B

    2010-02-01

    In 1999, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published guidelines for product performance testing of skin-applied insect repellents, which provide guidance for topical insect repellent efficacy studies. EPA subsequently uses these sponsor-financed studies in their evaluation of proposed label claims. This paper reviews some of the statistical flaws in the proposed revisions to these guidelines and suggests possible improvements. This review is important because EPA's revisions to the 1999 guidelines do not address these issues.

  8. An Indexed Combinatorial Library: The Synthesis and Testing of Insect Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Gelato, Kathy A.; Pompizzi, Kristen M.; Scarbinsky, Aislinn M.; Albrecht, Brian K.; Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2001-04-01

    An indexed combinatorial library of amides was prepared by the reaction of amines and acid chlorides. A simple test for insect repellency using fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) allowed the determination of the most repellent sublibraries. The student-generated data were collected and analyzed to determine the most active amide(s) in the library. This experiment illustrates the fundamentals of combinatorial chemistry, a field that has undergone explosive growth in the last decade.

  9. Impact of water content and decomposition stage on the soil water repellency of peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Ullrich; Sokolowsky, Liv; Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bachmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency is widely reported for all kinds of soils and mainly caused by hydrophobic organic compounds. It has a substantial influence on soil hydraulic processes such as water infiltration, preferential flow paths and evaporation and therefore on hydrological processes in general. The severity of soil water repellency strongly depends on the soil water content and the amount of soil organic carbon. Although peat soils are characterized by high soil organic carbon contents, studies about peat soils are rare and mostly available for horticultural substrates. Here, we present soil water repellency measurements for peat soils with varying porosities, bulk densities and stages of decomposition. The peat soils were sampled at two different sites in a bog complex. The sites have been drained for 1 and 100 years. Samples were taken from each soil layer and, additionally, in a vertical resolution of 0.03 m. To determine the soil water contents at which the peat becomes water repellent, we applied the commonly used water drop penetration time test on progressively dewatered samples. In order to identify the influence of the decomposition stage as determined by the depth within the soil profile and duration of drainage, the potential soil water repellency was measured at air-dried sieved samples by the sessile drop method. First results show that the soil water repellency of peat soils is strongly dependent on the soil water content. For air-dried peat samples, the influence of different decomposition stages of the bog peat is negligible. All air-dried samples are extremely water repellent with contact angles > 130°. However, comparing the results with the soil organic matter content shows a slightly tendency of increasing soil water repellency with increasing soil organic matter contents.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Several Attractants and Spatial Repellents for the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an Olfactometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Further...

  11. Lime-based repair mortars with water-repellent admixtures: laboratory durability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, C.; Slížková, Z. (Zuzana)

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of architectural structures using lime binders is currently an important research topic aiming compatibility, durability and sustainability. In this study, lime (L) and lime-metakaolin (LM) mortars were prepared with the addition of water-repellent admixtures: linseed oil, stand oil and a silane based water-repellent. Experimental results demonstrate that oil imparts higher hydrophobicity to both L and LM mixtures. Durability was assessed through freeze-thaw and NaCl crystal...

  12. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Massimo A.; Apicella, Alfonso J.; Kerr, Rex; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Bazzicalupo, Paolo; Schafer, William R

    2004-01-01

    ASH sensory neurons are required in Caenorhabditis elegans for a wide range of avoidance behaviors in response to chemical repellents, high osmotic solutions and nose touch. The ASH neurons are therefore hypothesized to be polymodal nociceptive neurons. To understand the nature of polymodal sensory response and adaptation at the cellular level, we expressed the calcium indicator protein cameleon in ASH and analyzed intracellular Ca2+ responses following stimulation with chemical repellents, o...

  13. Study on water-repellent and oil-repellent finishing process of fabric%织物拒水拒油整理工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小华; 石小奕; 赵堃

    2012-01-01

    Water repellent agents commonly used are silicones and fluorochemieals, but fluoroehemicals a gents impart both water repellency and oil repcllency to fabrics for meeting people's demand on muhi functional textiles. In this paper, TG-581 water and oil repellent agent,as a fluorochemical,was used to finish four kinds of fabrics. This paper discusses the effect of various factors, like the concentration of water and oil repellent agent, pH value of solution,dry temperature,cure temperature,cure time on the water and oil repellent performance of fabrics, so as to provide reference for determining the optimum water and oil repellent finishing process conditions.%目前常用的拒水剂主要是有机硅化合物和有机氟化合物,但有机氟化合物可同时赋予整理织物拒水、拒油性能,可满足人们对多功能纺织品的需求.本文使用含氟化合物TG-581拒水拒油整理剂对4种织物进行整理.文章探讨了整理剂质量浓度、整理液pH值、烘干温度、焙烘温度、焙烘时间等工艺因素对拒水拒油性能的影响,从而为确定拒水拒油整理最佳工艺条件提供参考.

  14. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.

  15. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  17. Morphology and functions of astrocytes cultured on water-repellent fractal tripalmitin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Shan-shan; Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiangnan; Lei, Qun-fang; Park, Hyun-Joo; Fang, Wen-jun; Chen, Zhong

    2014-08-01

    In the brain, astrocytes play an essential role with their multiple functions and sophisticated structure, as surrounded by a fractal environment which has not been available in our traditional cell culture. Water-repellent fractal tripalmitin (PPP) surfaces can imitate the fractal environment in vivo, so the morphology and biochemical characterization of astrocytes on these surfaces are examined. Water-repellent fractal PPP surface can induce astrocytes to display sophisticated morphology with smaller size of cell area, longer and finer filopodium-like processes, and higher morphological complexity. The super water-repellent fractal PPP surface with water contact angle of 150°∼160° produces the maximal effects compared with other surfaces at lower water contact angles. The trends of characteristic protein expression, including that of nestin, vimentin, GFAP and glutamine synthetase, for astrocytes cultured on super water-repellent fractal PPP surfaces approximate more to in vivo pattern. The super water-repellent PPP surface also render astrocytes to perform more pronounced promotion of neurogenesis by increasing the release of nerve growth factor in a co-culture system. Altogether, our results suggest that the super water-repellent fractal PPP surface facilitates the astrocytes to mimic their in vivo performance, thus provides a closer-to-natural culture environment for experimental assessment of glial structure and functions.

  18. Sustained efficacy of the novel topical repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes and ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, B W; Kennedy, M K; Carroll, S P

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes and ticks are blood-feeding pests of humans and animals that can vector many important aetiological agents of disease. Previous research demonstrated that TT-4302 (Guardian(®) Wilderness) containing 5% geraniol applied to human subjects gave 5-6 h of repellency against mosquitoes (depending on species) and was repellent to ticks in vitro. This study was conducted to obtain an independent third-party evaluation of TT-4302 against Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and to test the efficacy of the product in the field against ticks. TT-4302 provided an average of 6.5 h of repellency of ≥ 95% [Weibull mean protection time: 7.4 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.8-11.3 h] for St. aegypti, whereas a 15% DEET formulation provided 4.7 h of repellency (Weibull mean protection time: 5.2 h, 95% CI 3.7-6.9 h). In tick field trials, the efficacy of TT-4302 did not differ significantly from that of a 25% DEET formulation against Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae). TT-4302 was 81.3% repellent at 2.5 h after application, whereas DEET was 77.2% repellent at the same time-point. Results at 3.5 h after application were 71.4% for TT-4302 and 72.9% for DEET.

  19. Repellent constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Song; Zhao, Na Na; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Zhou, Ligang; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2011-09-28

    The screening for bioactive principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts possessed strong repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila , and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum . A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS. trans-Geraniol (16.54%), (R)-citronellal (15.44%), (+)-citronellol (11.51%), and α-elemol (9.06%) were the main components of the essential oil followed by β-eudesmol (5.71%) and (+)-limonene (5.05%). From the essential oil, four monoterpenes were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as limonene, citronellol, citronellal, and trans-geraniol. Geraniol and citronellol were strongly repellent against the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, whereas citronellal and limonene exhibited weak repellency against the booklouse. Geraniol and citronellol exhibited comparable repellency against the booklouse relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, geraniol and citronellol exhibited stronger repellency against the red flour beetle than DEET, whereas the two other compounds showed the same level of repellency against the red flour beetle compared with DEET.

  20. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  1. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Defensive Metabolites from Antarctic Invertebrates: Does Energetic Content Interfere with Feeding Repellence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pons, Laura; Avila, Conxita

    2014-01-01

    Many bioactive products from benthic invertebrates mediating ecological interactions have proved to reduce predation, but their mechanisms of action, and their molecular identities, are usually unknown. It was suggested, yet scarcely investigated, that nutritional quality interferes with defensive metabolites. This means that antifeedants would be less effective when combined with energetically rich prey, and that higher amounts of defensive compounds would be needed for predator avoidance. We evaluated the effects of five types of repellents obtained from Antarctic invertebrates, in combination with diets of different energetic values. The compounds came from soft corals, ascidians and hexactinellid sponges; they included wax esters, alkaloids, a meroterpenoid, a steroid, and the recently described organic acid, glassponsine. Feeding repellency was tested through preference assays by preparing diets (alginate pearls) combining different energetic content and inorganic material. Experimental diets contained various concentrations of each repellent product, and were offered along with control compound-free pearls, to the Antarctic omnivore amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Meridianin alkaloids were the most active repellents, and wax esters were the least active when combined with foods of distinct energetic content. Our data show that levels of repellency vary for each compound, and that they perform differently when mixed with distinct assay foods. The natural products that interacted the most with energetic content were those occurring in nature at higher concentrations. The bioactivity of the remaining metabolites tested was found to depend on a threshold concentration, enough to elicit feeding repellence, independently from nutritional quality. PMID:24962273

  3. Competitive sorption of intermixed heavy metals in water repellent soil in Southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. J.; Stagnitti, F.; Xiong, X.; Li, P.

    2007-04-01

    In water repellent soil, Cr, Pb and Cu showed higher adsorption intensities than Zn, Cd and Ni did. Soil water repellency is much more widespread than formerly thought. In order to promote fertility and productivity, the irrigation of recycled water onto water repellent soil may be an applied technology to be used in some areas of Southern Australia. Therefore, heavy metals in recycled water potentially enter into the soil. The competitive sorption and retention capacity of heavy metals in soil are important to be determined, especially considering the special geochemical origin of water repellent soil that was caused by waxes on or between the soil particles. Batch equilibrium sorption experiments on Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in their typical proportion in recycled water were conducted in water repellent soil. The sorption intensity, sorption isotherm in the experiments together showed that Cr, Pb and Cu have higher sorption intensity than those of Zn, Ni and Cd in the competitive system. The risk assessment for the application of recycled water onto water repellent soil is definitely necessary, especially for the metal cations with relatively weak sorption.

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. Formation of Soil Water Repellency by Laboratory Burning and Its Effect on Soil Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sujung; Im, Sangjun

    2010-05-01

    Fire-induced soil water repellency can vary with burning conditions, and may lead to significant changes in soil hydraulic properties. However, isolation of the effects of soil water repellency from other factors is difficult, particularly under field conditions. This study was conducted to (i) investigate the effects of burning using different plant leaf materials and (ii) of different burning conditions on the formation of soil water repellency, and (iii) isolate the effects of the resulting soil water repellency on soil evaporation from other factors. Burning treatments were performed on the surface of homogeneous fully wettable sand soil contained in a steel frame (60 x 60 cm; 40 cm depth). As controls a sample without a heat treatment, and a heated sample without fuel, were also used. Ignition and heat treatments were carried out with a gas torch. For comparing the effects of different burning conditions, fuel types included oven-dried pine needles (fresh needles of Pinus densiflora), pine needle litter (litter on a coniferous forest floor, P. densiflora + P. rigida), and broad-leaf litter (Quercus mongolica + Q. aliena + Prunus serrulata var. spontanea + other species); fuel loads were 200 g, 300 g, and 500 g; and heating duration was 40 s, 90 s and 180 s. The heating duration was adjusted to control the temperature, based on previous experiments. The temperature was measured continuously at 3-second intervals and logged with two thermometers. After burning, undisturbed soil columns were sampled for subsequent experiments. Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test was performed at every 1 mm depth of the soil columns to measure the severity of soil water repellency and its vertical extent. Soil water repellency was detected following all treatments. As the duration of heating increased, the thickness of the water repellent layer increased, whilst the severity of soil water repellency decreased. As regards fuel amount, the most severe soil water repellency was

  6. Spatial Patterns of Post-Fire Soil Water Repellency in Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N. A.; Pierce, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    Water repellent soils are naturally occurring but can be created or enhanced by wildfires. Post-fire runoff and the occurrence of fire-related floods and debris flows are related to the extent and continuity of water repellent soils. While many studies have positively correlated post-fire soil water repellency with burn severity and ash thickness in forested and chaparral environments, few studies have examined fire-related water repellency in sage-bitterbrush rangelands (but see Pierson et al., 2001). Rangelands, which comprise 40% of the landmass of the United States and nearly 80% of the lands of the western U.S., burn frequently during the summer with burn areas that often exceed 200 km2. The most commonly used method to measure the extent and severity of post-fire soil water repellency is the water drop penetration test (WDPT): other tests include the molarity of ethanol test, infiltration measured with a minidisk infiltrometer, and patterns of water infiltration measured with blue dye. Unlike tests that measure time until infiltration, the blue dye test provides a means of measuring the spatial extent of water repellent soils as well as area quantification of water saturation and locations of subsurface flowpaths. In early July, 2006, fires burned approximately 1.6 km2 of sagebrush and bitterbrush-dominated rangelands in foothills near Boise, Idaho. Initial studies in August 2006 using both water drop penetration time and the blue dye test show that soil water repellency is highly variable in both extent and severity, and that repellency varies with proximity to burned sage or bitterbrush coppice sites. Out of sixty sample sites, slight soil water repellency occurred outside of coppice boundaries on three occasions, each time in an area with grass and within 1 m of a coppice. Not all coppices exhibited soil water repellency, and only 23% of sites within coppice boundaries exhibited moderate to strong water repellency, as measured by WDPT. Use of the blue dye

  7. Basic soil properties as a factor controlling the occurrence and intensity of water repellency in rankers of the White Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kořenková Lucia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water repellency in soils is controlled by many different factors, basic physical and chemical properties might be considered the crucial ones. For the purpose of this study, 12 sites were selected and sampled (0–20 cm depth in the White Carpathians. Repellency tests were conducted under laboratory conditions in triplicate using water drop penetration time (WDPT test and the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED test. Results of WDPT measurements showed that three samples were marked by slight to extreme water repellency. Regarding the relationship between WDPT/MED and tested soil properties, the highest value of correlation coefficient was calculated for soil organic carbon (r = 0.706; p < 0.05, suggesting there is a positive, statistically significant correlation between repellency severity and total carbon content. A negative relationship between repellency and soil reaction/silt/silt + clay contents of studied soils was found. Samples taken from the surface horizon of arable soils showed no repellency.

  8. Structural requirements for repellency: norsesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoid derivatives of nootkatone against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Betty C R; Henderson, Gregg; Sauer, Anne M; Crowe, William; Laine, Roger A

    2010-08-01

    Research has shown that the family of grapefruit flavors called nootkatones have significant repellant and toxic effects to Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Nineteen synthetic nootkatone derivatives, along with three commercially available nootkatone derivatives, were tested for repellent activity against C. formosanus by a choice assay in a petri dish with a two-step triage procedure. Based on the repellency threshold value, the relationships between structure and activity are discussed. Four derivatives of nootkatone have very high repellency and toxicity to C. formosanus, 9 times the potency of the primary compound nootkatone. Four other compounds have between 2 and 3 times the repellency of nootkatones, and three compounds are equal in their repellency to nootkatone. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  10. Canada and the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.

    1984-01-01

    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  11. Water repellency in the rhizosphere of maize: measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Although maize roots have been extensively studied, there is limited information on the effect of root exudates on the hydraulic properties of maize rhizosphere. Recent experiments suggested that the mucilaginous fraction of root exudates may cause water repellency of the rhizosphere. Our objectives were: 1) to investigate whether maize rhizosphere turns hydrophobic after drying and subsequent rewetting; 2) to develop a new method to collect root mucilage and test whether maize mucilage is hydrophobic; and 3) to find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were three-weeks-old, the soil was let dry and then it was irrigated. The soil water content during irrigation was imaged using neutron radiography. In a parallel experiment, ten maize plants were grown in sandy soil for five weeks. Mucilage was collected from young brace roots using a new developed method. Mucilage was placed on glass slides and let dry. The contact angle was measured with the sessile drop method for varying mucilage concentration. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to perform capillary rise experiments in soils of varying particle size mixed with maize mucilage. We then used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that rewetting of a pore is impeded when the concentration of mucilage on the pore surface (g cm-2) is higher than a given threshold value. The threshold value depended on soil matric potential, pore radius and contact angle. Then, we randomly distributed mucilage in the pore network and we calculated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice for varying soil particle size, mucilage concentration and matric potential. Our results showed that: 1) the rhizosphere of maize stayed temporarily dry after irrigation; 2) mucilage became water

  12. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  13. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  14. Tear production in three captive wild herbivores in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). Mean (+/- standard deviation) STT values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. There were no significant differences in STT values between ibex and oryx, but tear production in both species was significantly lower than in zebras. Knowledge of normal tear production values is important for the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis and keratitis in these species.

  15. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  16. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  17. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Detect Water Repellent Soil Conditions after Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. A.; Robichaud, P. R.; Wu, J. Q.

    2002-12-01

    The burning of organic surface litter during forest fires often results in a water repellent soil layer at or near the soil surface. Organic matter is volatilized and a significant fraction moves into the upper soil layers (top 5 cm). Upon cooling, soil particles are coated with hydrophobic organic substances and the soil displays drastically reduced infiltration capabilities. The degree of water repellency is related to the amount of organic material on the surface prior to the fire, and the duration and temperature of the burn. Carbon compounds that are indicative of burned organic matter have been identified spectrally in soils under laboratory conditions. The 1000-2500 nm (near through short wave infrared) range is the span of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibiting significant adsorption for many organic compounds. Since burning alters surface organic matter and it is possible to detect such a change spectrally, a hyperspectral sensor should be able to provide information ultimately relating the change in organic matter to soil water repellency. This study aims to use a hyperspectral sensor to determine the degree of water repellency of surface soil in three burn classifications (low, moderate, and high) after a forest fire. One hundred eighty plots (sixty per burn class) were selected within the Hayman fire perimeter in southern Colorado in July 2002. A hand-held hyperspectral sensor was used to measure soil reflectance at several plots within each burn classification. An aerially- mounted hyperspectral sensor was also flown over the fire site. Twelve flight lines were flown to ensure contiguous coverage of the entire fire. The on-site ground truthing included both the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and an infiltrometer test, with the former being a traditional method and the latter a new approach for testing water repellency. Both methods correlate the time to the start of infiltration with the degree of soil water repellency. The measured soil

  18. Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    efÞcacy of the repellent deet against Aedes aegypti . J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 14: 178Ð182. Robbins, P. J., and M. G. Cherniack. 1986. Review of...VECTOR CONTROL , PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes...4 Division of Vector-BorneDiseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  19. Water-repellent soil and its relationship to granularity, surface roughness and hydrophobicity: a materials science view

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael; Shirtcliffe, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Considerable soil water repellency has been observed at a wide range of locations worldwide. The soil exhibiting water repellency is found within the upper part of the soil profile. The reduced rate of water infiltration into these soils leads to severe run-off erosion, and reduction of plant growth. Soil water repellency is promoted by drying of soil, and can be induced by fire or intense heating of soil containing hydrophobic organic matter. Recent studies outside of soil science have shown...

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of spatial repellency with metofluthrin-impregnated paper strip against mosquitoes in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-09-01

    Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia, with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment reduced mosquito collection by >80% during the 1st 4 weeks. However, repellency seemed to reduce with the loss of metofluthrin by evaporation within 6 wk after treatment.

  1. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  2. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Osmoregulation in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; MacKenzie, D S

    1998-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus) to inhabit both freshwater and marine habitats presents an interesting model to study osmoregulation in sirenians. Blood samples were analyzed from manatees held in fresh- and saltwater and from wild animals captured in fresh-, brackish, and saltwater for concentrations of aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, plasma renin activity, Na+, K+, Cl-, and osmolality. Two separate experiments were also conducted on captive animals to evaluate osmoregulatory responses to acute saltwater exposure and freshwater deprivation. Spurious differences were observed in plasma electrolyte and osmolality among the captive and wild groups. Wild brackish water animals exhibited the highest vasopressin concentrations, while wild freshwater manatees had the highest aldosterone levels. A significant correlation between mean vasopressin and osmolality was demonstrated for captive and wild animals. When freshwater animals were acutely exposed to saltwater, osmolality, Na+, and Cl- increased 5.5%, 8.0%, and 14%, respectively, while aldosterone decreased 82.6%. Saltwater animals deprived of freshwater exhibited an almost twofold increase in aldosterone during the deprivation period and a fourfold decrease when freshwater was again provided. Within this group, osmolality increased significantly by 3.4% over the course of the study; however, electrolytes did not change. The lack of consistent differences in electrolyte and osmolality among wild and captive groups suggests that manatees are good osmoregulators regardless of the environment. The high aldosterone levels in wild freshwater animals may indicate a need to conserve Na+, while the high vasopressin levels in wild brackish-water manatees suggest an antidiuretic state to conserve water. Vasopressin levels appear to be osmotically mediated in manatees as in other mammals.

  4. Picobirnavirus in captive animals from Uruguay: identification of new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Luciana; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) have been detected in several species of animals from different countries worldwide, including in South America. The host range of these viruses has increased in recent years; thus, in order to contribute to the knowledge in this topic we analyzed samples from captivity animals from Uruguay. We found the presence of PBVs in four species of animals, Panthera leo, Panthera onca, Puma concolor and Oncifelis geoffroyi, representing new PBV-susceptible hosts. All strains belonged to genogroup I.

  5. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  6. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  7. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce...

  8. Perimortality in a Captive Reared Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wayne Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available erinatal mortality has been reported in cattle, swine, goats, sheep and rabbits; however, there have been no documented reports on this phenomenon in agouti (Dasyprocta leporina. The agouti is a Neotropical polytocous rodent, hunted for its meat. This study reports on an incident of perinatal mortalities in a captive reared agouti from the wildlife unit of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture. The pluriparous female agouti was reared in captivity from birth and had delivered three (3 previous litters successfully. These ranged from 2-3 young, with a 100% survival rate. This case presented a difficult labor, with delivery of three (3 healthy female precocious offspring (434g, 378g and 402g, and three (3 perinatal mortalities (285g, 368g and 300g. The female agouti died during delivery and postmortem results indicated that Dystocia resulting in Secondary Uterine Inertia as the cause of death. This abnormally large litter may have been as a result of captive conditions, where an abundance of food and a lack of predators may have dulled the animal’s survival instinct. The agouti’s ability and the time taken to deliver all six (6 young may also have contributed to the animals delivery stress.

  9. Prevalence of Baylisascaris Roundworm in Captive Kinkajous in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, T; Sugiyama, H; Taira, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Une, Y

    2016-04-01

    Baylisascaris potosis causes larva migrans in animals. The present study evaluated the prevalence of B. potosis in captive kinkajous ( Potos flavus ) and the ability of milbemycin to treat natural infections of B. potosis in 2 female wild-caught kinkajous. In 2012, fecal samples were collected from 16 kinkajous in 6 zoological gardens and 29 imported captive kinkajous from 4 pet traders in Japan. Although all samples from zoological gardens were negative, 8 kinkajous from traders were positive for Baylisascaris eggs, at least 4 of which were wild caught in the Republic of Guyana. No associated human illness was reported from any of the facilities. The 2 infected kinkajous received a single oral administration of Milbemycin® A Tablets, which delivers 0.69-0.89 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. Fecal examinations on days 14 and 30 were negative for Baylisascaris eggs. These results demonstrated that milbemycin oxime has possible anthelmintic efficacy against Baylisascaris roundworms in captive kinkajous. We conclude that Baylisascaris infections are highly prevalent in wild-caught kinkajous in Japan and that most of the infected kinkajous were imported from the Republic of Guyana.

  10. NEPHROPATHIES IN THE EUROPEAN CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Url, Angelika; Krutak, Verena; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Chvala-Mannsberger, Sonja; Robert, Nadia; Dinhopl, Nora; Schmidt, Peter; Walzer, Chris

    2016-09-01

    According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003. Examination of paraffin- and glycolmethacrylate-methylmethacrylate (GMA-MMA) embedded kidney samples by light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis in 91%, with a high prevalence for glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis with the histologic pattern of membranous glomerulonephritis (77%). Besides these predominating glomerulopathies, a wide range of other renal lesions, like acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis, calcinosis, and amyloidosis, were present. Pathological expression of collagen type IV, complement C3, fibronectin, and IgG was demonstrated in the glomeruli of the cheetah kidneys with the use of the avidin-biotin complex method. Morphometrical analysis was performed on GMA-MMA embedded kidney samples to obtain glomerulosclerosis index and glomerulosclerosis incidence.

  11. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  12. Reproduction of Phylloderma stenops in captivity (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    CEL Esbérard

    Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.

  13. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  14. Parasitic fauna of captive snakes in Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakulan Valsala Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.

  15. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  16. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  17. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of water repellency in a sandy soil contaminated with tar oil and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczko, Uwe; Bens, Oliver; Durner, Wolfgang

    2006-12-15

    Water repellency can induce preferential flow and thus affect water flow and contaminant transport at hazardous waste sites. Since the spatial patterns of water repellency are mostly unknown, it is problematic to use numerical transport models to predict leachate composition. In this study, the spatial variability of soil water repellency was studied at an industrial site contaminated with tar oil, chromium, copper and arsenic. The persistence of water repellency was assessed by the water drop penetration time (WDPT), and the degree of water repellency was quantified by the ethanol percentage (EP) test. Measurements were made at the soil surface along 3.5-12.1 m long transects at different times between March and October 2002. The spatial variability of WDPT, EP, water content, and organic matter content was quantified by variogram analyses. Both the persistence and the degree of water repellency varied seasonally, with the highest water repellency during the summer months. The correlation lengths of WDPT values ranged between 16 and 406 cm, whereas EP values showed no spatial correlation. For field-moist samples, a critical soil water threshold, below which water repellency prevails, was estimated to be 2.5-4%. For oven dry samples, the WDPT values were dependent on the water content prior to drying. The wide range of correlation lengths and the temporal dynamics of spatial repellency patterns suggest that simulations of solute leaching must consider the spatial and temporal variability of soil hydrophobic properties.

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Gretchen; Grodnitzky, Justin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel

    2009-08-26

    The plant terpenoids encompass a diversity of structures and have many functional roles in nature, including protection against pest arthropods. Previous studies in this laboratory have identified naturally occurring sesquiterpenes contained in essential oils from two plants, amyris (Amyris balsamifera) and Siam-wood (Fokienia hodginsii), that are significantly repellent to a spectrum of arthropod pests. In efforts to further examine the biological activity of this class of compounds 12 of these plant-derived sesquiterpenes have been isolated, purified, and assayed for spatial and contact repellency against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti . These data were used to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships that identified key properties of the sesquiterpene molecule, including electronic and structural parameters that were used to predict optimal repellent activity. There were notable similarities in the models developed for spatial repellency over five time points and for contact repellency. Vapor pressure was an important component of all repellency models. Initial levels of spatial repellency were also related to polarizability of the molecule and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, whereas the equation for late spatial repellency was dependent on other electronic features, including Mulliken population and electrotopological state descriptors. The model identified for contact repellency was the best fit and most significant model in this analysis and showed a relationship with vapor pressure, Mulliken population, and total energy.

  20. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  2. Compromised wounds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Keith; Lawand, Christina; Perry, Sheril D

    2014-01-01

    Wounds are a serious healthcare issue with profound personal, clinical and economic implications. Using a working definition of compromised wounds, this study examines the prevalence of wounds by type and by healthcare setting using data from hospitals, home care, hospital-based continuing care and long-term care facilities within fiscal year 2011-2012 in Canada. It also evaluates several risk factors associated with wounds, such as diabetes, circulatory disease and age. Compromised wounds were reported in almost 4% of in-patient acute hospitalizations and in more than 7% of home care clients, almost 10% of long-term care clients and almost 30% of hospital-based continuing care clients. Patients with diabetes were much more likely to have a compromised wound than were patients without the disease. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  3. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. Boron nitride nanosheet coatings with controllable water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Golberg, Dmitri

    2011-08-23

    The growth, structure, and properties of two-dimensional boron nitride (BN) nanostructures synthesized by a thermal chemical vapor deposition method have been systematically investigated. Most of the BN nanosheets (BNNSs) were less than 5 nm in thickness, and their purity was confirmed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of the process variables on the morphology and roughness of the coatings were studied using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A smooth BN coating was obtained at 900 °C, while compact BNNS coatings composed of partially vertically aligned nanosheets could be achieved at 1000 °C and higher temperatures. These nanosheets were mostly separated and exhibited high surface area especially at higher synthesis temperatures. The nonwetting properties of the BNNS coatings were independent of the water pH and were examined by contact angle goniometry. The present results enable a convenient growth of pure BNNS coatings with controllable levels of water repellency, ranging from partial hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity with contact angles exceeding 150°. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles (7 nm were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i modern, unprinted (blank paper, (ii modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations were used (≥1% w/v, corresponding to high static (θS ≈ 162° and low tilt (θt < 3° contact angles. To interpret these results, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was employed to observe the surface morphologies of the siloxane-nanoparticle films. Static contact angles, measured on surfaces that were prepared from dilute dispersions (particle concentration <1% w/v, increased with particle concentration and attained a maximum value (162° which corresponds to superhydrophobicity. Increasing further the particle concentration did not have any effect on θS. Colourimetric measurements showed that the superhydrophobic films had negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the treated papers. Furthermore, it is shown that the superhydrophobic character of the siloxane-nanoparticle films was stable over a wide range of pH.

  6. Repellence and attraction of Apis mellifera foragers by nectar alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroncová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites present naturally in nectar, such as alkaloids, may change the behavioural responses of floral visitors and affect pollination. Some studies have shown that nectar containing low concentrations of these secondary metabolites is preferred by honey bee foragers over pure nectar. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by dependence or addictive behaviour, a simple taste preference, or by other conditions such as self-medication. In our choice experiment, free-flying bees were presented with artificial flowers holding 20% sucrose containing 0.5−50 μg ml−1 of one of the naturally occurring nectar alkaloids - caffeine, nicotine, senecionine, and gelsemine. Nectar uptake was determined by weighing each flower and comparing the weight to that of the control flower. Our experimental design minimized memorizing and marking; despite this, caffeine was significantly preferred at concentrations 0.5−2 μg ml−1 over control nectar; this preference was not observed for other alkaloids. All of the compounds tested were repellent at concentrations above 5 μg ml−1. We confirmed previous reports that bees exhibit a preference for caffeine, and hypothesize that this is not due only to addictive behaviour but is at least partially mediated by taste preference. We observed no significant preference for nicotine or any other alkaloid.

  7. Length of tick repellency depends on formulation of the repellent compound (icaridin = Saltidin®): tests on Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus placed on hands and clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study had the aim to test the repellent potential of the compound icaridin = Saltidin® against the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus using different formulations of the compound. Tests were done on backs of impregnated human hands, on impregnated linen cloth and versus impregnated dog hair. It was found that 1. Ixodes persulcatus-the common Eastern European, Russian Ixodes species is significantly sensitive to icaridin = Saltidin® as I. ricinus protecting for the test period of 5 h. This is an important finding, since I. persulcatus is the vector of agents of the severe Eastern meningoencephalitis; 2. that this repellent compound acts similarly on both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, when sprayed either on naked skin or on cloths; 3. that there are only slight differences in duration of the repellency when using different formulations containing icaridin = Saltidin®; 4. that icaridin = Saltidin® sprayed on dog hair has identical repellent effects like those seen on human skin and cloths; thus, this compound can also be used to protect animals such as dogs, cats, horses; and 5. that the icaridin = Saltidin® did not induce a bad sensation on skin, nor bad smells; furthermore, it was not sticky and did not leave residuals neither on clothes nor on dog's hair.

  8. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  9. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier’s Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulalia Moreno; Javier Pérez-González; Juan Carranza; Jordi Moya-Laraño

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive populatio...

  10. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  11. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  12. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  13. Linking fractional wettability and contact angle dynamics in water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sarah; Smith, James

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic soil water repellency has become a highly documented soil phenomenon across a range of environmental conditions and investigated within a range of disciplines. With global climate change at the environmental science fore, there is growing concern and need for accurate quantification of fundamental soil hydraulic properties and model parameterization. In the presence of soil water repellency, however, substantial unknowns remain in terms of characterizing repellency and drawing linkages to fundamental hydraulic parameters. This is often related to the complexity of investigating soil water repellency, which is often a challenging environment because of its spatially and temporally variable nature. To help bridge this gap, this work reports on different approaches using various technologies to explore opportunities that yield greater quantification and parametrization of soil water repellency in natural hydrologic systems at different scales. These approaches include X-ray microtomography (μXCT), Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA), Drop Penetration tests (MED/WDPT), and Tension Infiltrometry. This work has shown the strength of conceptually linking contact angle dynamics and fractional wettability as a means to understand the nature of infiltration in water repellent soils and provide a mechanistic foundation upon which repellency can be quantified and related to fundamental hydraulic properties. Contact angle dynamics and fractional wettability are complimentary terminology that appear in the multiphase flow and soil physics literature, but have largely/essentially only been applied in synthetic systems. Their utility in natural environments is potentially significant and conceptually useful since they can readily incorporate existing characterizations while providing greater opportunity for articulating and defining specific behaviours in systems with high spatial and temporal heterogeneity.

  14. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  15. Thermal imaging of water repellence breakdown and build up following surfactant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsih, Abdulkareem; Leopold, Matthias; McGrath, Gavan

    2017-04-01

    Surfactants are used in dry land cropping systems to improve water infiltration in water repellent soils, yet the dynamic nature of water repellence during various seasons and the associated hydrologic changes are still poorly understood. Here we evaluate surface temperature changes of a water repellent sand in response to irrigation and surfactant applications, reflecting infiltration, evaporation, and energy balance changes across multiple wetting-drying cycles. Using a near-infrared thermal camera soil surface temperatures of 15 1m2 plots were recorded at 10 minute intervals for three weeks. Plots differed by the width of surfactant application bands ( 16 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm, and 100 cm wide surfactant bands as well as a control with no surfactant), individual treatments were replicated three times. Temporal changes in the spatial variability was examined using semivariograms and wavelets. The semivariogram analysis indicates that in contrast to the thinnest surfactant bands, wide bands lead to a gradual increase in soil-temperature heterogeneity towards that seen in a control. Wavelets and time-distance plots reveal a non-linear switch in soil temperature dynamics for surfactant treated plots which were absent in 100 cm band and control plots. This switch, evident in the relative temperature differences across the plot during diurnal cycling, was associated with a gradual drop in ambient temperatures. These results image water repellence breakdown in the field. The study demonstrates the general suitability of using thermal surface properties of water repellent soils to investigate the dynamics of water repellence breakdown. This knowledge can be used to test the efficiency of available and new surfactant products to overcome water repellency.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Evaporation and Drainage in Wettable and Water-Repellent Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hyun Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on evaporation and drainage in both wettable and water-repellent sands whose surface wettability was artificially modified by silanization. The 2D optical and 3D X-ray computed tomographic imaging was performed during evaporation and the water retention during cyclic drainage and infiltration was measured to assess effects of wettability and initial wetting conditions. The evaporation gradually induces its front at the early stage advance regardless of the wettability and sand types, while its rate becomes higher in water-repellent Ottawa sand than the wettable one. Jumunjin sand which has a smaller particle size and irregular particle shape than Ottawa sand exhibits a similar evaporation rate independent of wettability. Water-repellent sand can facilitate the evaporation when both wettable and water-repellent sands are naturally in contact with each other. The 3D X-ray imaging reveals that the hydraulically connected water films in wettable sands facilitate the propagation of the evaporation front into the soil such that the drying front deeply advances into the soil. For cyclic drainage-infiltration testing, the evolution of water retention is similar in both wettable and water-repellent sands when both are initially wet. However, when conditions are initially dry, water-repellent sands exhibit low residual saturation values. The experimental observations made from this study propose that the surface wettability may not be a sole factor while the degree of water-repellency, type of sands, and initial wetting condition are predominant when assessing evaporation and drainage behaviors.

  17. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  18. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  19. Repellent Compounds Used for Protection From Ticks and Their Toxicological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oral DİNLER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of very harmful diseases in humans and animals. Nine arbovirus, two rickettsia, two protozoa and one helminthic diseases are transmitted by ticks in different climatic and geographical zones. Twenty six tick species have been determined in Turkey until now. These tick species transmit tropical theileriosis and babesiosis, which are cause of important economical loses especially in farm animals, and lyme disease and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. The control of ticks is getting more important due to appearance of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fewer (CCHF in Turkey in recent years. However, the control of ticks is a very difficult and expensive procedure and generally chance of success is very low. The main aims of tick control are acaricidal control of ticks on animals, making different applications for elimination of tick-born diseases in humans and reduction of the contact risk between humans, domestic animals and ticks. The repellent is a common name of the compounds, which are applied on directly skin, clothes and sometimes curtains and nets, and prevent the humans and domestic animals against attacks of harmful organisms such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Although repellent compounds are applied for the organisms which annoy and suck blood at outdoor, some products used in indoor areas (houses, offices and animal shelters, such as mosquito nets, coils and thermal vaporised liquid and mat formulations, are also evaluated in this frame. Repellents are very beneficial products for prevent attack by ticks. But, it should be known that these compounds are not completely harmless and sometimes they can cause toxic effects in humans and domestic animals. In this review, definition and history of the repellent compounds, the action mechanisms and features of an ideal repellent, important repellent compounds and their toxicological importance and safety usage principles of repellents were evaluated.

  20. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p repellency of DEET or IR3535 on LLIRNs. Vice versa, DEET and IR3535 increased spatial and excitatory repellency and reduced landing and probing frequency on LLIRNs resulting in strongly enhanced biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent

  1. Activation of southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) estrogen receptors by phytoestrogens and their potential role in thereproductive failure of captive-born females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR; Ceratotherium simum simum) population serves as an important genetic reservoir critical to the conservation of this vulnerable species. Unfortunately, captive populations are declining due to the poor reproductive success of captive-bor...

  2. Food control systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J

    1997-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  3. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  4. Repellency Effect of Myrtle Essential Oil and DEET against Phlebotomus papatasi, under Labo-ratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is an increasing and important public health problem in Iran. The use of repellents is recommended as one of the important means of personal protection against vectors of ZCL. This paper reports the repellency effect of the plant Myrtle, Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae, essential oil for protection against 3-7-day-old unfed females of the sandfly, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli for the first time in Iran. The tests were carried out under laboratory conditions, using dose-response testing procedure on white rabbits and the results were compared with commonly used repellent, diethyl-3-methylbenzamid (DEET. The modified Wirtz method using K & D apparatus was employed. Effective Dose (EDs values were estimated from the probit regression line. ED50 was measured as 0.1140 and 0.0006 mg/cm2 for Myrtle essential oil and DEET, respectively. The laboratory tests showed that both Myrtle essential oil and DEET had repellency effects against P.papatasi. In addition, the insecticidal action of Myrtle oil was also observed. We concluded that the two repellents could be used as a mean of personal protection against sand flies.

  5. Optimization of pyrethroid and repellent on fabrics against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) using a microencapsulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T-T; Wang, L-K; Cheng, J-L; Hu, Y-Z; Zhao, J-H; Zhu, G-N

    2015-03-01

    A new approach employing a combination of pyrethroid and repellent is proposed to improve the protective efficacy of conventional pyrethroid-treated fabrics against mosquito vectors. In this context, the insecticidal and repellent efficacies of commonly used pyrethroids and repellents were evaluated by cone tests and arm-in-cage tests against Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae). At concentrations of LD50 (estimated for pyrethroid) or ED50 (estimated for repellent), respectively, the knock-down effects of the pyrethroids or repellents were further compared. The results obtained indicated that deltamethrin and DEET were relatively more effective and thus these were selected for further study. Synergistic interaction was observed between deltamethrin and DEET at the ratios of 5 : 1, 2 : 1, 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 (but not 1 : 5). An optimal mixing ratio of 7 : 5 was then microencapsulated and adhered to fabrics using a fixing agent. Fabrics impregnated by microencapsulated mixtures gained extended washing durability compared with those treated with a conventional dipping method. Results indicated that this approach represents a promising method for the future impregnation of bednet, curtain and combat uniform materials.

  6. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  7. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae should form part of an integrated control programme to combat Africanhorse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the presentstudy the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combinationof citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The numberof midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white lighttubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, wascompared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial thefour traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Althoughmore midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaitedtraps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either thespecies composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The highermean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that thismosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  8. Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes.

  9. Temporal patterns of infiltration into a water repellent soil under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phil; Roper, Margaret; Micin, Shayne; Jongepier, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency causes substantial economic losses for farmers in southern Australia through impacts on crop growth and weed germination. However, recent research has demonstrated that laboratory measurements of water repellency may not be a reliable indicator of the severity of symptoms experienced in the field. In particular, crop residue retention and minimal soil disturbance led to increased water repellency, but was also associated with higher soil water contents measured at strategic times of the year. Little is known about the temporal patterns of soil water storage close to the soil surface in a water repellent sand. In this research we measured soil water content at a depth of 0.05 m at 15-minute intervals from June 2011 to October 2012, under various treatment combinations of residue retention and soil disturbance. Measurements were made in both 'crop row' and 'crop inter-row' positions. For a rainfall event (9.2 mm) in March 2012, prior to crop seeding, plots previously established with no-till absorbed significantly more water (increase in soil water content of 0.074 v/v) than plots conventionally cultivated (0.038 v/v). In June 2012 (12.6 mm), 4 weeks after crop seeding, tillage was again significant, and there was a significant interaction between tillage and 'row' or 'inter-row' position. These results demonstrate the importance of crop management in modifying the response of water repellent soils to rainfall in the field.

  10. Fire impacts on water repellency of sandy soils in SW Spanish coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdá, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Although water repellency of sandy soils from dune areas and their consequences (irregular wetting front, preferential flow pathways) are well studied, there is not much information about the effect of fire on hydrophobicity and its consequences in these areas. In this paper we study the in-depth variation of water repellency of burnt sandy soils from south-western Spain. Generally, it was observed that water repellency from unburnt forest soils is relatively higher than in shrublands and grasslands (where the lowest values were observed). However, the impact of fire caused a strong increase of hydrophobicity in the first two cases, with no major differences between them. This study confirms the presence of natural water repellency in sandy soils, as well as some of its consequences (irregular infiltration or increased surface water flow) depending on the type of vegetation, although the differences observed in burnt soils suggest that, although the composition of vegetation is important in the formation of natural water repellency, organic matter content is much more important in the case of burnt soils.

  11. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  12. Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

  13. Repellent Constituents of essential oil from Citrus wilsonii stem barks against Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wua, Yan; Chenb, Hai-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yu; Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Li, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Cai, Qian

    2014-10-01

    The essential oil obtained from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka stem barks with hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be nerol acetate (44.5%), nerol (13.6%), citronellyl propionate (13.5%) and α-terpineol (3.6%). Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol. It was found that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks possessed strong repellency (86% and 92%, respectively, at 78.6 nL/cm2, after 2 and 4 h treatment) against Tribolium castaneum adults. Repellency of the four active compounds was also determined. Nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol were strongly repellent (100%, 100%, 90% and 96%, respectively, at 15.7 nL/cm2, after 2h treatment) against T. castaneum. Nerol exhibited the same level of repellency as the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks and its active compounds have the potential to be developed as natural repellents for control of T. castaneum.

  14. Reducing Insects Contaminations through Stored Foodstuffs by Use of Packaging and Repellency Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye ALLAHVAISI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of stored agricultural products against insects is carried out with chemical insecticides. They have harmful effects for human being, animal and environment. This research carried out on plant essential oils, which are one of the harmless materials and act like contact-fumigant from offering the prospect for using in stored product. They should have the ability to repel the insects. The objective of the present study was to test the properties of Prunus amygdalus L. and Mentha viridis L. for preventing the penetration of pest insects, including: T. castaneum, S. granaries, S. paniceum and R. dominica, to packaged cereals. As foodstuff was packaged by PE polymer and placed into a container 10 g of wheat and flour. The repellent essential oils used in the interior surface of containers. The releasing of insects carried out around the containers to determinate the insect�s penetration percentage with effect of repellents. The highest concentration counted was 1.75 ?l of essential oil per 0.5 ml acetone. The results showed that P. amygdalus had the most repellency effect on T. castaneum that cause 78.52% contamination deduction inside the packaged crop in comparing with control. In addition, M. viridis caused the most repellency on S. granarius (63.81%. The results demonstrated the efficacy of these essential oils for using it in organic food protection. They can prevent the infestation of the stored-product pests to the warehouse.

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  16. Hydrologic impacts of soil water repellency on fine-to-coarse-textured soils of wooded shrublands and shrub-steppe communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for soil water repellency to dominate rangeland hydrologic responses has significant implications for ongoing plant community transitions and disturbance regimes. Naturally occurring soil water repellency has been well documented on semiarid rangelands and chaparral plant communities....

  17. Fresh, dried or smoked? Repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dube, Fitsum Fikru; Tadesse, Kassahun; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2011-01-01

    .... Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves...

  18. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all refuge...

  19. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  20. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  1. DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Ely, Brett R; Palombo, Laura J; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    Insect repellents (e.g. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET) applied to the skin can potentially interfere with sweat production and evaporation, thus increasing physiological strain during exercise-heat stress. The purpose was to determine the impact of 33% DEET lotion on sweating responses, whole body thermoregulation and thermal sensation during walking exercise in the heat. Nine volunteers (2 females, 7 males; 22.1 ± 4.9 years; 176.4 ± 10.0 cm; 79.9 ± 12.9 kg) completed 5 days of heat acclimation (45°C, 20% rh; 545 watts; 100 min/day) and performed three trials: control (CON); DEET applied to forearm (DEET(LOC), 12 cm(2)); and DEET applied to ~13% body surface area (DEET(WB),). Trials consisted of 30 min walking (645 watts) in 40°C, 20% rh environment. Local sweat rate (SR), onset and skin wettedness were measured in DEET(LOC), and heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T (re)), skin temperature (T (sk)), RPE, and thermal sensations (TS) were measured during DEET(WB). No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between DEET(LOC) versus CON, respectively, for steady state SR (1.89 ± 0.44 vs. 2.09 ± 0.84 mg/cm(2)/min), SR area under the curve (46.9 ± 11.7 vs. 55.0 ± 20.8 mg/cm(2)), sweating onset, or skin wettedness. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in HR, T (re), T (sk), Physiological Strain Index, RPE or TS between DEET(WB) versus CON. DEET did not impact measures of local forearm sweating and when applied according to military doctrine, did not adversely impact physiological responses during exercise-heat stress. DEET can be safely worn during military, occupational and recreational activities in hot, insect infested environments.

  2. Captivating Broad Audiences with an Internet-connected Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Elliott, L.; Gervais, F.; Juniper, K.; Owens, D.; Pirenne, B.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, a network of Ocean Networks Canada and the first deep water cabled ocean observatory, began operations in December 2009. Located offshore Canada's west coast, the network streams data from passive, active, and interactive sensors positioned at five nodes along its 800 km long looped cable to the Internet. This technically advanced system includes a sophisticated data management and archiving system, which enables the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data, including video, at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Scientists in Canada and around the world comprise the primary audience for these data, but NEPTUNE Canada is also serving these data to broader audiences including K-16 students and teachers, informal educators, citizen scientists, the press, and the public. Here we present our engagement tools, approaches, and experiences including electronic books, personal phone apps, Internet-served video, social media, mini-observatory systems, print media, live broadcasting from sea, and a citizen scientist portal.NEPTUNE Canada's ibook available on Apple's iBook store.

  3. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  4. Repellent and mosquitocidal effects of leaf extracts of Clausena anisata against the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukandiwa, Lillian; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas; Naidoo, Vinny

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are rapidly developing resistance to insecticides that millions of people relied on to protect themselves from the diseases they carry, thereby creating a need to develop new insecticides. Clausena anisata is used traditionally as an insect repellent by various communities in Africa and Asia. For this study, the repellency and adulticidal activities of leaf extracts and compounds isolated from this plant species were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In the topical application assays, using total bites as an indicator, repellency was dose dependent, with the acetone crude extract (15 %) having 93 % repellence and the hexane fraction (7.5 %) 67 % repellence after 3 h. Fractionation resulted in a loss of total repellence. As mosquito-net treating agents, the acetone and hexane extracts of C. anisata, both at 15 %, had average repellences of 46.89 ± 2.95 and 50.13 ± 2.02 %, respectively, 3 h after exposure. The C. anisata acetone extract and its hexane fraction caused mosquito knockdown and eventually death when nebulised into the testing chamber, with an EC50 of 78.9 mg/ml (7.89 %) and 71.6 mg/ml (7.16 %) in the first 15 min after spraying. C. anisata leaf extracts have potential to be included in protection products against mosquitoes due to the repellent and cidal compounds contained therein.

  5. An agent-based model to investigate the roles of attractive and repellent pheromones in ant decision making during foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elva J H; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Holcombe, M

    2008-11-21

    Pharaoh's ants organise their foraging system using three types of trail pheromone. All previous foraging models based on specific ant foraging systems have assumed that only a single attractive pheromone is used. Here we present an agent-based model based on trail choice at a trail bifurcation within the foraging trail network of a Pharaoh's ant colony which includes both attractive (positive) and repellent (negative) trail pheromones. Experiments have previously shown that Pharaoh's ants use both types of pheromone. We investigate how the repellent pheromone affects trail choice and foraging success in our simulated foraging system. We find that both the repellent and attractive pheromones have a role in trail choice, and that the repellent pheromone prevents random fluctuations which could otherwise lead to a positive feedback loop causing the colony to concentrate its foraging on the unrewarding trail. An emergent feature of the model is a high level of variability in the level of repellent pheromone on the unrewarding branch. This is caused by the repellent pheromone exerting negative feedback on its own deposition. We also investigate the dynamic situation where the location of the food is changed after foraging trails are established. We find that the repellent pheromone has a key role in enabling the colony to refocus the foraging effort to the new location. Our results show that having a repellent pheromone is adaptive, as it increases the robustness and flexibility of the colony's overall foraging response.

  6. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  7. Establishing turfgrass on water repellent soil with ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer surfactant seed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfgrass managers can experience poor seeding success when trying to establish golf course greens and sports fields in water repellent soils. Nonionic soil surfactant formulations are commonly used to treat water repellent soils and subsequently increase water reserves for seed germination and plan...

  8. Bioassay-guided investigation of two monarda essential oils as repellents of yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and M. fistulosa L. essential oils showed potent repellents with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm2, respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl...

  9. Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, D.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate

  10. Effects of kaolinite and drying temperature on the persistence of soil water repellency induced by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichner, L.; Babejová, N.; Dekker, L.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of kaolinite additions and drying temperature on the persistence of soil water repellency, induced by humic acids from peat, were assessed in this study. It was found that additions of 5 and 10% kaolinite (referred to as the most effective material in combating the water repellency) did

  11. Post-Fire soil water repellency, hydrologic response, and sediment yield compared between grass-converted and chaparral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken R. Hubbert; Pete M. Wohlgemuth; Jan L. Beyers; Marcia G. Narog; Ross Gerrard

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Williams Fire burned >90 % of the San Dimas Experimental Forest, providing an opportunity to investigate differences in soil water repellency, peak discharge, and sediment yield between grass-converted and chaparral watersheds. Post-fire water repellency and moisture content were measured in the winter and summer for four years. Peak discharge was...

  12. Water repellent soils following prescribed burning treatments and a wildfire in the oak savannas of the Malpai Borderlands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody L. Stropki; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    Water repellent (hydrophobic) soils impact the infiltration process of a water budget by restricting the movement of water into and through a soil body. The infiltration of water into a water repellent soil can be inhibited or completely impeded in which case much of the incoming precipitation reaching the soil surface becomes overland flow. One mechanism causing the...

  13. Amyloid proteins are highly abundant in water-repellent but not wettable soils: microbial differentiation matters to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Dudley, Ed; Swain, Martin; Doerr, Stefan; Matthews, Peter; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency is a common phenomenon affecting the hydrological responses of many soil and land use types in different climates. This in turn leads to decreased water infiltration, reduced vegetation cover, fertiliser run off and soil erosion. The fundamental (biological) causes of (bulk) soil repellency and its dynamic behaviour remain poorly understood. We have applied soil metaproteomics, the systemic extraction and identification of proteins from a soil, to understand the biological (adaptive) processes and potential for bio-modification of mineral surfaces, which occur at the molecular level in soils switching between wettable and repellent states. Extreme, moderate and sub-critical water-repellent UK silt-loam soils under permanent grass vegetation, including Park Grass at Rothamsted Research, were sampled below the root zone depth under wettable and repellent conditions. Soils were subjected to our new extraction methods for determining the specific ultrahydrophobic and total metaproteomes. Using our ultrahydrophobic extraction protocol, we have identified more than 200, mostly novel amyloid, proteins, which could be extracted from water-repellent soils, but were absent in the comparable wettable soils. One of the novel amyloid proteins was highly abundant in all soils, which has the potential as a soil biomarker for precision land management, especially in irrigation. Comparative profiling of the total metaproteomes of wettable and repellent soils has revealed similarities and dissimilarities in microbial diversity and their activities, which have created a deeper understanding of soil system processes common and adaptive to soil moisture and to the severity of repellence.

  14. Assessing the efficacy of candidate mosquito repellents against the background of an attractive source that mimics a human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, D.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito repellents are used around the globe to protect against nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of repellents as tools to control the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. We present a new bioassay for the accurate

  15. The repellent efficacy of eleven essential oils against adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanidesová, Katarína; Škultéty, Ľudovít; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus ticks are among the most important arthropod vectors of zoonotic disease agents in Europe. Eleven essential oils, namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), lemon-scented gum (Corymbia citriodora), marjoram (Origanum majorana), peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (M. spicata), and red thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were tested for repellency against adult D. reticulatus ticks at concentrations of 1 and 3%. Clove bud, creeping thyme and red thyme essential oils were the most efficient - repelling 83, 82 and 68% of ticks when diluted to 3%, respectively. The mixture of creeping thyme and citronella containing 1.5% of each showed higher repellency (91%) than individual essential oils at the concentration of 3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner Souza Aguiar

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult and Aedes albopictus (C6/36 cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36 induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  17. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 μg/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas.

  18. [Repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on Plutella xylostella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2004-03-01

    Based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(DBM) Plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. When the ethanol extracts(Etho Exts) of Bauhinia variegata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Euphorbia hirta, Duranta repens, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Magnolia grandiflora, and Nicotiana tabacum were applied respectively, the oviposition repellent rates were all over 80.00%; while after forty-eight hours treatment with the Etho Exts of Euphorbia pulcherrima, Broussonetia papyrifera, Artemisia argyi, Camellia oleifera, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia hirta, Bauhinia variegata, and Setaria viridisa, the antifeedant rates of DBM larvae were all more than 80.00%.

  19. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gordillo-Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires induce a series of soil changes affecting their physical and chemical properties and the hydrological and erosive response. Two of the properties that are commonly affected by burning are soil water repellency and structural stability. This paper carries out the study and monitoring of water repellency and soil structural stability during a period of 6 years after fire in calcareous soils of southern Spain in different aggregate size fractions (<2, 1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm. During this time, it was observed that both properties showed different tendencies in different aggregate size fractions. It was observed that water repellency increased after fire especially in the finer fractions (0.25-0.5 mm. Structural stability increased significantly after the fire and was progressively reduced during the experimental period.

  20. Composition and structure of agents responsible for development of water repellency in soils following oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvina, Marina; Todoruk, Tiona R; Langford, Cooper H

    2003-07-01

    Soil from the Ellerslie site of experimental oil contamination in Alberta developed water repellency some years after initial remediation. The water-repellent soils were compared to clean soils and contaminated but wettable soils by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of extraction with CH2Cl2 (for petroleum hydrocarbons), NaOH (for natural organic matter), and 2-propanol/ammonia (IPA/NH3) on wettability were evaluated by the molarity of the ethanol droplet (MED) test. Soil extracts and whole soils, after extraction, were examined using NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). On the basis of the structure--MED correlations, a model of a thin-layer natural organic matter--petroleum products complex formed under strong drying conditions is proposed to account for the development of water repellency. Studies of two similar soils from accidental oil spills are supportive.

  1. Super water repellent surface 'strictly' mimicking the surface structure of lotus leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Tae Gon; Kim, Ho Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Moon, Myoung Woon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    To achieve the hierarchy of roughness as observed in lotus leaves, most artificial water-repellent surfaces have nano-asperities on top of micropillars. However, observation of real lotus leaves through SEM reveals that nonoscale roughness covers the entire surface including the base as well as bumps. Thus we fabricate surfaces having the same hierarchical roughness structure as the lotus leaf by forming nanopillars on both micropillars and base. We compare the measures of water-repellency (static contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and transition pressure between the Cassie and Wenzel states) of the lotus-like surface with those of surfaces having single micro- and nano- roughness. The results show that nanoscale roughness covering entire surface area leads to superior water-repellency to other surface roughness structures. We also give a theoretical consideration of this observation.

  2. Soil Surface Structure: A key factor for the degree of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Douglas, P.; Bryant, R.; Hamlett, C.; McHale, G.; Newton, M.; Shirtcliffe, N.

    2012-04-01

    Despite of considerable efforts, the degree of water repellency has not always been fully explained by chemical property of soil (termed hydrophobicity). That might be because the structure of a soil surface was not considered properly, which is another main factor determining the severity of soil water repellency. Surface structure has only recently been considered in soil science, whilst it has been paid attention for several decades in materials science due to its relevance to industrial applications. In this contribution, comparison of critical contact angles measured on different surface structures (made with glass beads, glass shards and beach sands) is presented and the effect of surface structure on manifestation of soil water repellency is discussed in terms of several different variables such as the individual particles shape, and areal and structural factors of the actual surface.

  3. Studies on the Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of the Seed Extract of Tephrosia Purpurea (LINN Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Saxena

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were conducted to find out the insecticidal and repellent properties of petroleum ether extract of the seeds of Tephrosia purpurea. In laboratory trials contact toxicity of the extract was assessed against land leeches, houseflies, mosquitoes, rice weevil and flour beetle. In field trials, the repellency of the extract was assessed against land leeches, mosquitoes and simulium flies. In laboratory trials, the dosage required for 100 per cent mortality was 0.0005 gm/cm/sup 2/ for land leeches, 0.0157 gm/cm/sup 2/ for flour beetle. In field trials, the extract was found to be repellent against land leeches for 5 hours, mosquitoes for 4 hours and simulium flies for 5 hours.

  4. Bio-inspired water repellent surfaces produced by ultrafast laser structuring of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberoglou, M.; Zorba, V. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 714 09 (Greece); Stratakis, E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 710 03 (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion 71004 (Greece)], E-mail: stratak@iesl.forth.gr; Spanakis, E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 710 03 (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion 71004 (Greece); Tzanetakis, P. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 714 09 (Greece); Anastasiadis, S.H. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fotakis, C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, Heraklion 714 09 (Greece)

    2009-03-01

    We report here an efficient method for preparing stable superhydrophobic and highly water repellent surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with chloroalkylsilane monolayers. By varying the laser pulse fluence on the surface one can successfully control its wetting properties via a systematic and reproducible variation of roughness at micro- and nano-scale, which mimics the topology of natural superhydrophobic surfaces. The self-cleaning and water repellent properties of these artificial surfaces are investigated. It is found that the processed surfaces are among the most water repellent surfaces ever reported. These results may pave the way for the implementation of laser surface microstructuring techniques for the fabrication of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces in different kinds of materials as well.

  5. Insecticidal and insect-repellent activities of essential oils from Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae against Rhizopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Verónica S; Murrayb, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves of Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora (Verbenaceae) and from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent and toxic activities against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Topical application and filter paper assays were employed for contact toxicity studies; filter paper impregnation was also used for fumigant and repellent assays. In topical tests A. polystachya was as effective as S. molle leaves. In the case of repellent assays, A. citriodora was the most effective oil based on the class scale. A. polystachya was the most toxic plant on contact toxicity by filter paper assay (LC50 26.6 mg/cm2). Fumigant toxicity was only evaluated with fruits and leaves of S. molle, and no significant differences were found between them. Published data are included to compare the fumigant toxicity of S. molle with that of A. citridora and A. polystachya.

  6. Can topical insect repellents reduce malaria? A cluster-randomised controlled trial of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Chen-Hussey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito vectors of malaria in Southeast Asia readily feed outdoors making malaria control through indoor insecticides such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying more difficult. Topical insect repellents may be able to protect users from outdoor biting, thereby providing additional protection above the current best practice of LLINs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A double blind, household randomised, placebo-controlled trial of insect repellent to reduce malaria was carried out in southern Lao PDR to determine whether the use of repellent and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs could reduce malaria more than LLINs alone. A total of 1,597 households, including 7,979 participants, were recruited in June 2009 and April 2010. Equal group allocation, stratified by village, was used to randomise 795 households to a 15% DEET lotion and the remainder were given a placebo lotion. Participants, field staff and data analysts were blinded to the group assignment until data analysis had been completed. All households received new LLINs. Participants were asked to apply their lotion to exposed skin every evening and sleep under the LLINs each night. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases were actively identified by monthly rapid diagnostic tests. Intention to treat analysis found no effect from the use of repellent on malaria incidence (hazard ratio: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01, p = 0.868. A higher socio-economic score was found to significantly decrease malaria risk (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90, p = 0.004. Women were also found to have a reduced risk of infection (hazard ratio: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.92, p = 0.020. According to protocol analysis which excluded participants using the lotions less than 90% of the time found similar results with no effect from the use of repellent. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial suggests that topical repellents are not a suitable intervention in addition to

  7. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  8. The influence of clay type on reduction of water repellency by applied clays: a review of some West Australian work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissock, I.; Walker, E. L.; Gilkes, R. J.; Carter, D. J.

    2000-05-01

    In Western Australia water repellency mostly occurs in soils with sandy texture; the severity of water repellency is influenced by very small changes in clay content. Additions of 1-2% clay can prevent water repellency and for some time clay amendments have been used by farmers to overcome water repellency. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of clays in ameliorating water repellency. Clays were assessed for effectiveness in reducing water repellency by mixing with water repellent sands and measuring water drop penetration time (WDPT) on the resultant mixtures. WDPT was measured on the initial mixtures, a wetting and drying cycle was imposed and WDPT measured again. Two sets of clays were assessed: four simple clays containing kaolinite (2) or smectite (2) group minerals and a group of clayey subsoil materials which had been collected by farmers. For the simple clays, clay mineral type was the most significant factor in determining response. Kaolin was much more effective than smectite. Imposition of a wetting and drying cycle greatly reduced water repellency. The dominant exchangeable cation of the clays (sodium or calcium) had little effect on the ability of the clays to reduce water repellency. The factor that was most predictive of the effectiveness of clayey subsoils materials in reducing water repellency was texture: clay content ( r2=0.18) or clay+silt content ( r2=0.23). These properties were more predictive of water repellency values after the wetting and drying cycle treatment ( r2=0.36, r2=0.44). The proportion of the clay fraction that consisted of kaolinite was next most predictive in determining effectiveness which is again indicative of kaolin group minerals being more effective than smectite group minerals. The exchangeable sodium percentage and clay dispersibility had no systematic effect on the ability of these clays to reduce water repellency. These results provide a basis for developing a practical field procedure to enable

  9. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) grown in eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparaocha, Evangeline T; Iwu, Iraneus; Ahanakuc, J E

    2010-03-01

    The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne) in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellent that is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly. Four different lotions; 20% (v/v) and 30% (v/v) concentrations each of the extracted volatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel) were made and six volunteered human baits were used to evaluate the mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the stock materials at the three different centres from September to November 2008. Topical application of each of the four different lotions significantly (p mosquitoes in all the three locations tested. The 30% (v/v) concentration in olive oil base exhibiting highest average percentage repellencies of 97.2, 95.7 and 96.3% at World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne centres respectively while the 20% (v/v) concentration in palm kernel oil base had the least repellency of 36.3, 41.6 and 36.3%, respectively. The other two formulations had values ranging from 67.8 to 80% in the three locations. The 30% (v/v) concentration in both olive and palm kernel oil bases afforded all night protection against mosquito bites in all the centres, and demonstrated fast knockdown and paralyzing effect on few mosquitoes at the urban centre (World Bank Estate). The study confirms that O. gratissimum grown in eastern Nigeria has mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal potentials and the formulations could be used to reduce human-mosquito contacts and hence mosquito-borne diseases and irritations caused by their bites.

  10. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  11. Soil respiration (CO2 efflux) response to spatio-temporal variability of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a common feature of many soils which restricts water infiltration and movement within the soil. SWR is expected to become more spread according to current climatic prediction, but its effect on soil carbon dynamics and specifically on soil CO2 fluxes is still not clear. Based on previous laboratory experiments it has been suggested that water repellency reduces soil respiration, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to naturally varying hydrological conditions created by SWR are not yet known. This is the first field-based study testing the hypothesis that water repellency indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux. In situ field measurements of soil CO2 fluxes, temperature, water contents and water repellency were carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest site under the humid temperate climate of the UK. SWR was observed for the majority of the warmer period, but exhibited high spatial variability. Soils showed similar levels of extreme water repellency only on a few occasions following long dry spells and this indeed resulted in reduction in CO2 efflux. Spatially patchy SWR with variable soil moisture content induced the highest respiration rates, significantly higher than when SWR was absent. This rather unexpected behaviour can be explained by SWR-induced preferential flow which created flow paths with water and nutrients supply to the microorganisms, while water repellent zones provided air-filled pathways to facilitate soil-atmosphere gas exchanges. This study demonstrates that SWR can have contrasting effects on CO2 fluxes and, when spatially-variable, enhance CO2 efflux.

  12. The repellent and persistent toxic effects of essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechita, I S; Poirel, M T; Cozma, V; Zenner, L

    2015-12-15

    The economic impact of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, the lack of new acaricides, the occurrence of resistance and tighter legislation have all led to the need to find new ways to control this pest. One promising alternative method of control focuses on employing repellent and/or toxic effects of selected plant essential oils against D. gallinae. Ten essential oils (basil, thyme, coriander, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, fir tree, oregano, mint, and juniper) were tested for the persistence of toxic and repellent effects. In filter-paper toxicity bioassays against D. gallinae, the best results were observed for lavender (more than 97% mortality after 48 and 72 h) and thyme (84% at 72 h) at a dose of 0.12 mg/cm(2). In addition, two oils showed significant persistent toxic effects 15 and 30 days post application to filter papers. Thyme was the most effective (100% mortality at 72 h), followed by lavender (nearly 80% mortality after 72 h). Out of the ten oils tested for their repellent effect, thyme was the strongest, with nearly 80% of the tested area avoided by mites; oregano caused a 60% avoidance and lavender exhibited an effect close to 40%. All other oils exhibited a repellent effect of less than 30%. None of the experiments showed a repellent effect for HM (commercial alimentary oil) or negative controls. We found that the thyme and lavender essential oils exhibited promising results when tested in vitro for toxic and repellent effects against D. gallinae; thus, we suggest that future experiments focus on in vivo tests using these oils in farm units.

  13. Effect of Thickness of a Water Repellent Soil Layer on Soil Evaporation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S.; Im, S.; Doerr, S.

    2012-04-01

    A water repellent soil layer overlying wettable soil is known to affect soil evaporation. This effect can be beneficial for water conservation in areas where water is scarce. Little is known, however, about the effect of the thickness of the water repellent layer. The thickness of this layer can vary widely, and particularly after wildfire, with the soil temperature reached and the duration of the fire. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thickness of a top layer of water repellent soil on soil evaporation rate. In order to isolate the thickness from other possible factors, fully wettable standard sand (300~600 microns) was used. Extreme water repellency (WDPT > 24 hours) was generated by 'baking' the sand mixed with oven-dried pine needles (fresh needles of Pinus densiflora) at the mass ratio of 1:13 (needle:soil) at 185°C for 18 hours. The thicknesses of water repellent layers were 1, 2, 3 and 7 cm on top of wettable soil. Fully wettable soil columns were prepared as a control. Soil columns (8 cm diameter, 10 cm height) were covered with nylon mesh. Tap water (50 ml, saturating 3 cm of a soil column) was injected with hypoderm syringes from three different directions at the bottom level. The injection holes were sealed with hot-melt adhesive immediately after injection. The rate of soil evaporation through the soil surface was measured by weight change under isothermal condition of 40°C. Five replications were made for each. A trend of negative correlation between the thickness of water repellent top layer and soil evaporation rate is discussed in this contribution.

  14. Ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces: Effects of atmospheric icing conditions and surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, roughness and icing condition has been discussed. • This study is the first to deal with the effect of icing parameters on the ice repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. • Two fabricated superhydrophobic surfaces with similar wettability behaviour showed different icephobic behaviour. • Superhydrophobic surfaces are not always icephobic and ice repellency is governed by icing condition parameters like liquid water content and water droplet size. • Lower liquid water content and smaller water droplet size promote ice-repellency behaviour of superhydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel view on ice repellency of superhydrophobic surfaces in terms of contact angle hysteresis, surface roughness and icing condition. Ice repellency performance of two superhydrophobic silicone rubber nanocomposite surfaces prepared via spin coating and spray coating methods were investigated. High contact angle (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<6°) and roll-off property were found for both spin and spray coated samples. The results showed a significant reduction of ice adhesion strength on the spin-coated sample while ice adhesion strength on the spray-coated sample was found to be unexpectedly similar to that of the uncoated sample. Indeed, this research study showed that the icephobic properties of a surface are not directly correlated to its superhydrphobicity and that further investigations, like taking icing condition effect into account, are required. It was found that icephobic behaviour of the spray coated sample improved at lower levels of liquid water content (LWC) and under icing conditions characterized by smaller water droplet size.

  15. CO2 response to rewetting of hydrophobic soils - Can soil water repellency inhibit the 'Birch effect'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Carmen; Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Rewetting of dry soils is known to cause a short-term CO2 pulse commonly known as the 'Birch effect'. The displacement of CO2 with water during the process of wetting has been recognised as one of the sources of this pulse. The 'Birch effect' has been extensively observed in many soils, but some studies report a lack of such phenomenon, suggesting soil water repellency (SWR) as a potential cause. Water infiltration in water repellent soils can be severely restricted, causing overland flow or increased preferential flow, resulting in only a small proportion of soil pores being filled with water and therefore small gas-water replacement during wetting. Despite the suggestions of a different response of CO2 fluxes to wetting under hydrophobic conditions, this theory has never been tested. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that CO2 pulse does not occur during rewetting of water repellent soils. Dry homogeneous soils at water-repellent and wettable status have been rewetted with different amounts of water. CO2 flux as a response to wetting has been continuously measured with the CO2 flux analyser. Delays in infiltration and non-uniform heterogeneous water flow were observed in water repellent soils, causing an altered response in the CO2 pulse in comparison to typically observed 'Birch effect' in wettable systems. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects water relations in soil, but has also an impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  16. Laser scanning confocal microscopy characterization of water repellent distribution in a sandstone pore network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghlami, Karima; Gómez-Gras, David; Corbella, Mercè; Darragi, Fadila

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, we propose the use of the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) to determine the effect of water repellents on rock's pore-network configuration and interconnection. The rocks studied are sandstones of Miocene age, a building material that is commonly found in the architectural heritage of Tunisia. The porosity quantitative data of treated and untreated samples, obtained by mercury porosimetry tests, were compared. The results show a slight decrease in total porosity with the water repellent treatment, which reduced both microporosity and macroporosity. This reduction produced a modification in pore size distribution and a shift of the pore access size mode interval toward smaller pore diameters (from the 30-40 microm to the 20-30 microm intervals). The water repellent was observed in SEM images as a continuous film coating grain surfaces; moreover, it was easily visualized in LSCM, by staining the water repellent with Epodye fluorochrome, and the coating thickness was straightforwardly measured (1.5-2 microm). In fact, the combination of mercury intrusion porosimetry data and LSCM observations suggests that the porosity reduction and the shift of the pore diameter mode were mainly due to the general reduction of pore diameters, but also to the plugging of the smallest pores (less than 3-4 microm in diameter) by the water repellent film. Finally, the LSCM technique enabled the reconstruction of 3D views of the water repellent coating film in the pore network, indicating that its distribution was uniform and continuous over the 100 microm thick sample. The LSCM imaging facilitates the integration and interpretation of mercury porosimetry and SEM data.

  17. Evaluation of repellents efficacy against Anopheles gambiae s.s.; an anthropophilic malaria vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Katunzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of human-vector contact is of epidemiological importance in malaria control. Repellents can be used to complement the existing intervention tools against malaria vectors. Thus, evaluation of efficacy of additional mosquito repellents and /or attractants is of great significance for personal protection tools against malaria vectors. This study evaluated the repellence efficacy of menthol-propylene-glycol-carbonate (MR08 and Lemon grass (LG against Anopheles gambiae. Experiments were performed in a room which was 7.8 meters by 3.9 meters in dimension. Three experimental set ups were performed, i comparison of 10 hours worn sock and unworn sock;  ii comparison of  10 hours worn sock treated with MR08 against worn sock alone, and iii comparison of  10 hours worn sock treated with LG against worn sock alone. CDC miniature light traps were used to evaluate the recovery of released mosquitoes using both repellents and attractants. After initial trials, a concentration of 500 ppm was selected for all repellents. Among 1800 mosquitoes released into the experimental room, 1230 were recovered by CDC light traps while the remaining 570 were found within the experimental room. Among those collected by light traps, 1185 were collected by traps with worn sock alone. A worn sock treated with either MR08 or Lemon grass significantly repelled An.gambiae compared to worn sock alone. The findings of this study demonstrate that MR08 and lemon grass have inhibition efficiency against mosquito stings but further field evaluations are required for observed findings against wild populations of An.gambiae at lower Moshi using slow release method.

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence among Captive Chimpanzees, Texas, USA, 2012(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick W; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Abee, Christian R; Lambeth, Susan P; Weese, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in humans and animals is concerning. In 2012, our evaluation of a captive chimpanzee colony in Texas revealed MRSA prevalence of 69%. Animal care staff should be aware of possible zoonotic MRSA transmission resulting from high prevalence among captive chimpanzees.

  20. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Tatyana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  1. Cryptococcosis in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus : two cases : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Bolton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-like organism associated with pulmonary, meningoencephalitic, or systemic disease. This case report documents 2 cases of cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. In both cases the predominant post mortal lesions were pulmonary cryptococcomas and extensive meningoencephalomyelitis. Both cheetahs tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus. The organism isolated in Case 2 was classified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, which is mainly associated with disease in immunocompetent hosts.

  2. ACTH stimulation test in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, L S; Schoeman, J P; Meltzer, D G A

    2007-09-01

    Serum cortisol response was assessed in 8 captive cheetahs, of varying ages, after the intravenous administration of 500 microg of tetracosactide (Synacthen Depot, Novartis, Kempton Park) while maintained under general anaesthesia. In addition, 8 cheetahs were anaesthetised and given an equal volume of saline in order to establish baseline cortisol concentrations at similar stages of anaesthesia. A significant difference in the median cortisol concentration measured over time was found following ACTH administration in the ACTH group (P cheetah. No statistically significant rise was seen in the anaesthetised control group following the injection of saline (P = 0.238).

  3. Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewska Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

  4. Primate breeding season: photoperiodic regulation in captive Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, R N

    1975-01-01

    Under natural light in Portland, Oreg., captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) experience a breeding season that differs by nearly half a year from the season in Madagascar. A series of experimental day length changes from 1971 to 1974 demonstrated the ability of both temperate and tropical photoperiod cycles to induce estrous cycles in quiescent animals. After photoperiodic activation, most impregnated females failed to resume estrous cycles even after infant separations unless they received additional photoperiod changes. Unimpregnated females, on the other hand, showed no significant decline in the incidence of estrous cycles under prolonged exposure to a constant day length regimen (12.OL:12.OD) for over a year.

  5. Virtual simulation of maneuvering captive tests for a surface vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic derivatives or coefficients are required to predict the maneuvering characteristics of a marine vehicle. These derivatives are obtained numerically for a DTMB 5512 model ship by virtual simulating of captive model tests in a CFD environment. The computed coefficients are applied to predict the turning circle and zigzag maneuvers of the model ship. The comparison of the simulated results with the available experimental data shows a very good agreement among them. The simulations show that the CFD is precise and affordable tool at the preliminary design stage to obtain maneuverability performance of a marine vehicles.

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples...... from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  7. Nocturnal Activity of a Captive Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    This report aims to clarify the nocturnal activity of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) under captive conditions to compare it with that under natural conditions. The aye-aye was nocuturnal and showed activity at any time at night. However, from 02:00 hrs until just prior to dawn, it often rested. It frequently returned to the nest throughout this period to take long rests of more than half an hour. The aye-aye's activities were classified into four categories: feeding, moving, resti...

  8. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  9. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  10. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  11. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  12. Soil-Water Repellency Characteristic Curves for Soil Profiles with Organic Carbon Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Nadeeka Senani; Muller, Karin; Moldrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) of soils is a property with significant consequences for agricultural water management, water infiltration, contaminant transport, and for soil erosion. It is caused by the presence of hydrophobic agents on mineral grain surfaces. Soils were samples in different depths......, and the sessile drop method (SDM). The aim to (i) compare the methods, (ii) characterize the soil-water repellency characteristic curves (SWRCC) being SWR as a function of the volumetric soil-water content (θ) or matric potential (ψ), and (iii) find relationships between SWRCC parameters and SOC content. The WDPT...

  13. Effects of soil water repellency on microbial community structure and functions in Mediterranean pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; Grayston, Sue J.; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a property commonly observed in forest areas showing wettable and water repellent patches with high spatial variability. SWR can greatly influence the hydrology and the ecology of forest soils. The capacity of soil microorganisms to degrade different organic compounds depends upon species composition, so this may affect changes in SWR on the microsite scale (such as the presence of soil water repellent patches; Mülleret al., 2010). In the Mediterranean forest context, SWR has been found to be related to microbial community composition. The accumulation of different hydrophobic compounds might be causing the shifts in microbial community structure (Lozano et al., 2014). In this study we investigated the effects of SWR persistence on soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity under Pinus halepensis forest in three different sites: Petrer, Gorga and Jávea (Alicante, E Spain). Soil samples were classified into three different water repellency classes (wettable, slight or strongly water repellent samples) depending on the SWR persistence. The soil microbial community was determined through phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Enzyme activities chosen for this study were cellulase, β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminide (NAG). The relationships between microbiological community structure and some soil properties such as pH, Glomalin Related Soil Protein, soil organic matter content and soil respiration were also studied. Redundancy analyses and decomposition of the variances were performed to clarify how microbial community composition and enzyme activities are affected by SWR and soil properties. The effect of SWR on microbial community composition differed between locations. This effect was clearer in the Petrer site. Enzyme activity varied considerably depending on SWR persistence. The highest activities were found in slightly SWR samples and the lowest mostly in the strongly water repellent ones. These preliminary

  14. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control.

  15. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  16. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAR, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliferenko, Polina V; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Poda, Gennadiy I; Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Pillai, Girinath G; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Katritzky, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort.

  17. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  18. Rodent repellents: Preparation and properties of thiouronium compounds and cyclic imides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    Syntheses and bioassays of cyclic imides and thiouronium compounds were carried out as part of a search for materials capable of preventing rodent damage to packaged commodities. Previous studies had shown that repellent activity was associated with functional groups containing nitrogen and sulfur, and was enhanced by the presence of ionic linkages. Twenty-seven thiouronium compounds and 40 imides, including 1 0 compounds not described previously, were prepared for these tests. Ten imides and 26 thiouronium compounds were repellent under the conditions of test. Information obtained in these studies will be utilized in the development and selection of more effective materials for prevention of rodent damage to foods and other commodities.

  19. Repellent and insecticide activity of Pelargonium x hortorum against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; El-Badawey, Samy S; Abd El-Ghany, Melegi A; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide and repellent activity of an acetone extract and oil from fresh leaves of Pelargonium x hortorum (cv. Orangesonne) were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The oil showed medium toxicity against the 2nd instar and low toxicity against the 4th instar larvae, while the extract showed high significant toxicity at all concentrations tested against the two instars. On the other hand, both oil and extract exhibited highly significant repellency against the two tested instars. Volatile constituents of the oil were also identified by GC-MS analysis.

  20. Water repellency, plants, agriculture abandonment and fire in citrus plantations. The Canyoles river watershed study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a key soil property that determine the soil and water losses, soil fertility and plant development. Although until the 90's the soil water repellency was seeing as an uncommon soil characteristic, now is considered a key soil property to understand the soil hydrology (Alanís et al., 2016; Hewelke et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2016). The inspiring research of Leonard DeBano and Stefan H Doerr changed the fate of the science (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al. 2000). Soil water repellency was associated to forest fire affected land due to the pioneer contribution of professor DeBano in the 70's and Professor Doerr in the 90's. The research during the last two decades demonstrate that fire affects the reallocation of the hydrophobic substances and can reduce or increase the severity of the soil water repellence at different soil depths and horizons. The SWR is usually measured by sampling to show the influence of key soil properties (texture, structure, plant cover, litter, season…) on the degree of soil water repellency. The sampling is applied usually with a few drops when the Water Drop Penetration Time method is applied, and this inform of the time of penetration, but few researches focussed in the spatial distribution of the water repellency, which is a key factor of the runoff generation, the water infiltration and the water redistribution such as demonstrate the wetting fronts. Our approach research the spatial distribution of the water repellency by means of an intense sampling of soil surface water repellency. One thousand drops were distributed in a square meter (100 lines separated 1 cm and 100 drops per each line of 100 cm, with a total od 1000 drops in 1m2) on 10 sampling points on 4 land managements: ploughing and herbicide agriculture fields treatment), abandoned 10 years, and burnt. The research was carried out in citrus plantations of the Canyoles river watershed. The results show that the

  1. Genetic analysis reveals multiple parentage in captive reared eastern hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Shem D; Williams, Rod N

    2015-11-01

    Information on the parentage of captive reared clutches is vital for conservation head-starting programs. Molecular methods, such as genotyping individuals with hyper-variable markers, can elucidate the genealogical contribution of captive-reared, reintroduced individuals to native populations. In this study, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to infer parentage of a clutch of 18 eastern hellbenders collected from a single nest from Buffalo Creek, West Virginia, subsequently reared in captivity, and used for translocations in Indiana. Collectively, these markers successfully detected the presence of multiple parentage for this species of conservation concern presently used in captive management programs in zoos across many states. This study highlights the need for genetic analysis of captive reared clutches used in translocations to minimize the loss of genetic diversity and potential for genetic swamping at release sites.

  2. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  3. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  4. captive breeding of the four-eyed turtle (sacalia quadriocellata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    in 1998,a study on forty-five four-eyed turtles (sacalia quadriocellata) was initiated to gather preliminary biological data of this species and to investigate the feasibility of its captive reproduction.in the following six years,no courtship behavior was found occurring in males and no oviposition in females.from 2004 to 2007,two successful techniques were applied to initiate reproductive behavior:1) injecting exogenous reproductive hormones; and 2) reducing the stress of living in captivity.as a result of the hormone treatments,courtship behavior and copulation were observed during september and october,2005.however,no courtship displays were seen from the ck males,which were not treated with hormones.ovulation occurred between december and march,and the correlation was not significant between behavior of ovulation and food intake.females laid only one clutch of eggs each year,with 2.47 eggs (n=34,range=l-4) at average,and 84 eggs were totally obtained,of which 13 were damaged,52 were infertile and 19 fertile.of the fertile eggs,nine were hatched with mean incubation period of 105.9 days (n=9,range=89-122 days) at temperature ranging from 24 to 27℃.

  5. Acquired umbilical hernias in four captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velguth, Karen E; Rochat, Mark C; Langan, Jennifer N; Backues, Kay

    2009-12-01

    Umbilical hernias are a common occurrence in domestic animals and humans but have not been well documented in polar bears. Surgical reduction and herniorrhaphies were performed to correct acquired hernias in the region of the umbilicus in four adult captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) housed in North American zoos. Two of the four bears were clinically unaffected by their hernias prior to surgery. One bear showed signs of severe discomfort following acute enlargement of the hernia. In another bear, re-herniation led to acute abdominal pain due to gastric entrapment and strangulation. The hernias in three bears were surgically repaired by debridement of the hernia ring and direct apposition of the abdominal wall, while the large defect in the most severely affected bear was closed using polypropylene mesh to prevent excessive tension. The cases in this series demonstrate that while small hernias may remain clinically inconsequential for long periods of time, enlargement or recurrence of the defect can lead to incarceration and acute abdominal crisis. Umbilical herniation has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears, and it is suspected that factors such as body condition, limited exercise, or enclosure design potentially contribute to the development of umbilical hernias in captive polar bears.

  6. The Final (Oral Ebola) Vaccine Trial on Captive Chimpanzees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Peter D.; Kurup, Drishya; Hasselschwert, Dana L.; Wirblich, Christoph; Goetzmann, Jason E.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2017-01-01

    Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV. Vaccination did not induce serious health complications. Blood chemistry, hematologic, and body mass correlates of psychological stress suggested that, although sedation induced acute stress, experimental housing conditions did not induce traumatic levels of chronic stress. Acute behavioral and physiological responses to sedation were strongly correlated with immune responses to vaccination. These results suggest that oral vaccination holds great promise as a tool for the conservation of apes and other endangered tropical wildlife. They also imply that vaccine and drug trials on other captive species need to better account for the effects of stress on immune response. PMID:28277549

  7. Captive Gorillas are Right-Handed for Bimanual Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Calcutt, Sarah E.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Ross, Stephen R.; Hopkins, William D.

    2010-01-01

    Predominance of right-handedness has historically been considered as a hallmark of human evolution. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit population-level manual bias remains a controversial topic. Here we investigated the hypothesis that bimanual coordinated activities may be a key-behavior in our ancestors for the emergence and evolution of human population-level right-handedness. To this end, we collected data on hand preferences in 35 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) during simple unimanual reaching and for bimanual coordinated feeding. Unimanual reaching consisted of grasping food on the ground while bimanual feeding consisted of using one hand for holding a food and processing the food item by the opposite hand. No population-level manual bias was found for unimanual actions but, in contrast, gorillas exhibited a significant population-level right-handedness for the bimanual actions. Moreover, the degree of right-handedness for bimanual feeding exceeds any other known reports of hand use in primates, suggesting that lateralization for bimanual feeding is robust in captive gorillas. The collective evidence is discussed in the context of potential continuity of handedness between human and nonhuman primates. PMID:20033918

  8. Genetic assessment of captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rai, Upashna; Roka, Bhupen; Jha, Alankar K; Reddy, P Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is threatened across its range by detrimental human activities and rapid habitat changes necessitating captive breeding programs in various zoos globally to save this flagship species from extinction. One of the ultimate aims of ex situ conservation is reintroduction of endangered animals into their natural habitats while maintaining 90 % of the founder genetic diversity. Advances in molecular genetics and microsatellite genotyping techniques make it possible to accurately estimate genetic diversity of captive animals of unknown ancestry. Here we assess genetic diversity of the red panda population in Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, which plays a pivotal role in ex situ conservation of red panda in India. We generated microsatellite genotypes of fifteen red pandas with a set of fourteen loci. This population is genetically diverse with 68 % observed heterozygosity (HO) and mean inbreeding (FIS) coefficient of 0.05. However population viability analysis reveals that this population has a very low survival probability (<2 %) and will rapidly loose its genetic diversity to 37 % mainly due to small population size and skewed male-biased sex ratio. Regular supplementation with a pair of adult individuals every five years will increase survival probability and genetic diversity to 99 and 61 % respectively and will also support future harvesting of individuals for reintroduction into the wild and exchange with other zoos.

  9. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  10. Neophobia and learning mechanisms: how captive orangutans discover medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Krief, Sabrina; Saint Jalme, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Great apes sometimes feed on items of low nutritional value with bioactive secondary compounds. These molecules may be toxic and neophobia is presumed to be an essential factor in avoiding the ingestion of noxious items. The aim of this study is to investigate, in captive orangutans, individual and social learning involved in the discovery and ingestion of new items. We presented novel aromatic plants - 11 fresh plants and 4 infused plants - to 4 captive weaned Bornean orangutans, both under isolated and group conditions, and recorded their behaviour and interactions between group members. All animals tasted by nibbling or ingested most of the plants presented. Regardless of the experimental condition, individual responses did not vary visibly across the sessions, despite numerous close observations, and food transfers between individuals were observed. Our results suggest that a low level of neophobia and a strong propensity to look to conspecifics for information allow Bornean orangutans to expand their diet after weaning. Our results also provide some evidence that olfaction is a key sense in determining food edibility based on previous experience.

  11. Wetting properties of fungi mycelium alter soil infiltration and soil water repellency in a γ-sterilized wettable and repellent soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Henry Wai; Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Si, Bing Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has a drastic impact on soil quality resulting in reduced infiltration, increased runoff, increased leaching, reduced plant growth, and increased soil erosion. One of the causes of SWR is hydrophobic fungal structures and exudates that change the soil-water relationship. The objective of this study was to determine whether SWR and infiltration could be manipulated through inoculation with fungi. The effect of fungi on SWR was investigated through inoculation of three fungal strains (hydrophilic -Fusarium proliferatum, chrono-amphiphilic -Trichoderma harzianum, and hydrophobic -Alternaria sp.) on a water repellent soil (WR-soil) and a wettable soil (W-soil). The change in SWR and infiltration was assessed by the water repellency index and cumulative infiltration respectively. F. proliferatum decreased the SWR on WR-soil and slightly increased SWR in W-soil, while Alternaria sp. increased SWR in both the W-soil and the WR-soil. Conversely T. harzianum increased the SWR in the W-soil and decreased the SWR in the WR-soil. All strains showed a decrease in infiltration in W-soil, while only the F. proliferatum and T. harzianum strain showed improvement in infiltration in the WR-soil. The ability of fungi to alter the SWR and enmesh soil particles results in changes to the infiltration dynamics in soil. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  14. [History of trachoma in canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  15. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  16. Repellency of selected biorational insecticides to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactericera cockerelli has recently become a major concern because of its direct feeding and vectoring of bacterial diseases in many solanaceous crops. The repellency of four biorational insecticides, MOI-201 (a Chinese medicine plant extract), Requiem (a plant extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides), ...

  17. Factors influencing the use of topical repellents: implications for the effectiveness of malaria elimination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryseels, C.; Uk, S.; Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Phoeuk, P.; Suon, S.; Set, S.; Heng, S.; Siv, S.; Gerrets, R.; Tho, S.; Coosemans, M.; Peeters Grietens, K.

    2015-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite an impressive decline in prevalence over the last 10 years, malaria is still a public health problem in some parts of the country. This is partly due to vectors that bite early and outdoors reducing the effectiveness of measures such as Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets. Repellents

  18. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  19. Weakly repelling fixed points and multiply-connected wandering domains of meromorphic functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of a transcendental meromorphic function f(z) with only finitely many poles and prove that if f has only finitely many weakly repelling fixed points,then there is no multiply-connected wandering domain in its Fatou set.

  20. Effects of clay amendment on adsorption and desorption of copper in water repellent soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, X.; Stagnitti, F.; Allinson, G.; Turoczy, N.; Li, P.; LeBlanc, M.; Cann, M.A.; Doerr, S.H.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Parlange, J.Y.; Rooij, de G.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an important micronutrient and trace amounts are essential for crop growth. However, high concentrations of copper will produce toxic effects. Australia is increasingly developing production of crops in water repellent soils. Clay amendment, a common amelioration techniques used in Austral

  1. Effects of surfactant treatments on the wettability of a water repellent grass-covered dune sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Kostka, S.J.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an important micronutrient and trace amounts are essential for crop growth. However, high concentrations of copper will produce toxic effects. Australia is increasingly developing production of crops in water repellent soils. Clay amendment, a common amelioration techniques used in Austral

  2. A simple apparatus for the determining contact angle of water repellent fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Banerji

    1955-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple apparatus for the determination of fabric-water contact angle of water repellent fabrics is described. It is based on the tilting plate principle and the additional advantage that the end point can be sharply ascertained by optical means.

  3. Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

    1953-01-01

    Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

  4. A novel protein-repellent dental composite containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Chen; Melo, Mary As; Bai, Yu-Xing; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2015-06-26

    Secondary caries due to biofilm acids is a primary cause of dental composite restoration failure. To date, there have been no reports of dental composites that can repel protein adsorption and inhibit bacteria attachment. The objectives of this study were to develop a protein-repellent dental composite by incorporating 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and to investigate for the first time the effects of MPC mass fraction on protein adsorption, bacteria attachment, biofilm growth, and mechanical properties. Composites were synthesized with 0 (control), 0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% of MPC by mass. A commercial composite was also tested as a control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. Protein adsorption onto the composite was determined by the microbicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used. Early attachment at 4 h, biofilm at 2 days, live/dead staining and colony-forming units (CFUs) of biofilms grown on the composites were investigated. Composites with MPC of up to 3% had mechanical properties similar to those without MPC and those of the commercial control, whereas 4.5% and 6% MPC decreased the mechanical properties (Prepellent composites could help to repel bacteria attachment and plaque build-up to reduce secondary caries. The protein-repellent method might be applicable to other dental materials.

  5. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (Prepellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested.

  6. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  7. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; You, Chunxue; Geng, Zhufeng; Wang, Chengfang; Du, Shushan

    2016-04-16

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%), 4-terpineol (11.25%), limonene (11.00%) and β-phellandrene (6.63%). The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm², respectively). The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult). In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm², the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V) of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664) against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm² after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  8. Advice to travelers on topical insect repellent use against dengue mosquitoes in Far North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks occur annually in Far North Queensland, Australia. Advice on topical insect repellents provided by health authorities rarely addresses the wide range of formulations and active ingredients currently registered for use in Australia. Recommendations on the use of registered products require review.

  9. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host seeking and blood feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the g...

  10. Evaluation of catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil as repellents for Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmint oil and hydrogenated catmint oil were evaluated as repellents for adult Tribolium casteneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum (Jacqueline DuVal), the confused flour beetle, using both a traditional method of visual assessment of distribution and a video recording method to dete...

  11. Laboratory evaluation techniques to investigate the spatial potential of repellents for push & pull mosquito control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A protocol has been developed for the indoor evaluation of candidate spatial repellents intended for use in push and pull systems. Single treatments (catnip oil, 1-methylpiperazine and homopiperazine) and a mixture of catnip oil and homopiperazine were tested with yellow-fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegy...

  12. Self-healing superhydrophobic fluoropolymer brushes as highly protein-repellent coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nanostructures are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric and/or biological materials. Herein, a self-healing superhydrophobic and highly protein-repellent fluoropolymer brush was grafted onto nanostructured silicon by surface-in

  13. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu g/c

  14. Repellent activity of some essential oils against Simulium species in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, S; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, R K; Singh, Lokendera

    2012-01-01

    Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) on the human volunteers against Simulium (blackflies) in three locations of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Blackflies preferred biting legs (> 79%) as compared to hand and face with profound biting activity during 1000-1100 h (> 23%) and 1500 - 1600 h (> 28%). The essential oil extracted from Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides provided > 2 h protection at 5% concentration and > 5 h protection at 10% concentration in all the three testing locations. The repellency of Homalomena aromatica, Vitex negundo and Ageratum conizoides essential oils after 6 h application was > 50% at 5% concentration and > 90% at 10% concentration. The study provides evidence for the potential of these essential oils in developing new repellents against blackflies.

  15. Different repellents for Aedes aegypti against blood-feeding and oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs.

  16. Effect of maize canopy and water repellency on moisture patterns in a Dutch black plaggen soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Man-made raised sandy soils in the Netherlands are classified as `brown' or `black' plaggen soils. When dry, the brown soils are wettable, but the black soils are water repellent. For one growing season, transects were sampled in a maize cropped black plaggen soil at the Heino experimental farm. Due

  17. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water. Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363508287; Dekker, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203449827; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms

  18. Improving rangeland seeding success in post-fire water repellent soil using surfactant seed coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe disturbance from catastrophic wildfires often requires that native plant materials be reintroduced through reseeding, but the success rate of these restoration efforts in arid environments is notoriously low. Post-fire soil water repellency can limit reseeding success by decreasing soil moist...

  19. Soil water repellency and infiltration in coarse-textured soils of burned and unburned sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of dollars are spent each year in the United States to mitigate the effects of wildfires and reduce the risk of flash floods and debris flows. Research from forested, chaparral, and rangeland communities indicate severe wildfires can cause significant increases in soil water repellency res...

  20. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.