Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris
Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...... of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average...
Maki, M.; Clarke, D.; McKeen, W.
This paper reports on repels (Rapidly Extendible Perimeter Line Sensor) which is a recent development in transportable security technology. Repels utilizes a new coupled wave device technology (CWD) to provide the detection advantages of radio-frequency leaky cable guided radar for portable sensors. These advantages include an invisible, terrain-following detection zone, and an optimal detection characteristic for human-size targets. Repels adds the dimension of portability and set-up of an adjustable zone up to 100 m by a single person, typically within 20 minutes. Internal replaceable D-cell flashlight batteries provide power for weeks of operation. First introduced as a prototype for test and evaluation in 1988, Repels was launched as a Senstar NDI product in 1990. This paper outlines the technical principles of the Repels sensor, recent improvements from the original prototype results of early field test experience on production models, and applications. Recent advances driven by initial field tests include, for example, the use of inductively-coupled transmitter and receiver couplers, so that no radio frequency field connections are required, and simple conductors can be employed. Test and application experience in several countries has expanded from parked aircraft perimeters, military encampments, forward area surveillance, and waterside security, to dignitary protection and failed sensor stand-in. Such sensors may be used to protect facilities dealing with nuclear materials
Jong, De Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of
Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.
One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand
van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.
* Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J.
During the past century the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dark at ~0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16h light at ~150 lux/8h dim light at ~5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rat...
Mveyange, Anthony Francis
Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights...... and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality trends reveals two main findings: first, increasing regional inequality trends between 1992 and 2003; and second......, declining regional inequality trends between 2004 and 2012....
Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.
Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Craine, E. M.; Crawford, D. L.
Light at Night Markup Language (LANML) is a standard, based upon XML, useful in acquiring, validating, transporting, archiving and analyzing multi-dimensional light at night (LAN) datasets of any size. The LANML standard can accommodate a variety of measurement scenarios including single spot measures, static time-series, web based monitoring networks, mobile measurements, and airborne measurements. LANML is human-readable, machine-readable, and does not require a dedicated parser. In addition LANML is flexible; ensuring future extensions of the format will remain backward compatible with analysis software. The XML technology is at the heart of communicating over the internet and can be equally useful at the desktop level, making this standard particularly attractive for web based applications, educational outreach and efficient collaboration between research groups.
Figueiro, Mariana G
This study aims to discuss possible reasons why research to date has not forged direct links between light at night, acute melatonin suppression or circadian disruption, and risks for disease. Data suggest that irregular light-dark patterns or light exposures at the wrong circadian time can lead to circadian disruption and disease risks. However, there remains an urgent need to: (1) specify light stimulus in terms of circadian rather than visual response; (2) when translating research from animals to humans, consider species-specific spectral and absolute sensitivities to light; (3) relate the characteristics of photometric measurement of light at night to the operational characteristics of the circadian system; and (4) examine how humans may be experiencing too little daytime light, not just too much light at night. To understand the health effects of light-induced circadian disruption, we need to measure and control light stimulus during the day and at night.
Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J
During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.
Underwood, Charlotte N; Davies, Thomas W; Queirós, Ana M
Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the
Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
De Jong, M.; Ouyang, Jenny; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their
Jong, De Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Grunsven, van Roy H.A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel
Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their
Maaike de Jong
Full Text Available Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.
Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie; Nelson, David; Hertz, Andrew; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy
Background There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study. Methods Indoor light-at-night estimates were based on questionnaire data regarding sleep habits and use of night time lighting while sleeping. Estimates of outdoor light at night were derived from imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program assigned to geocoded addresses of study participants. Analyses were conducted among 106,731 California Teachers Study members who lived in California, had no prior history of breast cancer, and provided information on lighting while sleeping. 5,095 cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed 1995–2010 were identified via linkage to the California Cancer Registry. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for breast cancer risk factors and neighborhood urbanization and socioeconomic class. Results An increased risk was found for women living in areas with the highest quintile of outdoor light at night exposure estimates (HR=1.12 [95% CI=1.00 – 1.26], test for trend, P=0.06). While more pronounced among premenopausal women (HR=1.34 [95% CI=1.07 – 1.69], test for trend, P=0.04), the associations did not differ statistically by menopausal status (test for interaction, P=0.34). Conclusions Women living in areas with high levels of ambient light at night may be at an increased risk of breast cancer. Future studies that integrate quantitative measurements of indoor and outdoor light at night are warranted. PMID:25061924
Walker, Constance E.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be
Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.
One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand
Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc
We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.
Martin, P.; Downing, J.; Taft, N.; Sullivan, C.
This paper reports is an EPRI review of fish protection systems for hydroelectric facilities which identified strobe lights as a potential behavioral system to minimize fish entrainment. In 1988, EPRI initiated an evaluation of juvenile American shad response to strobe lights at Metropolitan Edison's York Haven Power Station on the Susquehanna River. During their fall migration, juvenile shad accumulate in the forebay. In 1988, using a raft mounted with four strobe lights, it was clearly demonstrated that shad could be excluded from the area in front of the trash racks, and bypassed through a sluiceway into the tailrace. Hydroacoustics were used to monitor the effectiveness of the strobe lights. In 1989, six rafts supporting 22 strobe light were moored in front of the trash racks. Unit outages and river flooding limited a full evaluation of the strobe system. Under limited test conditions, it was possible to confirm shad avoidance of strobe lights similar to that observed in 1988. In 1990, testing was performed with a fully operational strobe system under normal flow conditions and hydraulics. Testing showed that shad could be effectively passed around the York Haven Station. The results of the 1990 studies were more extensive than those of 1989, however, flood waters again limited complete testing of the system
Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.
Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.
Jong, de M.; Jeninga, L.; Ouyang, J.Q.; Oers, van K.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.
Recent studies have shown that animals are affected by night-time light exposure. Light is a continuous variable, but our knowledge on how individuals react to different light intensities during the night is limited. We therefore determined the relationship between night light intensity and the
De Jong, M.; Jeninga, L.; Ouyang, Jenny; van Oers, K.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.
Recent studies have shown that animals are affected by night-time light exposure. Light is a continuous variable, but our knowledge on how individuals react to different light intensities during the night is limited. We therefore determined the relationship between night light intensity and the
de Jong, Maaike; Jeninga, Lizanne; Ouyang, Jenny Q; van Oers, Kees; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E
Recent studies have shown that animals are affected by night-time light exposure. Light is a continuous variable, but our knowledge on how individuals react to different light intensities during the night is limited. We therefore determined the relationship between night light intensity and the
Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.
GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is
Shan, Li-Li; Guo, Hao; Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Xin-Tian; Huang, Jing-Fei; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Richter-Levine, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin
Light is recently recognized as a modulator able to activate the hippocampus and modulate memory processing, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that in mice, a short pulse of white light before learning dramatically improves consolidation of contextual fear memory during the night. The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP). These light effects are abolished in PAK1 knockout and dominant-negative transgenic mice, but preserved by expression of constitutively active PAK1 in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that light can act as a switch of PAK1 activity that modulate CA1 LTP and thereby memory consolidation without affecting learning and short-term memory. PMID:26493375
Fonken, L K; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J
The increasing prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders coincides with increasing exposure to light at night. Previous studies report that mice exposed to dim light at night (dLAN) develop symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether mice returned to dark nights after dLAN exposure recover metabolic function. Male Swiss-Webster mice were assigned to either: standard light-dark (LD) conditions for 8 weeks (LD/LD), dLAN for 8 weeks (dLAN/dLAN), LD for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of dLAN (LD/dLAN), and dLAN for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of LD (dLAN/LD). After 4 weeks in their respective lighting conditions both groups initially placed in dLAN increased body mass gain compared to LD mice. Half of the dLAN mice (dLAN/LD) were then transferred to LD and vice versa (LD/dLAN). Following the transfer dLAN/dLAN and LD/dLAN mice gained more weight than LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice. At the conclusion of the study dLAN/LD mice did not differ from LD/LD mice with respect to weight gain and had lower fat pad mass compared to dLAN/dLAN mice. Compared to all other groups dLAN/dLAN mice decreased glucose tolerance as indicated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test at week 7, indicating that dLAN/LD mice recovered glucose metabolism. dLAN/dLAN mice also increased MAC1 mRNA expression in peripheral fat as compared to both LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice, suggesting peripheral inflammation is induced by dLAN, but not sustained after return to LD. These results suggest that re-exposure to dark nights ameliorates metabolic disruption caused by dLAN exposure. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.
Wainscoat, Richard J.
The introduction of the mercury vapor lamp for general lighting in the 1930s probably marked the beginning of significant light pollution. Lighting levels have increased slowly, year-to-year, with sky brightness levels increasing only slowly on timescales of a year; no measurement protocols or instruments existed to quantify this increase. However, on timescales of 10-20 years, or on generational timescales, the increases in night sky levels, particularly in urban areas, have been dramatic. Younger people speak with their parents or grandparents who remark how beautiful the sky used to be, and how many stars they could see when they when they were younger. Older people can themselves remember how many stars were visible in the sky when they were younger. Whole generations of children now grow up without ever seeing the Milky Way. Society has not had tools to easily measure sky brightness, and monitoring from space has only recently become available. A subtle increase of 10% sky brightness per year, for example, is not noticeable to the human eye on the time scale of a year, and has been tolerated by society. But such an increase compounds to an increase of a factor 2.6 in 10 years, 6.7 in 20 years, and a factor 45 in 40 years, corresponding to a dramatic increase in sky brightness, an almost complete loss in ability to see faint objects in the night sky, and rendering the sky unusable for most forms of astronomy. The most striking examples are the urban observatories found in many major cities that can no longer be used. Session 2 was primarily focused on measurement of light at night, with an emphasis on measurement of light pollution. It comprised of 6 papers that are summarized below. Over the last decade, our ability to measure light pollution has grown tremendously, and the instrumentation needed to produce reliable quantitative measurements has become much more affordable, and now includes consumer grade digital cameras and even smart phones. During this same
Craine, Eric R.; Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. M.; Craine, P. R.
Widespread installation of inefficient and misdirected artificial light at night (LAN) has led to increasing concerns about light pollution and its impact, not only on astronomical facilities but larger communities as well. Light pollution impacts scientific research, environmental ecosystems, human health, and quality of life. In recent years, the public policy response to light pollution has included formulation of government codes to regulate lighting design and installation. Various environmental groups now include light pollution among their rallying themes to protest both specific and general developments. The latter efforts are often conducted in the absence of any quantitative data and are frequently charged by emotion rather than reason. To bring some scientific objectivity, and quantitative data, to these discussions, we have developed a suite of tools for simultaneous photometric measurements and temporal monitoring of both local communities and the sky overhead. We have also developed novel protocols for the use of these tools, including a triad of airborne, ground mobile, and ground static photometric surveys. We present a summary of these tools and protocols, with special emphasis on the airborne systems, and discuss baseline and follow-up measurements of LAN environments in the vicinity of numerous observatories in Arizona, the home of the initial LAN MAP surveys.
Liu, Lu; Tang, Lin
In the process of urbanization, a phenomenon called “urban sprawl” usually occurs. This phenomenon may exaggerated the negative effects of urbanization on environment, public and social health, energy efficiency, and maintenance of farmland. Therefore, the understanding of this phenomenon is urgently required for us to achieve sustainable development. This study proposed a group of night time lights (NTL) indicators of urban sprawl, which intend to use the distribution of lightness to quantify urban sprawl. These measures are proved to be efficient in describing urban sprawl. In addition, they are consistent and easy calculating, making comparison analysis easy to be done. These indicators are used to study urban sprawl in China during the year 2000 to 2010, the results show that in the last ten years, metropolitan areas in the northern part of China have undergone a more sprawl-like urban growth compared with other parts of China.
Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J
Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.
Izumi, Norikazu; Minami, Takayuki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Takata, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yokojima, Satoshi; Tsujii, Kaoru; Uchida, Kingo
Photochromic diarylethene forms super water-repellent surfaces upon irradiation with UV light. Microfibril-like crystals grow on the solid diarylethene surface after UV irradiation, and the contact angle of water on the surface becomes larger with increasing surface roughness with time. The fractal analysis was made by the box-counting method for the rough surfaces. There are three regions in the roughness size having the fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 (size of roughness smaller than 5 µm), of ca. 2.2 (size of roughness between 5-40 µm), and of ca. 2.0 (size of roughness larger than 40 µm). The fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 was due to the fibril-like structures generated gradually by UV irradiation on diarylethene surfaces accompanied with an increase in the contact angle. The surface structure with larger fractal dimension mainly contributes to realizing the super water-repellency of the diarylethene surfaces. This mechanism of spontaneous formation of fractal surfaces is similar to that for triglyceride and alkylketene dimer waxes.
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
For 8 years now, the Globe at Night campaign has invited citizen-scientists worldwide to measure and record the brightness of their night sky by hunting for the faintest stars in a particular constellation. Students for science projects and scientists for research use the data to monitor levels of brightness or 'light pollution' around the world. They also use the Globe at Night data to understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife and human health, as well as our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. The dates of the campaign for 2014 have been extended to every month during the year. Ten days each month (when the Moon is not up between 8pm and 10pm) are the recommended times to take measurements for the campaign. However, one can participate at other times and dates, as long as the Moon is not in the night sky and it is more than an hour after sunset or more than an hour before sunrise. New in 2014 will be an Android app that will allow you to input visual measurements anytime the Moon is not up. Also possibly included will be an iPhone app that will take sky brightness measurements. The campaign dates and the 5 easy steps to participating in the campaign are listed at www.globeatnight.org. You do not need to register. Once on the report page, you enter your location, date and time (automatic for a smart device). You find the constellation of the month in the night sky. (Help is on the website.) Then you choose which chart looks most like what you see toward the constellation. Choose the icon for how clear or cloudy it is and hit the submit button and you are done! The fifth step is returning later to the website to compare your observations on the world map to others from around the globe. Included on the Globe at Night website are many helpful resources and tools from finding the constellations used in the campaign, to understanding concepts like light pollution, to games that test your expertise in choosing 'limiting magnitudes
Dickerman, Barbra; Liu, Jianghong
Breast cancer is increasingly prevalent in industrialized regions of the world, and exposure to light at night (LAN) has been proposed as a potential risk factor. Epidemiological observations have documented an increased breast cancer risk among female night-shift workers, and strong experimental evidence for this relationship has also been found in rodent models. Indirect support for the LAN hypothesis comes from studies involving blind women, sleep duration, bedroom light levels, and community nighttime light levels. This article reviews the literature, discusses possible mechanisms of action, and provides recommendations for occupational health nursing research, practice, and education. Research is needed to further explore the relationship between exposure to LAN and breast cancer risk and elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship before interventions can be designed for prevention and mitigation of breast cancer. PMID:22658734
Kozaki, Tomoaki; Kubokawa, Ayaka; Taketomi, Ryunosuke; Hatae, Keisuke
Bright nocturnal light has been known to suppress melatonin secretion. However, bright light exposure during the day-time might reduce light-induced melatonin suppression (LIMS) at night. The effective proportion of day-time light to night-time light is unclear; however, only a few studies on accurately controlling both day- and night-time conditions have been conducted. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different day-time light intensities on LIMS. Twelve male subjects between the ages of 19 and 23 years (mean ± S.D., 20.8 ± 1.1) gave informed consent to participate in this study. They were exposed to various light conditions (day-time light conditions). They were then exposed to bright light (300 lx) again between 01:00 and 02:30 (night-time light exposure). They provided saliva samples before (00:55) and after night-time light exposure (02:30). A one-tailed paired t test yielded significant decrements of melatonin concentration after night-time light exposure under day-time dim, 100- and 300-lx light conditions. No significant differences exist in melatonin concentration between pre- and post-night-time light exposure under day-time 900- and 2700-lx light conditions. Present findings suggest the amount of light exposure needed to prevent LIMS caused by ordinary nocturnal light in individuals who have a general life rhythm (sleep/wake schedule). These findings may be useful in implementing artificial light environments for humans in, for example, hospitals and underground shopping malls.
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements
Daugaard, Stine; Garde, Anne Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christoffersen, Jens; Hansen, Äse Marie; Markvart, Jakob; Schlünssen, Vivi; Skene, Debra J; Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Kolstad, Henrik A
We aimed to examine the effects of night work on salivary melatonin concentration during and subsequent to night work and the mediating role of light. We included 254 day workers and 87 night workers who were followed during 322 work days and 301 days off work. Each day was defined as the 24 hour period starting from the beginning of a night shift or from waking in the mornings with day work and days off. Light levels were recorded and synchronized with diary information (start and end of sleep and work). On average, participants provided four saliva samples per day, and these were analyzed for melatonin concentration by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences between day and night workers on work days and days off were assessed with multilevel regression models with melatonin concentration as the primary outcome. All models were stratified or adjusted by time of day. For light exposure, we estimated the total, direct and indirect effects of night work on melatonin concentrations obtaining 95% confidence intervals through bootstrapping. On work days, night workers showed 15% lower salivary melatonin concentrations compared with day workers (-15.0%; 95% CI: -31.4%; 5.2%). During the night, light exposure mediated a melatonin suppression of approximately 6% (-5.9%, 95% CI: -10.2%; -1.5%). No mediating effect of light was seen during the day time. On days off, we observed no difference in melatonin concentrations between day and night workers. These findings are in accordance with a transient and partly light-mediated effect of night work on melatonin production.
McLay, Lucy Katherine; Nagarajan-Radha, Venkatesh; Green, Mark Philip; Jones, Therésa Melanie
Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns. In a second experiment, we explored whether exposure to light at night treatments resulted in variation in ROS levels in the heads and ovaries of six, 23- and 36-day-old females. We demonstrate that dim light at night affects mating and reproductive output: 10 lx flies courted for longer prior to mating, and female oviposition patterns differed to 0 lx females. ROS levels were lower in the ovaries but not heads, of 10 lx compared with 0 lx females. We suggest that reduced ROS levels may reflect changes in ovarian physiology and cell signaling, which may be related to the differences observed in oviposition patterns. Taken together, our results indicate negative consequences for invertebrates under more stressful, urban, lit conditions and further investigation into the mechanisms driving these changes is warranted to manage invertebrate communities in a brighter future. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dumont, Marie; Blais, Hélène; Roy, Joanie; Paquet, Jean
Circadian misalignment between the endogenous circadian signal and the imposed rest-activity cycle is one of the main sources of sleep and health troubles in night shift workers. Timed bright light exposure during night work can reduce circadian misalignment in night workers, but this approach is limited by difficulties in incorporating bright light treatment into most workplaces. Controlled light and dark exposure during the daytime also has a significant impact on circadian phase and could be easier to implement in real-life situations. The authors previously described distinctive light exposure patterns in night nurses with and without circadian adaptation. In the present study, the main features of these patterns were used to design daytime light exposure profiles. Profiles were then tested in a laboratory simulation of night work to evaluate their efficacy in reducing circadian misalignment in night workers. The simulation included 2 day shifts followed by 4 consecutive night shifts (2400-0800 h). Healthy subjects (15 men and 23 women; 20-35 years old) were divided into 3 groups to test 3 daytime light exposure profiles designed to produce respectively a phase delay (delay group, n=12), a phase advance (advance group, n=13), or an unchanged circadian phase (stable group, n=13). In all 3 groups, light intensity was set at 50 lux during the nights of simulated night work. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) showed a significant phase advance of 2.3 h (+/-1.3 h) in the advance group and a significant phase delay of 4.1 h (+/-1.3 h) in the delay group. The stable group showed a smaller but significant phase delay of 1.7 h (+/-1.6 h). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophases were highly correlated to salivary DLMOs. Urinary aMT6s acrophases were used to track daily phase shifts. They showed that phase shifts occurred rapidly and differed between the 3 groups by the 3rd night of simulated night work. These results show that significant phase shifts can
Daugaard, Stine; Garde, Anne Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde
We aimed to examine the effects of night work on salivary melatonin concentration during and subsequent to night work and the mediating role of light. We included 254 day workers and 87 night workers who were followed during 322 work days and 301 days off work. Each day was defined as the 24 hour...... period starting from the beginning of a night shift or from waking in the mornings with day work and days off. Light levels were recorded and synchronized with diary information (start and end of sleep and work). On average, participants provided four saliva samples per day, and these were analyzed...... for melatonin concentration by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences between day and night workers on work days and days off were assessed with multilevel regression models with melatonin concentration as the primary outcome. All models were stratified or adjusted by time of day...
Reed, Virginia A
Studies of the effect of shift work have identified several negative health outcomes, most notably breast cancer. Disruption of circadian rhythm by exposure to light at night has been identified as the mechanism likely responsible for this outcome. This article recommends that health care institutions work with occupational health nurses to develop and implement hazard communication and policies concerning shift work, exposure to light at night, and increased risk for negative health outcomes, particularly breast cancer. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Thessing, V C; Anch, A M; Muehlbach, M J; Schweitzer, P K; Walsh, J K
The effect of two durations of bright light upon sleepiness and performance during typical night shift hours was assessed. Thirty normal, healthy young adults participated in a 2-night protocol. On the 1st night subjects were exposed to bright or dim light beginning at 2400 hours, under one of the following three conditions: bright light for 4 hours, dim light for 2 hours followed by bright light for 2 hours or dim light for 4 hours. Following light exposure, subjects remained awake until 0800 hours in a dimly lit room and slept in the laboratory between 0800 and 1600 hours, during which time sleep was estimated with actigraphy. Throughout the 2nd night, the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), simulated assembly line task (SALT) performance, and subjective sleepiness were recorded. The single, 4-hour exposure to bright light was found to significantly increase MSLT scores and improve SALT performance during the early morning hours on the night following bright-light exposure. No significant effects were noted with a 2-hour exposure. The most likely explanation for these findings is a phase delay in the circadian rhythm of sleepiness-alertness.
Chinoy, Evan D; Harris, Michael P; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F
We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. 4 day shifts were followed by 3 night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomised to either the treatment group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts) or control group (ad-lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Compared with day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the treatment group but remained lower for the control group. Sleep duration in the treatment group remained similar to baseline (6-7 hours) following night shifts, but was shorter (3-5 hours) following night shifts in the control group. Treatment group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (-9.7±9.9 min) in the control group. The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Chinoy, Evan D.; Harris, Michael P.; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F.
Objectives We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance, and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. Methods We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy), and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in eighteen older adults (57.2±3.8 y; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. Four day shifts were followed by three night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomized to either the Treatment Group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts), or Control Group (ad lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Results Compared to day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the Treatment Group but remained lower for the Control Group. Sleep duration in the Treatment Group remained similar to baseline (6–7 h) following night shifts, but was shorter (3–5 h) following night shifts in the Control Group. Treatment Group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (−9.7±9.9 min) in the Control Group. Conclusions The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. PMID:27566781
Azar, Toni A; Sharp, Jody L; Lawson, David M
Housing laboratory animals under lighting conditions that more closely mimic the natural environment may improve their wellbeing. This study examined the effects of dim light or a long-night photocycle on resting heart rate (HR) of rats and their HR responses to acute procedures. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, instrumented with radiotelemetry transmitters and housed individually under a 12:12-h light:dark photocycle with 10 lx illumination (dim light) or under an 8:16-h light:dark photocycle with 200 lx illumination (long nights), were compared with control rats individually housed under a 12:12-h light:dark photocycle with 200 lx illumination. Dim light and long nights significantly reduced the HR of undisturbed SD and SHR male and SHR female rats during the day and at night; however, the HR of undisturbed SD females was not affected. When rats were subjected acutely to husbandry, experimental, or stressful procedures, dim light or long nights (or both) reduced HR responses to some procedures, did not alter responses to others, and increased responses to yet other procedures. The pattern of effects varied between strains and between male and female rats. Because basal HR was reduced when rats were housed under 10 lx illumination or an 8:16-h light:dark photocycle, we concluded that housing rats under 12:12-h light:dark, 200 lx ambient light conditions was potentially stressful, We also concluded that dim light or long nights did not uniformly reduce the increased HR responses induced by acute procedures.
Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.
de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.
Canazei, Markus; Pohl, Wilfried; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Short-wavelength and short-wavelength-enhanced light have a strong impact on night-time working performance, subjective feelings of alertness and circadian physiology. In the present study, we investigated acute effects of white light sources with varied reduced portions of short wavelengths on cognitive and visual performance, mood and cardiac output.Thirty-one healthy subjects were investigated in a balanced cross-over design under three light spectra in a simulated night-shift paradigm without circadian adaptation.Exposure to the light spectrum with the largest attenuation of short wavelengths reduced heart rate and increased vagal cardiac parameters during the night compared to the other two light spectra without deleterious effects on sustained attention, working memory and subjective alertness. In addition, colour discrimination capability was significantly decreased under this light source.To our knowledge, the present study for the first time demonstrates that polychromatic white light with reduced short wavelengths, fulfilling current lighting standards for indoor illumination, may have a positive impact on cardiac physiology of night-shift workers without detrimental consequences for cognitive performance and alertness.
Stenvers, Dirk Jan; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H; Meijer, Johanna H; Kalsbeek, A.; Deboer, Tom
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed
Welbers, Anouk; van Dis, Natalie; Kolvoort, Annemieke; Ouyang, J.Q.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.; Dominoni, D.M.
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and
McLaren, J.D.; Buler, J.J.; Schreckengost, T.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Boone, M.; van Loon, E.E.; Dawson, D.K.; Walters, E.L.
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne
de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of
Suet Wai Yuen
Full Text Available Artificial night light has the potential to significantly alter visually-dependent species interactions. However, examples of disruptions of species interactions through changes in light remain rare and how artificial night light may alter predator–prey relationships are particularly understudied. In this study, we examined whether artificial night light could impact prey attraction and interception in Nephila pilipes orb weaver spiders, conspicuous predators who make use of yellow color patterns to mimic floral resources and attract prey to their webs. We measured moth prey attraction and interception responses to treatments where we experimentally manipulated the color/contrast of spider individuals in the field (removed yellow markings and also set up light manipulations. We found that lit webs had lower rates of moth interception than unlit webs. Spider color, however, had no clear impact on moth interception or attraction rates in lit nor unlit webs. The results show that night light can reduce prey interception for spiders. Additionally, this study highlights how environmental and morphological variation can complicate simple predictions of ecological light pollution’s disruption of species interactions.
Yuen, Suet Wai; Bonebrake, Timothy C
Artificial night light has the potential to significantly alter visually-dependent species interactions. However, examples of disruptions of species interactions through changes in light remain rare and how artificial night light may alter predator-prey relationships are particularly understudied. In this study, we examined whether artificial night light could impact prey attraction and interception in Nephila pilipes orb weaver spiders, conspicuous predators who make use of yellow color patterns to mimic floral resources and attract prey to their webs. We measured moth prey attraction and interception responses to treatments where we experimentally manipulated the color/contrast of spider individuals in the field (removed yellow markings) and also set up light manipulations. We found that lit webs had lower rates of moth interception than unlit webs. Spider color, however, had no clear impact on moth interception or attraction rates in lit nor unlit webs. The results show that night light can reduce prey interception for spiders. Additionally, this study highlights how environmental and morphological variation can complicate simple predictions of ecological light pollution's disruption of species interactions.
Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing
Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.
Nagashima, Shunsuke; Osawa, Madoka; Matsuyama, Hiroto; Ohoka, Wataru; Ahn, Aemi; Wakamura, Tomoko
The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of bright-light exposure during daytime sleeping on nocturnal melatonin secretion after simulated night work. Twelve healthy male subjects, aged 24.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD), participated in 3-day sessions under two experimental conditions, bright light or dim light, in a random order. On the first day, the subjects entered the experimental room at 16:00 and saliva samples were collected every hour between 18:00 and 00:00 under dim-light conditions. Between 00:00 and 08:00, they participated in tasks that simulated night work. At 10:00 the next morning, they slept for 6 hours under either a bright-light condition (>3000 lx) or a dim-light condition (night work were compared between the light conditions using paired t-tests. The ANOVA results indicated a significant interaction (light condition and3 day) (p = .006). Post hoc tests indicated that in the dim-light condition, the melatonin concentration was significantly lower on the second day than on the first day (p = .046); however, in the bright-light condition, there was no significant difference in the melatonin concentration between the days (p = .560). There was a significant difference in ΔDLMO between the conditions (p = .015): DLMO after sleeping was advanced by 11.1 ± 17.4 min under bright-light conditions but delayed for 7.2 ± 13.6 min after sleeping under dim-light conditions. No
Azar, Toni A; Sharp, Jody L; Lawson, David M
Housing laboratory animals under lighting conditions that more closely mimic the natural environment may improve their wellbeing. This study examined the effects of dim light or a long-night photocycle on resting heart rate (HR) of rats and their HR responses to acute procedures. Male and female Sprague–Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, instrumented with radiotelemetry transmitters and housed individually under a 12:12-h light:dark photocycle with 10 lx illumination (dim ...
Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M
Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength
Walker, Constance Elaine; Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.
Citizen-science is a rewardingly inclusive way to bring awareness to the public on important issues like the disappearing starry night sky, its cause and solutions. Citizen-science can also provide meaningful, hands-on “science process” experiences for students. One program that does both is Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org), an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations via a “web app” on any smart device or computer. Additionally, 2 native mobile apps - Loss of the Night for iPhone & Android, and Dark Sky Meter for iPhone - support Globe at Night.Since 2006, more than 125,000 vetted measurements from 115 countries have been reported. For 2015 the campaign is offered as a 10-day observation window each month when the Moon is not up. To facilitate Globe at Night as an international project, the web app and other materials are in many languages. (See www.globeatnight.org/downloads.)Students and the general public can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution’s effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. Projects have compared Globe at Night data with ground-truthing using meters for energy audits as well as with data on birds and bats, population density, satellite data and trends over time. Globe at Night tackles grand challenges and everyday problems. It provides resources for formal and informal educators to engage learners of all ages. It has 9 years of experience in best practices for data management, design, collection, visualization, interpretation, etc. It has externally evaluated its program, workshops, lesson plans and accompanying kit to explore reasons for participation, skills developed, impact of experiences and perceived outcomes. Three recent papers (Birriel et al. 2014; Kyba et al. 2013; 2015) verify the
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.
Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).
Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John
1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse
McLay, L K; Green, M P; Jones, T M
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. We reared three generations of flies under identical daytime light conditions (2600lx) and one of four ecologically relevant ALAN treatments (0, 1, 10 or 100lx), then explored variation in oviposition, number of eggs produced, juvenile growth and survival and adult survival. We found that, in the presence of light at night (1, 10 and 100lx treatments), the probability of a female commencing oviposition and the number of eggs laid was significantly reduced. This did not translate into differences at the juvenile phase: juvenile development times and the probability of eclosing as an adult were comparable across all treatments. However, we demonstrate for the first time a direct link between chronic exposure to light at night (greater than 1lx) and adult survival. Our data highlight that ALAN has the capacity to cause dramatic shifts in multiple life history traits at both the individual and population level. Such shifts are likely to be species-specific, however a more in depth understanding of the broad-scale impact of ALAN and the relevant mechanisms driving biological change is urgently required as we move into an increasing brightly lit future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ciss?, Yasmine M.; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J.
Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either mai...
Ciss?, Yasmine M.; Russart, Kathryn L.G.; Nelson, Randy J.
Exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts natural light/dark cycles and impairs endogenous circadian rhythms necessary to maintain optimal biological function, including the endocrine and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that white dLAN compromises innate and cell mediated immune responses in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). We hypothesized that dLAN has transgenerational influences on immune function. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to eit...
Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J
Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior
Miller, Colleen R; Barton, Brandon T; Zhu, Likai; Radeloff, Volker C; Oliver, Kerry M; Harmon, Jason P; Ives, Anthony R
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual predator, warming and light had non-additive effects in which together they caused much lower aphid abundances. These results are particularly relevant for agriculture near urban areas that experience both light pollution and warming from urban heat islands. Because warming and light pollution can have non-additive effects, predicting their possible combined consequences over broad spatial scales requires knowing how they co-occur. We found that night-time temperature change since 1949 covaried positively with light pollution, which has the potential to increase their non-additive effects on pea aphid control by 70% in US alfalfa. Our results highlight the importance of non-additive effects of multiple environmental factors on species and food webs, especially when these factors co-occur. © 2017 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Future lighting solutions based on solid state lighting will transform the appearance of cities at night. They can be positioned and used in an urban environment in numerous ways. This article studies whether their future use in general outdoor lighting will positively affect people’s acceptance of urban space illuminated in this way. Two different lighting concepts were formed based on the innovative use of solid state lighting solutions. The first concept is based on plane lighting, and the second is based on a detailed depiction of architectural and urban elements. Lighting proposals were designed for five different city locations. They consider not only functional needs, but also urban planning and the architectural aspects of illumination. I present my study of the underlying core effects on the respondents through their assessment of the affective quality of graphic representations. My findings indicate that the respondents strongly agree with the assessment of the “pleasantness” and “arousal” variables of most proposals. However, the statistics show characteristic differences between the answers of both variables for both concepts. Direct comparison of the two concepts shows that the respondents’ attitudes towards a certain lighting concept also depend on their location in the city. This article emphasises the importance of the appearance of a city at night in developing future lighting strategies based on solid state light sources.
Fonken, Laura K.; Aubrecht, Taryn G.; Meléndez-Fernández, O. Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.
With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms which are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electrical lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to nighttime light and investigated changes in the circadian system and body weight. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night attenuate core circadian clock rhythms in the SCN at both the gene and protein level. Moreover, circadian clock rhythms were perturbed in the liver by nighttime light exposure. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide mechanistic evidence for how mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. PMID:23929553
Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Bok, Ki-Nam; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il
Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasing common, especially in developed countries. We investigated the effect of dALAN exposure during sleep in healthy young male subjects. A total of 30 healthy young male volunteers from 21 to 29 years old were recruited for the study. They were randomly divided into two groups depending on light intensity (Group A: 5 lux and Group B: 10 lux). After a quality control process, 23 healthy subjects were included in the study (Group A: 11 subjects, Group B: 12 subjects). Subjects underwent an NPSG session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two different dim light conditions (5 or 10 lux, dom λ: 501.4 nm) for a whole night (Night 2). We found significant sleep structural differences between Nights 1 and 2, but no difference between Groups A and B. Exposure to dALAN during sleep was significantly associated with increased wake time after sleep onset (WASO; F = 7.273, p = 0.014), increased Stage N1 (F = 4.524, p = 0.045), decreased Stage N2 (F = 9.49, p = 0.006), increased Stage R (F = 6.698, p = 0.017) and non-significantly decreased REM density (F = 4.102, p = 0.056). We found that dALAN during sleep affects sleep structure. Exposure to dALAN during sleep increases the frequency of arousals, amount of shallow sleep and amount of REM sleep. This suggests adverse effects of dALAN during sleep on sleep quality and suggests the need to avoid exposure to dALAN during sleep.
Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner
The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Yuan; Xue, Rui-De; Bibbs, Christopher S
Three repellent products, OFF! Mosquito Lamp, Insecticandel, and Rescue DecoShield, were comparatively evaluated against Aedes aegypti in 130-m 2 enclosed areas with a 317-m 3 air volume. The results showed that the OFF! Mosquito Lamp with metofluthrin had a greater effect than the Insecticandel with transfluthrin, which had greater effect than the DecoShield with lemongrass oil and several other plant oils against Ae. aegypti. The OFF! Mosquito Lamp was the only product to exceed 50% mortality. An outdoor semi-field evaluation was conducted to determine the effect by distance of the product. Mosquitoes were stationed in cages at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 m away from the treatment in a downwind linear array and exposed for 10 min. They were recorded for knockdown after treatment and at 24 h for mortality. The OFF! Mosquito Lamp produced 100% mortality indoors and >80% knockdown and 90% mortality within 6 m while outdoors against Ae. aegypti.
Light is the major synchronizer of the internal clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus. Retinal ganglion cells contain melanopsin, a photoreceptor with a peak sensitivity to blue wavelength (460-480 nm). Light signal is transmitted from the eye to the clock, then to the pineal gland which produces melatonin, considered as the hand of the clock. Even a weak intensity of light (LEDs, tablets, mobile phones, computers...) is able to block the secretion of melatonin, the hormone of darkness. Light is also able to phase advance or phase delay the circadian system according to the timing of exposure. This Phase Response Curve (PRC) is used to resynchronize the clock in various situations of circadian desynchronization. Exposure to Light at Night (LAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, including France, 75 % of the total workforce is estimated to be involved in atypical hours, far from the classical diurnal hours of work. Of interest, shift work and night work involve 15.4 % of the French workforce. A number of epidemiologic studies, peiformed mainly on nurses, showed an association between sustained night work (3 to 20 years) and an increased risk of breast cancer Health problems faced by flight attendants have also been reported, though other causes like exposure to radiations cannot be ruled out. Other deleterious effects are reported in this paper. The potential mechanisms of the deleterious effects of LAN on health are suppression of melatonin andsleep deprivation. The International Agencyfor Cancer Research (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as ( probably carcinogenic to humans". Countermeasures (e.g melatonin, bright light, use of psychotropic drugs) have been proposed as a means to improve adaptation to shift work and night work and to fight " clock pollution " and circadian desynchronization by LAN.
Cissé, Yasmine M; Russart, Kathryn L G; Nelson, Randy J
Exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts natural light/dark cycles and impairs endogenous circadian rhythms necessary to maintain optimal biological function, including the endocrine and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that white dLAN compromises innate and cell mediated immune responses in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). We hypothesized that dLAN has transgenerational influences on immune function. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 9 weeks, then paired in full factorial design, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Offspring were gestated and reared in dark nights, then tested as adults for cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Maternal exposure to dLAN dampened delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in male offspring. Maternal and paternal exposure to dLAN reduced DTH responses in female offspring. IgG antibodies to a novel antigen were elevated in offspring of dams exposed to dLAN. Paternal exposure to dLAN decreased splenic endocrine receptor expression and global methylation in a parental sex-specific manner. Together, these data suggest that exposure to dLAN has transgenerational effects on endocrine-immune function that may be mediated by global alterations in the epigenetic landscape of immune tissues.
Borniger, Jeremy C; Weil, Zachary M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J
Artificial nighttime illumination has recently become commonplace throughout the world; however, in common with other animals, humans have not evolved in the ecological context of chronic light at night. With prevailing evidence linking the circadian, endocrine, immune, and metabolic systems, understanding these relationships is important to understanding the etiology and progression of several diseases. To eliminate the covariate of sleep disruption in light at night studies, researchers often use nocturnal animals. However, the assumption that light at night does not affect sleep in nocturnal animals remains unspecified. To test the effects of light at night on sleep, we maintained Swiss-Webster mice in standard light/dark (LD) or dim light at night (DLAN) conditions for 8-10 wks and then measured electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) biopotentials via wireless telemetry over the course of two consecutive days to determine differences in sleep timing and homeostasis. Results show no statistical differences in total percent time, number of episodes, maximum or average episode durations in wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. No differences were evident in SWS delta power, an index of sleep drive, between groups. Mice kept in DLAN conditions showed a relative increase in REM sleep during the first few hours after the dark/light transition. Both groups displayed normal 24-h circadian rhythms as measured by voluntary running wheel activity. Groups did not differ in body mass, but a marked negative correlation of body mass with percent time spent awake and a positive correlation of body mass with time spent in SWS was evident. Elevated body mass was also associated with shorter maximum wake episode durations, indicating heavier animals had more trouble remaining in the wake vigilance state for extended periods of time. Body mass did not correlate with activity levels, nor did activity levels correlate with time spent in
Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.
Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.
Frank, David W; Evans, Jennifer A; Gorman, Michael R
Bright light has been established as the most ubiquitous environmental cue that entrains circadian timing systems under natural conditions. Light equivalent in intensity to moonlight (dim nighttime illumination accelerated re-entrainment of hamster activity rhythms to 4-hour phase advances and delays of an otherwise standard laboratory photocycle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a sensitive period existed in the night during which dim illumination had a robust influence on speed of re-entrainment. Male Siberian hamsters were either exposed to dim light throughout the night, for half of the night, or not at all. Compared to dark nights, dim illumination throughout the entire night decreased by 29% the time for the midpoint of the active phase to re-entrain to a 4-hour phase advance and by 26% for a 4-hour delay. Acceleration of advances and delays were also achieved with 5 hours of dim light per night, but effects depended on whether dim light was present in the first half, second half, or first and last quarters of the night. Both during phase shifting and steady-state entrainment, partially lit nights also produced strong positive and negative masking effects, as well as entrainment aftereffects in constant darkness. Thus, even in the presence of a strong zeitgeber, light that might be encountered under a natural nighttime sky potently modulates the circadian timing system of hamsters.
Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Pozo, Oscar J; Espinosa, Ana; Marcos, Josep; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Basagaña, Xavier; Ribas, Ferran Calduch; Mirabent, Joan; Martín, Jordi; Carenys, Gemma; Martín, Celia Reyes; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Kogevinas, Manolis
Light-at-night has been shown in experimental studies to disrupt melatonin production but this has only partly been confirmed in studies of night shift workers. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the circadian variation of melatonin in relation to shift status, individual levels of light-at-night exposure, and diurnal preference, an attribute reflecting personal preference for activity in the morning or evening. One hundred and seventeen workers (75 night and 42 day) of both sexes, ages 22 to 64 years, were recruited from four companies. Participants collected urine samples from all voids over 24 hours and wore a data logger continuously recording their light exposure. Sociodemographic, occupational, lifestyle, and diurnal preference information were collected by interview. Concentrations of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the main melatonin metabolite, were measured. Mean aMT6s levels were lower in night [10.9 ng/mg creatinine/hour; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9.5-12.6] compared with day workers (15.4; 95% CI, 12.3-19.3). The lowest aMT6s levels were observed in night workers with morning preference (6.4; 95% CI, 3.0-13.6). Peak time of aMT6s production occurred 3 hours later in night (08:42 hour, 95% CI, 07:48-09:42) compared with day workers (05:36 hour, 95% CI, 05:06-06:12). Phase delay was stronger among subjects with higher light-at-night exposure and number of nights worked. Night shift workers had lower levels and a delay in peak time of aMT6s production over a 24-hour period. Differences were modified by diurnal preference and intensity of light-at-night exposure. Night shift work affects levels and timing of melatonin production and both parameters may relate to future cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Kim, Jonathan D; Perrone, John A; Isler, Robert B
Previous research has shown that changes to contrast levels in the visual environment caused by fog can affect drivers' perceptions of speed. It is not easy, however, to extrapolate these results to other driving scenarios in which contrast is affected, such as during nighttime driving, because the measure of contrast is more complex when considering factors such as the illumination provided by headlights. Therefore, we investigated the differences in lighting distribution patterns between day- and nighttime driving on speed perception using prerendered 3D scenarios representing driving on a rural road. A two-alternative forced-choice design based on the method of constant stimuli was utilised, with 32 participants viewing a series of pairs of scenarios (day vs. night driving) from a driver's perspective while indicating for each pair whether the second scenario was faster or slower than the first scenario. Our results indicated that speed discrimination accuracy was minimally affected by changes in lighting distribution patterns between day and night.
Cissé, Yasmine M; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J
Dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts circadian organization and influences adult behavior. We examined early dLAN exposure on adult affective responses. Beginning 3 (juvenile) or 5 weeks (adolescent) of age, mice were maintained in standard light-dark cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lx) for 5 weeks, then anxiety-like and fear responses were assessed. Hypothalami were collected around the clock to assess core clock genes. Exposure to dLAN at either age increased anxiety-like responses in adults. Clock and Rev-ERB expression were altered by exposure to dLAN. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during early life increases anxiety and fear behavior.
Health consequences of electric lighting practices in the modern world : A report on the National Toxicology Program's workshop on shift work at night, artificial light at night, and circadian disruption
Lunn, Ruth M; Blask, David E; Coogan, Andrew N; Figueiro, Mariana G; Gorman, Michael R; Hall, Janet E; Hansen, Johnni; Nelson, Randy J; Panda, Satchidananda; Smolensky, Michael H; Stevens, Richard G; Turek, Fred W; Vermeulen, Roel; Carreón, Tania; Caruso, Claire C; Lawson, Christina C; Thayer, Kristina A; Twery, Michael J; Ewens, Andrew D; Garner, Sanford C; Schwingl, Pamela J; Boyd, Windy A
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes
Weisgerber, Denise M; Nikol, Maria; Mistlberger, Ralph E
Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs vigilance and increases the risk of driving accidents during the commute home after night work. Bright light (BL) can enhance alertness and cognitive performance. We examined the effects of BL (5600 lux) versus dim light (DL, 35 lux) at the end of a night awake on driving performance. Subjects (N = 19, 22.8 ± 4 ya) completed three conditions, counterbalanced for order at >1 week intervals. The two overnight SD conditions began in the lab at usual bedtime. After six hours in DL, subjects were exposed to 45 min BL or continued DL, and then completed a 44 min driving test (two lap circuit) in a high fidelity simulator. In the rested condition, subjects slept at home until habitual wakeup time, were transported to the lab and ∼45 min after wakeup, received BL and then the driving test. Oral temperature decreased while reaction time and sleepiness increased across both SD nights. BL suppressed salivary melatonin but had little or no effect on sleepiness or reaction time. SD markedly increased incidents and accidents. Five subjects (26%) sustained a terminal accident (eg, car flip) in the SD-DL condition, but none did so in the SD-BL or rested-BL conditions. Compared to SD-DL, SD-BL was associated with fewer incidents and accidents overall, and with better performance on the second lap of the circuit on several performance measures. BL at the end of a night shift may have potential as a countermeasure to improve driving following night work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boivin, Diane B; James, Francine O
In this combined field and laboratory investigation, the authors tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote circadian adaptation to night-shift work. Fifteen nurses working permanent night schedules (> or = 8 shifts/ 15 days) were recruited from area hospitals. Following avacation period of > or = 10 days on a regular daytime schedule, workers were admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase via a 36-h constant routine. They returned to work approximately 12 night shifts on their regular schedules under one of two conditions. Treatment group workers (n = 10, mean age +/- SD = 41.7 +/- 8.8 years) received an intervention including 6 h of intermittent bright-light exposure in the workplace (approximately 3,243 lux) and shielding from bright morning outdoor light with tinted goggles (15% visual light transmission). Control group workers (n = 9, mean age +/- SD = 42.0 +/- 7.2 years) were observed in their habitual work environments. On work days, participants maintained regular sleep/wake schedules including a single 8-h sleep/darkness episode beginning 2 h after the end of the night shift. A second 36-h constant routine was performed following the series of night shifts. In the presence of the intervention, circadian rhythms of core body temperature and salivary melatonin cycles were delayed by an average (+/- SEM) of -9.32 +/- 1.06 h and -11.31 +/- 1.13 h, respectively. These were significantly greater than the phase delays of -4.09 +/- 1.94 h and -5.08 +/- 2.32 h displayed by the control group (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). The phase angle between circadian markers and the shifted schedule was reestablished to its baseline position only in the treatment group of workers. These results support the efficacy of a practical intervention for promoting circadian adaptation to night-shift work under field conditions. They also underline the importance of controlling the overall pattern of exposure to light and darkness in
Hunter, Claudia M; Figueiro, Mariana G
Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks. This review focuses on six studies that employed quantitative measurement of LAN and melatonin levels to assess cancer risks in shift workers. These studies were identified via searching the PubMed database for peer-reviewed, English-language articles examining the links between shift work, LAN, and disease using the terms light at night, circadian disruption, health, risk, cancer, shift work, or rotating shift. While the results indicate a growing consensus on the relationship between disease risks (particularly cancer) and circadian disruption associated with shift work, the establishment of a direct link between LAN and disease has been impeded by contradictory studies and a lack of consistent, quantitative methods for measuring LAN in the research to date. Better protocols for assessing personal LAN exposure are required, particularly those employing calibrated devices that measure and sample exposure to workplace light conditions, to accurately assess LAN's effects on the circadian system and disease. Other methodologies, such as measuring circadian disruption and melatonin levels in the field, may also help to resolve discrepancies in the findings.
Purawijaya, Dandri Aly; Fitri, Lulu Lusianti; Suprijanto
Numbers of night driving accident in Indonesia since 2010 are exponentially rising each year with total of loss more than 50 billion rupiah. One of the causes that contribute to night driving accident is drowsiness. Drowsiness is affected by circadian rhythm resulted from the difference of blue light quality and quantity between night and day. Blue light may effect on human physiology through non-visual pathway by suppressing melatonin hormone suppression that influence drowsiness. Meanwhile, the production of hormones and other activities in brain generate bioelectrical activity such as brainwaves and can be recorded using Electroencephalograph (EEG). Therefore, this research objective is to evaluate the effect of blue light exposure to beta brainwave emergence during night driving simulation to a driver. This research was conducted to 4 male subjects who are able to drive and have a legitimate car driving license. The driving simulator was done using SCANIA Truck Driving Simulator on freeform driving mode in dark environment. Subjects drove for total 32 minutes. The data collections were taken in 2 days with 16 minutes for each day. The 16 minutes were divided again into 8 minutes adaptation in dark and 8 minutes for driving either in blue light exposure or in total darkness. While driving the simulation, subjects' brainwaves were recorded using EEG EMOTIV 14 Channels, exposed by LED monochromatic blue light with 160 Lux from source and angle 45o and sat 1 m in front of the screen. Channels used on this research were for visual (O1; O2), cognition (F3; F4; P7; P8), and motor (FC5; FC6). EEG brainwave result was filtered with EEGLab to obtain beta waves at 13 - 30 Hz frequencies. Results showed that beta waves response to blue light varied for each subject. Blue light exposure either increased or decreased beta waves in 2 minutes pattern and maintaining beta waves on cognition and motor area in 3 out of 4 subjects. Meanwhile, blue light exposure did not maintain
Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio
Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates blood pressure (BP) variability because of disruption of the biological clock, resulting in increased nighttime BP. Although exposure to light-at-night is associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether exposure to light-at-night in home settings is associated with nighttime BP. In this cross-sectional analysis of 528 elderly individuals (mean age: 72.8 years), we measured bedroom light intensity at 1-min intervals on two consecutive nights along with ambulatory BP, overnight urinary melatonin excretion and actigraphy. With regard to adjusted mean comparisons using analysis of covariance, the light-at-night group (average: ≥5 lux; n = 109) showed significantly higher nighttime systolic BP (SBP; adjusted mean: 120.8 vs. 116.5 mmHg, p = 0.01) and diastolic BP (70.1 vs. 67.1 mmHg, p light-at-night and nighttime BP in different cutoff values for light-at-night intensity (i.e. 3 and 10 lux). In conclusion, exposure to light-at-night in home settings is significantly associated with increased nighttime BP in elderly individuals independently of overnight urinary melatonin excretion. A 4.3 mmHg increase in nighttime SBP is associated with a 6.1% increase in total mortality, which corresponds to approximately 10 000 annual excess deaths in Japanese elderly population.
Fonken, Laura K; Haim, Achikam; Nelson, Randy J
With the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century, human and nonhuman animals became exposed to high levels of light at night for the first time in evolutionary history. This divergence from the natural environment may have significant implications for certain ecological niches because of the important influence light exerts on the circadian system. For example, circadian disruption and nighttime light exposure are linked to changes in immune function. The majority of studies investigating the effects of light exposure and circadian disruption on the immune system use nocturnal rodents. In diurnal species, many hormones and immune parameters vary with secretion patterns 180° out of phase to those of nocturnal rodents. Thus, the authors investigated the effects of nighttime light exposure on immunocompetence in diurnal Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). Rats were housed in either standard 14-h light (L):10-h dark (D) cycles with L ∼150 lux and D 0 lux or dim light at night (dLAN) cycles of LD 14:10 with L ∼150 lux and D 5 lux for 3 wks, then tested for plasma bactericidal capacity, as well as humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Rats exposed to dLAN showed increased delayed-type hypersensitivity pinna swelling, which is consistent with enhanced cell-mediated immune function. dLAN rats similarly showed increased antibody production following inoculation with keyhole lymphocyte hemocyanin (KLH) and increased bactericidal capacity. Daytime corticosterone concentrations were elevated in grass rats exposed to nighttime dim light, which may have influenced immunological measures. Overall, these results indicate nighttime light affects immune parameters in a diurnal rodent.
Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Nelson, Randy J
Species have been adapted to specific niches optimizing survival and reproduction; however, urbanization by humans has dramatically altered natural habitats. Artificial light at night (LAN), termed 'light pollution', is an often overlooked, yet increasing disruptor of habitats, which perturbs physiological processes that rely on precise light information. For example, LAN alters the timing of reproduction and activity in some species, which decreases the odds of successful breeding and increases the threat of predation for these individuals, leading to reduced fitness. LAN also suppresses immune function, an important proxy for survival. To investigate the impact of LAN in a species naive to light pollution in its native habitat, immune function was examined in Siberian hamsters derived from wild-caught stock. After four weeks exposure to dim LAN, immune responses to three different challenges were assessed: (i) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), (ii) lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, and (iii) bactericide activity of blood. LAN suppressed DTH response and reduced bactericide activity of blood after lipopolysaccharide treatment, in addition to altering daily patterns of locomotor activity, suggesting that human encroachment on habitats via night-time lighting may inadvertently compromise immune function and ultimately fitness.
McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.
Bedrosian, T A; Galan, A; Vaughn, C A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J
Humans and other organisms have adapted to a 24-h solar cycle in response to life on Earth. The rotation of the planet on its axis and its revolution around the sun cause predictable daily and seasonal patterns in day length. To successfully anticipate and adapt to these patterns in the environment, a variety of biological processes oscillate with a daily rhythm of approximately 24 h in length. These rhythms arise from hierarchally-coupled cellular clocks generated by positive and negative transcription factors of core circadian clock gene expression. From these endogenous cellular clocks, overt rhythms in activity and patterns in hormone secretion and other homeostatic processes emerge. These circadian rhythms in physiology and behaviour can be organised by a variety of cues, although they are most potently entrained by light. In recent history, there has been a major change from naturally-occurring light cycles set by the sun, to artificial and sometimes erratic light cycles determined by the use of electric lighting. Virtually every individual living in an industrialised country experiences light at night (LAN) but, despite its prevalence, the biological effects of such unnatural lighting have not been fully considered. Using female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we investigated the effects of chronic nightly exposure to dim light on daily rhythms in locomotor activity, serum cortisol concentrations and brain expression of circadian clock proteins (i.e. PER1, PER2, BMAL1). Although locomotor activity remained entrained to the light cycle, the diurnal fluctuation of cortisol concentrations was blunted and the expression patterns of clock proteins in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus were altered. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to dim LAN can dramatically affect fundamental cellular function and emergent physiology. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.
Bará, Salvador; Ribas, Salvador J; Kocifaj, Miroslav
The artificial emissions of light contribute to a high extent to the observed brightness of the night sky in many places of the world. Determining the all-sky radiance of anthropogenic origin requires solving the radiative transfer equation for ground-level light sources, generally resorting to a double-scattering approximation in order to account for the observed radiance patterns with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Since the all-sky radiance distribution produced by an elementary light source depends on the distance to the observer in a way that is not immediately obvious, the contributions of sources located at different distances have to be computed on an individual basis, solving for each one the corresponding scattering integrals. In this paper we show that these calculations may be significantly alleviated by using a modal approach, whereby the hemispheric night-sky radiance is expanded in terms of a convenient basis of two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal functions. Since the modal coefficients of this expansion do vary smoothly with the distance to the observer, the all-sky brightness distributions produced by light sources located at arbitrary intermediate distances can be efficiently estimated by interpolation, provided that the coefficients at a discrete set of distances are accurately determined beforehand. (paper)
Mohammed S Albreiki
Full Text Available Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d. and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL (500 lux sessions, separated by at least seven days. Saliva and plasma samples were collected prior to and after a standard evening meal at specific intervals. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels were significantly higher pre-meal in DL compared to BL (P < 0.01. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly greater post-meal in the BL compared to DL session (P = 0.02, P = 0.001, respectively. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher in the DL compared to those in BL session (P = 0.005. BL at night was associated with significant increases in plasma glucose and insulin suggestive of glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Raised pre-prandial NEFA levels may be due to changes in insulin sensitivity or the presence of melatonin and/or light at night. Plasma triglyceride (TAG levels were the same in both sessions. These results may explain some of the health issues reported in shift workers; however, further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of these metabolic changes.
Sun, Jiachen; Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel
Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is an increasing and worldwide problem. There is growing concern that because of the disruption of natural light cycles, ALAN may pose serious risks for wildlife. While ALAN has been shown to affect many aspects of animal behaviour and physiology, few studies have experimentally studied whether individuals of different species in the wild respond differently to ALAN. Here, we investigated the effect of ALAN on sleep behaviour in two closely related songbird species inhabiting the same study area and roosting/breeding in similar nest boxes. We experimentally exposed free-living great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to artificial light inside their nest boxes and observed changes in their sleep behaviour compared to the previous night when the nest boxes were dark. In line with previous studies, sleep behaviour of both species did not differ under dark conditions. ALAN disrupted sleep in both great and blue tits. However, compared to blue tits, great tits showed more pronounced effects and more aspects of sleep were affected. Light exposed great tits entered the nest boxes and fell asleep later, woke up and exited the nest boxes earlier, and the total sleep amount and sleep percentage were reduced. By contrast, these changes in sleep behaviour were not found in light exposed blue tits. Our field experiment, using exactly the same light manipulation in both species, provides direct evidence that two closely related species respond differently to ALAN, while their sleep behaviour under dark conditions was similar. Our research suggests that findings for one species cannot necessarily be generalised to other species, even closely-related species. Furthermore, species-specific effects could have implications for community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Constance E.; M, Pompea, Stephen
Citizen-science is a rewardingly inclusive way to bring awareness to the public on the disappearance of the starry night sky, its cause and solutions. Globe at Night (GaN) encourages citizen-scientists worldwide to record the brightness of the night sky. During ten-days per month of moonless evenings, children and adults match the appearance of a specified constellation with 7 star maps of progressively fainter stars found at www.globeatnight.org. They then submit their choice of star map in-situ with the “webapp” by smart device to add to a light pollution map worldwide. In the eleven years of the program, over 170,000 observations from 180 countries have been contributed to the campaign.The Globe at Night (open) database is a source of research projects, even with other disciplines. For example, students conducted research to understand the lesser long-nosed bats’ avoidance of city center at night. On-the-fly mapping enables citizen-scientists to see contributed observations immediately. The 12 campaigns per year offer 4 ways of taking measurements. The online app for data submission is in 28 languages. STEM activities for young children and problem-based learning activities for older students were created to experience real-life scenarios: role-playing sea turtles hatching (misdirected by lights on shore) or analyzing an ISS image of Houston to estimate the wasted energy, cost and carbon footprint. In-situ and on-line workshops have been given on using GaN in all its capacities, as well as for the activities. Our Facebook page exists to encourage dialogue and bring cutting edge news. To entice interest, we had monthly newsletters and serial podcasts starring the Dark Skies Crusader. GaN has been part of special campaigns like with the National Park Service, the National Geographic BioBlitz and Tucson in 2011. Partnerships also include SciStarter (working with participants), Fieldscope (working with data analysis), and STARS4ALL (working with other light
Rea, Mark S.; Brons, Jennifer A.; Figueiro, Mariana G.
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between rotating shiftwork and breast cancer (BC) risk. Recently, light at night (LAN) measured by satellite photometry and by self-reports of bedroom brightness has been shown to be associated with BC risk, irrespective of shiftwork history. Importance has been placed on these associations because retinal light exposures at night can suppress the hormone melatonin and/or disrupt circadian entrainment to the local 24-h light-dark cycle. The present study examined whether it was valid to use satellite photometry and self-reports of brightness to characterize light, as it might stimulate the circadian system and thereby affect BC incidence. Calibrated photometric measurements were made at the bedroom windows and in the bedrooms of a sample of female school teachers, who worked regular dayshifts and lived in a variety of satellite-measured sky brightness categories. The light levels at both locations were usually very low and were independent of the amount of satellite-measured light. Calibrated photometric measurements were also obtained at the corneas of these female school teachers together with calibrated accelerometer measurements for seven consecutive days and evenings. Based upon these personal light exposure and activity measurements, the female teachers who participated in this study did not have disrupted light-dark cycles like those associated with rotating shiftworkers who do exhibit a higher risk for BC. Rather, this sample of female school teachers had 24-h light-dark and activity-rest patterns very much like those experienced by dayshift nurses examined in an earlier study who are not at an elevated risk of BC. No relationship was found between the amount of satellite-measured light levels and the 24-h light-dark patterns these women experienced. It was concluded from the present study that satellite photometry is unrelated to personal light exposures as they might affect melatonin suppression and
Craine, Erin M.; DeBenedetti, Jennifer C.
There is a growing movement in the educational field to promote science, technology, engineering and math studies, stemming from a concern about waning understanding and interest among K-12 students in these topics. STEM Laboratory, Inc. (STEM) has developed a Sky Brightness Meter (SBM) that can be used with ease yet produces complex information relating to light at night monitoring. STEM sees the SBM and its corresponding data archive as a means to involve students in projects that relate to scientific method exploration, makes science more accessible, and encourages a life long appreciation and understanding of scientific endeavors. In this paper we present an example of a project template that could be used by students studying effects of artificial light on sky brightness. STEM has developed several outreach lessons aligned with the National Common Core Curriculum, Systems Thinking concepts and local standards to be implemented in classrooms or independent youth organizations.
Cissé, Yasmine M; Peng, Juan; Nelson, Randy J
Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux). In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.
Yasmine M. Cissé
Full Text Available Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1 or 5 weeks (Experiment 2 of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux. In the first two experiments, food intake and locomotor activity were assessed after 4 weeks and a glucose tolerance test was administered after 6 weeks in experimental lighting conditions. In Experiment 3, tissues were collected around the clock at 6 h intervals to investigate rhythmic hepatic clock gene expression in mice exposed to dLAN from 3 or 5 weeks of age. Male and female mice exposed to dLAN beginning at 3 weeks of age displayed similar growth rates and body mass to DARK-reared offspring, despite increasing day-time food intake. Exposure to dLAN beginning at 5 weeks of age increased body mass and daytime food intake in male, but not female, mice. Consistent with the body mass phenotype, clock gene expression was unaltered in the liver. In contrast to adults, dLAN exposure during the development of the peripheral circadian system has sex- and development-dependent effects on body mass gain.
Stenvers, Dirk Jan; van Dorp, Rick; Foppen, Ewout; Mendoza, Jorge; Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H; Meijer, Johanna H; Kalsbeek, Andries; Deboer, Tom
Exposure to light at night (LAN) is associated with insomnia in humans. Light provides the main input to the master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that coordinates the sleep-wake cycle. We aimed to develop a rodent model for the effects of LAN on sleep. Therefore, we exposed male Wistar rats to either a 12 h light (150-200lux):12 h dark (LD) schedule or a 12 h light (150-200 lux):12 h dim white light (5 lux) (LDim) schedule. LDim acutely decreased the amplitude of daily rhythms of REM and NREM sleep, with a further decrease over the following days. LDim diminished the rhythms of 1) the circadian 16-19 Hz frequency domain within the NREM sleep EEG, and 2) SCN clock gene expression. LDim also induced internal desynchronization in locomotor activity by introducing a free running rhythm with a period of ~25 h next to the entrained 24 h rhythm. LDim did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. In conclusion, we introduce the first rodent model for disturbed circadian control of sleep due to LAN. We show that internal desynchronization is possible in a 24 h L:D cycle which suggests that a similar desynchronization may explain the association between LAN and human insomnia.
Da Silva, Arnaud; Samplonius, Jelmer Menno; Schlicht, Emmi; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart
It is well established that artificial night lighting can influence animal orientation, but there is less information about its effects on other behaviors. Previous work suggested that light pollution can affect both seasonal and daily patterns of behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate
Ikeno, Tomoko; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Photoperiodic regulation of physiology, morphology, and behavior is crucial for many animals to survive seasonally variable conditions unfavorable for reproduction and survival. The photoperiodic response in mammals is mediated by nocturnal secretion of melatonin under the control of a circadian clock. However, artificial light at night caused by recent urbanization may disrupt the circadian clock, as well as the photoperiodic response by blunting melatonin secretion. Here we examined the effect of dim light at night (dLAN) (5lux of light during the dark phase) on locomotor activity rhythms and short-day regulation of reproduction, body mass, pelage properties, and immune responses of male Siberian hamsters. Short-day animals reduced gonadal and body mass, decreased spermatid nuclei and sperm numbers, molted to a whiter pelage, and increased pelage density compared to long-day animals. However, animals that experienced short days with dLAN did not show these short-day responses. Moreover, short-day specific immune responses were altered in dLAN conditions. The nocturnal activity pattern was blunted in dLAN hamsters, consistent with the observation that dLAN changed expression of the circadian clock gene, Period1. In addition, we demonstrated that expression levels of genes implicated in the photoperiodic response, Mel-1a melatonin receptor, Eyes absent 3, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, were higher in dLAN animals than those in short-day animals. These results suggest that dLAN disturbs the circadian clock function and affects the molecular mechanisms of the photoperiodic response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rybnikova, N A; Haim, A; Portnov, B A
Worldwide overweight and obesity rates are on the rise, with about 1 900 billion adults being defined as overweight and about 600 million adults being defined as obese by the World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic. We analyzed most recent satellite images of night time illumination, available from the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), combining them with country-level data on female and male overweight and obesity prevalence rates, reported by the WHO. The study aims to identify and measure the strength of association between ALAN and country-wide overweight and obesity rates, controlling for per capita GDP, level of urbanization, birth rate, food consumption and regional differences. ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; Pworldwide. Regional differences in the strength of association between ALAN and excessive body mass are also noted. This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.
Savvidou Olga D
Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin "the light of night" is secreted from the pineal gland principally at night. The hormone is involved in sleep regulation, as well as in a number of other cyclical bodily activities and circadian rhythm in humans. Melatonin is exclusively involved in signalling the 'time of day' and 'time of year' (hence considered to help both clock and calendar functions to all tissues and is thus considered to be the body's chronological pacemaker or 'Zeitgeber'. The last decades melatonin has been used as a therapeutic chemical in a large spectrum of diseases, mainly in sleep disturbances and tumours and may play a role in the biologic regulation of mood, affective disorders, cardiovascular system, reproduction and aging. There are few papers regarding melatonin and its role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Melatonin may play a role in the pathogenesis of scoliosis (neuroendocrine hypothesis but at present, the data available cannot clearly support this hypothesis. Uncertainties and doubts still surround the role of melatonin in human physiology and pathophysiology and future research is needed.
Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Magalang, Ulysses J; Nelson, Randy J
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dim light at night (dLAN) have both been independently associated with alterations in mood and cognition. We aimed to determine whether dLAN would interact with intermittent hypoxia (IH), a condition characteristic of OSA, to alter the behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses. Adult male mice were housed in either standard lighting conditions (14:10-h light-dark cycle; 150 lux:0 lux) or dLAN (150 lux:5 lux). Mice were then exposed to IH (15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, FiO2 nadir of 5%) for 3 wk, then tested in assays of affective and cognitive responses; brains were collected for dendritic morphology and PCR analysis. Exposure to dLAN and IH increased anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed in the open field, elevated plus maze, and the light/dark box. dLAN and IH increased depressive-like behaviors in the forced swim test. IH impaired learning and memory performance in the passive avoidance task; however, no differences were observed in spatial working memory, as assessed by y-maze or object recognition. IH combined with dLAN decreased cell body area in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Overall, IH decreased apical spine density in the CA3, whereas dLAN decreased spine density in the CA1 of the hippocampus. TNF-α gene expression was not altered by IH or lighting condition, whereas VEGF expression was increased by dLAN. The combination of IH and dLAN provokes negative effects on hippocampal dendritic morphology, affect, and cognition, suggesting that limiting nighttime exposure to light in combination with other established treatments may be of benefit to patients with OSA.
Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M. [ShiftWork Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.
Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives
Cho, Chul-Hyun; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il; Lee, Heon-Jeong
Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2). Salivary melatonin was measured before and after sleep on each night. For further investigation, the female and male subjects of our previous study were collected (48 subjects), and differences according to gender were compared. dLAN during sleep was significantly associated with decreased total sleep time (TST; F=4.818, p=0.039), sleep efficiency (SE; F=5.072, p=0.034), and Stage R latency (F=4.664, p=0.041) for female subjects, and decreased TST (F=14.971, pfemale as well as in merged subjects. REM sleep showed a pronounced increase under 10 lux than under 5 lux in merged subjects, suggesting the possibility of subtle influences of dLAN on REM sleep.
Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J
The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades; however, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unspecified. One environmental change that has coincided with elevated rates of depression is increased exposure to artificial light at night. Shift workers and others chronically exposed to light at night are at increased risk of mood disorders, suggesting that nighttime illumination may influence brain mechanisms mediating affect. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night may impact affective responses and alter morphology of hippocampal neurons. Ovariectomized adult female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were housed for 8 weeks in either a light/dark cycle (LD) or a light/dim light cycle (DM), and then behavior was assayed. DM-hamsters displayed more depression-like responses in the forced swim and the sucrose anhedonia tests compared with LD-hamsters. Conversely, in the elevated plus maze DM-hamsters reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Brains from the same animals were processed using the Golgi-Cox method and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were analyzed for morphological characteristics. In CA1, DM-hamsters significantly reduced dendritic spine density on both apical and basilar dendrites, an effect which was not mediated by baseline cortisol, as concentrations were equivalent between groups. These results demonstrate dim light at night is sufficient to reduce synaptic spine connections to CA1. Importantly, the present results suggest that night-time low level illumination, comparable to levels that are pervasive in North America and Europe, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stone, Julia E; Sletten, Tracey L; Magee, Michelle; Ganesan, Saranea; Mulhall, Megan D; Collins, Allison; Howard, Mark; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W
Shift work is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse health impacts. There is substantial inter-individual variability in the way the circadian clock responds to changing shift cycles. The mechanisms underlying this variability are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that light-dark exposure is a significant contributor to this variability; when combined with diurnal preference, the relative timing of light exposure accounted for 71% of individual variability in circadian phase response to night shift work. These results will drive development of personalised approaches to manage circadian disruption among shift workers and other vulnerable populations to potentially reduce the increased risk of disease in these populations. Night shift workers show highly variable rates of circadian adaptation. This study examined the relationship between light exposure patterns and the magnitude of circadian phase resetting in response to night shift work. In 21 participants (nursing and medical staff in an intensive care unit) circadian phase was measured using 6-sulphatoxymelatonin at baseline (day/evening shifts or days off) and after 3-4 consecutive night shifts. Daily light exposure was examined relative to individual circadian phase to quantify light intensity in the phase delay and phase advance portions of the light phase response curve (PRC). There was substantial inter-individual variability in the direction and magnitude of phase shift after three or four consecutive night shifts (mean phase delay -1:08 ± 1:31 h; range -3:43 h delay to +3:07 h phase advance). The relative difference in the distribution of light relative to the PRC combined with diurnal preference accounted for 71% of the variability in phase shift. Regression analysis incorporating these factors estimated phase shift to within ±60 min in 85% of participants. No participants met criteria for partial adaptation to night work after three or four consecutive night
Full Text Available This study examined the color stability of painted Norway spruce (Picea abies samples subjected to natural and accelerated weathering, using Duncan’s tests and correlation analyses. The following effects were studied: (1 the different initial roughness of the wood; (2 use of transparent or lightly-pigmented top-coat layers; and (3 the presence of the final water-repellent layer. Natural weathering at a 45° slope in an industrial zone lasted 104 weeks, whereas accelerated weathering in Xenotest with 0.55 W/m2 UV irradiation at 340 nm and sprayed water lasted 12 weeks. The color stability of painted spruce, measured in a CIE-L*a*b* system, was not, in the majority of cases, significantly affected by the initial roughness of the wood, the type of top-coat (WoodCare UV or PerlColor layer, or presence of the final water repellent (AquaStop layer. The light pine or larch pigments in the top-coat layers had positive color stabilizing effects. In their presence, the darkening (-L* and total color differences (E* of the painted samples dropped ca. 2.5 times during exterior weathering and ca. 5 times during Xenotest weathering. Samples painted with transparent coatings turned a reddish shade (+a* during the Xenotest, while those exposed to the exterior absorbed dirt and became more blue (-b*.
Anouk A. M. H. Welbers
Full Text Available The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN is an increasingly recognized process that accompanies expanding urbanization. Yet, we have limited knowledge on the impact of ALAN on wild species, and on the potential to mitigate any negative effects by using different light sources and colors. In birds, effects of ALAN on activity levels are reported for several species and, hence, their daily energy expenditure (DEE may be affected. DEE is a potent mediator of life-history trade-offs and fitness and thus an important aspect to consider when examining the potential long-term ecological effects of ALAN. Previous work has suggested that birds exposed to ALAN show higher levels of provisioning and nocturnal activity, suggesting that white ALAN increases DEE. Other factors regulating DEE, such as provisioning behavior and food availability, might also respond to ALAN and thus indirectly affect DEE. We tested the hypothesis that ALAN increases DEE using an experimental setup where four previously unlit transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as a control treatment. This setup was replicated in eight locations across the Netherlands. We measured DEE of our focal species, the great tit (Parus major, using a novel doubly labeled water technique that uses breath rather than blood samples. Contrary to our expectations, birds feeding their offspring under white and green ALAN showed lower DEE compared to birds in the control dark treatment. Differences in chick provisioning activity did not explain this result, as neither visit rates nor daily activity timing was affected by light treatment. However, food availability under white and green light was much higher compared to red light and the dark control. This difference strongly suggests that the lower DEE under white and green ALAN sites is a consequence of higher food availability in these treatments. This result shows that there can be positive
Aubé, M.; Simoneau, A.; Wainscoat, R.; Nelson, L.
The goal of this study is to evaluate the current level of light pollution in the night sky at the Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui in Hawaii. This is accomplished with a numerical model that was tested in the first International Dark Sky Reserve located in Mont-Mégantic National Park in Canada. The model uses ground data on the artificial light sources present in the region of study, geographical data, and remotely sensed data for: 1) the nightly upward radiance; 2) the terrain elevation; and, 3) the ground spectral reflectance of the region. The results of the model give a measure of the current state of the sky spectral radiance at the Haleakala Observatory. Then, using the current state as a reference point, multiple light conversion plans are elaborated and evaluated using the model. We can thus estimate the expected impact of each conversion plan on the night sky radiance spectrum. A complete conversion to white (LEDs) with (CCT) of 4000K and 3000K are contrasted with a conversion using (PC) amber (LEDs). We include recommendations concerning the street lamps to be used in sensitive areas like the cities of Kahului and Kihei and suggest best lighting practices related to the color of lamps used at night.
Cissé, Yasmine M; Russart, Kathryn L G; Nelson, Randy J
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) have steadily increased over the past 50 years. Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of depressive disorders and environmental influences are being increasingly recognized. The increase in depression rates has coincided with increased artificial nighttime lighting. Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with increased depressive-like behavior in rodents and decreased mood in humans. However, relatively little is known on the multigenerational effects of dLAN on affect. In this study, we exposed adult male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to either DARK (0lx) or dim LAN (5lx) for 9 weeks, then paired animals in a full factorial design; all animals were thereafter housed in dark nights. Offspring were gestated and reared in dark nights, then tested in adulthood for depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and melatonin (MT1) receptor expression. Maternal exposure to dLAN decreased sucrose preference, time to first float bout in the Porsolt swim test, and GR expression in the hippocampus. Paternal exposure to dLAN increased time spent floating, and increased hippocampal GR expression. Overall, our results suggest that chronic exposure of parents to light at night has multigenerational effects on offspring depressive-like behavior. If these results pertain to humans, then our data suggest that LAN may contribute to the rapidly rising rates of major depressive disorder in industrialized and developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.
The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.
Mathews, Fiona; Roche, Niamh; Aughney, Tina; Jones, Nicholas; Day, Julie; Baker, James; Langton, Steve
Artificial lighting is a particular problem for animals active at night. Approximately 69% of mammal species are nocturnal, and one-third of these are bats. Due to their extensive movements—both on a nightly basis to exploit ephemeral food supplies, and during migration between roosts—bats have an unusually high probability of encountering artificial light in the landscape. This paper reviews the impacts of lighting on bats and their prey, exploring the direct and indirect consequences of lighting intensity and spectral composition. In addition, new data from large-scale surveys involving more than 265 000 bat calls at more than 600 locations in two countries are presented, showing that prevalent street-lighting types are not generally linked with increased activity of common and widespread bat species. Such bats, which are important to ecosystem function, are generally considered ‘light-attracted’ and likely to benefit from the insect congregations that form at lights. Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) may be an exception, being more frequent in lit than dark transects. For common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), lighting is negatively associated with their distribution on a landscape scale, but there may be local increases in habitats with good tree cover. Research is now needed on the impacts of sky glow and glare for bat navigation, and to explore the implications of lighting for habitat matrix permeability. PMID:25780236
Full Text Available In this paper, we conducted a scientometric analysis based on the Night-Time Light (NTL remote sensing related literature datasets retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in Web of Science core collection database. Using the methods of bibliometric and Social Network Analysis (SNA, we drew several conclusions: (1 NTL related studies have become a research hotspot, especially after 2011 when the second generation of NTL satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP Satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS sensor was on board. In the same period, the open-access policy of the long historical dataset of the first generation satellite Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS started. (2 Most related studies are conducted by authors from USA and China, and the USA takes the lead in the field. We identified the biggest research communities constructed by co-authorships and the related important authors and topics by SNA. (3 By the visualization and analysis of the topic evolution using the co-word and co-cited reference networks, we can clearly see that: the research topics change from hardware oriented studies to more real-world applications; and from the first generation of the satellite DMSP/OLS to the second generation of satellite S-NPP. Although the Day Night Band (DNB of the S-NPP exhibits higher spatial and radiometric resolution and better calibration conditions than the first generation DMSP/OLS, the longer historical datasets in DMSP/OLS are still important in long-term and large-scale human activity analysis. (4 In line with the intuitive knowledge, the NTL remote sensing related studies display stronger connections (such as interpretive frame, context, and academic purpose to the social sciences than the general remote sensing discipline. The citation trajectories are visualized based on the dual-maps, thus the
Cerdà, Artemi; González, Óscar; León, Javier; Jordán, Antonio
Water repellency is a well-know soil property since the research of professor Stefan Helmut Doerr recovered and powered the research developed by professor DeBano (Atanassova and Doerr, 2011; ; Jordán et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; González Peñaloza et al., 2012 Bodí et al., 2013; García Moreno et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2013; Jiménez Morillo et al., 2015). However, little is known about the impact of water repellency in surface runoff generation, although usually is accepted that when more soil water repellent is a soil, higher will be the surface runoff discharge (Stoff et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Lozano et al., 2013; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2015). And the impact of the water repellency and then the higher surface wash discharge can trigger high erosion rates (Kröpfl et al., 2013; Mandal and Sharda 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However these relationships were not demonstrated as the most water repellent soils are the one with high organic contents, and those soils do not have soil losses, probably due to the high infiltration rates due to the macropore flow. Rainfall simulation experiments can shed light in the runoff generation mechanism as they can control the rainfall intensity (Bodí et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013), and inform about the main mechanism of the soil erosion process Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Daugherty et al., 2011; Podwojewski et al., 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Garel et al., 2012; Jouquet et al., 2012; Kibet et al., 2013; Butzen et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2014; Martínez Murillo et al., 2013). To determine the relationship between surface runoff generated under simulated rainfall (Cerdà, 1988a; 1988b; Cerdà et al., 1998; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) with a small rainfall simulator (0.25 m2) and water repellency measurements with the Water Drop Penetration time methods were done (Bodí et al., 2012). The results show that
Levin, Noam; Kark, Salit; Crandall, David
Conservation prioritization at large scales is complex, combining biological, environmental, and social factors. While conservation scientists now more often aim to incorporate human-related factors, a critical yet unquantified challenge remains: to identify which areas people use for recreation outside urban centers. To address this gap in applied ecology and conservation, we developed a novel approach for quantifying human presence beyond populated areas by combining social media "big data" and remote sensing tools. We used data from the Flickr photo-sharing website as a surrogate for identifying spatial variation in visitation globally, and complemented this estimate with spatially explicit information on stable night lights between 2004 and 2012, used as a proxy for identifying urban and industrial centers. Natural and seminatural areas attracting visitors were defined as areas both highly photographed and non-lit. The number of Flickr photographers within protected areas was found to be a reliable surrogate for estimating visitor numbers as confirmed by local authority censuses (r = 0.8). Half of all visitors' photos taken in protected areas originated from under 1% of all protected areas on Earth (250 of -27 000). The most photographed protected areas globally included Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks (USA), and the Lake and Peak Districts (UK). Factors explaining the spatial variation in protected areas Flickr photo coverage included their type (e.g., UNESCO World Heritage sites have higher visitation) and accessibility to roads and trails. Using this approach, we identified photography hotspots, which draw many visitors and are also unlit (i.e., are located outside urban centers), but currently remain largely unprotected, such as Brazil's Pantanal and Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni. The integrated big data approach developed here demonstrates the benefits of combining remote sensing sources and novel geo-tagged and crowd-sourced information from social
Bedrosian, T A; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J
The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.
Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J
Daily patterns of light exposure have become increasingly variable since the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century. Seasonal fluctuations in light exposure, shift-work, and transmeridian travel are all associated with alterations in mood. These studies implicate fluctuations in environmental lighting in the development of depressive disorders. Here we argue that exposure to light at night (LAN) may be causally linked to depression. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, which produce nocturnal melatonin, were housed in either a standard light/dark (LD) cycle or exposed to nightly dim (5 lux) LAN (dLAN). After four weeks in lighting conditions mice underwent behavioral testing and hippocampal tissue was collected at the termination of the study for qPCR. Here were report that mice exposed to dLAN increase depressive-like responses in both a sucrose anhedonia and forced swim test. In contrast to findings in diurnal grass rats, dLAN mice perform comparably to mice housed under dark nights in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. TNFα and IL1β gene expression do not differ between groups, demonstrating that changes in these pro-inflammatory cytokines do not mediate dLAN induced depressive-like responses in mice. BDNF expression is reduced in the hippocampus of mice exposed to dLAN. These results indicate that low levels of LAN can alter mood in mice. This study along with previous work implicates LAN as a potential factor contributing to depression. Further understanding of the mechanisms through which LAN contributes to changes in mood is important for characterizing and treating depressive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Wen; Cheng, Hui; Zhang, Li
All countries around the world and many international bodies, including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), have to eliminate rural poverty. Estimation of regional poverty level is a key issue for making strategies to eradicate poverty. Most of previous studies on regional poverty evaluations are based on statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has discussed the deficiencies of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional poverty evaluation issues using 3-year DMSP/OLS night-time light satellite imagery. In this study, we adopted 17 socio-economic indexes to establish an integrated poverty index (IPI) using principal component analysis (PCA), which was proven to provide a good descriptor of poverty levels in 31 regions at a provincial scale in China. We also explored the relationship between DMSP/OLS night-time average light index and the poverty index using regression analysis in SPSS and a good positive linear correlation was modelled, with R2 equal to 0.854. We then looked at provincial poverty problems in China based on this correlation. The research results indicated that the DMSP/OLS night-time light data can assist analysing provincial poverty evaluation issues.
R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist
Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...
Borniger, Jeremy C; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J
The circadian system is primarily entrained by the ambient light environment and is fundamentally linked to metabolism. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship among aberrant light exposure, shift work, and metabolic disease. Previous research has demonstrated deleterious metabolic phenotypes elicited by chronic (>4 weeks) exposure to dim light at night (DLAN) (∼ 5 lux). However, the metabolic effects of short-term (dim light would gain more body mass, alter whole body metabolism, and display altered body temperature (Tb) and activity rhythms compared to mice maintained in dark nights. Our data largely support these predictions; DLAN mice gained significantly more mass, reduced whole body energy expenditure, increased carbohydrate over fat oxidation, and altered temperature circadian rhythms. Importantly, these alterations occurred despite similar activity locomotor levels (and rhythms) and total food intake between groups. Peripheral clocks are potently entrained by body temperature rhythms, and the deregulation of body temperature we observed may contribute to metabolic problems due to "internal desynchrony" between the central circadian oscillator and temperature sensitive peripheral clocks. We conclude that even relatively short-term exposure to low levels of nighttime light can influence metabolism to increase mass gain.
Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Winter is a challenging time to survive and breed outside of the tropics. Animals use day length (photoperiod) to regulate seasonally appropriate adaptations in anticipation of challenging winter conditions. The net result of these photoperiod-mediated adjustments is enhanced immune function and increased survival. Thus, the ability to discriminate day length information is critical for survival and reproduction in small animals. However, during the past century, urban and suburban development has rapidly expanded and filled the night sky with light from various sources, obscuring crucial light-dark signals, which alters physiological interpretation of day lengths. Furthermore, reduced space, increased proximity to people, and the presence of light at night may act as stressors for small animals. Whereas acute stressors typically enhance immune responses, chronic exposure to stressors often impairs immune responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination of dim light at night and chronic stress interferes with enhanced cell-mediated immunity observed during short days. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were assigned to short or long days with dark nights (0 lux) or dim (5 lux) light at night for 10 weeks. Following 2 weeks of chronic restraint (6 hr/day), a model of chronic stress, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were assessed. Both dim light at night and restraint reduced the DTH response. Dim light at night during long nights produced an intermediate short day phenotype. These results suggest the constant presence of light at night could negatively affect survival of photoperiodic rodents by disrupting the timing of breeding and immune responses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cleary-Gaffney, Michael; Coogan, Andrew N
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated increased depression-like behaviour in various rodent experimental models exposed to dim light-at-night. In this study we set out to study the impact of dim light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours in C57Bl/6 mice. We set out specifically to examine the impact of sex on light at night's effects, as well as the impact of housing conditions. We report minimal impact of light-at-night on circadian and affective behaviours, as measured by the tail suspension test, the forced swim test, the sucrose preference test and the elevated plus maze. Light-at-night was also not associated with an increase in body weight, but was associated with a decrease in the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in the dentate gyrus. In summary, we conclude that experimental contextual factors, such as model species or strain, may be considerable importance in the investigation of the impact of light at night on mood-related parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, we developed a method to detect sudden population concentration on a certain day and area, that is, an “Event,” all over Japan in 2012 using mass GPS data provided from mobile phone users. First, stay locations of all phone users were detected using existing methods. Second, areas and days where Events occurred were detected by aggregation of mass stay locations into 1-km-square grid polygons. Finally, the proposed method could detect Events with an especially large number of visitors in the year by removing the influences of Events that occurred continuously throughout the year. In addition, we demonstrated reasonable reliability of the proposed Event detection method by comparing the results of Event detection with light intensities obtained from the night light images from the DMSP/OLS night light images. Our method can detect not only positive events such as festivals but also negative events such as natural disasters and road accidents. These results are expected to support policy development of urban planning, disaster prevention, and transportation management.
Egri, Ádám; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Pereszlényi, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György
Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo : when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important.
Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H
Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A research talk about: • The Lux@r project - The context of this talk • Light and light exposure - What When and Where • Light as a “one-dimensional unit” – things that matters: 1. Spectral sensitivity 2. Spatial sensitivity...
Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711
Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3 -/- mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3 -/- ) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3 -/- mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3 -/- nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3 -/- phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light.
Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Coates, Melissa M; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J
The sweat bee Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), unlike most bees, flies in extremely dim light. And although nocturnal insects are often equipped with superposition eyes, which greatly enhance light capture, Megalopta performs visually guided flight with apposition eyes. We examined how light limits Megalopta's flight behavior by measuring flight times and corresponding light levels and comparing them with flight trajectories upon return to the nest. We found the average time to land increased in dim light, an effect due not to slow approaches, but to circuitous approaches. Some landings, however, were quite fast even in the dark. To explain this, we examined the flight trajectories and found that in dim light, landings became increasingly error prone and erratic, consistent with repeated landing attempts. These data agree well with the premise that Megalopta uses visual summation, sacrificing acuity in order to see and fly at the very dimmest light intensities that its visual system allows.
Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A.; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G.; Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.
Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to anti-estrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of ERα+ MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speeds the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characters were not produced in animals where circadian rhythms were not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to re-establish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775
Jones, Therésa M.; Durrant, Joanna; Michaelides, Ellie B.; Green, Mark P.
The mechanisms underpinning the ecological impacts of the presence of artificial night lighting remain elusive. One suspected underlying cause is that the presence of light at night (LAN) supresses nocturnal production of melatonin, a key driver of biological rhythm and a potent antioxidant with a proposed role in immune function. Here, we briefly review the evidence for melatonin as the link between LAN and changes in behaviour and physiology. We then present preliminary data supporting the potential for melatonin to act as a recovery agent mitigating the negative effects of LAN in an invertebrate. Adult crickets (Teleogryllus commodus), exposed to constant illumination, were provided with dietary melatonin (concentrations: 0, 10 or 100 µg ml−1) in their drinking water. We then compared survival, lifetime fecundity and, over a 4-week period, immune function (haemocyte concentration, lysozyme-like and phenoloxidase (PO) activity). Melatonin supplementation was able only partially to mitigate the detrimental effects of LAN: it did not improve survival or fecundity or PO activity, but it had a largely dose-dependent positive effect on haemocyte concentration and lysozyme-like activity. We discuss the implications of these relationships, as well as the usefulness of invertebrates as model species for future studies that explore the effects of LAN. PMID:25780235
Li, Mao; Li, Lel-in
For the sake of curbing the spreading of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and spatial disorder in the process of urbanization development on the regional bearing capacity of land resources and ecological environment and assisting to plan the integration process of ChangZhuTan,this paper uses the DMSP/OLS night light data of Chang ZhuTan in 1992 to 2013 to invert the urbanization process index of ChangZhuTan urban agglomeration. Based on the two scales of time and space, this paper analyzes the average index of lights, the speed of urban expansion and urban compactness index et al and studies the temporal and spatial characteristics of ChangZhuTan urban agglomeration in this period.
Oh, Ji Hye; Yoo, Heeyeon; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag
This study proposes representative figures of merit for circadian and vision performance for healthy and efficient use of smartphone displays. The recently developed figures of merit for circadian luminous efficacy of radiation (CER) and circadian illuminance (CIL) related to human health and circadian rhythm were measured to compare three kinds of commercial smartphone displays. The CIL values for social network service (SNS) messenger screens from all three displays were higher than 41.3 biolux (blx) in a dark room at night, and the highest CIL value reached 50.9 blx. These CIL values corresponded to melatonin suppression values (MSVs) of 7.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Moreover, smartphone use in a bright room at night had much higher CIL and MSV values (58.7 ~ 105.2 blx and 15.4 ~ 36.1%, respectively). This study also analyzed the nonvisual and visual optical properties of the three smartphone displays while varying the distance between the screen and eye and controlling the brightness setting. Finally, a method to possibly attenuate the unhealthy effects of smartphone displays was proposed and investigated by decreasing the emitting wavelength of blue LEDs in a smartphone LCD backlight and subsequently reducing the circadian effect of the display.
Sletten, Tracey L; Ftouni, Suzanne; Nicholas, Christian L; Magee, Michelle; Grunstein, Ronald R; Ferguson, Sally; Kennaway, David J; O'Brien, Darren; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W
Night workers often experience high levels of sleepiness due to misalignment of the sleep-wake cycle from the circadian pacemaker, in addition to acute and chronic sleep loss. Exposure to light, in particular short wavelength light, can improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance. This randomised controlled trial examined the efficacy of blue-enriched polychromatic light to improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance in night workers. Participants were 71 night shift workers (42 males; 32.8±10.5 years) who worked at least 6 hours between 22:00 and 08:00 hours. Sleep-wake logs and wrist actigraphy were collected for 1-3 weeks, followed by 48-hour urine collection to measure the circadian 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythm. On the night following at least two consecutive night shifts, workers attended a simulated night shift in the laboratory which included subjective and objective assessments of sleepiness and performance. Workers were randomly assigned for exposure to one of two treatment conditions from 23:00 hours to 07:00 hours: blue-enriched white light (17 000 K, 89 lux; n=36) or standard white light (4000 K, 84 lux; n=35). Subjective and objective sleepiness increased during the night shift in both light conditions (pnight shift workers, further research is needed in the selection of light properties to maximise the benefits. The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000097044 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=320845&isReview=true). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries
Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of LAN on glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to i.v. glucose or insulin tolerance tests while exposed to 2 h of LAN in the early or late dark phase. In subsequent experiments, different light intensities and wavelengths were used. LAN exposure early in the dark phase at ZT15 caused increased glucose responses during the first 20 min after glucose infusion (p light of 50 and 150 lx induced greater glucose responses than 5 and 20 lx, whereas all intensities other than 5 lx reduced locomotor activity. Green light induced glucose intolerance, but red and blue light did not, suggesting the involvement of a specific retina-brain pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to LAN has acute adverse effects on glucose metabolism in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner.
Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner
In this study we investigated the influence of artificial light at night (ALAN) of different intensities (0, 1, 10, 100 lx) and different colours (blue, green, red) on the daily melatonin rhythm and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in roach Rutilus rutilus, a ubiquitous cyprinid, which occur in standing and moderately flowing freshwater habitats of central Europe. Melatonin concentrations were significantly lowered under nocturnal white light already at 1 lx. Low intensity blue, green and red ALAN lowered the melatonin levels significantly in comparison to a dark control. We conclude that ALAN can disturb melatonin rhythms in roach at very low intensities and at different wavelengths and thus light pollution in urban waters has the potential to impact biological rhythms in fish. However, mRNA expression of gonadotropins was not affected by ALAN during the period of the experiments. Thus, suspected implications of ALAN on reproduction of roach could not be substantiated.
Cai, Xiaoni; Gao, Kunshan
While the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is known to display inverse diurnal performances of photosynthesis and N2 fixation, such a phenomenon has not been well documented under different day-night (L-D) cycles and different levels of light dose exposed to the cells. Here, we show differences in growth, N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation as well as photochemical performances of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 16L:8D L-D cycles at 70 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (LL) and 350 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (HL). The specific growth rate was the highest under LL and the lowest under HL under 16L:8D, and it increased under LL and decreased under HL with increased levels of daytime light doses exposed under the different light regimes, respectively. N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation were affected differentially by changes in the day-night regimes, with the former increasing directly under LL with increased daytime light doses and decreased under HL over growth-saturating light levels. Temporal segregation of N2 fixation from photosynthetic carbon fixation was evidenced under all day-night regimes, showing a time lag between the peak in N2 fixation and dip in carbon fixation. Elongation of light period led to higher N2 fixation rate under LL than under HL, while shortening the light exposure to 8 h delayed the N2 fixation peaking time (at the end of light period) and extended it to night period. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates and transfer of light photons were always higher under HL than LL, regardless of the day-night cycles. Conclusively, diel performance of N2 fixation possesses functional plasticity, which was regulated by levels of light energy supplies either via changing light levels or length of light exposure.
Bennie, Jon; Mantovani, Waldir; Gaston, Kevin J.
Artificial nighttime lighting from streetlights and other sources has a broad range of biological effects. Understanding the spatial and temporal levels and patterns of this lighting is a key step in determining the severity of adverse effects on different ecosystems, vegetation, and habitat types. Few such analyses have been conducted, particularly for regions with high biodiversity, including the tropics. We used an intercalibrated version of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) images of stable nighttime lights to determine what proportion of original and current Brazilian vegetation types are experiencing measurable levels of artificial light and how this has changed in recent years. The percentage area affected by both detectable light and increases in brightness ranged between 0 and 35% for native vegetation types, and between 0 and 25% for current vegetation (i.e. including agriculture). The most heavily affected areas encompassed terrestrial coastal vegetation types (restingas and mangroves), Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest. The existing small remnants of Lowland Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forests and of Campinarana had the lowest exposure levels to artificial light. Light pollution has not often been investigated in developing countries but our data show that it is an environmental concern. PMID:28178352
Freitas, Juliana Ribeirão de; Bennie, Jon; Mantovani, Waldir; Gaston, Kevin J
Artificial nighttime lighting from streetlights and other sources has a broad range of biological effects. Understanding the spatial and temporal levels and patterns of this lighting is a key step in determining the severity of adverse effects on different ecosystems, vegetation, and habitat types. Few such analyses have been conducted, particularly for regions with high biodiversity, including the tropics. We used an intercalibrated version of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) images of stable nighttime lights to determine what proportion of original and current Brazilian vegetation types are experiencing measurable levels of artificial light and how this has changed in recent years. The percentage area affected by both detectable light and increases in brightness ranged between 0 and 35% for native vegetation types, and between 0 and 25% for current vegetation (i.e. including agriculture). The most heavily affected areas encompassed terrestrial coastal vegetation types (restingas and mangroves), Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest. The existing small remnants of Lowland Deciduous and Semideciduous Seasonal Forests and of Campinarana had the lowest exposure levels to artificial light. Light pollution has not often been investigated in developing countries but our data show that it is an environmental concern.
Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio
Chronic circadian misalignment between the internal and environmental rhythms, which is typically related to night-shift work and clock-gene variants, is associated with disruption of suprachiasmatic nucleus function and increased risk of insomnia. Under controlled laboratory conditions, light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin secretion, delays the internal biological rhythm, and reduces sleepiness. Therefore, LAN exposure may cause circadian misalignment and insomnia, though it remains unclear in real-life situations whether LAN exposure is associated with insomnia. To evaluate an association between LAN exposure and sleep quality in home settings, we conducted a cross-sectional community-based study in 857 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.2 years). We evaluated bedroom light intensity using a light meter and subjectively and objectively measured sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and an actigraph, respectively, along with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion. Compared with the lowest quartile group of LAN intensity, the highest quartile group revealed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for subjective insomnia in a multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, daytime physical activity, urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, bedtime, rising time, and day length (adjusted OR, 1.61, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.45, p=0.029). In addition, higher OR for subjective insomnia was significantly associated with the increase in quartiles of LAN intensity (ptrend=0.043). Consistently, we observed significant association trends between the increase in quartiles of LAN intensity and poorer actigraphic sleep quality, including decreased sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep-onset latency, increased wake-after-sleep onset, shortened total sleep time, and delayed sleep-mid time in multivariate models adjusted for the covariates mentioned above (all ptrend<0.001). In conclusion, we demonstrated that LAN exposure in home settings is
I. O. Zharinov
Full Text Available Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an observer differently with presence and absence of external illumination. When external light of white color is used, perceived color depends upon color temperature of the light source; if illumination source has any arbitrary spectral characteristics, then perceivable color depends upon whole spectral content of the used source. The color, perceived by an observer, is formed as the mixture of the color displayed on the screen (image element color with the color presented by diffuse reflection of external illumination source from the surface of the screen. The brightness of both colors is added. Mathematical expressions, that define calculation rule for chromaticity coordinates of color perceived by an observer, are based on the Grassmann’s law of additive color mixing. Quantitative analysis of the effect, caused by radiation spectra from an external source of artificial light on color gamut area, corresponding to image, perceived by an observer, has been performed through simulation in MathCad 15.0. Main Results. It was shown, that the color palette of on-board indication equipment, obtained on automated working place for any preset source of external illumination of fluorescent spectrum, corresponding to white light, is not usable correctly in the aircraft night flight mode. An observer loses ability to perceive properly saturated primary colors of red and blue in the case of green-blue light source of external illumination; and the same issue occurs with
Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina
The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.
Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a 2-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-naïve riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using two-way generalized least squares (GLS model and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact. Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.
Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán
Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.
Griffiths, Gregory Peter
A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…
Full Text Available Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.
Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy
Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.
Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.
To date, no studies have examined the transition from communism to capitalism in Russia or China with night light (NTL) data despite the availability of DMSP-OLS satellite imagery dating back to 1992, one year after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This paper uses the DMSP-OLS Version 4 stable lights annual image composites for every year from 1992-2012 to reveal the complex and sometimes divergent trajectories of regional development in Russia and China. We first characterize the spatial patterns and characteristics of NTL intensity and extensivity in Russia versus China at national and regional scales across this 21-year period. Although GDP rises in both countries during this time, NTL tells a different story: total night light (tNTL) in Russia in 2012 is slightly lower than in 1992, while tNTL in China is significantly higher. Next, we generate regional-level tNTL from each annual composite and examine their relationships with population, GDP, and fixed capital investment data from the Russian Federal State Statistics Service and the National Bureau of Statistics of China using a fixed effects model. We determine that while the fixed effects "between" model explains more of the differences in tNTL between Russia's federal subjects, the "within" model better explains differences over time within China's provinces. This suggests that on the one hand, Russia's regions are more heterogeneous than China's. On the other hand, whereas change over time in population and GRP explains change over time in tNTL in China's regions, they hardly do so at all for Russia's. Finally, we attempt to combine these socioeconomic variables with NTL data to build an NTL-based typology of regional development, representing a step beyond existing research. The preliminary creation of a regional development typology allows us to begin identifying emerging resource frontiers (places with increases in NTL but decreases in population) along with areas experiencing a reversal of
Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.
A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.
Full Text Available Stable night-time lights (NTL data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line-scan System (DMSPOLS can serve as a good proxy for anthropogenic development. Here DMSP-OLS NTL data was used to detect the urban development status in northeastern China. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of urban expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth’s surface needed to maintain constant NTL condition, and has a mean of 0.36 km/yr for northeastern China. The velocity change of NTL is lower in the urban center and its near regions, and the suburbs show a relatively high value. The connecting zones between satellite cities and metropolis have also a rapid rate of NTL evolution. The dynamic process of urbanization over the study area is mainly in a manner of spreading from urban cores to edges. The rank size of the velocity for the prefectures is analyzed and a long tail distribution is found. The velocity index can provide insights for the future pattern of urban sprawl.
Doll, Christopher N.H.; Pachauri, Shonali
A lack of access to energy and, in particular, electricity is a less obvious manifestation of poverty but arguably one of the most important. This paper investigates the extent to which electricity access can be investigated using night-time light satellite data and spatially explicit population datasets to compare electricity access between 1990 and 2000. We present here the first satellite derived estimates of rural population without access to electricity in developing countries to draw insights on issues surrounding the delivery of electricity to populations in rural areas. The paper provides additional evidence of the slow progress in expansion of energy access to households in Sub-Saharan Africa and shows how this might be ascribed in part due to the low population densities in rural areas. The fact that this is a continent with some of the lowest per-capita income levels aggravates the intrinsic difficulties associated with making the investments needed to supply electricity in areas with low population density and high dispersion. Clearly, these spatial dimensions of the distributions of the remaining unelectrified populations in the world have an impact on what options are considered the most appropriate in expanding access to these households and the relative attractiveness of decentralized options.
Stable night-time lights (NTL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line-scan System (DMSPOLS) can serve as a good proxy for anthropogenic development. Here DMSP-OLS NTL data was used to detect the urban development status in northeastern China. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of urban expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth's surface needed to maintain constant NTL condition, and has a mean of 0.36 km/yr for northeastern China. The velocity change of NTL is lower in the urban center and its near regions, and the suburbs show a relatively high value. The connecting zones between satellite cities and metropolis have also a rapid rate of NTL evolution. The dynamic process of urbanization over the study area is mainly in a manner of spreading from urban cores to edges. The rank size of the velocity for the prefectures is analyzed and a long tail distribution is found. The velocity index can provide insights for the future pattern of urban sprawl.
Kretschmer, Veronika; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Griefahn, Barbara
The present study examined whether the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning is mediated by psychological well-being in elderly persons working night shifts. The role of psychological well-being has been neglected so far in the relationship between bright light and cognitive performance. Sleepiness and mood were applied as indicators of psychological well-being. Cognitive functioning was examined in terms of concentration, working memory, and divided attention. A total of thirty-two test persons worked in three consecutive simulated night shifts, 16 under bright light (3,000 lux) and 16 under room light (300 lux). Concentration, working memory, and divided attention were measured by computerised tasks. The hypothesised mediators were recorded by questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted for estimating direct, total, and indirect effects in simple mediation models. Results indicate that sleepiness and mood did not function as mediators in the prediction of concentration, working memory, and/or divided attention by light exposure. Sleepiness led to an underestimation of the positive bright-light effect on concentration performance. Mood showed only a random effect due to the positive bright-light effect on working memory. Sleepiness and mood could completely be excluded as mediators in the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning. This study underlines that psychological well-being of elderly persons is not a critical component in the treatment of bright light on cognitive performance in the night shift workplace. In summary, it becomes evident that bright light has a strong direct and independent effect on cognitive performance, particularly on working memory and concentration.
Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Byeong Uk; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho; Lim, Jong-Min; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Sang Kun; Jung, Ki-Young
Recent studies have reported that dim light at night (dLAN) is associated with risks of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we evaluated the effect of dLAN on the cerebrovascular system by analyzing cerebral hemodynamic oscillations using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen healthy male subjects underwent polysomnography coupled with cerebral NIRS. The data collected during sleep with dim light (10 lux) were compared with those collected during sleep under the control dark conditions for the sleep structure, cerebral hemodynamic oscillations, heart rate variability (HRV), and their electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum. Power spectral analysis was applied to oxy-hemoglobin concentrations calculated from the NIRS signal. Spectral densities over endothelial very-low-frequency oscillations (VLFOs) (0.003-0.02 Hz), neurogenic VLFOs (0.02-0.04 Hz), myogenic low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) (0.04-0.15 Hz), and total LFOs (0.003-0.15 Hz) were obtained for each sleep stage. The polysomnographic data revealed an increase in the N2 stage under the dLAN conditions. The spectral analysis of cerebral hemodynamics showed that the total LFOs increased significantly during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and decreased during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Specifically, endothelial (median of normalized value, 0.46 vs. 0.72, p = 0.019) and neurogenic (median, 0.58 vs. 0.84, p = 0.019) VLFOs were enhanced during SWS, whereas endothelial VLFOs (median, 1.93 vs. 1.47, p = 0.030) were attenuated during REM sleep. HRV analysis exhibited altered spectral densities during SWS induced by dLAN, including an increase in very-low-frequency and decreases in low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. In the EEG power spectral analysis, no significant difference was detected between the control and dLAN conditions. In conclusion, dLAN can disturb cerebral hemodynamics via the
Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Kazemi, Reza; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid
Night-shift works are basically accompanied by reduced cognitive performance, sleepiness, and higher possibility for human error and related incidents. It is therefore crucial to improve individuals' performance and alertness in sensitive places like industries' control room with the ultimate goal of increasing efficiency and reducing the number of possible incidents. Previous research has indicated that blue light is a critical cue for entraining circadian rhythm. As a result, the present study was an attempt to investigate whether blue-enriched white light illumination was a practical strategy to decrease sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during night shifts. The study, which adopted a before-after interventional design, was conducted among 30 control room staff members of petrochemical industry. After baseline assessments under existing lighting conditions, every participant was exposed to two new lighting conditions (namely, 17,000K and 6500K blue-enriched white light), each lasting for a week. Assessments were conducted again at the end of these treatments. In order to measure the subjective sleepiness, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) was utilized. Subjects also performed the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II) and 1-back test in order to gauge their cognitive performance, and melatonin assessment was carried out using salivary and Eliza technique. The data was analyzed using two-way repeated measure ANOVA. The results indicated that, compared to normal lighting conditions, participants' sleepiness and melatonin rhythm significantly declined when they were exposed to blue-enriched white light. Furthermore, the experimental condition had a significant effect on the reduction of working memory errors. It also decreased omission errors and the reaction time during the sustained attention task. Thus, using blue-enriched white light may be a proper ergonomic strategy for improving performance and alertness, especially during night, in
Jiao, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Zhou, Q.
In recent decades, urbanization has resulted a massive increase in the amount of infrastructure especially large buildings in large cities worldwide. There has been a noticeable expansion of entire cities both horizontally and vertically. One of the common consequences of urban expansion is the increase of ground loads, which may trigger land subsidence and can be a potential threat of public safety. Monitoring trends of urban expansion and land subsidence using remote sensing technology is needed to ensure safety along with urban planning and development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line scan System (DMSP/OLS) Night-Time Light (NTL) images have been used to study urbanization at a regional scale, proving the capability of recognizing urban expansion patterns. In the current study, a normalized illuminated urban area dome volume (IUADV) based on inter-calibrated DMSP/OLS NTL images is shown as a practical approach for estimating urban expansion of Beijing at a single period in time and over subsequent years. To estimate the impact of urban expansion on land subsidence, IUADV was correlated with land subsidence rates obtained using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) approach within the Persistent Scatterers InSAR (PSInSAR) methodology. Moderate correlations are observed between the urban expansion based on the DMSP/OLS NTL images and land subsidence. The correlation coefficients between the urban expansion of each year and land subsidence tends to gradually decrease over time (Coefficient of determination R = 0.80 - 0.64 from year 2005 to year 2010), while the urban expansion of two sequential years exhibit an opposite trend (R = 0.29 - 0.57 from year 2005 to year 2010) except for the two sequential years between 2007 and 2008 (R = 0.14).
申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧
This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens
Kim, Mari; Subramanian, Manivannan; Cho, Yun-Ho; Kim, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean
The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms. We used a light intensity of 10 lux, which is considered the lower limit of light pollution in many countries. After the tauopathy flies were exposed to the dim light at night for 3 days, the flies showed disrupted CRs, altered sleep-wake cycles due to increased pTau proteins and neurodegeneration, in the brains of the AD flies. The results indicate that the nighttime exposure of tauopathy/AD model Drosophila flies to dim light disrupted CR and sleep-wake behavior and promoted neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J
The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.
Casasole, Giulia; Raap, Thomas; Costantini, David; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population. Artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and distance from roads were not associated with variation of the nine studied metrics of oxidative status (superoxide dismutase-SOD-, glutathione peroxidase-GPX, catalase-CAT-, non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity-TAC-, reduced glutathione-GSH-, oxidized glutathione-GSSG-, ratio GSH/GSSG, protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS). Interestingly, for all oxidative status metrics, we found that there was more variation in oxidative status among individuals of the same nest compared to between different nests. We also showed an increase in protein carbonyls and a decrease of the ratio GSH/GSSG as the day advanced, and an increase of GPX when weather conditions deteriorated. Our study suggests that anthropogenic noise, artificial light at night and road-related pollution are not the most important sources of variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings. It also highlights the importance of considering bleeding time and weather conditions in studies with free-living animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cho, YongMin; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lee, Byeo Ri; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jaewook
It has frequently been reported that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) may cause negative health effects, such as breast cancer, circadian phase disruption and sleep disorders. Here, we reviewed the literature assessing the effects of human exposure to ALAN in order to list the health effects of various aspects of ALAN. Several electronic databases were searched for articles, published through August 2014, related to assessing the effects of exposure to ALAN on human health; these also included the details of experiments on such exposure. A total of 85 articles were included in the review. Several observational studies showed that outdoor ALAN levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and reported that indoor light intensity and individual lighting habits were relevant to this risk. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, increases sleep onset latency (SOL) and increases alertness. Circadian misalignment caused by chronic ALAN exposure may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and/or metabolic functions. ALAN also causes circadian phase disruption, which increases with longer duration of exposure and with exposure later in the evening. It has also been reported that shorter wavelengths of light preferentially disturb melatonin secretion and cause circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. This literature review may be helpful to understand the health effects of ALAN exposure and suggests that it is necessary to consider various characteristics of artificial light, beyond mere intensity.
Full Text Available Satellite-derived nighttime light images are increasingly used for various studies in relation to demographic, socioeconomic and urbanization dynamics because of the salient relationships between anthropogenic lighting signals at night and statistical variables at multiple scales. Owing to a higher spatial resolution and fewer over-glow and saturation effects, the new generation of nighttime light data derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS day/night band (DNB, which is located on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP satellite, is expected to facilitate the performance of nocturnal luminosity-based investigations of human activity in a spatially explicit manner. In spite of the importance of the spatial connection between the VIIRS DNB nighttime light radiance (NTL and the land surface type at a fine scale, the crucial role of NTL-based investigations of human settlements is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pixel-level relationship between the VIIRS DNB-derived NTL, a Landsat-derived land-use/land-cover dataset, and the map of point of interest (POI density over China, especially with respect to the identification of artificial surfaces in urban land. Our estimates suggest that notable differences in the NTL between urban (man-made surfaces and other types of land surfaces likely allow us to spatially identify most of the urban pixels with relatively high radiance values in VIIRS DNB images. Our results also suggest that current nighttime light data have a limited capability for detecting rural residential areas and explaining pixel-level variations in the POI density at a large scale. Moreover, the impact of non-man-made surfaces on the partitioned results appears inevitable because of the spatial heterogeneity of human settlements and the nature of remotely sensed nighttime light data. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve-based analysis, we obtained
Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Dong Jun; Chang, Kyung-Ah Judy; Oh, Yunhye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Jeon, Hong Jin
Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ayaki, Masahiko; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Maruyama, Yusuke; Nakano, Masaki; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo
We investigated sleep quality and melatonin in 12 adults who wore blue-light shield or control eyewear 2 hours before sleep while using a self-luminous portable device, and assessed visual quality for the two eyewear types. Overnight melatonin secretion was significantly higher after using the blue-light shield (P light shield (P light shield as providing acceptable visual quality.
Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.
Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S
Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Morozova, M V; Kulikov, A V
The light-dark box (LDB) and the open-field (OF) tests are widespread experimental models for studying locomotion and anxiety in laboratory rats and mice. The fact that rodents are nocturnal animals and more active at night raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments carried out in the light phase are methodologically correct. Parameters of behavior of four mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA2/J, AKR/J and CBA/LacJ) in the light-dark box and open-field tests in the light and dark phases were compared. No significant influence of the phase of testing on anxiety in LDB and OF tests was revealed. In the OF test CBA mice showed increased locomotor activity, whereas AKR and C57BL/6 mice showed increased defecation in the dark phase. It was concluded that: 1) the phase of testing is not crucial for the expression of anxiety in LDB and OF; 2) the sensitivity to the phase of testing depends on the genotype; 3) the indices of behavior in the genotypes sensitive to the phase of testing (locomotion in the CBA and defecation in the AKR and C57BL/6 mouse strains) are increased in the dark phase.
Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P
Despite over 70 years of research on shark repellents, few practical and reliable solutions to prevent shark attacks on humans or reduce shark bycatch and depredation in commercial fisheries have been developed. In large part, this deficiency stems from a lack of fundamental knowledge of the sensory cues that drive predatory behavior in sharks. However, the widespread use of shark repellents is also hampered by the physical constraints and technical or logistical difficulties of deploying substances or devices in an open-water marine environment to prevent an unpredictable interaction with a complex animal. Here, we summarize the key attributes of the various sensory systems of sharks and highlight residual knowledge gaps that are relevant to the development of effective shark repellents. We also review the most recent advances in shark repellent technology within the broader historical context of research on shark repellents and shark sensory systems. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may enhance the efficacy of shark repellent devices, in particular, the continued need for basic research on shark sensory biology and the use of a multi-sensory approach when developing or deploying shark repellent technology. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC, the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, High-intensity discharge (HID, and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM, Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM, and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen.
Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J
Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
deHaro, Dawn; Kines, Kristine J.; Sokolowski, Mark; Dauchy, Robert T.; Streva, Vincent A.; Hill, Steven M.; Hanifin, John P.; Brainard, George C.; Blask, David E.; Belancio, Victoria P.
Expression of long interspersed element-1 (L1) is upregulated in many human malignancies. L1 can introduce genomic instability via insertional mutagenesis and DNA double-strand breaks, both of which may promote cancer. Light exposure at night, a recently recognized carcinogen, is associated with an increased risk of cancer in shift workers. We report that melatonin receptor 1 inhibits mobilization of L1 in cultured cells through downregulation of L1 mRNA and ORF1 protein. The addition of melatonin receptor antagonists abolishes the MT1 effect on retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, melatonin-rich, but not melatonin-poor, human blood collected at different times during the circadian cycle suppresses endogenous L1 mRNA during in situ perfusion of tissue-isolated xenografts of human cancer. Supplementation of human blood with exogenous melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist during the in situ perfusion establishes a receptor-mediated action of melatonin on L1 expression. Combined tissue culture and in vivo data support that environmental light exposure of the host regulates expression of L1 elements in tumors. Our data imply that light-induced suppression of melatonin production in shift workers may increase L1-induced genomic instability in their genomes and suggest a possible connection between L1 activity and increased incidence of cancer associated with circadian disruption. PMID:24914052
David E Blask
Full Text Available The central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN plays an important role in temporally organizing and coordinating many of the processes governing cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in synchrony with the daily light/dark cycle which may contribute to endogenous cancer prevention. Bioenergetic substrates and molecular intermediates required for building tumor biomass each day are derived from both aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect and lipid metabolism. Using tissue-isolated human breast cancer xenografts grown in nude rats, we determined that circulating systemic factors in the host and the Warburg effect, linoleic acid uptake/metabolism and growth signaling activities in the tumor are dynamically regulated, coordinated and integrated within circadian time structure over a 24-hour light/dark cycle by SCN-driven nocturnal pineal production of the anticancer hormone melatonin. Dim light at night (LAN-induced melatonin suppression disrupts this circadian-regulated host/cancer balance among several important cancer preventative signaling mechanisms, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the host and runaway aerobic glycolysis, lipid signaling and proliferative activity in the tumor.
... Borne Illnesses Federal Trade Commission Action on Deceptive Marketing of Mosquito Repellent Wrist Band Joint Statement on ... Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on May 29, 2018
Full Text Available Abstract. Light fishing in Pandeglang Banten has significantly developed in number of fishing fleet and using of lamp technology. The fishing ground of light fishing fleet dispersed from Labuan until Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon. The aim of this research is to map the fishing ground of light fishing using VIIRS-DNB data at August to November 2014. This research use descriptive analysis with case study on fishing ground of ligt fishing using VIIRS-DNB data in Pandeglang waters. The results show the fishing ground of light fishing at August to November spread from Lada Bay, Lesung Cape, Sumur District, selamat Datang Bay, until Panaitan Strait. In November, the numbers of fishing fleet have significantly decreased. The loft ofwind velocity in Sunda Strait caused big waves in Pandeglang waters. Moreover, light fishing fleet also move from coastal water to the sea to find the ideal depth.The fluctuation of fishing ground at August to November 2014 influenced by monsoon circulation that effectto current and water masses circulation there. It cause the changing of surface water fertility and influent to spreading of pelagic fish fishing ground as a main target of light fishing fleets in Pandeglang waters. Keyword: fishing ground; light fishing; Pandeglang; VIIRS-DNB Abstrak. Perikanan lampu di perairan Pandeglang Banten telah mengalami perkembangan yang signifikan baik dalam jumlah armada maupun teknologi lampu yang digunakan. Daerah penangkapan armada perikanan lampu tersebar mulai dari perairan Labuan hingga Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan daerah perikanan lampu di perairan Pandeglang menggunakan data VIIRS-DNB yang mampu mendeteksi radiasi yang dihasilkan oleh lampu yang digunakan untuk menarik perhatian ikan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan studi kasus berupa sebaran daerah perikanan lampu di perairan Pandeglang menggunakan data VIIRS-DNB. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pada Bulan
Mittal, P K; Sreehari, U; Razdan, R K; Dash, A P; Ansari, M A
Repellents are commonly used personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites. In the present study, Advanced Odomos cream (12% N, N-diethyl-benzamide) was tested for its efficacy against mosquitoes in comparison to DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide). Bioassays were conducted to assess the repellency of Advanced Odomos and DEET creams against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Their efficacy was tested on human volunteers applied with different concentrations of test creams ranging from 1 to 12 mg/cm 2 and by exposing them to mosquitoes at hourly intervals. Field evaluation was also carried out to test the duration of protection of the test creams against Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes during whole night and day time collections, respectively on human volunteers. Mosquito collections were done using torch light and aspirator. Complete (100%) protection was achieved at 10 mg/cm 2 cream formulation of Advanced Odomos (1.2 mg a.i/cm 2 ) dose against An. stephensi and 12 mg/cm 2 (1.44 mg a.i./cm 2 ) against Ae. aegypti on human baits. There was no statistically significant differences in per cent protection against mosquito bites between Advanced Odomos and DEET cream (P>0.05) in respective doses. Complete protection up to 11 h was observed against Anopheles mosquitoes during whole night collections and up to 6 h against Ae. aegypti in day time collections. No adverse reactions such as itching, irritation, vomiting, nausea, etc. were reported by the volunteers. Advanced Odomos cream applied at 10 mg/cm 2 concentration provided 100% protection from Anopheles mosquitoes up to 11 h whereas about 6 h protection was recorded against Ae. aegypti. The laboratory and field trials indicate that for longer protection against Anopheles mosquitoes 10 mg/cm 2 will be appropriate and in case of Ae. aegypti more than 10 mg/cm 2 application is required for complete protection. In conclusion, the Advanced Odomos cream was comparable to the known repellent cream DEET for
Full Text Available Sleep is an important modulator of metabolic function. Disruptions of sleep in circadian rhythm are common in modern societies and are associated with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Exosomes are ubiquitous extracellular vesicles that may play a mechanistic role in metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that alternating dark-light cycles mimicking shift work in mice would alter fecal microbiota and colonic epithelium permeability and alter plasma exosome cargo and metabolic function. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to (i control day light (CL, or (ii inverted dark-light every 2 weeks for 8 weeks (IN. Body weight, fat mass and HOMA-IR were measured, along with Tregs, metabolic, and resident macrophages in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT. Fecal water samples were incubated with confluent colonic epithelium cell cultures in electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS arrays, and plasma exosomes were added to differentiated adipocytes and insulin-induced pAKT/AKT expression changes were assessed by western blots. Mice exposed to IN showed elevated HOMA-IR, and their fecal samples showed altered microbiota which promote increased permeability of the colonic epithelial cell barrier. Plasma exosomes decreased pAKT/AKT responses to exogenous insulin compared to CL, and altered expression of circadian clock genes. Inflammatory macrophages (Ly-6chigh were increased in IN-exposed vWAT, while Tregs were decreased. Thus, gut microbiota and the cargo of plasma exosomes are altered by periodic shifts in environmental lighting, and effectively alter metabolic function, possibly via induction of systemic inflammation and altered clock expression in target tissues. Further exploration of exosomal miRNA signatures in shift workers and their putative metabolic organ cell targets appears warranted.
Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Duplessis, Tamika; Mao, Lulu; Dauchy, Erin; Sauer, Leonard A.
This review article discusses recent work on the melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and integration of molecular, dietary and metabolic signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and the consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light-at-night (LAN). The antiproliferative effects of the circadian melatonin signal are mediated through a major mechanism involving the activation of MT1 melatonin receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. In estrogen receptor (ERα+) human breast cancer cells, melatonin suppresses both ERα mRNA expression and estrogen-induced transcriptional activity of the ERα via MT1-induced activation of Gαi2 signaling and reduction of cAMP levels. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of additional members of the steroid hormone/nuclear receptor super-family, enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, expression/activation of telomerase and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. The anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions of melatonin involve the blockade of p38 phosphorylation and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of human breast cancer xenografts via another critical pathway involving MT1-mediated suppression of cAMP leading to blockade of linoleic acid (LA) uptake and its metabolism to the mitogenic signaling molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). Down-regulation of 13-HODE reduces the activation of growth factor pathways supporting cell proliferation and survival. Experimental evidence in rats and humans indicating that LAN-induced circadian disruption of the nocturnal melatonin signal activates human breast cancer growth, metabolism and signaling provides the strongest mechanistic support, thus far, for population and ecological studies demonstrating elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LAN. PMID:21605163
Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide. The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique. During the night, the repellents were applied on arms and legs and mosquitoes landing on these areas were collected. In laboratory tests, TRIG provided complete protection (100% against Anopheles gambiae when applied at 1.25 g, while DEET provided this at 0.75 g. When tested on Aedes aegypti, TRIG provided complete protection when applied at 1 g, compared to 0.5 g for DEET. In the field, when applied at a recommended dose, both TRIG and DEET achieved above 90% protection against both An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus and a Complete Protection Time of about 6 hrs against both species of mosquitoes. The performances of the two products were found to be comparable and TRIG was recommended for use as repellent against mosquito bites.
Msangi, Shandala; Kweka, Eliningaya; Mahande, Aneth
A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique. During the night, the repellents were applied on arms and legs and mosquitoes landing on these areas were collected. In laboratory tests, TRIG provided complete protection (100%) against Anopheles gambiae when applied at 1.25 g, while DEET provided this at 0.75 g. When tested on Aedes aegypti, TRIG provided complete protection when applied at 1 g, compared to 0.5 g for DEET. In the field, when applied at a recommended dose, both TRIG and DEET achieved above 90% protection against both An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus and a Complete Protection Time of about 6 hrs against both species of mosquitoes. The performances of the two products were found to be comparable and TRIG was recommended for use as repellent against mosquito bites.
Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.
Charlwood, J D; Nenhep, S; Protopopoff, N; Sovannaroth, S; Morgan, J C; Hemingway, J
The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia is a major problem. The fact that many people become infected with malaria when they are outside has prompted the development of 'spatial' rather than topical repellents. The respective effects of one or four slow-release emanators of metofluthrin, a pyrethroid, were tested in Pailin, Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia. Numbers of mosquitoes counted in outdoor landing catches when one or four emanators were suspended close to the collector were compared with control collections. In Pailin, the effects of emanators on catches in Furvela tent traps and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps suspended underneath houses were also investigated. Rate ratios were used to determine differences. A total of 29 255 mosquitoes were collected over 2934 h of landing collections, 87 nights of tent trapping and 81 nights of light trap capture. In Pailin, landing rates were reduced by 48% by a single emanator and by 67% by four emanators (P metofluthrin collections (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that although the product can produce a significant effect, it requires further improvement. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.
Simone Del Fabbro
Full Text Available Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the "gold standard" repellent DEET appears to be very promising from a practical point of view.
Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors. Full details are available from the Museum website at: http://www.lanuitdelascience.ch/
Gert J. Venter
Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.
Wahnschaffe, Amely; Nowozin, Claudia; Rath, Andreas; Floessner, Theresa; Appelhoff, Stefan; Münch, Mirjam; Kunz, Dieter
Backround: Night-time agitation is a frequent symptom of dementia. It often causes nursing home admission and has been linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. A positive influence of light interventions on night-time agitation was shown in several studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there is a long-term association between regional weather data (as indicator for daylight availability) and 24-hour variations of motor activity. Motor activity of 20 elderly nursing home residents living with dementia was analyzed using recordings of continuously worn wrist activity monitors over a three-year period. The average recording duration was 479 ± 206 days per participant (mean ± SD). Regional cloud amount and day length data from the local weather station (latitude: 52°56'N) were included in the analysis to investigate their effects on several activity variables. Nocturnal rest, here defined as the five consecutive hours with the least motor activity during 24 hours (L5), was the most predictable activity variable per participant. There was a significant interaction of night-time activity with day length and cloud amount (F 1,1174 = 4.39; p = 0.036). Night-time activity was higher on cloudy short days than on clear short days (p = 0.007), and it was also higher on cloudy short days than on cloudy long days (p = 0.032). The need for sufficient zeitgeber (time cue) strength during winter time, especially when days are short and skies are cloudy, is crucial for elderly people living with dementia. Activity forecast by season and weather might be a valuable approach to anticipate adequately complementary use of electrical light and thereby foster lower night-time activity.
For its third edition, the Museum d'histoire des sciences invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and undulations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show in only one weekend that waves and undulations form an integral part of our daily environment. Telephones, televisions, radios, irons, lighting, music, sun rays, stars, rainbows, earthquakes and other natural phenomena - all produce, emit or receive waves or undulations. The visitors attending the Night will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged around the Bartholoni villa and in the Park of the Perle du lac. An amusing and distracting way to familiarize yourself with the concepts of wavelength, frequency and interference lengths... In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of critical experiments, scientific consu...
Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva
Mosquitoes carry diseases than can lead to serious illness and death. According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue Fever, two life threatening diseases vectored by mosquitoes. Although insecticides are the most effective way to control mosquitoes, they are not always environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative tactics should be considered. In this study, we looked at the repellency of various essential oils on female Aedes aegypti through a series of laboratory assays.
Repellency property of long chain aliphatic methyl ketones against Anopheles gambiae s.s ... tained from huge diversity of plant species are an important source of safe .... dry and then introduced with the hand covered by a glove in .... citronellal in repelling bees from basil (Oci- ... Journal of American Mosquito Control As-.
Full Text Available To study dynamics of the upper atmosphere, we consider results of the night sky photometry, using a color CCD camera and taking into account the night airglow and features of its spectral composition. We use night airglow observations for 2010–2015, which have been obtained at the ISTP SB RAS Geophysical Observatory (52° N, 103° E by the camera with KODAK KAI-11002 CCD sensor. We estimate average brightness of the night sky in R, G, B channels of the color camera for eastern Siberia with typical values ranging from ~0.008 to 0.01 erg·cm–2·s–1. Besides, we determine seasonal variations in the night sky luminosities in R, G, B channels of the color camera. In these channels, luminosities decrease in spring, increase in autumn, and have a pronounced summer maximum, which can be explained by scattered light and is associated with the location of the Geophysical Observatory. We consider geophysical phenomena with their optical effects in R, G, B channels of the color camera. For some geophysical phenomena (geomagnetic storms, sudden stratospheric warmings, we demonstrate the possibility of quantitative relationship between enhanced signals in R and G channels and increases in intensities of discrete 557.7 and 630 nm emissions, which are predominant in the airglow spectrum
... able to tell you what happened in the dream and why it was scary. Your child may have trouble going back to sleep. Your child might have the same dream again on other nights. What are night terrors? ...
Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.
Full Text Available The durability of two water-repellents for granitic stonework was determined. Weathered and sound samples of granites widely used in building construction and restoration in Galicia (NW Spain were treated with water repellents of known efficacy, and then subjected to two artificial weathering tests: prolonged exposure to UV light, and sodium sulphate crystallization cycles. In both tests, but especially in the salt crystallization cycles, both treatments rapidly lost their water-repellency. Furthermore, the hydrophobic layer of water repellent impeded salt mobility, favouring fissuration parallel to the treated surface, which was eventually shed in the form of a plaque.
Se presentan los resultados de la durabilidad de dos tratamientos de hidrofugación aplicados a rocas graníticas ampliamente utilizados en la construcción de edificios en Galicia (Noroeste de España. Tras la evaluación de la eficacia de dichos tratamientos, cuyos resultados se presentaron en un trabajo anterior, se someten las muestras tratadas a dos ensayos diferentes de envejecimiento acelerado: ciclos de exposición a la luz ultravioleta y ciclos de cristalización de sulfato de sodio. Los productos hidrofugantes muestran una escasa resistencia a ambos ensayos, sobre todo a los ciclos de cristalización de sulfato de sodio; esta débil durabilidad se manifiesta en una rápida pérdida de sus propiedades hidrofugantes. Así mismo, se observa que la presencia de la capa hidrófoba en la piedra funciona como una barrera frente a la movilidad de sales, lo que ocasiona el total desprendimiento de aquella y un fuerte deterioro del material rocoso.
Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.
... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Related ... repellent product label. This registration number means the company provided EPA with technical information on the effectiveness ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results
Viera, Anthon J; Bond, Michael M; Yates, Scott W
Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.
Night terrors are a bizarre sleep disorder that affects young children. The child partially awakes during the night agitated, afraid and terrified, and cannot be consoled. These events, which may be related to emotional turmoil, are self-limiting. Psychiatric evaluation is indicated in certain cases, and drug therapy is almost never necessary. Parents should be reassured that night terrors are not dangerous and do not reflect any serious pathology.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito vectors of malaria in Southeast Asia readily feed outdoors making malaria control through indoor insecticides such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying more difficult. Topical insect repellents may be able to protect users from outdoor biting, thereby providing additional protection above the current best practice of LLINs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A double blind, household randomised, placebo-controlled trial of insect repellent to reduce malaria was carried out in southern Lao PDR to determine whether the use of repellent and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs could reduce malaria more than LLINs alone. A total of 1,597 households, including 7,979 participants, were recruited in June 2009 and April 2010. Equal group allocation, stratified by village, was used to randomise 795 households to a 15% DEET lotion and the remainder were given a placebo lotion. Participants, field staff and data analysts were blinded to the group assignment until data analysis had been completed. All households received new LLINs. Participants were asked to apply their lotion to exposed skin every evening and sleep under the LLINs each night. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases were actively identified by monthly rapid diagnostic tests. Intention to treat analysis found no effect from the use of repellent on malaria incidence (hazard ratio: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01, p = 0.868. A higher socio-economic score was found to significantly decrease malaria risk (hazard ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90, p = 0.004. Women were also found to have a reduced risk of infection (hazard ratio: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.92, p = 0.020. According to protocol analysis which excluded participants using the lotions less than 90% of the time found similar results with no effect from the use of repellent. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial suggests that topical repellents are not a suitable intervention in addition to
Eliminating animal facility light-at-night contamination and its effect on circadian regulation of rodent physiology, tumor growth, and metabolism: a challenge in the relocation of a cancer research laboratory.
Dauchy, Robert T; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Dauchy, Erin M; Hill, Cody R; Mao, Lulu; Belancio, Victoria P; Slakey, Lauren M; Hill, Steven M; Blask, David E
Appropriate laboratory animal facility lighting and lighting protocols are essential for maintaining the health and wellbeing of laboratory animals and ensuring the credible outcome of scientific investigations. Our recent experience in relocating to a new laboratory facility illustrates the importance of these considerations. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that animal room contamination with light-at-night (LAN) of as little as 0.2 lx at rodent eye level during an otherwise normal dark-phase disrupted host circadian rhythms and stimulated the metabolism and proliferation of human cancer xenografts in rats. Here we examined how simple improvements in facility design at our new location completely eliminated dark-phase LAN contamination and restored normal circadian rhythms in nontumor-bearing rats and normal tumor metabolism and growth in host rats bearing tissue-isolated MCF7(SR(-)) human breast tumor xenografts or 7288CTC rodent hepatomas. Reducing LAN contamination in the animal quarters from 24.5 ± 2.5 lx to nondetectable levels (complete darkness) restored normal circadian regulation of rodent arterial blood melatonin, glucose, total fatty and linoleic acid concentrations, tumor uptake of O(2), glucose, total fatty acid and CO(2) production and tumor levels of cAMP, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters, as well as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, serine-threonine protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, γ-histone 2AX, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Lee, Y. Y.; Halim, M. S.; Aminudin, E.; Guntor, N. A.
Extensive land development in urban areas is completely altering the surface profile of human living environment. As cities growing rapidly, impervious building and paved surfaces are replacing the natural landscape. In the developing countries with tropical climate, large masses of building elements, such as brick wall and concrete members, absorb and store large amount of heat, which in turn radiate back to the surrounding air during the night time. This bubble of heat is known as urban heat island (UHI). The use of high albedo urban surfaces is an inexpensive measure that can reduce surrounded temperature. Thus, the main focus of this study is to investigate the ability of silica, SiO2, with high albedo value, to be used as a thermal-repelled surface coating for brick wall. Three different silica coatings were used, namely silicone resin, silicone wax and rain repellent and one exterior commercial paint (jota shield paint) that commercially available in the market were applied on small-scale brick wall models. An uncoated sample also had been fabricated as a control sample for comparison. These models were placed at the outdoor space for solar exposure. Outdoor environment measurement was carried out where the ambient temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity and UV reflectance were recorded. The effect of different type of surface coating on temperature variation of the surface brick wall and the thermal performance of coatings as potential of heat reduction for brick wall have been studied. Based on the results, model with silicone resin achieved the lowest surface temperature which indicated that SiO2 can be potentially used to reduce heat absorption on the brick wall and further retains indoor passive thermal comfortability.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...
Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini-review sh......-review shows that four out of five tested ant species deposit pheromones that repel herbivorous prey from their host plants.......Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...
Downarowicz, T; Grzegorek, P; Lacroix, Y
Attracting and repelling are discussed on two levels: in abstract signal processes and in signal processes arising as returns to a fixed set in an ergodic dynamical system. In the first approach, among other things, we give three examples in which the sum of two Poisson (hence neutral—neither attracting nor repelling) processes comes out either neutral or attracting, or repelling, depending on how the two processes depend on each other. The main new result of the second type concerns so-called 'composite events' in the form of a union of all cylinders over blocks belonging to the δ-ball in the Hamming distance around a fixed block. We prove that in a typical ergodic nonperiodic process the majority of such 'composite events' reveal strong attracting. We discuss the practical interpretation of this result
Posch, Thomas; Hölker, Franz; Uhlmann, Thomas; Freyhoff, Anja
We provide provide an overview of the history of lighting and of the problems arising from artificial lighting. The book covers the following topics: A brief history of light (ch. 1); night and light in cultural history (ch. 2); light pollution in central Europe (ch. 3); Moths and artificial lights (ch. 4); Artificial lighting and birds (ch. 5); Ocean turtles as victims of beach lighting (ch. 6); Moon light as a zeitgeber for the marine fauna (ch. 7); the influence of artificial light at night on freshwater ecology (ch. 8); artificial light and human health (ch. 9); the loss of the night in a 24 hours society (ch. 10).
Kotov, K. V.; Truhlík, Vladimír; Richards, P. G.; Stankov, S.; Bogomaz, O. V.; Chernogor, L. F.; Domnin, I. F.
Roč. 132, Sept (2015), s. 1-12 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * light ions * transition heightI * solar minimum * FLIP * IRI Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682615001248#
Sakar, M; Nguyen, Chinh-Chien; Vu, Manh-Hiep; Do, Trong-On
The photoassisted catalytic reaction, conventionally known as photocatalysis, is expanding into the field of energy and environmental applications. It is widely known that the discovery of TiO 2 -assisted photochemical reactions has led to several unique applications, such as degradation of pollutants in water and air, hydrogen production through water splitting, fuel conversion, cancer treatment, antibacterial activity, self-cleaning glasses, and concrete. These multifaceted applications of this phenomenon can be enriched and expanded further if this process is equipped with more tools and functions. The term "photoassisted" catalytic reactions clearly emphasizes that photons are required to activate the catalyst; this can be transcended even into the dark if electrons are stored in the material for the later use to continue the catalytic reactions in the absence of light. This can be achieved by equipping the photocatalyst with an electron-storage material to overcome current limitations in photoassisted catalytic reactions. In this context, this article sheds lights on the materials and mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions under light and dark conditions. The manifestation of such systems could be an unparalleled technology in the near future that could influence all spheres of the catalytic sciences. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard
The activity of eucalyptus oil (positive control), a commercial repellent, at 30% was only able to protect for 2h. Both oils used could be applied as repellents where protection from mosquito bite is sought for, over a short period of time. Keywords: Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, volatile oils, Aedes aegypti, repellency
Leonard F. DeBano
Water repellency in soils was first described by Schreiner and Shorey (1910), who found that some soils in California could not be wetted and thereby were not suitable for agriculture. Waxy organic substances were responsible for the water repellency. Other studies in the early 1900's on the fairy ring phenomenon suggested that water repellency could be caused by...
Colleoni, C.; Esposito, F.; Guido, E.; Migani, V.; Trovato, V.; Rosace, G.
In recent years, ceramic coatings have been widely studied for their potential performance in many scientific and technological fields. Ceramic coatings are also used as a textile-finishing agent to impart several properties such as anti-bacterial, anti-abrasion, flame retardant. In this study, fluoro free water repellent finishings have been developed to assess the features of the silica films on the textile fabrics. The water repellency of the treated samples has been evaluated by different tests such as water contact angle, water uptake and drop test.
... you tried. A night terror is a sleep disruption that seems similar to a nightmare , but is ... to: reduce your child's stress create a bedtime routine that's simple and relaxing make sure your child ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...
Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi
A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source，the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
The definition of the night, as the period between sunset and sunrise, is consistent and unalterable, regardless of culture and time. However the perception of the night and its economic, social, and cultural roles are subject to change. Which parameters determine these changes? What can we learn by studying them about the specific character of a culture? Why do people experience the night in different ways in different historical periods and how did this affect their lives? How do references to nocturnal activities in historical sources (works of art, narratives) reveal what the artists/authors wish to communicate to their audiences? Can the night be a meaningful subject of historical and archaeological enquiry? A study of the source material in the Greek world (ca. 400 BC-ca. AD 400) shows a continuous effort to colonize the night with activities of the day, to make the night safer, more productive, more rational, more efficient. The main motors for this change were social developments and religion, no...
Touitou, Yvan; Touitou, David; Reinberg, Alain
Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock. A large number of adolescents move to evening chronotype and experience a misalignment between biological and social rhythms which, added to sleep loss, results in e.g. fatigue, daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. This paper on adolescent circadian disruption will review the sensitivity of adolescents to light including LEDs with the effects on the circadian system, the crosstalk between the clock and the pineal gland, the role of melatonin, and the behavior of some adolescents(media use, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, smoking habits, stimulant use…). Lastly, some practical recommendations and perspectives are put forward. The permanent social jet lag resulting in clock misalignment experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pramono Putro Utomo
Full Text Available Most mosquito repellent lotions available on the market today contain the active ingredient diethyltoluamide (DEET which is very harmful to the skin. Natural mosquito repellent research using various essential oils (geranium oil, lemon oil, citronella oil and lavender oil as the active ingredient and the addition of aloe vera gel as a moisturizer has been done on a laboratory scale. The purpose of this study was to compare the protection ability of the mosquito repellent plants in Indonesia. The results showed that geranium oil, lemongrass oil, lavender oil and lemon oil could act as mosquito repellent. Best lotion formula all containing 15% essential oils have the effectiveness above 50% until the sixth hour were geranium oil, citronella oil and lavender oil while lemon oil only giving effectiveness above 50% until the second hour.
Khin Mi Mi; Khin Yi; Sein Htoon
Determination of elemental contents in neem oil was evaluated using EDXRF.The comparsion on elemental concentrations of mosquito repellents cream, lotion and neem oil had been made. Where the neem oil was applied to the exposed body, it was found that the neem oil gives the protection action from the bites of mosquitoes
A. Mahdieh NajafAbadi and M. M. Bateni
Sep 1, 2017 ... FLOW-3D® software used to simulate flow pattern. The simulation was .... separated into separation zone, shear layer, vortices zone, end point of vorticity zone and primary flow zone. In the figure, b1 and b2 denote ... closer to the wall for the attractive spur dike. For case of the repelling spur dike, transverse.
Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.
Oct 19, 2009 ... the above treatments has shown that repellent band and methaldehyde with 5 ± 1.3 and 10.6 ± 0.9 percentage ..... does not readily dissolve in water, which minimizes its dispersal ... limpets and macroalgae, J. Exp. Mar. Biol.
Human diseases caused by mosquito-transmitted pathogens include malaria, dengue and yellow fever and are responsible for several million human deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Our current research projects focus on the development of new insecticides and repellent...
Last year, the first Science Night attracted nearly 1500 people. Dipping into history for the space of one night? This is the idea of Geneva's Museum of the History of Science, which is organizing its second Science Night, on 7 and 8 July, on the history of science. The first such event, held last year, was a considerable success with almost 15 000 visitors. The second Science Night, to be held in the magnificent setting of the Perle du Lac Park in Geneva, promises to be a winner too. By making science retell its own history, this major event is intended to show how every scientific and technical breakthrough is the culmination of a long period of growth that began hundreds of years in the past. Dozens of activities and events are included in this programme of time travel: visitors can study the night sky through telescopes and see what Galileo first observed, and then go to see a play on the life of the Italian scientist. Another play, commissioned specially for the occasion, will honour Geneva botanist De ...
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.
Liverani, Marco; Charlwood, Jacques Derek; Lawford, Harriet; Yeung, Shunmay
Large-scale use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a significant decrease in malaria transmission worldwide. Further reduction and progress towards elimination, however, require complementary control measures which can address the remaining gaps in protection from mosquito bites. Following the development of novel pyrethroids with high knockdown effects on malaria vectors, programmatic use of spatial repellents has been suggested as one potential strategy to fill the gaps. This report explores social and contextual factors that may influence the relevance, uptake and sustainable use of a spatial repellent in two remote villages in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia, with endemic malaria transmission. The repellent consisted of polyethylene emanators, held in an open plastic frame and impregnated with 10% metofluthrin. In a baseline survey, 90.9% of households in Ou Chra (n = 30/33) and 96.6% in Pu Cha (n = 57/59) were interviewed. Behavioural data were collected for all household occupants (n = 448). In both villages, there were times and places in which people remained exposed to mosquito bites. Prior to the installation of the repellent, 50.6 and 59.5% of respondents noted that bites occurred "very often" inside the house and in the outdoor area surrounding the house, respectively. Indoor biting was reported to occur more frequently in the evening, followed by at night, while outdoor biting occurred more frequently in the early morning. In a follow-up survey, spatial repellents were well received in both villages, although 63.2% of respondents would not replace bed nets with repellents. Most participants (96.6%) were willing to use the product again; the mean willingness to pay was US$ 0.3 per unit. A preference for local procurement methods emerged. Widespread use of spatial repellents would not fill all protective gaps, but, if their entomological efficacy can be ascertained, outdoor application has the potential to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repellents using a synthetic blend of human derived attractants for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Different concentrations of known repellents, N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet and Para-methane-3, 8, diol (PMD were added into traps baited with the synthetic blend, and resulting changes in mosquito catches were measured. Results All test concentrations of deet (0.001% to 100% reduced the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. However, PMD was repellent only at 0.25%. Above this concentration, it significantly increased the attractiveness of the blend. There was no relationship between the repellent concentrations and the change in mosquito catches when either deet (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.302 or PMD (r2 = 0.020, P = 0.578 was used. Conclusion It is concluded that while some repellents may reduce the attractiveness of synthetic human odours, others may instead increase their attractiveness. Such inconsistencies indicate that even though the synthetic attractants may provide exposure-free and consistent test media for repellents, careful selection and multiple-repellent tests are necessary to ascertain their suitability for use in repellent screening. The synthetic odour blend tested here is not yet sufficiently refined to serve as replacement for humans in repellent testing, but may be developed further and evaluated in different formats for exposure free repellent testing purposes.
Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.
Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine
Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with…
... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
... collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
Kuri-Morales, Pablo A; Correa-Morales, Fabián; González-Acosta, Cassandra; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Moreno-Garcia, Miguel; Dávalos-Becerril, Eduardo; Juárez-Franco, Marissa F; Benitez-Alva, José Ismael; González-Roldán, Jesús F
In Mexico, the use of repellents to prevent insects from landing and biting is a common practice. However, variation in the efficiency of natural and synthetic repellents has been observed. In this study, we evaluated the repellency and protection time of 16 synthetic and 13 natural-based commercial products against Aedes aegypti (L.) from an endemic dengue area (Jojutla, Morelos) in Central Mexico. The "arm exposure" cage test was used to assess the efficacy of the repellents. Tests were conducted by three adult volunteers. Results showed that DEET (N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) repellents provided the highest protection and duration times against Ae. aegypti. However, low repellency and short-time protection was observed (when compared with the manufacturers' protection times). Natural-based products did not repel (either landing or biting) mosquitoes for >30 min. These results show that most of the repellent products did not provide satisfactory levels of personal protection against mosquito bites. Frequent reapplication of repellents (synthetic and natural-based) may compensate for their short duration of action. Repellent efficacy data must be integrated into the decision-making process for an optimal response to the local (or specific region) situation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...
Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.
Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...
Sancini, Angela; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Capozzella, Assunta; Corbosiero, Paola; Fiaschetti, Maria; Caciari, Tiziana; Cetica, Carlotta; Scimitto, Lara; Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Tasciotti, Zaira; Schifano, Maria Pia; Andreozzit, Giorgia; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco
Aim of our study was to evaluate the influence that shift work and night work could have on mental health. A review of literary articles from 1990 to 2011 on shift work and night work was carried out. The results of this review confirmed that the shift work and night work affect mental health with the onset of neuropsychological disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety, nervousness, depressive anxiety syndromes, chronic fatigue and chronic insomnia irritability, sleep disturbances, reduction in levels of attention, cognitive impairments, alteration of circadian rhythm. Night work and shift work cause severe desynchronization of the cronobiological rhythms and a disruption of social life with negative effects on performance at work, on health and on social relationships. In the light of these results and recognizing shift work and night work as risk factors for the health of workers is necessary to implement preventive and periodic health checks by the occupational doctor to ensure the health and safety of workers taking account of the different environmental and individual factors.
Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Maistrello, L; Laine, R A
We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termites toward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 micrograms/g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.
This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices
Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.
This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...
Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.
Grauer, Albert D.
Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.
CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
The purpose of this study is to develop new repellents and evaluate their efficacy for personal protection against mosquitoes. The minimum effective dosage (MED) was determined to estimate the lowest passing concentration of a repellent that prevents >99% of mosquito bites through a treated cloth. D...
Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.
The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.
of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....
Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, anti-biofouling and drag reduction, interest on rendering surfaces water-repellent has significantly grown within this decade. Attempts on making surfaces "superhydrophobic", where high water contact angle (θc >150°) accompanied with only few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated through the mimicking of the surface chemistry and morphology of lotus leaves. This appealing phenomenon also exists on another structure from nature: surfaces comprising soft hairs. Although the role of this piliferous integument has long been recognized for providing life, arthropods in particular, waterrepellency, the synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces based on this structure are still very limited. In this study, the goal was to develop a novel liquid-repellent surface by mimicking the hairy exterior of species. The artificial hairy surfaces were prepared by means of pressurized membrane casting, in which thermoplastic sheets were forced to flow into porous membranes at elevated temperature. The G-shaped pillars on the membrane cast polypropylene substrate are particularly similar to the conformation of natural hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is relatively accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces. The artificial hairy surface features perfectly hydrophobic response where no contact angle hysteresis was observed from video assessment. Thus the artificial hairy surface of the current work appears to be the first report to have such extreme hydrophobicity with only structural modification from the original substrate. This ultralow adhesion to water droplet is believed to be attributed to the hydrophobic methyl groups and the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. Liquid repellency of the hairy surfaces was further enhanced by coating with fluorocarbon (CF) layers via deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The contact angle of
De Grave, Arnaud; Botija, Pablo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
design criteria for such surfaces. The problem of adapting this behaviour to artificially roughened surfaces is addressed by providing design criteria for superhydrophobic, water-repellent and self-cleaning surfaces according to the concrete performance desired for them. Different kind of manufacturing...... techniques are investigated and the production of patterned micro structured surfaces following two different manufacturing techniques is reported. The first is a combination of laser manufacturing and hot embossing on polystyrene. To compare geometry and functionality a non-silicon based lithography...
Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.
Gloria Isabel Jaramillo Ramirez
Full Text Available The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils.
For more than 50 years now Sir Patrick Moore has presented the BBC Television series Sky at Night; not a month has been missed – a record for any television series, and a record which may never be broken. Every three years or so a book is published covering the main events in both astronomy and space research. This is the 13th volume, not only a record of the programmes but also of the great advances and discoveries during the period covered - eclipses, comets, and the strange chemical lakes of Titan, for instance, but also anniversaries such as the fifteenth “birthday” of the Hubble Space Telescope, and not forgetting the programme celebrating the Sky at Night’s 50th year, attended by astronaut Piers Sellars and many others who appeared on the programme over the years. All the chapters are self-contained, and fully illustrated. In this new Sky at Night book you will find much to entertain you. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.
de Winter, Lenneke; Cabanelas, Iago Teles Dominguez; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J
Day/night cycles regulate the circadian clock of organisms to program daily activities. Many species of microalgae have a synchronized cell division when grown under a day/night cycle, and synchronization might influence biomass yield and composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the influence of day/night cycle on biomass yield and composition of the green microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans . Hence, we compared continuous turbidostat cultures grown under continuous light with cultures grown under simulated day/night cycles. Under day/night cycles, cultures were synchronized as cell division was scheduled in the night, whereas under continuous light cell division occurred randomly synchronized cultures were able to use the light 10-15% more efficiently than non-synchronized cultures. Our results indicate that the efficiency of light use varies over the cell cycle and that synchronized cell division provides a fitness benefit to microalgae. Biomass composition under day/night cycles was similar to continuous light, with the exception of starch content. The starch content was higher in cultures under continuous light, most likely because the cells never had to respire starch to cover for maintenance during dark periods. Day/night cycles were provided in a 'block' (continuous light intensity during the light period) and in a 'sine' (using a sine function to simulate light intensities from sunrise to sunset). There were no differences in biomass yield or composition between these two ways of providing light (in a 'block' or in a 'sine'). The biomass yield and composition of N. oleoabundans were influenced by day/night cycles. These results are important to better understand the relations between research done under continuous light conditions and with day/night cycle conditions. Our findings also imply that more research should be done under day/night cycles.
Karel Van Roey
Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the
Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies
Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological
Full Text Available Le photographe britannique Paul Graham (1956- ne jouit pas encore en France de la notoriété de son compatriote Martin Parr et on ne peut, par conséquent, que se féliciter de voir l’une de ses plus puissantes séries — American Night — représentée à la Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire.Connu, avec Parr, pour avoir profondément influencé la photo documentaire anglaise en la faisant passer à la couleur avec virulence, Graham a été révélé il y a une vingtaine d’années par une série d’images prises à...
The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.
Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.
Ziogas, A.K.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.
Many soils may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency often leads to the development of unstable
Robertson, William C
Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...
Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Brosh, A; Eitam, H; Agmon, R; Cohen-Zinder, M; Zubidat, A E; Haim, A
Pineal melatonin (MLT) is produced at highest levels during the night, under dark conditions. We evaluated differences in MLT-concentration by comparing daytime versus night time milk samples, from two dairy farms with different night illumination conditions: (1) natural dark (Dark-Night); (2) short wavelength Artificial Light at Night (ALAN, Night-Illuminated). Samples were collected from 14 Israeli Holstein cows from each commercial dairy farm at 04:30 h ("Night-milk") 12:30 h ("Day-milk") and analyzed for MLT-concentration. In order to study the effects of night illumination conditions on cows circadian rhythms, Heart Rate (HR) daily rhythms were recorded. MLT-concentrations of Night-milk samples from the dark-night group were significantly (p Night-illuminated conditions (30.70 ± 1.79 and 17.81 ± 0.33 pg/ml, respectively). Interestingly, night illumination conditions also affected melatonin concentrations at daytime where under Dark-Night conditions values are significantly (p Night-Illuminated conditions, (5.36 ± 0.33 and 3.30 ± 0.18 pg/ml, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two treatments in the milk yield and milk composition except somatic cell count (SCC), which was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in the Dark-Night group compared with the Night-Illuminated group. Cows in both groups presented a significant (p night illuminated cows feeding and milking time are the "time keeper", while in the Dark-night cows, HR rhythms were entrained by the light/dark cycle. The higher MLT-concentration in Dark-night cows with the lower SCC values calls upon farmers to avoid exposure of cows to ALAN. Therefore, under Dark-night conditions milk quality will improve by lowering SCC values where separation between night and day of such milk can produce chrono-functional milk, naturally rich with MLT.
Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W
In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Czachor, H.; Doerr, S. H.; Lichner, L.
SummarySoil organic matter can modify the surface properties of the soil mineral phase by changing the surface tension of the mineral surfaces. This modifies the soil's solid-water contact angle, which in turn would be expected to affect its water retention curve (SWRC). Here we model the impact of differences in the soil pore-water contact angle on capillarity in non-cylindrical pores by accounting for their complex pore geometry. Key outcomes from the model include that (i) available methods for measuring the Young's wetting angle on soil samples are insufficient in representing the wetting angle in the soil pore space, (ii) the wetting branch of water retention curves is strongly affected by the soil pore-water contact angle, as manifest in the wetting behavior of water repellent soils, (iii) effects for the drying branch are minimal, indicating that both wettable and water repellent soils should behave similarly, and (vi) water retention is a feature not of only wettable soils, but also soils that are in a water repellent state. These results are tested experimentally by determining drying and wetting branches for (a) 'model soil' (quartz sands with four hydrophobization levels) and (b) five field soil samples with contrasting wettability, which were used with and without the removal of the soil organic matter. The experimental results support the theoretical predictions and indicate that small changes in wetting angle can cause switches between wettable and water repellent soil behavior. This may explain the common observation that relatively small changes in soil water content can cause substantial changes in soil wettability.
Chen, Jianyu; Pesin, Yakov
This paper is a survey of recent results on the dimension of repellers for expanding maps and limit sets for iterated function systems. While the case of conformal repellers is well understood, the study of non-conformal repellers is in its early stages though a number of interesting phenomena have been discovered, some remarkable results obtained and several interesting examples constructed. We will describe contemporary state of the art in the area with emphasis on some new emerging ideas and open problems. (invited article)
Ballantyne, Gavin; Willmer, Pat
As flower visitors, ants rarely benefit a plant. They are poor pollinators, and can also disrupt pollination by deterring other flower visitors, or by stealing nectar. Some plant species therefore possess floral ant-repelling traits. But why do particular species have such traits when others do not? In a dry forest in Costa Rica, of 49 plant species around a third were ant-repellent at very close proximity to a common generalist ant species, usually via repellent pollen. Repellence was positively correlated with the presence of large nectar volumes. Repellent traits affected ant species differently, some influencing the behaviour of just a few species and others producing more generalised ant-repellence. Our results suggest that ant-repellent floral traits may often not be pleiotropic, but instead could have been selected for as a defence against ant thieves in plant species that invest in large volumes of nectar. This conclusion highlights to the importance of research into the cost of nectar production in future studies into ant-flower interactions. PMID:22952793
Ditchburn, R W
This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o
-tridecanone and 2-pentadecanone) were more effective than compounds with even carbon atoms (2-decanone and 2- dodecanone). Comparable repellency activity of 2-tridecanone to DEET show that, it may save as Anopheles gambiae s.s. ...
Full Text Available The night sky brightness at the RGN site (near the centre of Zagreb, Croatia was monitored form January 2012. to December 2017. The gathered data show that the average night sky brightness in this period did not change significantly, apart from differences caused by yearly variations in meteorological parameters. The nightly minima, maxima and mean values of the sky brightness do change considerably due to changes in meteorological conditions, often being between 2 and 3 magnitudes. The seasonal probability curves and histograms are constructed and are used to obtain additional information on the light pollution at the RGN site. They reveal that the night sky brightness clutters around two peaks, at about 15.0 mag/arcsec2 and at about 18.2 mag/arcsec2. The tendency to slightly lower brightness values in spring and summer can also be seen in the data. Two peaks correspond to cloudy and clear nights respectively, the difference in brightness between them being about 3 magnitudes. A crude clear/cloudy criterion can be defined too: the minimum between two peaks is around 16.7 mag/arcsec2. The brightness values smaller than thisare attributed to clear nights and vice-versa. Comparison with Vienna and Hong-Kong indicates that the light pollution of Zagreb is a few times larger.
Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar
The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562
Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།
Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.
Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.
The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building
Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.
Schiller, Jocelyn; Sokoloff, Max; Tendhar, Chosang; Schmidt, John; Christner, Jennifer
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate whether increased night shifts for students on paediatric rotations had any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences in light of the implementation of duty-hour restrictions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 30 students on paediatric rotations during the academic year 2011/12. Students completed two questionnaires, one in response to their experiences during the day shifts and another in response to their experiences during the night shifts. Only 25 cases were retained for the final analyses. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyse the quantitative data, and constant comparative thematic analyses, as described by Creswell, were used to analyse the qualitative data. [Do] increased nights shifts for students … [have] any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences[?] RESULTS: The results indicated that students' perceived quality of experiences during the night shifts was greater, compared with their day shifts. Students reported having more time to socialise during the night shifts. They further reported that informal ways of learning, such as impromptu teaching and spontaneous discussions on clinical problems, were more beneficial, and these often occurred in abundance during the night shifts as opposed to the scheduled didactic teaching sessions that occur during the day shifts. This study documented many unanticipated benefits of night shifts. The feeling of cohesiveness of the night team deserves further exploration, as this can be linked to better performance outcomes. More consideration should be given to implementing night shifts as a regular feature of clerkships. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called "night myopia" has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. METHODS: We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m(2 to the lowest luminance of 22 × 10(-6 cd/m(2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. RESULTS: We found large inter-subject variability and an average of -0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.
The POPSCIENCE Team
On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”. Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe, with funding from the EU, to promote research and highlight researchers in engaging and fun ways for the general public. Andy Warhol said, “Pop art is for everyone”. This year, “Pop science is for everyone” is the motto of the Researchers’ Night event organised by CERN and its partners*. The night will offer everyone the opportunity to learn about the latest discoveries in physics and cosmology through poetry, theatre and music. This will be in addition to the event's traditional activities for the general public. To attract new audiences,...
Essential oils from Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae) was investigated for its repellent, antimicrobial and acetyl- and butyrylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. The oil showed good repellent activity while oils demonstrated weak in antimicrobial and cholinesterase inhibitions. Terpenoids...
Msangi, Shandala; Kweka, Eliningaya; Mahande, Aneth
A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation...
Mercedes M.N. Reynoso
Full Text Available DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h for DEET was 220.8 µg/insect. Using IR3535, topical application of 500 µg/insect killed no nymphs. The minimum concentration that produced repellency was the same for both compounds: 1,15 µg/cm2. The effect of a mixture DEET:IR3535 1:1 was similar to that of their pure components. Flushing out was assessed in a chamber with a shelter containing groups of ten nymphs. The repellents were aerosolized on the shelter and the number of insects leaving it was recorded for 60 min. During that time, 0.006 g/m3 of the positive control tetramethrin flushed out 76.7% of the nymphs, while 1.76 g/m3 of DEET or IR3535 flushed out 30 and 0%, respectively. The concentrations required for both compounds to produce toxicity or flushing out are too high to have any practical applications. However, they showed a promising repellency. Additional research should be done to evaluate their possible use for personal protection against T. infestans bites.
Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua
Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Tisgratog, Rungarun; Kongmee, Monthathip; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
A novel noncontact repellency assay system (NCRAS) was designed and evaluated as a possible alternative method for testing compounds that repel or inhibit mosquitoes from blood feeding. Deet and Aedes aegypti were used in a controlled laboratory setting. Using 2 study designs, a highly significant difference were seen between deet-treated and untreated skin placed behind the protective screens, indicating that deet was detected and was acting as a deterrence to mosquito landing and probing behavior. However, a 2nd study showed significant differences between protected (behind a metal screen barrier) and unprotected (exposed) deet-treated forearms, indicating the screen mesh might restrict the detection of deet and thus influences landing/biting response. These findings indicate the prototype NCRAS shows good promise but requires further evaluation and possible modification in design and testing protocol to achieve more desirable operational attributes in comparison with direct skin-contact repellency mosquito assays.
Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.
The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.
Night work is increasingly common and a necessity in certain sectors of the modern 24-h society. The embedded exposure to light-at-night, which suppresses the nocturnal hormone melatonin with oncostatic properties and circadian disruption, i.e., misalignment between internal and external night and between cells and organs, are suggested as main mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans based on limited evidence from eight epidemiologic studies on breast cancer, in addition to sufficient evidence from animal experiments. The aim of this review is a critical update of the IARC evaluation, including subsequent and the most recent epidemiologic evidence on breast cancer risk after night work. After 2007, in total nine new case-control studies, one case-cohort study, and eight cohort studies are published, which triples the number of studies. Further, two previous cohorts have been updated with extended follow-up. The assessment of night shift work is different in all of the 26 existing studies. There is some evidence that high number of consecutive night shifts has impact on the extent of circadian disruption, and thereby increased breast cancer risk, but this information is missing in almost all cohort studies. This in combination with short-term follow-up of aging cohorts may explain why some cohort studies may have null findings. The more recent case-control studies have contributed interesting results concerning breast cancer subtypes in relation to both menopausal status and different hormonal subtypes. The large differences in definitions of both exposure and outcome may contribute to the observed heterogeneity of results from studies of night work and breast cancer, which overall points in the direction of an increased breast cancer risk, in particular after over 20 years of night shifts. Overall, there is a
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.
Rooij, de G.H.
When water enters a water-repellent topsoil, preferential flow paths develop and the flow bypasses a large part of the unsaturated zone. Therefore, preferential flow caused by water- repellency is expected to accelerate solute leaching to the groundwater. In soils with water-repellent
Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.
Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing
From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)
Mohammad Bagher Ghavami
Full Text Available Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.Methods: The essential oils (EOs of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field collected fleas. The effective doses of 50% and 90% of EOs and synthetic compounds were estimated by probit analysis of dose and response regression line.Results: Analysis of EOs revealed about 19 major components. All oils were found to be more repellent (ED50 range= 208–955µg cm-2 than DEET and permethrin (ED50 range= 27–182 x 103 µg cm-2. Thyme and myrtle oils showed high repellent activities and among the total detected terpenes, thymol (36.26% and α- pinene (32.5% were the major components of those oils respectively.Conclusion: Low repellent potency of DEET and permethrin against fleas might be related to flea olfactory system and further molecular and electrophysiological studies are required to conceive new ideas for the discovery and development of the next generation of repellents. Based on high repellent activity of thyme and myrtle essential oils against Pulex irritans further studies should be staged to develop their appropriate effective formulations. Likewise, field trials should be carried out to evaluate the operational feasibility and dermal toxicity over a long period.
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.
We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused
Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success. From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...
Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.
The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.
Yu, Zhejun; Yang, Jieyi; Wan, Fang; Ge, Quan; Yang, Longlai; Ding, Zunliang; Yang, Dequan; Sacher, Edward R.; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.
Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a
Ustilago maydis is an important model organism to study fungal pathogenicity. U. maydis can grow yeast-like and filamentous. In the latter form this fungus infects maize. In my Thesis the expression and function of hydrophobins and repellents of U. maydis were studied. Hydrophobins are produced by
Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.
Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,
An ethnobotanical study on plants used for the prevention and treatment of malaria was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge particularly associated with the use and conservation of anti-malarial, insecticide and insect repellent medicinal plants. In this study, five sampling sites were selected based on the ...
D. S. Page-Dumroese; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown; J. M. Tirocke
Practical application of black carbon (biochar) to improve forest soil may be limited because biochar is hydrophobic. In a laboratory, we tested the water repellency of biochar application (mixed or surface applied) to two forest soils of varying texture (a granitic coarse-textured Inceptisol and an ash cap fine-textured Andisol) at four different application rates (0...
Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.
Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin
Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. PMID:28774098
Szepfalusy, P.; Tel, T.
It is shown that a smooth stationary distribution can be derived for 'coarse grained' repellers by compensating the local escape. This provides a convenient framework to investigate statistical properties of long chaotic transients. Furthermore, the procedure yields a powerful tool for calculating fractal dimensions. (author)
ABSTRACT: Dettol, a commercial cleaning product was tested for its repellent action against adults of Periplaneta americana (L.). Experimental cage was constructed with pieces of polypropylene plastic material to have a finished form measuring 30×30×60cm. Two cardboard shelters (for each trial) were assembled each ...
Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walker, C. E.
The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few hundred thousand citizen-scientists during the annual 2-week campaign over the past 6 years. Provided is an overview, update and discussion of what steps can be taken to improve programs like GLOBE at Night.
Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B
A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.
Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Oliva, Marc; Mataix, Jorge; Jordán, Antonio
In the immediate period after the fire, the ash layer has a strong influence on soil hydrological processes, as runoff, infiltration and erosion. Ash is very dynamic in the space and time. Until the first rainfall periods, ash is (re)distributed by the wind. After it can cover the soil surface, infiltrate or transported to other areas by water transport (Pereira et al., 2013a, b). This will have strong implications on nutrient redistribution and vegetation recovery. Ash layer may affect soil water repellency in different ways, depending on fire severity, soil properties and vegetation. Ash produced at low temperatures after low-severity burning is usually hydrophobic (Bodi et al., 2011, 2012). Wet-dry cycles have implications on ash physical and chemical properties, changing their effects in space and time. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of fire temperature and severity on ash water repellency. Pinus sylvestris needles were collected in a Lithuania forest in Dzukija National Park (53º 54' N and 24º 22' E), transported to laboratory and washed with deionized water to remove soil particles and other residues. Needle samples were dried during 24 hours and exposed to different temperatures: 200, 300, 400 and 500 ºC, during 2 hours. Ash colour was analysed according to the Munsell Soil Color charts. Ash was black (10 YR 2/1) at 200 ºC, very dark grey (10YR 3/1) at 300 ºC, gray (10YR 5/1) at 400 ºC and light gray (10YR 7/1) at 500 ºC. Ten samples of ash released after each treatment were placed in plastic dishes (50 mm in diameter) in an amount enough to form a 5 mm thick layer, and ash water repellency was measured according to the Water Drop Penetration Test. Later, ash was carefully wetted with 15 ml of deionized water and placed in an oven during 4 days (96 hours), as in Bodí et al. (2012). This procedure was repeated 5 times in order to observe the effects of wet-dry cycles in ash water repellency. The results showed significant differences
Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav; Kundracik, František
A new portable sky scanner designed for low-light-level detection at night is developed and employed in night sky brightness measurements in a rural region. The fast readout, adjustable sensitivity and linear response guaranteed in 5-6 orders of magnitude makes the device well suited for narrow-band photometry in both dark areas and bright urban and suburban environments. Quasi-monochromatic night-sky brightness data are advantageous in the accurate characterization of spectral power distribution of scattered and emitted light and, also allows for the possibility to retrieve light output patterns from whole-city light sources. The sky scanner can operate in both night and day regimes, taking advantage of the complementarity of both radiance data types. Due to its inherent very high sensitivity the photomultiplier tube could be used in night sky radiometry, while the spectrometer-equipped system component capable of detecting elevated intensities is used in daylight monitoring. Daylight is a source of information on atmospheric optical properties that in turn are necessary in processing night sky radiances. We believe that the sky scanner has the potential to revolutionize night-sky monitoring systems.
... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...
This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia
Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R
Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent
Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.
In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 21 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Albor Tholus. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 150.3 East (209.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 25 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Noctus Labyrinthus. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9.6, Longitude 264.5 East (95.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with
Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects of age on the daytime and nighttime sleep patterns using polysomnography (PSG of long-haul bus drivers working fixed night or day shifts. A total of 124 drivers, free of sleep disorders and grouped according to age (<45 years, N = 85, and ≥45 years, N = 39 and PSG timing (daytime (D PSG, N = 60; nighttime (N PSG, N = 64 participated in the study. We observed a significant effect of bedtime (D vs N and found that the length of daytime sleep was shorter [D: <45 years (336.10 ± 73.75 min vs N: <45 years (398 ± 78.79 min and D: ≥45 years (346.57 ± 43.17 min vs N: ≥45 years (386.44 ± 52.92 min; P ≤ 0.05]. Daytime sleep was less efficient compared to nighttime sleep [D: <45 years (78.86 ± 13.30% vs N: <45 years (86.45 ± 9.77% and D: ≥45 years (79.89 ± 9.45% and N: ≥45 years (83.13 ± 9.13%; P ≤ 0.05]. An effect of age was observed for rapid eye movement sleep [D: <45 years (18.05 ± 6.12% vs D: ≥45 years (15.48 ± 7.11% and N: <45 years (23.88 ± 6.75% vs N: ≥45 years (20.77 ± 5.64%; P ≤ 0.05], which was greater in younger drivers. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that older night workers are more adversely affected than younger night workers by the challenge of attempting to rest during the day.
Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto
The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.
Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo
Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.
Laboratory, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Plant Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department...origin. 2-U is a naturally occurring compound produced by the glandular trichomes of wild tomato plants as part of a plant defense mechanism against...antennal OSNs responding to carboxylic acids and monoterpenes . In our study, we investigate the action of 4 insect repellents on the activities of
Lichner, Ľ.; Babejová, N.; Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2003), s. 1-7 ISSN 1336-1120 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3060001 Grant - others:Slovac Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 2/3032/23; Science and Technology Assistance Agency(SK) APVT-51-006502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : hydrophobicity * water repellency * soil Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology
Dua, V K; Gupta, N C; Pandey, A C; Sharma, V P
The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.
Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A
Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.
Zhu, Betty C R; Henderson, Gregg; Sauer, Anne M; Yu, Ying; Crowe, William; Laine, Roger A
Eight valencenoid derivatives were evaluated for their repelling activity against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Among them, 1,10-dihydronootkatone was the strongest repellent, and valencene was the weakest. Results of the structure-repellency relationships indicated (1) reduction of the ketone group to the alcohol on position 2 of nootkatone curtailed the activity; (2) because of the low activity of valencene relative to nootkatone that the ketone group was essential for repellent activity; (3) reduction of the 1,10 double bond (1,10-dihydronootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone) produced compounds more repellent than nootkatone; (4) the isopropenyl group probably does not participate in binding as evidenced by no significant difference in the repellent activity among nootkatone (double bond between position 11 and 12), isonootkatone (double bond between position 7 and 11), and 11,12-dihydronootkatone.
Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (pAedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET.
Gardini, Laura; Sushko, Iryna; Avrutin, Viktor; Schanz, Michael
Highlights: → We consider critical homoclinic orbits in continuous and discontinuous maps. → Unbounded homoclinic orbits in maps on unbounded domains are considered as well. → We show that a snapback-repeller (SBR) with a non-critical homoclinic orbit implies chaos. → We show also that a SBR with a critical homoclinic orbit may or may not imply chaos. - Abstract: When nondegenerate homoclinic orbits to an expanding fixed point of a map f:X→X,X subset or equal R n , exist, the point is called a snap-back repeller. It is known that the relevance of a snap-back repeller (in its original definition) is due to the fact that it implies the existence of an invariant set on which the map is chaotic. However, when does the first homoclinic orbit appear? When can other homoclinic explosions, i.e., appearance of infinitely many new homoclinic orbits, occur? As noticed by many authors, these problems are still open. In this work we characterize these bifurcations, for any kind of map, smooth or piecewise smooth, continuous or discontinuous, defined in a bounded or unbounded closed set. We define a noncritical homoclinic orbit and a homoclinic orbit of an expanding fixed point is structurally stable iff it is noncritical. That is, only critical homoclinic orbits are responsible for the homoclinic explosions. The possible kinds of critical homoclinic orbits will be also investigated, as well as their dynamic role.
Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin
Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.
Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.
Lupi, Eleonora; Hatz, Christoph; Schlagenhauf, Patricia
Travellers are confronted with a variety of vector-borne threats. Is one type of repellent effective against all biting vectors? The aim of this review is to examine the literature, up to December 31st, 2012, regarding repellent efficacy. We searched PubMed for relevant papers. Repellents of interest were DEET, Icaridin as well as other piperidine-derived products (SS220), Insect Repellent (IR) 3535 (ethyl-butylacetyl-amino-propionat, EBAAP) and plant-derived products, including Citriodora (para-menthane-3,8-diol). As vectors, we considered the mosquito species Anopheles, Aedes and Culex as well as the tick species Ixodes. We selected only studies evaluating the protective efficacy of repellents on human skin. We reviewed a total of 102 publications. Repellents were evaluated regarding complete protection time or as percentage efficacy [%] in a time interval. We found no standardized study for tick bite prevention. Regarding Aedes, DEET at concentration of 20% or more, showed the best efficacy providing up to 10 h protection. Citriodora repellency against this mosquito genus was lower compared to the other products. Also between subspecies a difference could be observed: Ae. aegypti proved more difficult to repel than Ae. Albopictus. Fewer studies have been conducted on mosquito species Anopheles and Culex. The repellency profile against Anopheles species was similar for the four principal repellents of interest, providing on average 4-10 h of protection. Culex mosquitoes are easier to repel and all four repellents provided good protection. Few studies have been conducted on the tick species Ixodes. According to our results, the longest protection against Ixodes scapularis was provided by repellents containing IR3535, while DEET and commercial products containing Icaridin or PMD showed a better response than IR3535 against Ixodes ricinus. Many plant-based repellents provide only short duration protection. Adding vanillin 5% to plant-based repellents and to DEET
Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.
Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.
A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.
Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Randolph, Timothy W; Gong, Jicheng; Buchanan, Diana Taibi; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Davis, Scott
We previously reported that compared with night sleep, day sleep among shift workers was associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), potentially reflecting a reduced ability to repair 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA. We identified the absence of melatonin during day sleep as the likely causative factor. We now investigate whether night work is also associated with reduced urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. For this cross-sectional study, 50 shift workers with the largest negative differences in night work versus night sleep circulating melatonin levels (measured as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine) were selected from among the 223 shift workers included in our previous study. 8-OH-dG concentrations were measured in stored urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Mixed effects models were used to compare night work versus night sleep 8-OH-dG levels. Circulating melatonin levels during night work (mean=17.1 ng/mg creatinine/mg creatinine) were much lower than during night sleep (mean=51.7 ng/mg creatinine). In adjusted analyses, average urinary 8-OH-dG levels during the night work period were only 20% of those observed during the night sleep period (95% CI 10% to 30%; psleep, is associated with reduced repair of 8-OH-dG lesions in DNA and that the effect is likely driven by melatonin suppression occurring during night work relative to night sleep. If confirmed, future studies should evaluate melatonin supplementation as a means to restore oxidative DNA damage repair capacity among shift workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
M.H Rashed Mohasel
Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Ward, D.; Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Gallagher, S.; Salisbury, D.
An innovative program to realize light pollution education on two continents via Internet 2-based videoconferencing was begun 4 years ago by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Bilingual science teachers and their students in Arizona and Chile recorded the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation Orion with one of 6 stellar maps of limiting magnitude. Students from both hemispheres would report their findings via videoconferences. In the last year the program has evolved in collaboration with UCAR and other partners into an international, user-friendly, web-based science event open to anyone in the world, known as GLOBE at Night. GLOBE at Night uses the same design to observe and record the visible stars toward Orion, as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. The inaugural event occurred over 11 nights last March, when 18,000 citizen- scientists made over 4,500 observations from 96 countries. Analysis of the GLOBE at Night data set found that the brighter skies corresponded to areas with higher population density, and that most observations were taken in a location with some light pollution. The data also tended to confirm that satellite data is reliable in assessing light pollution. This session will describe our program to incorporate more technology into the GLOBE at Night program. Citizen-scientists will use sky quality meters (visible light photometers), calibrated digital photography, and GPS as a means to measure and map more accurately the brightness of the sky at selected urban and rural sites. This extension of the program is designed to aid further in teaching about the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource. We will also describe how detailed maps of selected urban areas can be used to assess lighting design, safety considerations and energy usage. Given the widespread interest in the inaugural GLOBE at Night
Hung, Li-Wei; Duriscoe, Dan M.; White, Jeremy M.; Meadows, Bob; Anderson, Sharolyn J.
The US National Park Service (NPS) characterizes night sky conditions over Chaco Culture National Historical Park using measurements in the park and satellite data. The park is located near the geographic center of the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and the adjacent Four Corners state. In the park, we capture a series of night sky images in V-band using our mobile camera system on nine nights from 2001 to 2016 at four sites. We perform absolute photometric calibration and determine the image placement to obtain multiple 45-million-pixel mosaic images of the entire night sky. We also model the regional night sky conditions in and around the park based on 2016 VIIRS satellite data. The average zenith brightness is 21.5 mag/arcsec2, and the whole sky is only ~16% brighter than the natural conditions. The faintest stars visible to naked eyes have magnitude of approximately 7.0, reaching the sensitivity limit of human eyes. The main impacts to Chaco’s night sky quality are the light domes from Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, Farmington, Bloomfield, Gallup, Santa Fe, Grants, and Crown Point. A few of these light domes exceed the natural brightness of the Milky Way. Additionally, glare sources from oil and gas development sites are visible along the north and east horizons. Overall, the night sky quality at Chaco Culture National Historical Park is very good. The park preserves to a large extent the natural illumination cycles, providing a refuge for crepuscular and nocturnal species. During clear and dark nights, visitors have an opportunity to see the Milky Way from nearly horizon to horizon, complete constellations, and faint astronomical objects and natural sources of light such as the Andromeda Galaxy, zodiacal light, and airglow.
weapons storage areas, a Pakistani unit was badly mauled. In a lengthy firefight, Aideed’s militia killed 23 and wounded 59. UNOSOM II’s Malaysian ...Regiment (SOAR), equipped with MH60 Black Hawk utility helicopters and MH6 and AH6 “Little Bird ” light helicopters. Small numbers of communicators...Americans through the night. By most accounts, only the dauntless actions of the AH6 Little Bird pilots, flying all night long, kept the besieged
Hill, Philippa J; Taylor, Mark; Goswami, Parikshit; Blackburn, Richard S
Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio
research aims to study SWR and its impact on water economy in relation with soil functioning and plant strategies for water uptake in pristine BW. Results are expected to shed light on the origin and implications of SWR in the area and provide useful information for improving ongoing restoration plans. Materials and methods The study was conducted in natural BW of WA. Soil samples were collected at different soil depths (0-1, 1-10, 20-30 and 40-50 cm). Rationale for sampling depths was based on the different severities of SWR at each layer under field conditions. Soil water repellency was assessed under laboratory conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) and the chemical organic assemblage of bulked soil subsamples from each layer was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Results and discussion Soil water repellency distributed discontinuously through the soil profile. The first thin layer (0-1 cm) composed of coarse sand and litter, located immediately above Banksia root clusters, showed wettable conditions. In contrast, the relatively well aggregated soil layer where the Banksia cluster root system is located (1-10 cm) was severely water-repellent. The 20-30 and 40-50 cm deep layers rendered wettable or subcritically water-repellent. After Py-GC/MS analysis, major compounds were identified and grouped according to their probable biogenic origin (lignin, polysaccharides, peptides, etc.). Among other soil organic compounds, well resolved bimodal alkane/akene (C8-C31, maxima at C13 and C26) and fatty acids series (short-chained, C5-C9, and long-chained even-numbered C12-C18) were associated to the root cluster soil layer (1-10 cm). Also, a relatively high contribution of fire-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed (7%), which is consistent with frequent fires occurring in BW. These results point to possible indirect links between organic substances released by roots and soil wettability involving soil microorganisms. Further
Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...
Xin-Wei, Wang; Yan, Zhou; Song-Tao, Fan; Jun, He; Yu-Liang, Liu
For night remote surveillance, we present a method, the range-gated laser stroboscopic imaging(RGLSI), which uses a new kind of time delay integration mode to integrate target signals so that night remote surveillance can be realized by a low-energy illuminated laser. The time delay integration in this method has no influence on the video frame rate. Compared with the traditional range-gated laser imaging, RGLSI can reduce scintillation and target speckle effects and significantly improve the image signal-to-noise ratio analyzed. Even under low light level and low visibility conditions, the RGLSI system can effectively work. In a preliminary experiment, we have detected and recognized a railway bridge one kilometer away under a visibility of six kilometers, when the effective illuminated energy is 29.5 μJ
Stargazing is among the most peaceful and inspiring outdoor activities. Night Sky, the award-winning book by Jonathan Poppele, makes it more fun than ever! Take a simple approach to finding 62 constellations by focusing on one constellation at a time, instead of attempting to study dizzying charts. Start with the easy-to-find constellations during each season and work toward the more difficult ones. Better yet, you'll learn how to locate any constellation in relation to the Big Dipper, the North Star and the top of the sky. With two ways to locate each constellation, you'll know where in the sky to look and what to look for! Along the way, you'll be introduced to mythology, facts and tidbits, as well as details about the planets, solar system and more! As an added bonus, the book comes with a red-light flashlight for night reading.
Alagna, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Lichner, Ľubomír
Soil water repellency (SWR) reduces affinity of soils to water resulting in detrimental implication for plants growth as well as for hydrological processes. During the last decades, it has become clear that SWR is much more widespread than formerly thought, having been reported for a wide variety of soils, land uses and climatic conditions. The repellency index (RI), based on soil-water to soil-ethanol sorptivity ratio, was proposed to characterize subcritical SWR that is the situation where a low degree of repellency impedes infiltration but does not prevent it. The minidisk infiltrometer allows adequate field assessment of RI inherently scaled to account for soil physical properties other than hydrophobicity (e.g., the volume, connectivity and the geometry of pores) that directly influence the hydrological processes. There are however some issues that still need consideration. For example, use of a fixed time for both water and ethanol sorptivity estimation may lead to inaccurate RI values given that water infiltration could be negligible whereas ethanol sorptivity could be overestimated due to influence of gravity and lateral diffusion that rapidly come into play when the infiltration process is very fast. Moreover, water and ethanol sorptivity values need to be determined at different infiltration sites thus implying that a large number of replicated runs should be carried out to obtain a reliable estimate of RI for a given area. Minidisk infiltrometer tests, conducted under different initial soil moisture and management conditions in the experimental sites of Ciavolo, Trapani (Italy) and Javea, Alicante (East Spain), were used to investigate the best applicative procedure to estimate RI. In particular, different techniques to estimate the water, Sw, and ethanol, Se, sorptivities were compared including i) a fixed 1-min time interval, ii) the slope of early-time 1D infiltration equation and iii) the two-term transient 3D infiltration equation that explicitly
Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A
the reference definition (at least 3 h of work between 24:00 and 05:00) and definitions using a period during the night. The overlap with definitions based on starting and ending time was less pronounced (64-71 %). The proportion of classified night shifts differs little when night shifts are based...
Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding
Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob
BACKGROUND: Chronic sleep deprivation combined with work during the night is known to affect performance and compromise residents' own safety. The aim of this study was to examine markers of circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle in surgeons working night shifts. METHODS: Surgeons were monitor...
Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value
Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were
Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.
The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h
Adults of C. maculatus were exposed to grains treated separately with the root, stem and leaf powders of C. odorata at different exposure periods of 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. All the three plant parts significantly repelled C. maculatus with the root powder showing the highest percentage repellency, although this was a ...
Full Text Available Repellent activity of monoterpenoid esters (1-6 with neurotransmitter amino acids (GABA and glycine was investigated against Aedes aegypti by using a “cloth-patch” assay and compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET. Monoterpenoid esters showed repellent activity with minimum effective dosages (MED in the range of 0.031-0.469 mg/cm2. The carvacrol ester of GABA (2, MED of 0.031 ± 0.008 mg/cm2 exhibited the highest repellency of six monoterpenoid esters tested in comparison to the standard repellent DEET (MED of 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/cm2; however, the repellent activity of carvacrol-glycine ester (5 decreased 4-fold compared to the carvacrol-GABA derivative (2. The repellent activities of menthol GABA (1, MED= 0.375 ± 0.000 mg/cm2 and glycine ester (4, MED=0.312 ± 0.063 mg/cm2 were similar The guaiacol-glycine ester (6 was 3.75-fold more efficacious than the guaiacol ester of GABA (3. In the present study, we report repellent efficacy of prolonged exposure to GABA and glycine esters of menthol, carvacrol, guaiacol (1-6 as compared to the repellent activities of their monoterpene moieties alone.
R. Sam Williams
This report describes the long-term performance of painted window units that were placed outdoors near Madison, Wisconsin, in 1956. Covered in this report are the effects of the initial water repellent preservative (WRP) treatment during the first 6 years of exposure, a comparison of the water repellent effectiveness (WRE) ofthe WRP with the condition of the windows...
P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; L. E. Ashmun
The Mini-disk Infiltrometer has been adapted for use as a field test of post-fire infiltration and soil water repellency. Although the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test is the common field test for soil water repellency, the Mini-disk Infiltrometer (MDI) test takes less time, is less subjective, and provides a relative infiltration rate. For each test, the porous...
Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R
The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Spatial repellents are essential for personal protection against mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, to reduce annoyance biting and transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The number of safe and effective repellents, including DEET, picaridin, and IR3535, is limited and contin...
K.R. Hubbert; V. Oriol
Soil water repellency is partularly common in unburned chaparral, and its degree and duration can be influenced by seasonal weather conditions. Water repellency tends to increase in dry soils, whil eit decreases or vanishes following precipitation or extended periods of soil moisture. The 15426 ha Williams Fire provided an opportunity to investigate post-fire...
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the sealing effect of the repelling force of the magnets with ferromagnetic stainless steel and also to examine the reduction pattern along with the change of the relative position of the magnets. The Nd-Fe-B magnet as rare earth magnet, and SUSXM 27, YEP-3, SUS 416 as ferromagnetic stainless steel were used in this experiment. The findings were as follows: 1. There was a little decrease of the repelling force of the magnets sealed with ferromagnetic stainless steel. On the other hand, no significant differences in the repelling force sealed with any kind of ferromagnetic stainless steel were found. 2. Direct contact of the repelling force of the phi 4.0 x 1.5 mm magnets sealed with SUSXM 27 of 0.2 mm in thickness was 242 gf. According to relative horizontal 1.2 mm movement keeping direct contact, the vertical and horizontal components of the repelling force were of the same value. 3. The repelling force of the phi 10.0 x 1.8 mm magnets sealed with SUSXM 27 of 0.2 mm in thickness was 815 gf. It showed more than 300 gf of vertical component of the repelling force when the magnets shifted to 3.0 mm horizontally when in contact. 4. It is suggested that the repelling force of the Nd-Fe-B magnets will be clinically useful for the intrusion of molar teeth.
Barrier treatments can be effective in reducing host seeking mosquito vectors and provide an additional layer of passive defense, reducing disease risk. Devices designed to release spatial repellents or direct application of spatial repellents to artificial surfaces can serve as efficient barriers r...
James P. Barnett
Direct seeding of southern pines has been a versatile and inexpensive alternative to planting on many reforestation sites across the South. Successful direct seeding has required that seeds be coated with thiram to repel birds, and with endrin to repel rodents. Endrin, which is extremely toxic, is no longer produced in the United States. Therefore, a substitute is...
Balshaw, Helen; Douglas, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Davies, Matthew
Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become evermore essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency - can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Our research to date involves two new approaches for studying soil wetting. 1) We challenge the theoretical basis of current ideas on the measured water/soil contact angle measurements. Much past and current discussion involves Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models to explain anomalously high contact angles for organics on soils, however here we propose that these anomalously high measured contact angles are a consequence of the measurement of a water drop on an irregular non-planar surface rather than the thermodynamic factors of the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel models. In our analysis we have successfully used a much simpler geometric approach for non-flat surfaces such as soil. 2) Fluorescent and phosphorescent
Biggs, James D.; Fouché, Tiffany; Bilki, Frank; Zadnik, Marjan G.
In order to study the light pollution produced in the city of Perth, Western Australia, we have used a hand-held sky brightness meter to measure the night sky brightness across the city. The data acquired facilitated the creation of a contour map of night sky brightness across the 2400 km2 area of the city - the first such map to be produced for a city. Importantly, this map was created using a methodology borrowed from the field of geophysics - the well proven and rigorous techniques of geostatistical analysis and modelling. A major finding of this study is the effect of land use on night sky brightness. By overlaying the night sky brightness map on to a suitably processed Landsat satellite image of Perth we found that locations near commercial and/or light industrial areas have a brighter night sky, whereas locations used for agriculture or having high vegetation coverage have a fainter night sky than surrounding areas. Urban areas have intermediate amounts of vegetation and are intermediate in brightness compared with the above-mentioned land uses. Regions with a higher density of major highways also appear to contribute to increased night sky brightness. When corrected for the effects of direct illumination from high buildings, we found that the night sky brightness in the central business district (CBD) is very close to that expected for a city of Perth's population from modelling work and observations obtained in earlier studies. Given that our night sky brightness measurements in Perth over 2009 and 2010 are commensurate with that measured in Canadian cities over 30 years earlier implies that the various lighting systems employed in Perth (and probably most other cities) have not been optimised to minimize light pollution over that time. We also found that night sky brightness diminished with distance with an exponent of approximately -0.25 ± 0.02 from 3.5 to 10 km from the Perth CBD, a region characterized by urban and commercial land use. For distances
Agenor Mafra-Neto; Christopher J. Fettig; A. Steven Munson; Lukasz L. Stelinski
Despite the many impediments to commercialization of insect repellents in agriculture and forestry, there are some situations where the use of repellents is desirable and warranted. ISCA Technologies (Riverside, California), together with collaborators from academic, government, and private sectors, is actively developing repellent formulations against several...
Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes underlaboratory (wind tunn...
Kurniawan, F.; Madurani, K. A.; Wahyulis, N. C.
The water-repellent properties of red pepper seed oil (capsicol) have been studied. The oil was coated on the glass surface by spray technique. Water repellent properties were performed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets. The measurement was conducted by varying the drying time of the oil coating at room temperature. The optimum contact angle of the droplets on the glass with capsicol coating is 46.77°, which can be achieved in 30 min of drying time. It also obtained the smallest diameter of the droplets (0.47 cm). The longer drying time decrease the contact angles and increases the diameter. The results were compared with the bare glass and commercial water repellent. The contact angle of the droplets on the glass surface with capsicol coating is higher than bare glass, but lower than glass with commercial water repellent coating. It means that capsicol has the water-repellent properties.
Mohammad Hassan Kayedi
Full Text Available Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33% as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls.In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42 and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001. In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001. The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils.
Full Text Available Water repellency (WR delays soil wetting process, increases preferential flow and may give rise to surface runoff and consequent erosion. WR is commonly recognized in the soils of warm and temperate climates. To explore the occurrence of WR in soils in Finland, soil R index was studied on 12 sites of different soil types. The effects of soil management practice, vegetation age, soil moisture and drying temperature on WR were studied by a mini-infiltrometer with samples from depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. All studied sites exhibited WR (R index >1.95 at the time of sampling. WR increased as follows: sand (R = 1.8-5.0 < clay (R = 2.4-10.3 < organic (R = 7.9-undefined. At clay and sand, WR was generally higher at the soil surface and at the older sites (14 yr., where organic matter is accumulated. Below 41 vol. % water content these mineral soils were water repellent whereas organic soil exhibited WR even at saturation. These results show that soil WR also reduces water infiltration at the prevalent field moisture regime in the soils of boreal climate. The ageing of vegetation increases WR and on the other hand, cultivation reduces or hinders the development of WR.;
Patience, Gregory S; Karirekinyana, Ginette; Galli, Federico; Patience, Nicolas A; Kubwabo, Cariton; Collin, Guy; Bizimana, Jean Claude; Boffito, Daria C
Malaria devastates sub-Saharan Africa; the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 212 million people contract malaria annually and that the plasmodium virus will kill 419 000 in 2017. The disease affects rural populations who have the least economic means to fight it. Impregnated mosquito nets have reduced the mortality rate but the Anopheles mosquitoes are changing their feeding patterns and have become more active at dusk and early morning rather than after 22h00 as an adaptation to the nets. Everyone is susceptible to the Anopheles at these times but infants and pregnant women are the most vulnerable to the disease. Plant-based mosquito repellents are as effective as synthetic repellents that protect people from bites. They are sustainable preventative measures against malaria not only because of their efficacy but because the local population can produce and distribute them, which represents a source of economic growth for rural areas. Here, we extract and test the essential oil nepetalactone from Nepeta cataria via steam distillation. Families in endemic areas of Burundi found them effective against bites but commented that the odor was pungent. An epidemiological study is required to establish its clinical efficacy.
Galvan, Yaraset; Phillips, Katherine R; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter; Zarraga, Ramon; Vogel, Nicolas
In order to prepare lubricant-infused repellent coatings on silica nanostructures using low vapor pressure ionic liquids as lubricants, we study the wetting behavior of a set of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl side chains as a function of the applied surface functionalities. We take advantage of the structural color of inverse opals prepared from a colloidal coassembly technique to study the infiltration of ionic liquids into these nanoporous structures. We find that the more hydrophobic ionic liquids with butyl and hexyl side chains can completely infiltrate inverse opals functionalized with mixed self-assembled monolayers composed of imidazole groups and aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, which we introduce via silane chemistry. These molecular species reflect the chemical nature of the ionic liquid, thereby increasing the affinity between the liquid and solid surface. The mixed surface chemistry provides sufficiently small contact angles with the ionic liquid to infiltrate the nanopores while maximizing the contact angle with water. As a result, the mixed monolayers enable the design of a stable ionic liquid/solid interface that is able to repel water as a test liquid. Our results underline the importance of matching chemical affinities to predict and control the wetting behavior in complex, multiphase systems.
Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta; Fort, Rafael
Protective and water repellent treatments are applied on stone materials used on buildings or sculptures of artistic value to reduce water intrusion without limiting the natural permeability to water vapour of the material. The effect of the wavelength associated with the laser removal of two water repellent treatments applied on limestone, Paraloid B-72, a copolymer of methyl acrylate and ethyl methacrylate, and Tegosivin HL-100, a modified polysiloxane resin, was investigated by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). The modifications induced on the surface of limestone samples by laser irradiation were studied using colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The removal of the treatments was found to be dependent on the laser irradiation conditions and on the characteristics of the coatings. The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing both treatments, but thermal alteration processes were induced on the constituent calcite crystals. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.
Owens, D Alfred; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, Justin M
This study investigated the effects of drivers' age and low light on speed, lane keeping, and visual recognition of typical roadway stimuli. Poor visibility, which is exacerbated by age-related changes in vision, is a leading contributor to fatal nighttime crashes. There is little evidence, however, concerning the extent to which drivers recognize and compensate for their visual limitations at night. Young, middle-aged, and elder participants drove on a closed road course in day and night conditions at a "comfortable" speed without speedometer information. During night tests, headlight intensity was varied over a range of 1.5 log units using neutral density filters. Average speed and recognition of road signs decreased significantly as functions of increased age and reduced illumination. Recognition of pedestrians at night was significantly enhanced by retroreflective markings of limb joints as compared with markings of the torso, and this benefit was greater for middle-aged and elder drivers. Lane keeping showed nonlinear effects of lighting, which interacted with task conditions and drivers' lateral bias, indicating that older drivers drove more cautiously in low light. Consistent with the hypothesis that drivers misjudge their visual abilities at night, participants of all age groups failed to compensate fully for diminished visual recognition abilities in low light, although older drivers behaved more cautiously than the younger groups. These findings highlight the importance of educating all road users about the limitations of night vision and provide new evidence that retroreflective markings of the limbs can be of great benefit to pedestrians' safety at night.
Groot, de E.H.; Knoop, M.; Wang, Jinsui
In the Netherlands, 16% of the working population sometimes or regularly works between midnight and 6 a.m. This percentage is comparable to those of other countries. Two of the most common and harmful problems associated with shift work are reduced quality of sleep and a reduced alertness while at
Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata
The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.
Luehring, F; Obreshkov, E; Quarrie, D; Rybkine, G; Undrus, A
The automated multi-platform software nightly build system is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation and code approval schemes. Code developers from ATLAS participating Institutes spread all around the world use about 30 branches of nightly releases for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers. The nightly releases lead up to, and are the basis of, stable software releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS nightly builds are managed by the fully automated NICOS framework on the computing farm with 44 powerful multiprocessor nodes. The ATN test tool is embedded within the nightly system and provides results shortly after full compilations complete. Other test frameworks are synchronized with NICOS jobs and run larger scale validation jobs using the nightly releases. NICOS web pages dynamically provide information about the progress and results of the builds. For faster feedback, E-mail notifications about nightly releases problems are automatically distributed to the developers responsible.
Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.
Full Text Available Suat Kucukgoncu, Margaretta Midura, Cenk Tek Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Night Eating Syndrome (NES is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed. Keywords: night eating, obesity, psychiatric disorders, weight, depression
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.
Citizen-science is a rewardingly inclusive way to bring awareness to the public on the disappearance of the starry night sky, its cause and solutions. Globe at Night (GaN) encourages citizen-scientists worldwide to record the brightness of the night sky. During ten-days per month of moonless evenings, children and adults match the appearance of a specific constellation with 7 star maps of progressively fainter stars found at www.globeatnight.org. They then submit their choice of star map in-situ using the "webapp" on a smart device. In eleven years of the program, over 160,000 observations from 180 countries have been contributed to a light pollution map. The GaN (open) database is a source of research projects. For example, students conducted research to understand the lesser long-nosed bats' avoidance of city center at night. With its analytical tools, Fieldscope will be a conduit for comparing GaN to other databases. On-the-fly mapping enables citizen-scientists to see observations immediately. There are 4 ways of taking measurements. The online app for data reporting is in 26 languages. STEM activities for young children and problem-based learning activities for older students were created to experience real-life scenarios: role-playing sea turtles hatching (misdirected by lights on shore) or analyzing an ISS image of Houston to estimate the wasted energy, cost and carbon footprint. In-situ and on-line workshops have been given on using GaN, as well as the activities. Our Facebook page exists to encourage dialogue and bring cutting edge news. To entice interest, we had monthly newsletters and serial podcasts starring the Dark Skies Crusader. GaN has been part of special campaigns like with the National Park Service, the National Geographic BioBlitz and Tucson in 2011. We have built a community of practitioners in various ways worldwide and have metrics on behavioral changes. To maintain the community and create new partnerships, we have teamed with Sci
Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL
The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.
Oliveira, Jhones L de; Campos, Estefânia V R; Pereira, Anderson E S; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Grillo, Renato; Andrade, Daniel Junior de; Santos, Fabiano Aparecido Dos; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes
Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinder their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles toward target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.
Maguranyi, Suzann K; Webb, Cameron E; Mansfield, Sarah; Russell, Richard C
While the use of topical insect repellents, particularly those containing synthetic active ingredients such as deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), are a mainstay in personal protection strategies emphasized in public health messages, there is a growing demand in the community for alternative repellents, particularly those of botanical origin and thus deemed to be "natural." This study evaluated the repellency of essential oils from 11 Australian native plants in 5% v/v formulations against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex annulirostris under laboratory conditions. A blend of the top 3 performing oils was then compared with deet and a commercially available botanical insect repellent. All essential oils provided at least some protection against the 3 mosquito species, with the longest protection time (110 min) afforded by Prostanthera melissifolia against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Mean protection times against Ae. aegypti were substantially lower than those for the Culex spp. tested. Deet provided significantly longer protection against Ae. aegypti than both the 5% v/v blend of Leptospermum petersonii, Prostanthera melissifolia, and Melaleuca alternifolia (the 3 most effective oils) and the commercial botanical repellent. The results of this study indicate that these essential oils from Australian native plants offer limited protection against biting mosquitoes and that a blend of essential oils holds may offer commercial potential as a short-period repellent or under conditions of low mosquito abundance. However, it is important that public health messages continue to emphasize the greater effectiveness of deet-based repellents in areas with risks of mosquito-borne disease.
Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B
Celery-based products were investigated for chemical composition, skin irritation, and mosquito repellency in comparison to commercial repellents and the standard chemical, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), with a goal to develop a natural alternative to synthetic repellents for protection against mosquitoes. Chemical identification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry discovered that the major constituents of Apium graveolens hexane extract (AHE) were 3-n-butyl-tetrahydrophthalide (92.48%), followed by 5.10% beta-selinene and 0.68% gamma-selinene. Evaluation of skin irritation in 27 human volunteers revealed no irritant potential from 25% ethanolic AHE solution. Laboratory investigated repellent against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes demonstrated that G10 formula, the best AHE-developed product, provided remarkable repellency with a median protection time of 4.5 h (4.5-5 h), which was greater than that of ethanolic DEET solution (25% DEET, 3.5 h) and comparable to that of the best commercial repellent, Insect Block 28 (28.5% DEET, 4.5 h). According to significantly promising results, including highly effective repellency and no potential skin irritation or other side effects, the G10 formula is a worthwhile product that has the promise of being developed for commercialized registration. This developed AHE product could be an acceptable and affordable alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals in preventing mosquito bites, and in turn, helping to interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.
Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon
We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Barradas, Thaís Nogueira; Senna, Juliana Perdiz; Ricci, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia Regina Elias
Insects-borne diseases constitute a public health concern. Since there is no vaccine or curative treatment for many of these diseases, individual protection is the main approach to prevent them. Nowadays, the search for replacing synthetic molecules for insect repellents from natural sources, such as essential oils, is increasing. However, most of them present low efficiency compared to synthetic repellents. Therefore, decreasing skin permeation of synthetic repellents or yet, increasing effectiveness of natural repellents are challenges that must be overcome during the development of novel insect repellent formulations. In this context, polymer-based formulations allow entrapping active ingredients and provide release control. Encapsulation into polymeric micro/nanocapsules, cyclodextrins, polymeric micelles or hydrogels constitutes an approach to modify physicochemical properties of encapsulated molecules. Such techniques, applied in topical formulations, fabrics modification for personal protection, or food packaging have proved to be more effective in increasing repellency time and also in reducing drug dermal absorption, improving safety profiles of these products. In this work, the main synthetic and natural insect repellents are described as well as their polymeric carrier systems and their potential applications.
Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito
Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors.
Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.
SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.
Reszka, Edyta; Peplonska, Beata; Wieczorek, Edyta; Sobala, Wojciech; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Kjuus, Helge; Wasowicz, Wojciech
It has been hypothesized that the underlying mechanism of elevated breast cancer risk among long-term, night-working women involves circadian genes expression alteration caused by exposure to light at night and/or irregular work hours. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of rotating night shift work on expression of selected core circadian genes. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 184 matched nurses and midwives, who currently work either day or rotating night shifts, to determine the effect of irregular work at night on circadian gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Transcript levels of BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were determined by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After adjusting for hour of blood collection, there were no statistically significant changes of investigated circadian genes among nurses and midwives currently working rotating night shifts compared to nurses working day shifts. The highest expression of PER1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was observed for women currently working shifts who had worked >15 years in rotating night shift work. PER1 gene expression was associated with the lifetime duration of rotating night shift work among women currently working night shifts (P=0.04). PER1 and PER3 transcript levels in blood leukocytes were significantly down-regulated in the later versus early hours of the morning between 06.00-10.00 hours (β-coefficient -0.226, P=0.001 and β-coefficient -0.181, Pnight shift work does not affect circadian gene expression in human circulating leukocytes. In analysis of the peripheral clock in human studies, the hour of blood collection should be precisely specified.
Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias
.... Night and day photography illustrate the training sequence needed to master the individual and buddy team skills, battle drills, and situational training exercises that support the night attack...
Blennow, Mattias; Ohlsson, Tommy; Snellman, Hakan
We summarize the results of Ref. [M. Blennow, T. Ohlsson and H. Snellman, Phys. Rev. D 69 (2004) 073006, hep-ph/0311098] in which we determine the effects of three flavor mixing on the day-night asymmetry in the flux of solar neutrinos. Analytic methods are used to determine the difference in the day and night solar electron neutrino survival probabilities and numerical methods are used to determine the effect of three flavor mixing at detectors
Zahraa Adnan Baqer
Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the role of the minor characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream. The study assumes that without the first group of minor characters, associated with Olivia, the play Twelfth Night would lose much of its humor, and without the second group, associated with Sebastian, the play would fall apart. On the other hand, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream minor characters play important roles, without them, the action dose not ran smoothly, or does not ran at all. The paper falls into three sections. Section one deals with the role of each minor character in Twelfth Night. Section two focuses on the minor characters in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Section three is a conclusion which sums up the findings of the study.
Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles
Modern societies are characterized by a 24/7 lifestyle (LS) with no environmental differences between day and night, resulting in weak zeitgebers (weak day light, absence of darkness during night, constant environmental temperature, sedentary LS and frequent snacking), and as a consequence, in an impaired circadian system (CS) through a process known as chronodisruption. Both weak zeitgebers and CS impairment are related to human pathologies (certain cancers, metabolic syndrome and affective and cognitive disorders), but little is known about how to chronoenhance the CS. The aim of this work is to propose practical strategies for chronoenhancement, based on accentuating the day/night contrast. For this, 131 young subjects were recruited, and their wrist temperature (WT), activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. Subjects with high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) for each variable were selected to analyze the HC effect in activity, body position, environmental temperature, light exposure and sleep would have on WT. We found that HC showed better rhythms than LC for every variable except sleep. Subjects with HC and LC for WT also demonstrated differences in LS, where HC subjects had a slightly advanced night phase onset and a general increase in day/night contrast. In addition, theoretical high day/night contrast calculated using mathematical models suggests an improvement by means of LS contrast. Finally, some individuals classified as belonging to the HC group in terms of WT when they are exposed to the LS characteristic of the LC group, while others exhibit WT arrhythmicity despite their good LS habits, revealing two different WT components: an exogenous component modified by LS and another endogenous component that is refractory to it. Therefore, intensifying day/night contrast in subject's LS has proven to be a feasible measure to chronoenhance the CS.
Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Morken, Tone; Alsaker, Kjersti; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn
Night work has been associated with adverse effects in terms of reproductive health. Specifically, menstruation has been suggested to be negatively impacted by night work, which again may influence fertility. This study investigated whether working nights is related to menstrual characteristics and if there is a relationship between shift work disorder (SWD) and menstruation. The study was cross-sectional, response rate 38%. The sample comprised female nurses who were members of the Norwegian Nurses Association; below 50 yr of age, who were not pregnant, did not use hormonal pills or intrauterine devices and who had not reached menopause (n=766). The nurses answered a postal survey including questions about night work and menstrual characteristics. Fifteen per cent reported to have irregular menstruations. Thirty-nine per cent of the nurses were classified as having SWD. Logistic regression analyses concerning the relationship between irregular menstruations and night work did not show any associations. Furthermore, no associations were found between cycle length or bleeding period and night work parameters. No associations were found between menstrual characteristics and SWD.
Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P. C.; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C. S.; Tang, Jin-ling; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah
Aims This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. Methods A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants’ demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Results Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97–1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74–2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01–1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40–11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13–2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94–1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Conclusion Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies. PMID:29763461
Sun, Miaomiao; Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P C; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C S; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wong, Samuel Y S; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants' demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97-1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74-2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40-11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13-2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94-1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies.
Guo Yonggang; Jiang Dong; Zhang Xia; Zhang Zhijun; Wang Qihua
A stable superhydrophobic polystyrene nanocomposite coating was fabricated by means of a very simple and easy method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The wettability of the products was also investigated. By adding the surface-modified SiO 2 nanoparticles, the wettability of the coating changed to water-repellent superhydrophobic, not only for pure water, but also for a wide pH range of corrosive liquids. The influence of the drying temperature and SiO 2 content on the wettability of the nanocomposite coating was also investigated. It was found that both factors had little or no significant effect on the wetting behavior of the coating surface.
Although the title seems self-contradictory, it does not contain a misprint. The model we study is a seemingly minor modification of the "true self-avoiding walk" model of Amit, Parisi, and Peliti in two dimensions. The walks in it are self-repelling up to a characteristic time T* (which depends on various parameters), but spontaneously (i.e., without changing any control parameter) become self-trapping after that. For free walks, T* is astronomically large, but on finite lattices the transition is easily observable. In the self-trapped regime, walks are subdiffusive and intermittent, spending longer and longer times in small areas until they escape and move rapidly to a new area. In spite of this, these walks are extremely efficient in covering finite lattices, as measured by average cover times.
Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E
Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.
Full Text Available We monitored BL Lacertae frequently during 2014–2016 when it was generally in a high state. We searched for intra-day variability for 43 nights using quasi-simultaneous measurements in the B, V, R, and I bands (totaling 143 light curves; the typical sampling interval was about eight minutes. On hour-like timescales, BL Lac exhibited significant variations during 13 nights in various optical bands. Significant spectral variations are seen during most of these nights such that the optical spectrum becomes bluer when brighter. The amplitude of variability is usually greater for longer observations but is lower when BL Lac is brighter. No evidence for periodicities or characteristic variability time-scales in the light curves was found. The color variations are mildly chromatic on long timescales.
Fisker, Peter Kielberg
This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...
Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli
In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113
Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Melotto, Maeli
In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface.
Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.
The emphasis in the international star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What steps can be taken to improve it? To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. To increase the robustness of the data, 2 new approaches were taken. GLOBE at Night prototyped an "Adopt a Street” program in Tucson. The aim was for people to adopt different major or semi-major streets and take measurements every mile or so for the length of the street. The grid of measurements would canvas the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time (hours, days, years) or search for dark sky oases or light polluted areas. The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. The intent is to offer the program year-round for seasonal studies. The data can also be used to compare with datasets on wildlife, health, and energy consumption. Recently, NOAO and the Arizona Game and Fish Department have started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where the endangered bats fly. In our presentation, results of our efforts are discussed.
Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc
Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age ± SD: 28.9 ± 3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00 h-07:00 h; day work schedule: 07:00 h-15:00 h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n = 13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n = 26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...
Thind, Ramandeep Kaur; Mahal, Amrit Kaur
Rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. Such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. Mature and healthy house rat, Rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. Each concentration was applied through three different modes of application, that is, daily, once, and alternatively in a week. Repellent effect of the oil was assessed based on food consumption from treated and untreated sides for four days. In overall, food consumption was significantly (P eucalyptus oil. Present studies reveal the potential of eucalyptus oil in repelling away R. rattus; however, further studies may be conducted to enhance the persistence of repellent effect for longer period of time. PMID:24523633
Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.
Dietrich, Gabrielle; Dolan, Marc C; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Schmidt, Jason; Piesman, Joseph; Eisen, Rebecca J; Karchesy, Joseph J
Preliminary repellent activity of 14 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., were evaluated against nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say in a laboratory bioassay and compared with technical grade N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet). Four hours after treatment, nootkatone and valencene-13-ol had repellent concentration (RC)50 values of 0.0458 and 0.0712% (wt:vol), respectively; two additional Alaska yellow cedar compounds, nootkatone 1 --> 10 epoxide and carvacrol had reported RC50 values of 0.0858 and 0.112%, respectively. The observed RC50 value for deet was 0.0728% (wt:vol). Although not statistically significantly more active than deet, the ability of these natural products to repel ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a potential alternative to synthetic commercial repellents.
Sep 21, 2011 ... The repellency effects of Mentha piperita leaves, collected from two different locations in ... of trace metals were reported from the soil and plant collected from Malelane (p < 0.05). ... an increased concentration of chromium.
Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang
When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.
Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles
Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far.
of topical repellents and scrub typhus was reduced through the use of treated clothing. Successful reduction of leishmaniasis was achieved through the...epidemic typhus , scrub typhus , plague and malaria. The result was the development of many of the modern strategies for vector control that we take for...prevent bites and disease. They gave examples that represented well-documented disease reduction achieved with repellent clothing ( scrub typhus ; McCulloch
De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA
Gustafsson, Christine; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Asp, Margareta
The aim of the present study was to examine the support night nurses' give to staff in community night nursing. Studies have shown that support given to staff is one of night registered nurses' (RNs') experiences of the meaning of caring. This support, that community RNs display for staff in night-time care, is sparsely described. All community night-duty nurses in a medium-sized municipal in Sweden participated in the present study. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data from observations. The support given by RNs to staff is described using three themes: (1) a conditional supporting stance, (2) preparing propitious conditions for caring and (3) confidence in the abilities of individual staff members and adaptation to their individual needs. The results reveal that RNs consider support to staff in terms of nursing leadership. Out of 'concern for the staff' the RNs try to be there for them, which corresponds to nursing leadership. Such concern also arises from the RNs' awareness that by giving support to staff this affects the staffs' caring for older people. The current municipal social care organization of community nursing of older people in which RNs have extensive responsibilities with insufficient control, is a working condition with a risk for decreased quality of care and a high risk for work-related stress syndrome. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Leung, Michael; Tranmer, Joan; Hung, Eleanor; Korsiak, Jill; Day, Andrew G; Aronson, Kristan J
Shift work-related carcinogenesis is hypothesized to be mediated by melatonin; however, few studies have considered the potential effect modification of this underlying pathway by chronotype or specific aspects of shift work such as the number of consecutive nights in a rotation. In this study, we examined melatonin patterns in relation to shift status, stratified by chronotype and number of consecutive night shifts, and cumulative lifetime exposure to shift work. Melatonin patterns of 261 female personnel (147 fixed-day and 114 on rotations, including nights) at Kingston General Hospital were analyzed using cosinor analysis. Urine samples were collected from all voids over a 48-hour specimen collection period for measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations using the Buhlmann ELISA Kit. Chronotypes were assessed using mid-sleep time (MSF) derived from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Sociodemographic, health, and occupational information were collected by questionnaire. Rotational shift nurses working nights had a lower mesor and an earlier time of peak melatonin production compared to day-only workers. More pronounced differences in mesor and acrophase were seen among later chronotypes, and shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights. Among nurses, cumulative shift work was associated with a reduction in mesor. These results suggest that evening-types and/or shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights are more susceptible to adverse light-at-night effects, whereas long-term shift work may also chronically reduce melatonin levels. Cumulative and current exposure to shift work, including nights, affects level and timing of melatonin production, which may be related to carcinogenesis and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 830-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Fink, Patrick; Moelzner, Jana; Berghahn, Ruediger; von Elert, Eric
Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus tested the hypothesis that the widely used insect repellents DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide), EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) and Icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropyl ester) induce downstream drift behaviour in the aquatic invertebrates Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) and Cloeon dipterum (Insecta, Ephemeroptera), using a laboratory-scale drift assay. We found no clear increase in the drift behaviour of both invertebrate species across a concentration gradient of eight orders of magnitude and even beyond maximum environmental concentrations for any of the three repellents. We found no evidence for a direct drift-inducing activity of insect repellents on aquatic non-target organisms. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Doerr, Stefan Helmut
Soil water repellency (SWR) is a key soil property that determine the soil and water losses, soil fertility and plant development. Although until the 90's the soil water repellency was seeing as an uncommon soil characteristic, now is considered a key soil property to understand the soil hydrology (Alanís et al., 2016; Hewelke et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2016). The inspiring research of Leonard DeBano and Stefan H Doerr changed the fate of the science (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al. 2000). Soil water repellency was associated to forest fire affected land due to the pioneer contribution of professor DeBano in the 70's and Professor Doerr in the 90's. The research during the last two decades demonstrate that fire affects the reallocation of the hydrophobic substances and can reduce or increase the severity of the soil water repellence at different soil depths and horizons. The SWR is usually measured by sampling to show the influence of key soil properties (texture, structure, plant cover, litter, season…) on the degree of soil water repellency. The sampling is applied usually with a few drops when the Water Drop Penetration Time method is applied, and this inform of the time of penetration, but few researches focussed in the spatial distribution of the water repellency, which is a key factor of the runoff generation, the water infiltration and the water redistribution such as demonstrate the wetting fronts. Our approach research the spatial distribution of the water repellency by means of an intense sampling of soil surface water repellency. One thousand drops were distributed in a square meter (100 lines separated 1 cm and 100 drops per each line of 100 cm, with a total od 1000 drops in 1m2) on 10 sampling points on 4 land managements: ploughing and herbicide agriculture fields treatment), abandoned 10 years, and burnt. The research was carried out in citrus plantations of the Canyoles river watershed. The results show that the
Núñez-Pons, Laura; Avila, Conxita
Many bioactive products from benthic invertebrates mediating ecological interactions have proved to reduce predation, but their mechanisms of action, and their molecular identities, are usually unknown. It was suggested, yet scarcely investigated, that nutritional quality interferes with defensive metabolites. This means that antifeedants would be less effective when combined with energetically rich prey, and that higher amounts of defensive compounds would be needed for predator avoidance. We evaluated the effects of five types of repellents obtained from Antarctic invertebrates, in combination with diets of different energetic values. The compounds came from soft corals, ascidians and hexactinellid sponges; they included wax esters, alkaloids, a meroterpenoid, a steroid, and the recently described organic acid, glassponsine. Feeding repellency was tested through preference assays by preparing diets (alginate pearls) combining different energetic content and inorganic material. Experimental diets contained various concentrations of each repellent product, and were offered along with control compound-free pearls, to the Antarctic omnivore amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Meridianin alkaloids were the most active repellents, and wax esters were the least active when combined with foods of distinct energetic content. Our data show that levels of repellency vary for each compound, and that they perform differently when mixed with distinct assay foods. The natural products that interacted the most with energetic content were those occurring in nature at higher concentrations. The bioactivity of the remaining metabolites tested was found to depend on a threshold concentration, enough to elicit feeding repellence, independently from nutritional quality. PMID:24962273
Full Text Available Many bioactive products from benthic invertebrates mediating ecological interactions have proved to reduce predation, but their mechanisms of action, and their molecular identities, are usually unknown. It was suggested, yet scarcely investigated, that nutritional quality interferes with defensive metabolites. This means that antifeedants would be less effective when combined with energetically rich prey, and that higher amounts of defensive compounds would be needed for predator avoidance. We evaluated the effects of five types of repellents obtained from Antarctic invertebrates, in combination with diets of different energetic values. The compounds came from soft corals, ascidians and hexactinellid sponges; they included wax esters, alkaloids, a meroterpenoid, a steroid, and the recently described organic acid, glassponsine. Feeding repellency was tested through preference assays by preparing diets (alginate pearls combining different energetic content and inorganic material. Experimental diets contained various concentrations of each repellent product, and were offered along with control compound-free pearls, to the Antarctic omnivore amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. Meridianin alkaloids were the most active repellents, and wax esters were the least active when combined with foods of distinct energetic content. Our data show that levels of repellency vary for each compound, and that they perform differently when mixed with distinct assay foods. The natural products that interacted the most with energetic content were those occurring in nature at higher concentrations. The bioactivity of the remaining metabolites tested was found to depend on a threshold concentration, enough to elicit feeding repellence, independently from nutritional quality.
Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei
The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.
Sun, H. Y.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Yang, Z.; Shan, G. L. [Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Shen, M. X. [Hehai University, Nanjing (China)
Impregnating with quality silicone water repellent on the concrete surface is an effective method of protecting concrete. Quality silicone water repellent has been widely used in the engineering profession because of its desirable properties such as hydrophobicity, keeping concrete breathable and preserving the original appearance of the concrete. The companies in China that produce silicone water repellent are listed. Test methods in the specifications or standards about silicone water repellent in China are summed. The test methods relative to durability of concrete impregnated with silicone water repellent (such as resistant to chloride ion penetration, resistant to alkali, resistance to freezing and thawing and weather ability etc.) and the constructive quality (such as water absorption rate, impregnating depth and the dry velocity coefficient etc.) are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences among test methods relative to different specifications with the same index and therefore, confusion has ensued when selecting test methods. All test methods with the exception of the method of water absorption rate by using a Karsten flask are not non-destructive methods or conducted in a laboratory. Finally, further research on silicone water repellent during application is proposed.
Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Królasik, Agnieszka; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel
BACKGROUND. Mosquitoes are blood-sucking insects, nuisance to humans and animals. Their bites cause itching and allergic reactions. These insects are also vectors of several viruses, bacteria and parasites. Protection against mosquitoes is therefore justified and desirable. This can give repellents and products for protection small outdoor areas such as terraces, home gardens. OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eight selected products with different formulations used against mosquitoes including: 5 preparations for use on the body or clothing (repellents A, B, C, D, E and 3 products for use in small outdoor spaces (I, J, K). [corrected] Repellents were tested in laboratory trials, when volunteers were exposed to Aedes aegypti females breeding in the laboratory. Products I, J, K were tested in field trials; volunteers were exposed to female mosquitoes at various ages from the environment (Aedes sp, Culex sp). The results showed that all tested repellents were efficient during 4 hrs. After this time their effectiveness decreased--fast in the case of repellent B (10% DEET), not very fast, but significant--in the case of repellent C (15% DEET). Three products for small area protection gave (each of them) 3-hour protection against mosquito bites. Product K (21,97% allethrin) was 100% effective (no bites at all). Both kinds of product can give effective protection against mosquito bites. Their use is most effective, cheaper and more safe for the environment method of protection against mosquitoes than chemical spraying of large areas.
Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C
To determine the protection times provided by insect repellent and sunscreen in combined formulations against biting mosquitoes. To determine if concurrent use of repellent and sunscreen influenced protection times. Insect repellent containing comparable concentrations of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) with and without sunscreen were tested on human skin to determine the mean protection time (MPT) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in the laboratory. Further trials were undertaken to determine the effect on MPT of sunscreen reapplication over repellent every two hours. There was no significant difference in the MPT provided by 80% DEET with (MPT+/-SE=770+/-54.8 minutes) and without (MPT+/-SE=830+/-20.2 minutes) sunscreen or 7.14% DEET with (MPT+/-SE =240+/-15.5 minutes) and 6.98% DEET without (MPT+/-SE =230+/-18.4 minutes) sunscreen. Reapplication of sunscreen resulted in a significantly lower MPT of a 17.0% DEET formulation when sunscreen was reapplied concurrently (MPT+/-SE=330+/-25.2 minutes), compared with DEET alone (MPT+/-SE =400+/-12.7 minutes). When combined in a single formulation with sunscreen, the MPT provided by both high and low concentrations of DEET is not reduced. However, if sunscreen is reapplied over insect repellent, protection times can be reduced significantly. In areas of endemic mosquito-borne disease, the reapplication of a low concentration repellent and sunscreen formulation may provide the most effective protection from biting mosquitoes while minimising the risk of overexposure to DEET.
Sun, H. Y.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Yang, Z.; Shan, G. L.; Shen, M. X.
Impregnating with quality silicone water repellent on the concrete surface is an effective method of protecting concrete. Quality silicone water repellent has been widely used in the engineering profession because of its desirable properties such as hydrophobicity, keeping concrete breathable and preserving the original appearance of the concrete. The companies in China that produce silicone water repellent are listed. Test methods in the specifications or standards about silicone water repellent in China are summed. The test methods relative to durability of concrete impregnated with silicone water repellent (such as resistant to chloride ion penetration, resistant to alkali, resistance to freezing and thawing and weather ability etc.) and the constructive quality (such as water absorption rate, impregnating depth and the dry velocity coefficient etc.) are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences among test methods relative to different specifications with the same index and therefore, confusion has ensued when selecting test methods. All test methods with the exception of the method of water absorption rate by using a Karsten flask are not non-destructive methods or conducted in a laboratory. Finally, further research on silicone water repellent during application is proposed.
Zhi Long Liu
Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Åse Marie
% preferred '2 + 2' and 26% preferred '7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night...... the longer spells of night work found night work less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types....
Elizabeth K. Perkin
Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.
The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.
Barakazı, Mahmut; Önçel, Sibel
In terms of culture, art and gastronomy, Urfa sira nights are the basis for an important recreational activity. Recreational activities in these regions provide tourism awareness, as well as the benefits of introducing local Urfa cuisine, which is very rich in culinary culture, and Gastronomy leads to the recognition of tourism in the region. The aim of this research is to encourage recreational activities by promoting recreational activities such as Urfa sira 'nights' effects on ga...
Zhu, Betty C R; Henderson, Gregg; Sauer, Anne M; Crowe, William; Laine, Roger A
Research has shown that the family of grapefruit flavors called nootkatones have significant repellant and toxic effects to Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Nineteen synthetic nootkatone derivatives, along with three commercially available nootkatone derivatives, were tested for repellent activity against C. formosanus by a choice assay in a petri dish with a two-step triage procedure. Based on the repellency threshold value, the relationships between structure and activity are discussed. Four derivatives of nootkatone have very high repellency and toxicity to C. formosanus, 9 times the potency of the primary compound nootkatone. Four other compounds have between 2 and 3 times the repellency of nootkatones, and three compounds are equal in their repellency to nootkatone. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Argueta, Tamara Belzabel Obispo; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro
Spatial repellency of a new device in which metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, is impregnated into a multilayer paper strip, against Aedes albopictus was evaluated under outdoor conditions. High spatial repellency (>80%) with the metofluthrin-impregnated (200 mg) device lasted for more than 6 weeks, while the repellency with the same device impregnated with the same amount of transfluthrin declined within 5 weeks after treatment.
Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro
Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia, with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment reduced mosquito collection by >80% during the 1st 4 weeks. However, repellency seemed to reduce with the loss of metofluthrin by evaporation within 6 wk after treatment.
Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro
Spatial repellency of a new multilayer paper strip impregnated with metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, was evaluated in the laboratory and in the field at Kerandangan, Lombok Island, Indonesia,with the use of cow- and human-baited double nets. Spatial repellency was observed in both cow- and human-baited collections. Metofluthrin treatment reduced mosquito collection by >8O% during the lst 4 weeks.However, repellency seemed to reduce with the loss of metofluthrin by evaporation wit...
Leser, Eva [Potsdam University (Germany); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration
In some regions of the galactic plane, background light by stars (night sky background) poses a severe challenge for the detection of gamma-ray sources. Thorough tests are needed to ensure a good quality of the data analysis, especially in regions with both a strong and inhomogeneous background. Investigation of the influence on calibration and data analysis is started at an early stage in data processing. Different cleaning levels were tested and the event loss rate was evaluated. It is shown that for regions with strong and inhomogeneous night sky background and a powerful source an increased cleaning level is beneficial.
Izadi, Sahar; Johnson, Mark; Aguilar de Soto, Natacha
logging tags on resident Bryde'swhales in a busy gulf to study their daily activity patterns. We found that, while whales were active during daytime making energetic lunges to capture tonnes of plankton, they dedicated much of the night to rest. This suggests that whales may rely on vision to find prey...
Holberg, Jay B
This book describes why Sirius has been regarded as an important fixture of the night sky since the beginnings of history. It also examines the part that Sirius has played in how we came to achieve our current scientific understanding of stars.
The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.
We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized
Vivoda, Jonathon M; Eby, David W; St Louis, Renée M; Kostyniuk, Lidia P
Use of a cellular phone has been shown to negatively affect one's attention to the driving task, leading to an increase in crash risk. At any given daylight hour, about 6% of US drivers are actively talking on a hand-held cell phone. However, previous surveys have focused only on cell phone use during the day. Driving at night has been shown to be a riskier activity than driving during the day. The purpose of the current study was to assess the rate of hand-held cellular phone use while driving at night, using specialized night vision equipment. In 2006, two statewide direct observation survey waves of nighttime cellular phone use were conducted in Indiana utilizing specialized night vision equipment. Combined results of driver hand-held cellular phone use from both waves are presented in this manuscript. The rates of nighttime cell phone use were similar to results found in previous daytime studies. The overall rate of nighttime hand-held cellular phone use was 5.8 +/- 0.6%. Cellular phone use was highest for females and for younger drivers. In fact, the highest rate observed during the study (of 11.9%) was for 16-to 29-year-old females. The high level of cellular phone use found within the young age group, coupled with the increased crash risk associated with cellular phone use, nighttime driving, and for young drivers in general, suggests that this issue may become an important transportation-related concern.
Campbell, Becky; Morton, Shirley; Rumschlag, Hella
Family Literacy Night is an exciting way to engage students and their parents in meaningful literacy activities while building community spirit and strengthening the partnership between school and home. It is an opportunity for students to show their parents what they do in school; how they create in the computer lab, how they work in the art…
The control rooms of the LHC and its experiments threw open their doors to 150 youngsters on European Researchers Night and the place was buzzing with excitement all evening! It's just possible that a few scientists' vocations were born last Friday night, as the sixth European Researchers Night took place across Europe. CERN was taking part for the first time and invited young people aged from 12 to 19 into the control rooms of the LHC machine and five experiments. From 5.00 in the afternoon until 1.00 in the morning, 150 youngsters and physics teachers got the opportunity to sit with scientists at the controls of the accelerator and experiments. This meeting of minds went down very well for all concerned, the scientists being only too happy to wax lyrical about their passion. The youngsters were thrilled with their visit and amazed at being allowed so close to the controls of these mighty machines. The night-time setting added an extra touch of magic to the whole event. Some just could...
macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at
Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Ruser, Christopher B; Masheb, Robin M
The obesity rate is higher among veterans than the general population, yet few studies have examined their eating behaviors, and none have examined the presence of night eating and related comorbidities. This study examines night eating syndrome (NES) among veterans seeking weight management treatment, and relationships between NES and weight, insomnia, disordered eating, and psychological variables. The sample consisted of 110 veterans referred to a weight management program at VA Connecticut Healthcare System. More than one out of ten veterans screened positive for NES, and one-third screened positive for insomnia. Most individuals screening positive for NES also screened positive for insomnia. Night eating was associated with higher BMI, and with higher scores on measures of binge eating, emotional overeating, and eating disorder symptomatology. Veterans screening positive for NES were also significantly more likely to screen positive for depression and PTSD. When controlling for insomnia, only the relationships between night eating and binge and emotional eating remained significant. Those screening positive for PTSD were more likely to endorse needing to eat to return to sleep. Findings suggest that both NES and insomnia are common among veterans seeking weight management services, and that NES is a marker for additional disordered eating behavior, specifically binge eating and overeating in response to emotions. Additional studies are needed to further delineate the relationships among NES, insomnia, and psychological variables, as well as to examine whether specifically addressing NES within behavioral weight management interventions can improve weight outcomes and problematic eating behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy
Woolf, A D; Saperstein, A; Zawin, J; Cappock, R; Sue, Y J
Household deodorizers and moth repellents are common agents implicated in many childhood poisonings. Their ingredients usually include either paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene compressed into a solid ball or another shape, sometimes with added essential oils and fragrances. Because medically naphthalene is a more important toxin than paradichlorobenzene, with hematologic and nervous system effects, clinicians often seek to discern which product has been ingested. We discovered fortuitously that a mothball swallowed by a retarded adult was radiopaque, and so designed an in vitro experiment to study the radiopacity of a variety of household deodorizers and products. Of 10 products screened for radiopacity by two radiologists, those containing paradichlorobenzene were consistently strongly radiopaque; those containing naphthalene were radiolucent. A third alternative ingredient which is used in some toilet bowl deodorizers, cetrimonium bromide, was also radiopaque. Radiopacity of paradichlorobenzene or cetrimonium bromide-containing products did not dissipate with time. We speculate that the halogen within the chemical structure of these compounds accounts for their radiopacity. We conclude that paradichlorobenzene-containing commercial products can be distinguished clinically from those containing naphthalene by the performance of an abdominal radiograph.
Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites present naturally in nectar, such as alkaloids, may change the behavioural responses of floral visitors and affect pollination. Some studies have shown that nectar containing low concentrations of these secondary metabolites is preferred by honey bee foragers over pure nectar. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by dependence or addictive behaviour, a simple taste preference, or by other conditions such as self-medication. In our choice experiment, free-flying bees were presented with artificial flowers holding 20% sucrose containing 0.5−50 μg ml−1 of one of the naturally occurring nectar alkaloids - caffeine, nicotine, senecionine, and gelsemine. Nectar uptake was determined by weighing each flower and comparing the weight to that of the control flower. Our experimental design minimized memorizing and marking; despite this, caffeine was significantly preferred at concentrations 0.5−2 μg ml−1 over control nectar; this preference was not observed for other alkaloids. All of the compounds tested were repellent at concentrations above 5 μg ml−1. We confirmed previous reports that bees exhibit a preference for caffeine, and hypothesize that this is not due only to addictive behaviour but is at least partially mediated by taste preference. We observed no significant preference for nicotine or any other alkaloid.
Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Anisimov, Vladimir N
At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.
Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean
Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24 h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6 ± 4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00 h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00 h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50 lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2 h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8 h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00 h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00 h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24 h. This
Diaz, James H
Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dae Hyun Kim
Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on evaporation and drainage in both wettable and water-repellent sands whose surface wettability was artificially modified by silanization. The 2D optical and 3D X-ray computed tomographic imaging was performed during evaporation and the water retention during cyclic drainage and infiltration was measured to assess effects of wettability and initial wetting conditions. The evaporation gradually induces its front at the early stage advance regardless of the wettability and sand types, while its rate becomes higher in water-repellent Ottawa sand than the wettable one. Jumunjin sand which has a smaller particle size and irregular particle shape than Ottawa sand exhibits a similar evaporation rate independent of wettability. Water-repellent sand can facilitate the evaporation when both wettable and water-repellent sands are naturally in contact with each other. The 3D X-ray imaging reveals that the hydraulically connected water films in wettable sands facilitate the propagation of the evaporation front into the soil such that the drying front deeply advances into the soil. For cyclic drainage-infiltration testing, the evolution of water retention is similar in both wettable and water-repellent sands when both are initially wet. However, when conditions are initially dry, water-repellent sands exhibit low residual saturation values. The experimental observations made from this study propose that the surface wettability may not be a sole factor while the degree of water-repellency, type of sands, and initial wetting condition are predominant when assessing evaporation and drainage behaviors.
The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.
Boivin, Diane B; Boudreau, Philippe; Tremblay, Geneviève M
The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age ± SD: 29.8 ± 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age ± SD: 30.3 ± 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 × /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 × /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 × /h) and performance (1 × /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was
Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.
With half of the world’s population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people’s long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public’s participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and “Dark Skies Rangers” activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most
Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths. - Highlights: • Urban sky glow is interpreted in terms of city emission function. • Luminance function in a suburban zone is linked to the City Pattern. • Single scattering approximation is applicable in modeling urban sky glow. • Information on aerosols represents valuable inputs to the retrieval procedure. • Sky glow patterns vary with light source distribution and spectral emission
Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, both in the developed and developing countries. Women with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Recent studies show that short-wavelength visible light disturb the secretion of melatonin and causes circadian rhythm disruption. We have previously studied the health effects of exposure to different levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, and radars. Moreover, over the past several years, we investigated the health effects of exposure to the short wavelength visible light in the blue region emitted from digital screens. The reduction of melatonin secretion after exposure to blue light emitted from smartphone's screen has been reported to be associated with the negative impact of smartphone use at night on sleep. We have shown that both the blue light and RF-EMFs generated by mobile phones are linked to the disruption of the circadian rhythm in people who use their phones at night. Therefore, if women with hereditary breast cancer predispositions use their smartphones, tablets and laptops at night, disrupted circadian rhythms (suppression of melatonin caused by exposure to blue light emitted from the digital screens), amplifies the risk of breast cancer. It can be concluded that women who carry mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2, or women with family history of breast cancer should avoid using their smartphones, tablets and laptops at night. Using sunglasses with amber lenses, or smartphone applications which decrease the users' exposure to blue light before sleep, at least to some extent, can decrease the risk of circadian rhythm disruption and breast cancer.
Seyed Ali Reza Mortazavi
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, both in the developed and developing countries. Women with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Recent studies show that short-wavelength visible light disturb the secretion of melatonin and causes circadian rhythm disruption. We have previously studied the health effects of exposure to different levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, and radars. Moreover, over the past several years, we investigated the health effects of exposure to the short wavelength visible light in the blue region emitted from digital screens. The reduction of melatonin secretion after exposure to blue light emitted from smartphone’s screen has been reported to be associated with the negative impact of smartphone use at night on sleep. We have shown that both the blue light and RF-EMFs generated by mobile phones are linked to the disruption of the circadian rhythm in people who use their phones at night. Therefore, if women with hereditary breast cancer predispositions use their smartphones, tablets and laptops at night, disrupted circadian rhythms (suppression of melatonin caused by exposure to blue light emitted from the digital screens, amplifies the risk of breast cancer. It can be concluded that women who carry mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2, or women with family history of breast cancer should avoid using their smartphones, tablets and laptops at night. Using sunglasses with amber lenses, or smartphone applications which decrease the users’ exposure to blue light before sleep, at least to some extent, can decrease the risk of circadian rhythm disruption and breast cancer.
Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita; Smith, Matt; Miller, Steve; Kann, Diedre; Bernhardt, David; Reydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program and NOAA/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) work within the NOAA/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the VIIRS instrument. Very similar to MODIS, the VIIRS instrument provides many high-resolution visible and infrared channels in a broad spectrum. In addition, VIIRS is equipped with a low-light sensor that is able to detect light emissions from the land and atmosphere as well as reflected sunlight by the lunar surface. This band is referred to as the Day-Night Band due to the sunlight being used at night to see cloud and topographic features just as one would typically see in day-time visible imagery. NWS forecast offices that collaborate with SPoRT and CIRA have utilized MODIS imagery in operations, but have longed for more frequent passes of polar-orbiting data. The VIIRS instrument enhances SPoRT collaborations with WFOs by providing another day and night-time pass, and at times two additional passes due to its large swath width. This means that multi-spectral, RGB imagery composites are more readily available to prepare users for their use in GOES-R era and high-resolution imagery for use in high-latitudes is more frequently able to supplement standard GOES imagery within the SPoRT Hybrid GEO-LEO product. The transition of VIIRS also introduces the new Day-Night Band capability to forecast operations. An Intensive Evaluation Period (IEP) was conducted in Summer 2013 with a group of "Front Range" NWS offices related to VIIRS night-time imagery. VIIRS single-channel imagery is able to better analyze the specific location of fire hotspots and other land features, as well as provide a more true measurement of various cloud and aerosol properties than geostationary measurements, especially at night. Viewed within the SPoRT Hybrid imagery, the VIIRS data allows forecasters to better interpret the more frequent, but
Islam, Johirul; Zaman, Kamaruz; Tyagi, Varun; Duarah, Sanjukta; Dhiman, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh
Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED 50 ) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED 50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco
Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.
Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Taksoo; Yoon, Hyojung; Jo, Areum; Lee, Byeongwoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Pilje; Seo, Jungkwan
Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1-24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.
Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.
Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.
Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P
The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial.
Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay
Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve
The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.
Shepherd, G. G.; Cho, Y.-M.
Longitudinal variations of airglow emission rate are prominent in all midlatitude nighttime O(1S) lower thermospheric data obtained with the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The pattern generally appears as a combination of zonal waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 whose phases propagate at different rates. Sudden localized enhancements of 2 to 4 days duration are sometimes evident, reaching vertically integrated emission rates of 400 R, a factor of 10 higher than minimum values for the same day. These are found to occur when the four wave components come into the same phase at one longitude. It is shown that these highly localized longitudinal maxima are consistent with the historical phenomena known as "bright nights" in which the surroundings of human dark night observers were seen to be illuminated by this enhanced airglow.Plain Language SummaryFor centuries, going back to the Roman era, people have recorded experiences of brightened skies during the night, called "bright nights." Currently, scientists study airglow, an emission of light from the high atmosphere, 100 km above us. Satellite observations of a green airglow have shown that it consists of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 around the earth. It happens that when the peaks of the different waves coincide there is an airglow brightening, and this article demonstrates that this event produces a bright night. The modern data are shown to be entirely consistent with the historical observations.
Butler, Matthew P; Smales, Carolina; Wu, Huijuan; Hussain, Mohammad V; Mohamed, Yusef A; Morimoto, Miki; Shea, Steven A
To test the hypothesis that respiratory event duration exhibits an endogenous circadian rhythm. Within-subject and between-subjects. Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Seven subjects with moderate/severe sleep apnea and four controls, age 48 (SD = 12) years, 7 males. Subjects completed a 5-day inpatient protocol in dim light. Polysomnography was recorded during an initial control 8-h night scheduled at the usual sleep time, then through 10 recurrent cycles of 2 h 40 min sleep and 2 h 40 min wake evenly distributed across all circadian phases, and finally during another 8-h control sleep period. Event durations, desaturations, and apnea-hypopnea index for each sleep opportunity were assessed according to circadian phase (derived from salivary melatonin), time into sleep, and sleep stage. Average respiratory event durations in NREM sleep significantly lengthened across both control nights (21.9 to 28.2 sec and 23.7 to 30.2 sec, respectively). During the circadian protocol, event duration in NREM increased across the circadian phases that corresponded to the usual sleep period, accounting for > 50% of the increase across normal 8-h control nights. AHI and desaturations were also rhythmic: AHI was highest in the biological day while desaturations were greatest in the biological night. The endogenous circadian system plays an important role in the prolongation of respiratory events across the night, and might provide a novel therapeutic target for modulating sleep apnea. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Full Text Available In this paper, the de-noising problem of night vision images is studied for apple harvesting robots working at night. The wavelet threshold method is applied to the de-noising of night vision images. Due to the fact that the choice of wavelet threshold function restricts the effect of the wavelet threshold method, the fuzzy theory is introduced to construct the fuzzy threshold function. We then propose the de-noising algorithm based on the wavelet fuzzy threshold. This new method can reduce image noise interferences, which is conducive to further image segmentation and recognition. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, we conducted simulation experiments and compared the median filtering and the wavelet soft threshold de-noising methods. It is shown that this new method can achieve the highest relative PSNR. Compared with the original images, the median filtering de-noising method and the classical wavelet threshold de-noising method, the relative PSNR increases 24.86%, 13.95%, and 11.38% respectively. We carry out comparisons from various aspects, such as intuitive visual evaluation, objective data evaluation, edge evaluation and artificial light evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has unique advantages for the de-noising of night vision images, which lay the foundation for apple harvesting robots working at night.
Barnard, D R; Posey, K H; Smith, D; Schreck, C E
Mosquito biting rates and the mean duration of protection (in hours) from bites (MDPB) of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus, using the repellent 'deet' (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) on a 50 cm2 area of healthy human skin, were observed in small (27 l), medium (approximately 65 l) and large (125 l) cages containing low, medium or high densities of mosquitoes: respectively, 640, 128 or 49 cm3 of cage volume per female. At the initial treatment rate of approximately 0.4 microliter/cm2 (1 ml of 25% deet in ethanol on 650 cm2 of skin), the MDPB for deet against Ae. aegypti ranged from 4.5 to 6.5 h and was significantly less (5.0 +/- 0.8 h) in large cages compared with medium (6.2 +/- 0.9 h) and small (6.2 +/- 0.8 h) cages, regardless of the density. Against An. quadrimaculatus the MDPB for deet 0.4 microliter/cm2 was 1.5-8.0 h, less in small (3.7 +/- 2.3 h) and large (2.2 +/- 1.1 h) cages at medium (3.7 +/- 2.3 h) and high (2.5 +/- 1.7 h) mosquito densities, and was longest in medium cages (6.2 +/- 2.6 h) at low mosquito densities (5.8 +/- 2.8 h). With equinoxial photoperiodicity (light on 06.00-18.00 hours) the biting rate was influenced by the time of observation (08.00, 12.00, 16.00 hours) for Ae. aegypti but not for An. quadrimaculatus. For both species, the biting rate was inversely proportional to mosquito density and the MDPB. The shortest MDPBs were obtained in large cages with high densities of mosquitoes and longest protection times occurred in medium sized cages with low mosquito densities.
Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan H.
Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are strongly dependent on pore water distribution, which in turn can be modified by reduced wettability. Many soils around the world are affected by soil water repellency (SWR), which reduces infiltration and results in diverse moisture distribution. SWR is temporally variable and soils can change from wettable to water-repellent and vice versa throughout the year. Effects of SWR on soil carbon (C) dynamics, and specifically on CO2 efflux, have only been studied in a few laboratory experiments and hence remain poorly understood. Existing studies suggest soil respiration is reduced with increasing severity of SWR, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to varying water distribution created by SWR are not yet known.Here we report on the first field-based study that tests whether SWR indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux, based on in situ measurements carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest sites under the humid temperate climate of the UK.Soil CO2 efflux was indeed very low on occasions when soil exhibited consistently high SWR and low soil moisture following long dry spells. Low CO2 efflux was also observed when SWR was absent, in spring and late autumn when soil temperatures were low, but also in summer when SWR was reduced by frequent rainfall events. The highest CO2 efflux occurred not when soil was wettable, but when SWR, and thus soil moisture, was spatially patchy, a pattern observed for the majority of the measurement period. Patchiness of SWR is likely to have created zones with two different characteristics related to CO2 production and transport. Zones with wettable soil or low persistence of SWR with higher proportion of water-filled pores are expected to provide water with high nutrient concentration resulting in higher microbial activity and CO2 production. Soil zones with high SWR persistence, on the other hand, are dominated by air-filled pores with low microbial activity, but facilitating O2
Buss, Jens; Temme, Fabian [Experimentelle Physik 5b, TU Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Sebastian [IPP, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration
During the last four years, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) established silicon-based photo detectors as a valid concept for the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique. These detectors, namely silicon photo multipliers (SiPMs), are more robust to bright light conditions than conventional photo multiplier tubes (PMTs). At the same time, SiPMs feature a high photon detection efficiency. As a consequence, this technology yields observations at bright light conditions where PMTs would be damaged. However, dark counts and night sky background light (NSB), in combination with optical crosstalk and after-pulses contribute to the extracted signal from Cherenkov photons. Therefore, they cause a bias on the photon charge extraction and any subsequent analysis steps. Consequently, it is necessary to understand their impact on the data of FACT. This presentation will show the influence of changing NSB and crosstalk conditions on the performance of FACT. Therefore, the influence on the analysis chain is investigated on basis of data that were taken at different NSB conditions as well as dedicated Monte Carlo simulations.
Kyurkchieva, Diana P.
Information about the preparation and realization of the attractive program for the "Star Night" on September 25, 2009, in Shumen, is presented. Its goal is popularization of the European initiative "Research Night" in Bulgaria.
The carriageways heading towards France on the airport section of the motorway will be closed from 8.30 p.m. to 5.00 a.m. in the night of 1 to 2 October and those heading towards Lausanne during the same hours in the night of 2 to 3 October. This is to allow dry-surface road-marking and signage work to be performed. The work will be postponed in the event of bad weather, in which case the new date will be announced on Radio RSR and Radio Lac as well as on the telephone traffic news service 163. Diversions will be in operation. Thank you in advance for your understanding. For further information, tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva
Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Kleif, Helle Bendix; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking...... the streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses...... are based on a longitudinal data set containing socio-demographic information on all 585 postcode districts in Denmark and quarterly records of six different categories of reported crimes in the years 2001–2010.We apply a difference-in-difference design and compare development in crime rates in districts...
Researchers Night at Planetarium Calouste Gulbenkian - Ciência Viva Centre in Lisbon. Organised by researchers from LIP (Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas) and including CMS Virtual Visit during which André David Tinoco Mendes and José Rasteiro da Silva, based at Cessy, France, "virtually" discussed science and technology behind the CMS detector with the audience in Lisbon.
Falkner, David E.
The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.
Ali Makateb; Hamed Torabifard
Purpose: To determine the effect of night-time working on dry eye signs and symptoms. Methods: A total of 50 healthy subjects completed a dry eye questionnaire and underwent clinical examinations including basic Schirmer's test and tear breakup time (TBUT) test on two consecutive days, before and after the night shift (12-hrs night-shift). Results: All dry eye symptoms were aggravated significantly after the night shift (P
Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.
The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.
Kukla, G.; Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T.
The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO 2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Full Text Available Night eating syndrome (NES is a nosographic entity included among the forms not otherwise specified (EDNOS in eating disorders (ED of the DSM IV. It is characterized by a reduced food intake during the day, evening hyperphagia, and nocturnal awakenings associated with conscious episodes of compulsive ingestion of food. Frequently, NES patients show significant psychopathology comorbidity with affective disorders. This paper describes a case report of an NES patient treated with agomelatine, an antidepressant analogue of melatonin, which acts by improving not only the mood but also by regulating sleep cycles and appetite. After three months of observation, the use of Agomelatine not only improved the mood of our NES patient (assessed in the HAM-D scores but it was also able to reduce the night eating questionnaire, by both reducing the number of nocturnal awakenings with food intake, the time of snoring, the minutes of movement during night sleep (assessed at polysomnography, and the weight (−5.5 kg and optimizing blood glucose and lipid profile. In our clinical case report, agomelatine was able both to reduce the NES symptoms and to significantly improve the mood of our NES patient without adverse side effects during the duration of treatment. Therefore, our case report supports the rationale for further studies on the use of Agomelatine in the NES treatment.
Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston
Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.
ABSTRACT Cabaret is a term performances of music, comedy, dance, drama, and other special mix of art perfomed by men who dressed in women (ladyboy on stage. Cabaret performances in Oyot Godhong Restaurant intended as new tourist attraction that is expected to increase the interest of tourists to visit Malioboro in Yogyakarta, especially to Oyot Godhong Restaurants. Based descriptive study shows that the characteristics travelers who viewed Kabaret show is very diverse, each of which has perceptions and motivations are different. Cabaret performances have qualified to become the cultural attractions are staged at night (night atraction in the city of Yogyakarta. Based on traveler perception indicates that the cabaret performances have beauty or aesthetics, uniqueness, and values that match the criteria criteria of the standard as a tourist attraction. Performances Cabaret in Oyot Godhong Restaurants able to increase the sale value. Oyot Godhong Restaurants previously only form of tourism facilities (amenities, but is now a restaurant that has a tourist attraction (atraction. Keywords: Cabaret show, night life attractions, tourism attraction, tourists perception, tourism marketing
Rutledge, L C; Gupta, R K; Wirtz, R A; Buescher, M D
Eight commercial repellents were tested against Aedes aegypti 0 and 4 h after application in serial dilution to volunteers and laboratory mice. Results were analyzed by multiple regression of percentage of biting (probit scale) on dose (logarithmic scale) and time. Empirical correction terms for conversion of values obtained in tests on mice to values expected in tests on human volunteers were calculated from data obtained on 4 repellents and evaluated with data obtained on 4 others. Corrected values from tests on mice did not differ significantly from values obtained in tests on volunteers. Test materials used in the study were dimethyl phthalate, butopyronoxyl, butoxy polypropylene glycol, MGK Repellent 11, deet, ethyl hexanediol, Citronyl, and dibutyl phthalate.
Benzi, Verónica S; Murrayb, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A
Essential oils extracted from leaves of Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora (Verbenaceae) and from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent and toxic activities against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Topical application and filter paper assays were employed for contact toxicity studies; filter paper impregnation was also used for fumigant and repellent assays. In topical tests A. polystachya was as effective as S. molle leaves. In the case of repellent assays, A. citriodora was the most effective oil based on the class scale. A. polystachya was the most toxic plant on contact toxicity by filter paper assay (LC50 26.6 mg/cm2). Fumigant toxicity was only evaluated with fruits and leaves of S. molle, and no significant differences were found between them. Published data are included to compare the fumigant toxicity of S. molle with that of A. citridora and A. polystachya.
Barberoglou, M.; Zorba, V.; Stratakis, E.; Spanakis, E.; Tzanetakis, P.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Fotakis, C.
We report here an efficient method for preparing stable superhydrophobic and highly water repellent surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with chloroalkylsilane monolayers. By varying the laser pulse fluence on the surface one can successfully control its wetting properties via a systematic and reproducible variation of roughness at micro- and nano-scale, which mimics the topology of natural superhydrophobic surfaces. The self-cleaning and water repellent properties of these artificial surfaces are investigated. It is found that the processed surfaces are among the most water repellent surfaces ever reported. These results may pave the way for the implementation of laser surface microstructuring techniques for the fabrication of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces in different kinds of materials as well
As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and M. fistulosa L. essential oils showed potent repellents with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm2, respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl...
Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I
A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.
Ken R. Hubbert; Pete M. Wohlgemuth; Jan L. Beyers; Marcia G. Narog; Ross Gerrard
In 2002, the Williams Fire burned >90 % of the San Dimas Experimental Forest, providing an opportunity to investigate differences in soil water repellency, peak discharge, and sediment yield between grass-converted and chaparral watersheds. Post-fire water repellency and moisture content were measured in the winter and summer for four years. Peak discharge was...
Cody L. Stropki; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried
Water repellent (hydrophobic) soils impact the infiltration process of a water budget by restricting the movement of water into and through a soil body. The infiltration of water into a water repellent soil can be inhibited or completely impeded in which case much of the incoming precipitation reaching the soil surface becomes overland flow. One mechanism causing the...
Parsons Robert H
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the absolute sensitivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to photic stimulation received through the retino-hypothalamic tract changes throughout the 24-hour day. It is also believed that a combination of classical photoreceptors (rods and cones and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells participate in circadian phototransduction, with a spectral sensitivity peaking between 440 and 500 nm. It is still unknown, however, whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian system also changes throughout the solar day. Reported here is a new study that was designed to determine whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian retinal phototransduction mechanism, measured through melatonin suppression and iris constriction, varies at night. Methods Human adult males were exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp [450 lux (170 μW/cm2 at the cornea] and an array of blue light emitting diodes [18 lux (29 μW/cm2 at the cornea] during two nighttime experimental sessions. Both melatonin suppression and iris constriction were measured during and after a one-hour light exposure just after midnight and just before dawn. Results An increase in the percentage of melatonin suppression and an increase in pupil constriction for the mercury source relative to the blue light source at night were found, suggesting a temporal change in the contribution of photoreceptor mechanisms leading to melatonin suppression and, possibly, iris constriction by light in humans. Conclusion The preliminary data presented here suggest a change in the spectral sensitivity of circadian phototransduction mechanisms at two different times of the night. These findings are hypothesized to be the result of a change in the sensitivity of the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to light during the night.
Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.
The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night shift differentials. 532.505... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.505 Night shift differentials. (a) Employees shall be entitled to receive night shift differentials in accordance with section 5343 of title 5...
Sanchez-Garcia, Carmen; Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan
Rewetting of dry soils is known to cause a short-term CO2 pulse commonly known as the 'Birch effect'. The displacement of CO2 with water during the process of wetting has been recognised as one of the sources of this pulse. The 'Birch effect' has been extensively observed in many soils, but some studies report a lack of such phenomenon, suggesting soil water repellency (SWR) as a potential cause. Water infiltration in water repellent soils can be severely restricted, causing overland flow or increased preferential flow, resulting in only a small proportion of soil pores being filled with water and therefore small gas-water replacement during wetting. Despite the suggestions of a different response of CO2 fluxes to wetting under hydrophobic conditions, this theory has never been tested. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that CO2 pulse does not occur during rewetting of water repellent soils. Dry homogeneous soils at water-repellent and wettable status have been rewetted with different amounts of water. CO2 flux as a response to wetting has been continuously measured with the CO2 flux analyser. Delays in infiltration and non-uniform heterogeneous water flow were observed in water repellent soils, causing an altered response in the CO2 pulse in comparison to typically observed 'Birch effect' in wettable systems. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects water relations in soil, but has also an impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.
Wallingford, Anna K; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Wolfin, Michael S; Loeb, Gregory M
In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. Here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. We explore the literature for success stories using repellents in IPM and we investigate the mechanisms of repellency for two chemical oviposition deterrents for controlling Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, a serious pest of small fruit crops. Drosophila suzukii causes injury by laying her eggs in ripening fruit and resulting larvae make fruit unmarketable. In caged choice tests, reduced oviposition was observed in red raspberry fruit treated with volatile 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin at two initial concentrations (10% and 1%) compared to untreated controls. We used video monitoring to observe fly behavior in these caged choice tests and investigate the mode of action for deterrence through the entire behavioral repertoire leading to oviposition. We observed fewer visitors and more time elapsed before flies first landed on 1-octen-3-ol-treated fruits than control fruits and concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur before D. suzukii comes in contact with a potential oviposition substrate (precontact). We observed some qualitative differences in precontact behavior of flies around geosmin-treated fruits; however, we concluded that this odor primarily inhibits behaviors that occur after D. suzukii comes in contact with treated fruits (postcontact). Field trials found reduced oviposition in red raspberry treated with 1-octen-3-ol and a combination of 1-octen-3-ol and geosmin, but no effect of geosmin alone. Recommendations for further study of repellents for practical use in the field are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by
Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Although tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, several factors can influence their outcomes. Typically repellent bioassays use a solvent, such as acetone or ethanol, to disp...
Kamegai, Kazuhisa; Tsukada, Ken; Inoue, Hiroki
The darkness of night sky is important naturally for astronomy researchers, and also for the public people. Particularly, it is meaningful for those who begin to have an interest in gazing stars. Some previous studies suggest that light pollution may affect human health and ecosystem in various ways. Furthermore, it causes a lot of waste of electric energy for lighting.In Japan, the night sky brightness had been measured by Ministry of Environment for a few decades. Recently some global efforts have been also conducted. However the number of measured position is limited because the measurement needs some apparatus and takes long time.Here we show a result of quick and easy measurements of night sky brightness by the public people through a mobile phone app. The measurements were conducted in cooperation between some members of the Tenpla project and a weather forecasting company. The app has been developed by the company and has been installed by over 6.5 million people, which allow us to get a large number of data. Our purposes are (1) making map of night sky brightness all over Japan and (2) providing an opportunity to enjoy gazing star for those who are not usually interested in astronomy.As an interactive function of the app, we put a questionnaire of four choices in which we ask users how many stars are visible in a part of the constellation of Orion. When users answer the question, we get the answer and the position where they are. Depending on the answer, we can roughly recognize the sky brightness of the position.We opened the measurements for several nights. As a result, we could get 4000 - 5000 data all over the country per night. The map of each night is a snapshot of sky brightness of the night including effect of the weather. For example we can recognize that the sky is getting darker as a function of distance from the metropolitan area of Tokyo. We will show the detail results in the presentation.