WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated vitreous hemorrhage

  1. Syneresis and vitreous hemorrhage in pseudophacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J R

    1983-01-01

    The eye of a 60-year-old man with a clinically very successful lens implant became available for pathological study after a very sudden and uncomplicated death about 6 months following cataract surgery. The following changes were found: slight non-granulomatous uveitis associated with foreign-body reaction to the lens implant and its supporting iris suture, absence of the anterior vitreous face, advanced syneresis of the central vitreous, vitreous hemorrhage with diffuse layering of erythrocytes on the inner aspect of the remaining vitreous crust, vitreous traction on peripheral and central retina with tenting of foveal internal limiting membrane, and some foveal edema without cystoid changes and without foveolar detachment. Knowledge of all these changes is important, because they were compatible with good visual function and caused no clinical problems.

  2. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome associated with recurrent vitreous hemorrhage.

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    Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Muñoz-Morales, A

    2015-08-01

    A 61-year-old pseudophakic male with recurrent blurred vision episodes associated with uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage. Iris transillumination defects and apposition of the optic and iris were found. The patient was diagnosed with Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphema (UGH) Syndrome. Mechanical irritation of the iris is a consequence of intraocular lens malposition and causes UGH Syndrome. Occasionally it is associated with vitreous hemorrhage. Lens malposition is detected by optical coherence tomography and/or ultrasound biomicroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Dramatic resolution of vitreous hemorrhage after an intravitreal injection of dobesilate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Cuevas; Luis Antonio Outeirio; Carlos Azanza; Javier Angulo; Guillermo Gimnez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Vitreous hemorrhages are important clinical manifestations of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Non-cleared vitreous hemorrhages could lead to hemosiderosis bulbi and glaucoma. Here, we describe the case of a type 2 diabetic patient presenting anterior segment and vitreous hemorrhages that resolved three days after treatment with a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate.

  4. Dramatic resolution of vitreous hemorrhage after an intravitreal injection of dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis Antonio; Azanza, Carlos; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Vitreous hemorrhages are important clinical manifestations of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Non-cleared vitreous hemorrhages could lead to hemosiderosis bulbi and glaucoma. Here, we describe the case of a type 2 diabetic patient presenting anterior segment and vitreous hemorrhages that resolved three days after treatment with a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate.

  5. Modified Vitreous Surgery for Subretinal Neovascularization and Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinLu; LezhengWU

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To modify vitreous surgery for subretinal neovascularization(SRNV)and to detrmine the effects of this operation.Methods:Six patients with SRNV were performed with this operation,The meth-ods of examination before and after operation included;testing the best-corrected visual acuity before operation and 1,3or6months after operation;30degrees and visual acuity before operation and 1,3or6months after operation;30degrees and macular 10degrees Humphrey visual field examination:FFA examination preop-eratively and 1,3or6months postoperatiely.Modified surgery procedureis;a preventive buckling;pars plana vitrectomy;peeling the vitreous cortical;no in-traocular diathermy;small retinotomy;subretinal surgery;air-fluid exchang.Results:SRNV was taken off in4cases.Subretinal hemorrhage was washed in2cases.After4to7months follow-up,the visual acuity was improved in 4cases,unchanged in 2cases.The visual field was improved in 4cases.unchanged in 1case,decraesed in 1case,The complications included macular hole due to surgery in lcase and subretinal hemorrage in 1case.Conclusion;The surgery criteria were:1)massive subretinal hemorrhage;2)some patients of SRN V included;FFA evidence they showed the membrane is beneath fovea,the bestV.Ais20/100orlower.and can't be treated by laser and the pa-tient consent.This modified subretinal operation is safe,and effective for massive hemorrhage and some SRNVS.

  6. Natural evolution of experimental vitreous hemorrhage and effects of corticosteroids on its course

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    Vuković Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The course and prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage (VH are difficult to predict in spite of so far published experimental and clinical studies. Objective. The goal of this study was to follow the course and evaluate prognosis of vitreous hemorrhage. Methods. The experiment was performed on 19 Chinchilla rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, both males and females (38 eyes, weighing 2500-3000 g, which were treated with autologous blood (B from marginal ear vein - the first group, and the second group was treated with both blood and corticosteroids (B+CS. The course of vitreous hemorrhage was examined. Results. Our results have shown that the cellular reaction to vitreous hemorrhage is different, compared to hemorrhage in other types of tissue, which is due to absence of an early polymorphonuclear cellular reaction. Number of cells within vitreous body is very low. Conclusion. Vitreous hemorrhage has unusual course followed by a small number of cells (mostly poly-morphonuclear cells. This is most important fact why VH is cleared very slowly (about 6 to 9 weeks. CS has moderate influence on the acceleration of VH absorption.

  7. Repetitive,Low—dose Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Clearance of Experimental Vitreous Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiquanZhao; WenjiWang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the effectiveness of repetitve,low-dose tPA for clearance of experimental vitreous hemorhage,Methods:The model vitreous hemorrhage was produced by intravitreal injection of 0.05ml of autologous citrated whole blood in 14rabbits(28eyes).One week after the creation of vitreous hemorrhage,the eyes were randomly separated into 3groups.Groups 1and 2received two injections of 5or 25μg of tPA,respective-ly,with one injection in a7-day interval.Group 3reeived two injections of PS in thesame way.Results;The clearance of vitreous hemorrhage in rPA-treated groups was signifi-cantly faster than that in the control group(P<0.05,orP<0.01).However,there was no statistically significant difference between the two tPA-treated groups.Not any retinal toxicity was detected by ERG,light microscopy,and transmission electron microscopy examinations.Conclusions:repetitive injections of low-dose tPA were effective in the treatment of experimental vitreous hemorrhage.Whether it is effective on the clearance of vitreous hemorrhage in human eyes needs further investigation.

  8. Role of Tamponade in Vitrectomy for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with Vitreous Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Jain, Bhavna; Nayaka, Ashraya; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Mukundaprasad, Vinod; Jalali, Subhadra

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the role of tamponade in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy with vitreous hemorrhage. A retrospective chart analysis of patients who underwent vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) between 2006 and 2013, with a minimum follow-up of six months, was done. The data collected included age, gender, control of diabetes, pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal detachment, type of tamponade, and recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 2.0 and p values tamponade; Group 2: air; Group 3: gas; Group 4: silicone oil (SO). Eighteen (24.7%), 18 (24.7%), 15 (20.5%), and 22 (30.1%) patients were in the four groups, respectively. The mean preoperative BCVA in logMAR was 1.61, 1.84, 2.25, and 2.03 and the mean change in BCVAs at six months was -0.98, -0.94, -0.97, and -0.19 in four groups, respectively. Recurrent vitreous hemorrhage was noted in 11.1%, 11.1%, 6.7%, and 9.5% of patients of four groups; it was not statistically significant. The retina remained attached in 100%, 100%, 93%, and 90% of patients in the four groups, respectively, at six months. The use of an intraocular tamponade in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR was not found to be superior to no tamponade in reducing recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. Therefore, the use of a tamponade in eyes without retinal break is not beneficial.

  9. Combined Anterior Sclera Staphylectomy and Vitrectomy with Anterior Sclera Staphyloma and Vitreous Hemorrhage Occurring 38 Years after Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxiang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To report a case of anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage occurring over 38 years after bilateral cataract surgery. Methods. A 58-year-old man presented with anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage in the right eye, after bilateral cataract surgery, over 38 years ago. We performed combined anterior sclera staphylectomy and vitrectomy of right eye for anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage. Results. Forty-eight months after the combined surgery, best-corrected visual acuity was 0.3 (+10.00/−4.50 × 60 with eutopic stitches of the corneoscleral junction on the superior nasal quadrant and a stable ocular surface. Conclusions. This is the first reported case of anterior sclera staphyloma with vitreous hemorrhage successfully managed by combined surgery.

  10. Asteroid Hyalosis Masquerading as Vitreous Hemorrhage on Point-of-Care Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Penelope C; Mantuani, Daniel; Nagdev, Arun; Adhikari, Srikar

    2017-07-17

    Point-of-care ocular sonography is frequently used in the emergency department to evaluate patients with vision disorders. We describe a case series of 3 patients who ultimately had a diagnosis of asteroid hyalosis, a lesser-known condition that on point-of-care sonography may be mistaken for vitreous hemorrhage. Asteroid hyalosis is considered a benign degenerative condition. In contrast, vitreous hemorrhage may be an ocular emergency that warrants an urgent ophthalmologic consultation if there is an underlying retinal tear or detachment. Although similar in appearance on sonography, recognition of the subtle pathognomonic sonographic features along with their clinical presentations can differentiate these diseases, with vastly different management strategies and dispositions. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Asteroid Hyalosis: A Mimic of Vitreous Hemorrhage on Point of Care Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Charles E A; Ahn, Justin S; Kim, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    Point of care ultrasound in the emergency department (ED) is increasingly being used to diagnose time-sensitive, vision-threatening conditions. We present a case of a 64-year-old female who presented to the ED with a three-day history of worsening left eye floaters. Point of care ocular ultrasound demonstrated a posterior chamber containing many echogenic opacities of varying size without acoustic shadowing. Movement of the eye resulted in significant after-movement of these opacities, giving the classic "washing machine" appearance seen with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Based on these ultrasound findings, the patient was diagnosed with a VH and was referred to ophthalmology. The consulting ophthalmologist ultimately diagnosed the patient with asteroid hyalosis without VH. Asteroid hyalosis is a benign condition of the vitreous resulting in calcium phosphate and lipid deposits that can mimic more serious VH on point of care ultrasound. Knowledge of this mimic is helpful for communication with specialists and for awareness of the potential for misdiagnosis with ocular ultrasound.

  12. Ranibizumab Plus Combined Surgery for Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma with Vitreous Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Juan Li; Xiao-Peng Yang; Qiu-Ming Li; Yu-Ying Wang; Xiao-Bei Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a refractory glaucoma.The management of NVG is very difficult,and it is more difficult when combined with vitreous hemorrhage.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ranibizumab plus combined surgery for NVG with vitreous hemorrhage.Methods:A total of 26 eyes of 26 NVG patients with vitreous hemorrhage were recruited in this study.The patients aged from 36 to 63 years with a mean age of 51.97 ± 7.60 years.The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46.38 ± 5.75 mmHg (1 mmHg =0.133 kPa) while being treated with the maximum medical therapy.The mean best-corrected visual acuities converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA) was 2.62 ± 0.43.All the patients underwent intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg (0.05 ml) ranibizumab combined with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV),pars plana lensectomy (PPL) with a preserved anterior capsule,panretinal photocoagulation (PRP),and trabeculectomy (intravitreal ranibizumab [IVR] + PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy).The IOP and logMAR BCVA were the main outcome measures in this study.Results:The follow-up period was 12 months.The mean postoperative IOPs were 26.38 ± 3.75 mmHg,21.36 ± 3.32 mmHg,1 8.57 ± 3.21 mmHg,and 16.68 ± 2.96 mmHg,respectively at 7 days,1 month,3 months,and 12 months after PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy.At the last follow-up,the mean IOP was significantly lower than the preoperative one (t =6.612,P =0.001).At 7 days,1 month,3 months,and 12 months after PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy,the mean logMAR BCVA were 1.30 ± 0.36,1.29 ± 0.37,1.29 ± 0.39,and 1.26 ± 0.29,respectively.At the last follow-up,the mean logMAR BCVA was significantly improved,and the difference was statistically significant compared with preoperative one (t =6.133,P =0.002).The logMAR BCVA improved in 22 eyes (84.62%),and remained stable in 4 eyes (15.38%).The neovascularization in the iris and the angle regressed significantly in all patients 7 days after

  13. Ranibizumab Plus Combined Surgery for Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma with Vitreous Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neovascular glaucoma (NVG is a refractory glaucoma. The management of NVG is very difficult, and it is more difficult when combined with vitreous hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ranibizumab plus combined surgery for NVG with vitreous hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 26 eyes of 26 NVG patients with vitreous hemorrhage were recruited in this study. The patients aged from 36 to 63 years with a mean age of 51.97 ± 7.60 years. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP was 46.38 ± 5.75 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa while being treated with the maximum medical therapy. The mean best-corrected visual acuities converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA was 2.62 ± 0.43. All the patients underwent intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg (0.05 ml ranibizumab combined with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, pars plana lensectomy (PPL with a preserved anterior capsule, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP, and trabeculectomy (intravitreal ranibizumab [IVR] + PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy. The IOP and logMAR BCVA were the main outcome measures in this study. Results: The follow-up period was 12 months. The mean postoperative IOPs were 26.38 ± 3.75 mmHg, 21.36 ± 3.32 mmHg, 18.57 ± 3.21 mmHg, and 16.68 ± 2.96 mmHg, respectively at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 12 months after PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy. At the last follow-up, the mean IOP was significantly lower than the preoperative one (t = 6.612, P = 0.001. At 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 12 months after PPV + PPL + PRP + trabeculectomy, the mean logMAR BCVA were 1.30 ± 0.36, 1.29 ± 0.37, 1.29 ± 0.39, and 1.26 ± 0.29, respectively. At the last follow-up, the mean logMAR BCVA was significantly improved, and the difference was statistically significant compared with preoperative one (t = 6.133, P = 0.002. The logMAR BCVA improved in 22 eyes (84.62%, and remained stable in 4 eyes (15.38%. The neovascularization in the iris and the angle

  14. Surgical results of combined pars plana vitrectomy and phacoemulsification for vitreous hemorrhage in PDR

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    Canan H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycioğlu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Yuregir, Adana, Turkey Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and incidence of complications after combined clear corneal phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and pars plana vitrectomy in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy coexistent with significant cataract. Methods: Eighty-five eyes of 85 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy underwent primary standard three-port vitrectomy with 20-gauge instruments and phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation for vitreous hemorrhage from 2008 to 2011. The main outcome measures were visual outcomes and surgical complications. Results: Forty patients were male and 45 were female. Their age ranged from 40 to 77 years with a mean of 59.6 years. The mean follow-up was 13 months, with a range of 6–48 months. The preoperative logMAR visual acuity changed from 2.62 ± 0.6 to 0.8 ± 0.7 postoperatively. Postoperatively, visual acuity improved in 79 eyes (92.9%, and did not change in six eyes (7.1%. Intraoperative complications were transient corneal edema (five eyes and posterior capsular rupture (one eye. Postoperative complications consisted of transient intraocular pressure elevation (25 eyes, corneal epithelial defects (six eyes, anterior chamber reaction (four eyes, hyphema (two eyes, posterior synechiae (four eyes, vitreous hemorrhage (23 eyes, retinal tears (five eyes, retinal detachment (one eye, and neovascular glaucoma (one eye. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the combined operation of pars plana vitrectomy, phacoemulsification, and intraocular lens implantation is safe and effective for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. We believe that the visual outcome and

  15. Bilateral vitreous hemorrhage in a newborn with Stickler syndrome associated with a novel COL2A1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Grisanti, Salvatore; Berger, Eike; Höhn, Rene; Witt, Gabriele; Jung, Ursula

    2011-06-01

    Bilateral preretinal and vitreous hemorrhages in infants are rare and can present a diagnostic challenge, with nonaccidental trauma included in the differential diagnosis. We present the case of a 4-week-old boy in which a Pierre Robin sequence and a positive family history led to the clinical diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, which was confirmed by the identification of a disease-causing novel deletion of 2 nucleotides in the COL2A1 gene. This early association with Stickler syndrome has not been described previously.

  16. [Simulation of repeated local hemorrhagic stroke in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A N; Morozov, S G; Savosko, S I; Vasil'eva, I G

    2013-01-01

    The processes of developed in CNS the complicated stroke and developments of fittings for their pharmaceutical therapy were developed and offering by standardized method of the experimental secondary stroke in rats, suitable for the use in sharp and chronic researches. Variant of repeated hemorrhagic stroke consist of autohemorrhagic right hemisphere stroke by the mechanical damage of brain tissue after 10-daily occlusion of right common carotid artery was studied. A model is comfortable for reproducing of the repeated standardized local damage of brain, is more adequate form of design of transient and chronic cerebrovascular pathology, than the independent use of local hemorrhage of autoblood in the brain of animals. The morphological description of model approaches the clinical variants of development and flow of sharp hemorrhagic stroke after a previous chronic cerebral insufficiency on an ischemic type.

  17. A case of repeated intracerebral hemorrhages secondary to ventriculoperitoneal shunt

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    Jinbing Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a routinely performed treatment in neurosurgical department. Intracerebral hemorrhage, as a complication after shunt catheterization, is really rare but with high mortality. In this study, we reported a case of a 74-year-old man who suffered from repeated intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The first hemorrhage happened 63 h after the 1st surgery, and most hematomas were located in the ipsilateral occipital lobe and intraventricles, along the ventricular catheter. Fresh blood clot casts blocked the external ventricular draining catheter, which was inserted into the right front horn during the 3rd surgery, indicating new intraventricular bleeding happened. A large hematoma in ipsilateral frontal lobe was detected on the 3rd day after the removal of external ventricular draining catheter. Different hemorrhagic locations and time points were encountered on the same case. We discussed the possible causes of repeated hemorrhage for this case, and the pre-operative preparation including risk evaluation in future clinical work.

  18. Complications of acute posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1975-07-01

    Of 201 patients whose presenting symptoms were acute entoptic phenomena or photopsia, or both, 150 patients had posterior vitreous detachment; 69 patients (46%) had retinal breaks; 18 (12%) had a vitreous hemorrhage without detectable retinal breaks; and two (1.3%) had peripheral retinal hemorrhages without retinal breaks or vitreous hemorrhage. Retinal breaks that occur in eyes in conjunction with acute posterior vitreous detachment are potentially dangerous and there is a possibility of delayed break formation.

  19. Repeated Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Hemophilia B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Hajime; Terada, Jiro; Hoshi, Hiromasa; Urushibara, Takashi; Kato, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Rintaro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening complication that occurs in association with various diseases including coagulation disorders. In rare cases, it is caused by hemophilia. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for a third time due to DAH. Although the cause of DAH could not be identified by bronchoscopy or laboratory tests, a good response to corticosteroids suggested idiopathic DAH with pulmonary capillaritis. The patient was diagnosed with hemophilia B based on the results of a detailed inquiry, a mildly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, and low factor IX activity. Hemophilia may be an underlying factor that exacerbates the bleeding of patients with DAH, even when they show a good response to corticosteroids. PMID:28202865

  20. Treatment of honghua injection acupoint iontophoresis on traumatic vitreous hemorrhage%红花穴位离子导入治疗外伤性玻璃体积血实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海; 李慧丽; 李小丹; 刘晓熹; 贺翔鸽

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中药红花注射液眼部穴位离子导人的药代动力学作用以及对实验性外伤性玻璃体积血的治疗作用.方法 将兔实验性外伤性玻璃体积血模型18只(36只眼)随机分成2组,治疗组予红花注射液经睛明、承泣、攒竹、劳宫穴位离子导入;对照组不做任何治疗,观察玻璃体积血的自然转归.分不同时间点抽取兔房水和玻璃体,用高效液相色谱法测定房水和玻璃体中的药物质量浓度.用检眼镜观察眼底玻璃体积血吸收情况,并行眼底照相.结果 兔眼房水线性回归方程为Y=32.486X-5.154,(r=0.9989,P<0.01);玻璃体线性回归方程为Y=30.462X-5.024,(r=0.9951,P<0.01);兔房水和玻璃体内羟基红花黄色素A的质量浓度在0.5 h和2h差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),5h时差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);治疗后治疗组眼底可见度明显优于对照组(P<0.01).结论 红花穴位离子导入可促进兔眼外伤性玻璃体积血的吸收,缩短病程,是一种简易有效的眼局部治疗方法.%Objective To investigate the effect and pharmcokinetic role of honghua injection acupoint iontophoresis on traumatic vitreous hemorrhage.Methods The traumatic vitreous hemorrhage model was induced by injecting into vitreous of 0.2 mL autohemorrhage in 36 eyes of 18 New Zealand white rabbits.2 ml of honghua solution was iontophorezed via acupoint iontophoresis in the Qingming,Chengqi,Cuanzhu,Laogong for 15 minutes per time and twice per day for 10 times in honghua-treated group (9 rabbits),and 9 model rabbits were as control group.Aqueous humor and vitreous were withdrawn at different time,and the drug concentration in aqueous humor and vitreous were detected with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).The absorption status of vitreous hemorrhage was clinically evaluated by ophthalmoscope.Results The aqueous humor regression equation of honghua peak area (Y) and honghua concentration (X) was Y=32.486 X-5

  1. Experimental vitreous syneresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Miller, H; Ryan, S J

    1985-09-01

    Perfluoropropane gas was injected into the vitreous body of a primate eye. Clinical and morphologic studies revealed that the gas bubble created a large cavity within the vitreous. The cavity that subsequently filled with viscous liquid was completely enveloped by vitreous gel, thus simulating the clinical condition known as vitreous syneresis. The shell of residual vitreous, which was much thicker inferiorly and behind the lens than superiorly, seemed to be an intact and continuous layer. In spite of the extensive syneresis, posterior vitreous detachment failed to develop. Our findings suggest that a vitreous cavity, voluminous as it may be, is not sufficient to cause posterior vitreous detachment in the primate eye.

  2. 丹参注射液电离子导入治疗玻璃体积血的疗效观察%Efficacy observation of danshen injection iontophoresis treatment vitreous hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝静; 崔广伟

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨丹参注射液电离子导入疗法在玻璃体积血患者中的临床应用价值。方法:选取2012-06/2013-06我院收治的玻璃体积血患者88例88眼,随机将患者分为观察组和对照组,每组44例44眼。对照组患者采用血栓通的临床药物治疗方案,而观察组患者则在此基础之上加用丹参注射液电离子导入的临床药物治疗方案,并分别对两组患者的临床治疗情况和视力恢复情况进行深入细致的比较和分析。结果:观察组患者治愈率和总有效率分别为75%和95%,均显著高于对照组患者的59%和77%,差别均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);与对照组患者相比,观察组患者视力处于0.6~0.9之间的比率明显提高,而处于0.2以下的比率则显著降低,同时观察组患者的全血比黏度、血浆比黏度、红细胞压积、纤维蛋白原等相关指标均明显改善,差别均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:丹参注射液电离子导入疗法对于玻璃体积血患者临床治疗效果的提升以及视力功能的改善均具有积极的促进作用。%AIM: To probe into the clinical value of danshen injection iontophoresis in treatment of vitreous hemorrhage. METHODS:Eighty-eight vitreous hemorrhage patients (88 eyes) were selected from June 2012 to June 2013 in our hospital.The patients were divided into observation group and control group randomly, with 44 cases ( 44 eyes) in each group.The patients in control group were treated with xueshuantong clinical drug treatment.The patients in observation group were treated with danshen injection iontophoresis clinical drug treatment. The clinical treatment and visual recovery situations of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The cure rate and total effective rate of observation group were 75%and 95%.The cure rate and total effective rate of control group were 59% and 77%. There were statistically

  3. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  4. The efficacy of resection of an intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation presenting with repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Tomoya; Sakai, Naoto; Sameshima, Tetsuro; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-03-09

    Intradural extramedullary cavernous angiomas of the central nervous system are a rare type of cavernous angioma, but they can cause fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The efficacy of resection for this type of cavernous malformations remains uncertain. This is the first report to recommend surgical resection of these types of lesions regardless of the fatal condition. Our patient was a 70-year-old Japanese man who experienced a sudden onset of an occipital headache, followed by bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small amount of hemorrhage in both of the lateral ventricles and an intradural extramedullary mass lesion in the left side of his foramen magnum. Two weeks after the appearance of initial symptoms, he became comatose. A computed tomography scan showed an increase in the subarachnoid intraventricular hemorrhaging and of the acute hydrocephalus. Following ventricular drainage, total tumor resection was performed using the lateral suboccipital transcondylar approach in conjunction with a first cervical hemilaminectomy. We observed a grape-like vascular-rich tumor with calcification that was adhering tightly to the wall of his left vertebral artery. A histopathological examination of the surgery specimen identified it as a cavernous angioma. After placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 months of rehabilitation, he recovered completely. An intradural extramedullary foramen magnum cavernous malformation is quite rare. The fragile surface of our patient's lesion was causing repeated subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequently progressive fatal neurological deterioration. Surgical resection of the lesion to prevent repeated hemorrhage was performed and he recovered fully. Therefore, we recommend surgical resection of the lesion regardless of the potentially fatal condition.

  5. Anomalous Enthalpy Relaxation in Vitreous Silica

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    Yuanzheng eYue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to calorimetrically determine the glass transition temperature (Tg of vitreous silica. Here we demonstrate that this challenge mainly arises from the extreme sensitivity of the Tg to the hydroxyl content in vitreous silica, but also from the irreversibility of its glass transition when repeating the calorimetric scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica.

  6. The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats-associated Endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-created MDM2 T309G Mutation Enhances Vitreous-induced Expression of MDM2 and Proliferation and Survival of Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Huang, Xionggao; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Zhang, Feng; Lei, Hetian

    2016-01-01

    The G309 allele of SNPs in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but whether SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to date unknown. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas) 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using dual adeno-associated virus-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next-generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using adeno-associated viral CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that MDM2 T309G in hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR. PMID:27246850

  7. The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats-associated Endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-created MDM2 T309G Mutation Enhances Vitreous-induced Expression of MDM2 and Proliferation and Survival of Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Huang, Xionggao; D'Amore, Patricia A; Zhang, Feng; Lei, Hetian

    2016-07-29

    The G309 allele of SNPs in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but whether SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to date unknown. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas) 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using dual adeno-associated virus-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next-generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using adeno-associated viral CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that MDM2 T309G in hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  9. Liver cirrhosis is a risk factor of repeat acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Kai Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU can be found in patients with severe comorbid illness, who are bedridden for a long time. Per anal suturing is a quick and feasible treatment. However, recurrent bleeding occurs frequently after suture ligation of a bleeder and can be life-threatening. However, the risk factor for recurrent bleeding is not well known. Our study tries to clarify the risk factor of repeat AHRU in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2009, the medical records of 32 patients, who were admitted to the ICU of the Tri-Service General Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Taiwan, and who underwent per anal suturing of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 96 patients who received emergency treatment for acute massive hematochezia, 32 patients were diagnosed with AHRU. Eight (25% patients had recurrent bleeding following suture ligation of AHRU and underwent a reoperation; no patient had recurrent bleeding after the second operation. The duration from the first hematochezia attack to surgery (P = 0.04, liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002, and coagulopathy (P = 0.01 were the risk factors of recurrent bleeding after suture ligation of a bleeder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that liver cirrhosis (OR = 37.77, P = 0.014 was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Conclusion: AHRU could be a major cause of acute massive hematochezia in patients with severe illness. Our data showed that per anal suturing could quickly and effectively control bleeding. We found that liver cirrhosis was an independent risk factor for recurrent bleeding. Therefore, treatment of a liver cirrhosis patient with AHUR should be more aggressive, such as, early detection and proper suture ligation.

  10. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

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    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  11. Subhyaloid hemorrhage treated with SF6 gas injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Woo; Seo, Man-Seong

    2004-01-01

    A 72-year old woman with a premacular subhyaloid hemorrhage could not be treated by laser photodisruption due to a thick posterior cortical vitreous. Pure sulfur hexafluoride (SF6, 0.3 mL) gas was injected intravitreally without recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and facedown positioning was recommended for 5 days. Posterior vitreous detachment was induced and the hemorrhage dispersed into the vitreous cavity. Eight weeks later, her visual acuity had recovered from hand motions to 20/40. Fluorescein angiography revealed an arterial macroaneurysm in the inferotemporal retina. Intravitreal SF6 gas injection without recombinant tissue plasminogen activator may be an alternative method for treating a relatively new subhyaloid hemorrhage.

  12. A Case of Syphilitic Uveitis in Which Vitreous Surgery Was Useful for the Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Katsumura, Chihiro; Shoda, Hiromi; Takai, Nanae; Takeda, Sayako; Okamoto, Takako; Maruyama, Koichi; Tada, Rei; Tajiri, Kensuke; Kida, Teruyo; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of atypical syphilitic uveitis complicated with retinal vasculitis, proliferative retinopathy, and vitreous hemorrhage in which vitreous surgery was useful for the diagnosis and treatment. Case Report A 38-year-old female was referred to our hospital after noticing visual disturbance in her right eye. Fundoscopy examination of that eye revealed retinal phlebitis accompanied by retinal hemorrhage and soft exudate, and remarkable exudative changes in the retinal vessels from the upper arcade to the macula region. After a blood examination, a serological test showed positive for syphilis; however, systemic findings were scarce. Syphilitic uveitis was suspected, so we administered treatment for syphilis, anticoagulant treatment for retinal vasculitis, steroids for intraocular inflammation, and photocoagulation for the retinal nonperfusion area. However, her visual acuity (VA) decreased to 30 cm/counting fingers due to vitreous hemorrhage resulting from fibrovascular membrane at the optic disc. Since the vitreous hemorrhage was insufficiently absorbed, vitreous surgery was performed to remove the hemorrhage and fibrovascular tissue. Following surgery, the uveitis and retinal vasculitis subsided, and her corrected VA improved to 0.3. Postoperative examination of a fixed quantity of collected vitreous fluid for syphilis showed a Treponema pallidum hemagglutination value of 5,120 times the normal amount, thus confirming the syphilitic uveitis diagnosis. Conclusions Our findings show that when observing patients with obstructive retinal vasculitis of unknown causes, syphilitic uveitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis, and that vitreous surgery is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of atypical syphilitic uveitis which has progressed to proliferative retinopathy. PMID:28203197

  13. Vitreous Mediators in Retinal Hypoxic Diseases

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    Roberto dell'Omo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of retinal hypoxia are many and varied. Under hypoxic conditions, a variety of soluble factors are secreted into the vitreous cavity including growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Cytokines, which usually serve as signals between neighboring cells, are involved in essentially every important biological process, including cell proliferation, inflammation, immunity, migration, fibrosis, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Cytokines and chemokines are multifunctional mediators that can direct the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation, promote the process, enhance immune responses, and promote stem cell survival, development, and homeostasis. The modern particle-based flow cytometric analysis is more direct, stable and sensitive than the colorimetric readout of the conventional ELISA but, similar to ELISA, is influenced by vitreous hemorrhage, disruption of the blood-retina barrier, and high serum levels of a specific protein. Finding patterns in the expression of inflammatory cytokines specific to a particular disease can substantially contribute to the understanding of its basic mechanism and to the development of a targeted therapy.

  14. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakehashi A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT. By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD. A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage. A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]. By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole.Keywords: classification, optical coherence tomography, PVD, slit-lamp biomicroscopy

  15. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT). By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD) or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD). A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage) and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage). A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]). By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole.

  16. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (p<0.005 for mid-vitreous and p<0.018 for posterior vitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (p<0.001). We also found a statistically significant lower concentration of ascorbate in the mid-vitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M(-1) s(-1) ± 0.708 M(-1) s(-1) (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration.

  17. Usefulness of Discarded Vitreous Samples from Routine Vitrectomy

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    Natàlia Vilà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the histopathological features of vitreous samples obtained after vitrectomy surgery from diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Methods. Vitreous specimens from 137 patients who underwent vitrectomy for different clinical conditions were analysed. All samples were centrifuged and each resulting pellet was fixed and processed as part of routine paraffin section histopathology. The histopathological features were categorized in a semiquantitative fashion. The samples from diabetic and nondiabetic patients were compared. Results. The 125 included patients (58 diabetic, 60% males were aged 64.2±13.9 years. The presence of hemorrhage, inflammatory cells, and histiocytes was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P<0.001, P=0.028, and P=0.016, resp., showing more vessels (P<0.001 and ghost vessels (P=0.049. The presence of inflammatory cells was the feature with the highest sensitivity for detecting diabetes mellitus (98% and also the highest negative predictive value (89%. In the multivariate analysis, three variables emerged as independent significant predictors of diabetes in vitrectomy samples: hemorrhage, endothelial-lined vessels, and age (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.019, resp.. Conclusions. Different histopathological features can be found in vitreous samples from diabetic patients. Analysis of vitrectomy samples may serve as a tool for diabetes management.

  18. Viscoelastic Properties of Vitreous Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouz Kavehpour, H.; Sharif-Kashani, Pooria

    2010-11-01

    We studied the rheological properties of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer. All experiments were performed in a closed environment at body temperature to mimic in-vivo conditions. We modeled the creep deformation using a two-element retardation spectrum model. By associating each element of the model to an individual biopolymeric system in the vitreous gel, a separate response to the applied stress was obtained from each component. The short time scale was associated with the collagen structure, while the longer time scale was related to the microfibrilis and hyaluronan network. We were able to distinguish the role of each main component from the overall rheological properties. Knowledge of this correlation enables us to relate the physical properties of vitreous to its pathology, as well as optimize surgical procedures such as vitrectomy.

  19. Retinal vasculitis and ocular vitreous metastasis following complete response to PD-1 inhibition in a patient with metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manusow, Joshua S; Khoja, Leila; Pesin, Nataly; Joshua, Anthony M; Mandelcorn, Efrem D

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 36-year-old woman treated with the anti PD-1 antibody Pembrolizumab for metastatic cutaneous melanoma in the first line setting. She achieved a complete response and then relapsed with metastases to the vitreous cavity with an associated angiographically determined retinal vasculitis. Vitreous metastasis without choroidal involvement is unusual and may be due to individual cell extravasation, vitreous hemorrhage containing malignant cells, or direct spread through the optic nerve. This finding highlights the need for immune sanctuary sites to be monitored in the presence of PD-1 inhibition and we hypothesize that the use of PD-1 inhibitor potentiated the patient's angiographically determined retinal vasculitis.

  20. Effects of C3 F8 or silicon oil tamponade on postoperative vitreous hemorrhage and visual prognosis after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy%C3 F8或硅油填充对增生型糖尿病视网膜病变玻璃体切割手术后玻璃体再积血及视力预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玲玲; 颜华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of intravitreal tamponade of C3 F8 with silicon oil on postoperative vitreous hemorrhage and visual prognosis after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).Methods The clinical data of 121 patients (127 eyes)who underwent primary vitrectomy due to PDR were analyzed retrospectively.All the patients were divided into two groups according to different intravitreal tamponade, including C3 F8 tamponade group (53 patients with 56 eyes ) and silicone oil tamponade group (68 patients with 71 eyes).There was no difference of gender (χ2 = 0.956 ),age (t =1.122),duratiion of diabetes (t=0.627),fasting blood glucose (t=1.049),systolic pressure (t=1.056), diastolic pressure (t = 0.5 1 7 ), history of hypertension (χ2 = 0.356 ), nephropathy (χ2 = 1.242 ), preoperative laser photocoagulation (χ2 = 1.225 )and All the patients underwent three port pars plana vitrectomy.The mean follow-up was 2 years ranging from 6 months to 4 years.And then the incidence and onset time of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA of the two groups were compared. Results Postoperative vitreous hemorrhage occurred in 14 of 56 eyes (25.00%)in C3 F8 tamponade group. The average onset time of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage were (64.64 ± 59.09)days ranging from 7 -225 days and mostly were within 30-60 days (35.71%,5/14).Postoperative vitreous hemorrhage also occurred in 7 of 71 eyes (9.89%)of silicone oil tamponade group after silicone oil removal with an average onset time of (25.29±20.46)days ranging from 3-65 days and were mostly within 1 5-30 days (42.86%, 3/7).There was a significant difference in the incidence of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage between the two groups (χ2 = 5.200,P 0.05);糖尿病视网膜病变分期(Z =2.479)、最佳矫正视力(BCVA)(Z =2.066)比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。所有患眼行常规睫状体平坦部三切口玻璃体切割手术。手术后随访6个月~4.0

  1. Risk of Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Anticoagulated Patients after Minor Head Trauma: The Role of Repeat Cranial Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Clifford; Sidell, Margo; Ogaz, Raquel; Sharp, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Patients receiving anticoagulant medications who experience minor head injury are at increased risk of an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) developing, even after an initial computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain yields normal findings. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the frequency at which delayed bleeding occurs. Objective: To identify the frequency of delayed traumatic ICH in patients receiving warfarin or clopidogrel. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study of adult trauma encounters for anticoagulated patients undergoing head CT at 1 of 13 Kaiser Permanente Southern California Emergency Departments (EDs) between 2007 and 2011. Encounters were identified using structured data from electronic health and administrative records, and then records were individually reviewed for validation of results. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was ICH within 60 days of an ED visit with a normal head CT result. Results: Our sample included 443 (260 clopidogrel and 183 warfarin) eligible ED encounters with normal findings of initial head CT. Overall, 11 patients (2.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4%–4.4%) had a delayed ICH, and events occurred at similar rates between the clopidogrel group (6/260, 2.3%, CI 1.1%–5.0%) and warfarin group (5/183, 2.7%, CI 1.2%–6.2%). Conclusion: Trauma patients in the ED who are receiving warfarin or clopidogrel have approximately a 2.5% risk of delayed ICH after an initial normal finding on a head CT. PMID:26901269

  2. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  3. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi A; Takezawa M; Akiba J

    2013-01-01

    Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography...

  4. Comparative Study of Two Vitreous Humor Sampling Methods in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHOU Weiguang; REN Liang; LIU Qian; LIU Liang

    2006-01-01

    To compare and evaluate two methodologies, entire-sampling and micro-sampling for the harvesting of vitreous humor, the vitreous humor of rabbits were sampled with the two methods respectively, and the concentrations of calcium, chlorine, potassium, sodium and phosphorus of the were measured. The results showed that the differences in the variance coefficient and two-eye concentrations of micro-sampled specimens were less than those of the entire-sampled specimens. In the micro-sampling group, the concentrations of repeated micro-sampling showed no differences among different groups (P>0.05) and the intra-ocular fluid dynamics did not have significant influence on post-mortem sampling. The sampling technique may affect the concentrations of specimen collected.Our study suggests that micro-sampling is less influenced by the human factor and is reliable, reproducible, and more suitable for forensic investigation.

  5. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  6. Association between aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Sakurai, Yutaka; Taguchi, Manzo; Harimoto, Kozo; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is known to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We have recently reported that vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα are higher than the respective serum levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients, and that vitreous levels of these cytokines are higher in PDR than in other non-inflammatory vitreoretinal diseases or uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. In the present study, we investigated inflammatory cytokines including Th17 cell-related cytokines in aqueous humor samples obtained from eyes with PDR, and analyzed the association between the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of individual cytokines. The study group consisted of 31 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with PDR who underwent cataract surgery and vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment. Undiluted aqueous humor was collected during cataract surgery, and then vitreous fluid was obtained using a 25G vitreous cutter inserted into the mid-vitreous cavity at the beginning of vitrectomy. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were measured using a beads-array system. Although IL-17A was detected in the aqueous humor of eyes with PDR and the level correlated with IL-17A level in the vitreous fluid, both percent detectable and level of IL-17A in the aqueous humor were significantly lower than those in the vitreous fluid. Vitreous IL-17A level was related significantly to IL-10, IL-22, and TNFα levels in aqueous humor as well as in vitreous fluid, On the other hand, aqueous IL-17A level was not related significantly to aqueous or vitreous levels of IL-10, IL-22 or TNFα level. The present study demonstrated that IL-17A level and detectable rate in the aqueous humor of patients with PDR are markedly lower than those in the vitreous fluid and aqueous IL-17A does not

  7. Phosphorescence of vitreous 2-bromobenzophenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravtseva, L. M.; Pyshkin, O. S.; Strzhemechny, M. A.; Avdeenko, A. A.

    2008-06-01

    Spectroscopic studies of vitreous 2-bromobenzophenone have been carried out over the respective domain of its stability. Glassy 2-bromobenzophenone samples were obtained by abrupt cooling of the melt by cold helium vapor. Quantum yield measurements allowed us to establish that the upper boundary of stable glass is slightly above 100K, while at about 220K the glass melts. Phosphorescence measurements at 4.2K showed that even at this low temperature the emission contains a strong excimer component. The energy position and shape (two bands) of the excimer emission are close to those observed in the crystal of 2-bromobenzophenone at higher temperatures. Contrary to findings in the crystal, the monomeric emission of the glass contains only one C =O stretch series, every band of which is substantially broader than in the crystal. As the temperature is raised, the monomeric emission intensity falls, disappearing completely above 70K.

  8. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  9. Vibrating reed experiments on compacted vitreous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, G.; Daum, A.; Sohn, M.; Arndt, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have studied the acoustic properties of irreversibly compacted vitreous silica (Suprasil I) at frequencies around 12 kHz between 10 mK and room temperature. At low temperatures up to a few K the compacted glass exhibits acoustic properties similar to those of normal vitreous silica, however, with considerably smaller values of the damping and of the temperature coefficient of the sound velocity. Around 30 K the internal friction is reduced by factor of 6.

  10. Vitreous loss during conversion from conventional extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah-Fat, F G; Sharma, M K; Majid, M A; Yang, Y C

    1998-06-01

    To study the outcome of vitreous loss among senior surgeons converting from conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to phacoemulsification. A university teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. A retrospective analysis of 87 planned cataract extractions performed from January 1992 to December 1996 and complicated by vitreous loss was done. Outcome measures included postoperative complication rates and visual acuity. During the study, vitreous loss occurred in 39 patients having ECCE and in 48 having phacoemulsification; the latter group included 8 patients with dropped nucleus. Postoperative complications included cystoid macular edema (18.7% of phaco patients, 30.8% of ECCE patients), retinal detachment (2.1% of phaco patients, 5.1% of ECCE patients), and expulsive hemorrhage (5.1% of ECCE patients). Phaco patients had higher rates of postoperative corneal edema (27.1%) than ECCE patients (12.8%) and transient intraocular pressure elevation (33.3%) versus 20.5%) but were more likely to receive posterior chamber intraocular lenses (70.8% versus 35.9%; P = .0024, chi-square test). After excluding pre-existing diseases, 83.3% of phaco patients and 67.6% of ECCE patients achieved a visual acuity of 6/12 or better. With careful patient selection, experienced extracapsular surgeons converting to phacoemulsification can achieve favorable results even in the presence of complications such as vitreous loss or dropped nucleus.

  11. Vitreous cinematography in the study of vitreoretinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempe, C L; Takahashi, M; Freeman, H M

    1981-07-01

    A new technique of vitreous cinematography involves scanning of the vitreous cavity using optical sections to provide objective, reproducible information on the dynamics of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal relationships. Using a newly developed preset lens (El Bayadi-Kajiura lens), this technique makes it possible to document an entire optical section of the posterior vitreous. This is done by mechanically displacing the vitreous so that maximum reflectivity can be obtained from the vitreous gel. This article describes the technique and presents clinical examples documenting complete and incomplete vitreous detachment in normal eyes, Cloquet's canal associated with an optic disc pit, vitreous traction associated with a lamellar hole in an area of preretinal macular fibrosis, and vitreous traction at the anterior flap of a retinal break.

  12. Vascular remnants in the rabbit vitreous body. I. Morphological characteristics and relationship to vitreous embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; Van Luyn, MJA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we observed novel structures in the rabbit vitreous body. They were found in 18 out of 27 eyes from rabbits 0.5-36 months of age. These structures are scattered throughout the entire vitreous matrix. By light and transmission electron microscopy,

  13. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  14. Detection of Elevated Signaling Amino Acids in Human Diabetic Vitreous by Rapid Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Jen Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated glutamate is implicated in the pathology of PDR. The ability to rapidly assess the glutamate and amino acid content of vitreous provides a more complete picture of the chemical changes occurring at the diabetic retina and may lead to a better understanding of the pathology of PDR. Vitreous humor was collected following vitrectomies of patients with PDR and control conditions of macular hole or epiretinal membrane. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to quantify glutamate and arginine. The analysis is relatively fast (<6 minutes and utilizes a poly(ethyleneoxide and sodium dodecylsulfate run buffer. Both amino acid levels show significant increases in PDR patients versus controls and are comparable to other reports. The levels of vitreal glutamate vary inversely with the degree of observed hemorrhage. The results demonstrate a rapid method for assessment of a number of amino acids to characterize the chemical changes at the diabetic retina to better understand tissue changes and potentially identify new treatments.

  15. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: a gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; van der Worp, R.J.; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  16. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body : A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, M.; Ponsioen, T. L.; Bank, R. A.; Snabel, J. M. M.; van der Worp, R. J.; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Los, L. I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  17. Pentosidine accumulates in the aging vitreous body: A gender effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deemter, M. van; Ponsioen, T.L.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.M.; Worp, R.J. van der; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    The human vitreous body undergoes structural changes with aging. This can be followed by a posterior vitreous detachment, which can result in ocular pathology. As in many collagenous tissues, age-related changes in the vitreous could be caused by the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE

  18. Preretinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  19. Proteomic interactions in the mouse vitreous-retina complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Skeie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Human vitreoretinal diseases are due to presumed abnormal mechanical interactions between the vitreous and retina, and translational models are limited. This study determined whether nonstructural proteins and potential retinal biomarkers were expressed by the normal mouse vitreous and retina. METHODS: Vitreous and retina samples from mice were collected by evisceration and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were further analyzed for differential expression and functional interactions using bioinformatic software. RESULTS: We identified 1,680 unique proteins in the retina and 675 unique proteins in the vitreous. Unbiased clustering identified protein pathways that distinguish retina from vitreous including oxidative phosphorylation and neurofilament cytoskeletal remodeling, whereas the vitreous expressed oxidative stress and innate immunology pathways. Some intracellular protein pathways were found in both retina and vitreous, such as glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and neuronal signaling, suggesting proteins might be shuttled between the retina and vitreous. We also identified human disease biomarkers represented in the mouse vitreous and retina, including carbonic anhydrase-2 and 3, crystallins, macrophage inhibitory factor, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxins, S100 precursors, and von Willebrand factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests the vitreous expresses nonstructural proteins that functionally interact with the retina to manage oxidative stress, immune reactions, and intracellular proteins may be exchanged between the retina and vitreous. This novel proteomic dataset can be used for investigating human vitreoretinopathies in mouse models. Validation of vitreoretinal biomarkers for human ocular diseases will provide a critical tool for diagnostics and an avenue for therapeutics.

  20. [Persistence of the primordial vitreous body and buphthalmos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, P; Simionescu, C; Bosun, I

    1995-01-01

    Persistence of the hyperplasic primordial vitreous body is determined by a deletion of embryonal development of the vitreous body and of the hyaloid vascular system. Infant aged 3.5 years presents persistence of primordial vitreous body with crystalline dislocation in the camera aquosa and secondary buphthalmos of the left eye and microphthalmos with dislocation of the crystalline in the vitreous body of the right eye. At the back of the right eye we noticed a whitish mass, richly vascularized with vestiges from the hyaloid artery, but the posterior half of the vitreous cavity is filled with microscopic blood; the fibrovascular membrane is made of conjunctive tissue set in parallel layers and vessels with macrolipophagic degeneration. Microscopic investigation of retina reveals glial hyperplasia zones in the neighbourhood of the vitreous body. In the present paper the authors show the persistence of the primordial vitreous body in the left eye and bilateral dislocation of the crystalline, revealing multiple ocular malformations.

  1. Proteomic insight into the molecular function of the vitreous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Skeie

    Full Text Available The human vitreous contains primarily water, but also contains proteins which have yet to be fully characterized. To gain insight into the four vitreous substructures and their potential functions, we isolated and analyzed the vitreous protein profiles of three non-diseased human eyes. The four analyzed substructures were the anterior hyaloid, the vitreous cortex, the vitreous core, and the vitreous base. Proteins were separated by multidimensional liquid chromatography and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics tools then extracted the expression profiles, signaling pathways, and interactomes unique to each tissue. From each substructure, a mean of 2,062 unique proteins were identified, with many being differentially expressed in a specific substructure: 278 proteins were unique to the anterior hyaloid, 322 to the vitreous cortex, 128 to the vitreous base, and 136 to the vitreous core. When the identified proteins were organized according to relevant functional pathways and networks, key patterns appeared. The blood coagulation pathway and extracellular matrix turnover networks were highly represented. Oxidative stress regulation and energy metabolism proteins were distributed throughout the vitreous. Immune functions were represented by high levels of immunoglobulin, the complement pathway, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, and evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial proteins. The majority of vitreous proteins detected were intracellular proteins, some of which originate from the retina, including rhodopsin (RHO, phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. This comprehensive analysis uncovers a picture of the vitreous as a biologically active tissue, where proteins localize to distinct substructures to protect the intraocular tissues from infection, oxidative stress, and energy disequilibrium. It also reveals the retina as a potential source of inflammatory mediators. The vitreous proteome

  2. Massive vitreous gel incarceration into the subretinal space following traumatic retinal detachment in a young patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirashima T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takafumi Hirashima, Mihori Kita, Shin Yoshitake, Miou Hirose, Hideyasu OhDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: This paper reports a young patient with a traumatic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and massive vitreous gel incarceration into the subretinal space, who was successfully treated with 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy.Case report: An 11-year-old boy was referred to the authors’ clinic with traumatic retinal detachment in the right eye, 2 weeks after ocular contusion in a baseball accident. At the time of the injury, emergency fundus examination by his local doctor had revealed vitreous hemorrhage in the inferior quadrant of the right eye. Visual acuity was 1.5. He had continued to play baseball as usual for 2 weeks after the injury. At his first visit to the authors’ clinic, fundus examination showed a highly bullous retinal detachment involving the inferior two quadrants, associated with multiple irregular retinal breaks. There was an oval hole in the inferior quadrant which was 10-disc diameter × 5-disc diameter in size and was surrounded by edematous and hemorrhagic retina. The macula remained attached. Absolute rest for 4 hours in the supine position with binocular occlusion did not diminish the height of the retinal detachment. A 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy combined with 360° circumferential buckling was performed under general anesthesia. The lens was retained. Incarceration of massive vitreous gel, including vitreous hemorrhage into the subretinal space through the largest break, was observed during vitrectomy. Reattachment of the retina was achieved by fluid–air exchange and internal tamponade using SF6 gas. At follow-up at 9 months, the retina remained attached and visual acuity in the right eye was 1.2.Keywords: retinal detachment, trauma, contusion, vitrectomy

  3. Recent Advances and History of Vitreous Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Mimura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in the small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV systems. This review provides an overview of the recent advances and state of the art of vitreous surgery. The two most innovative advancements that have been developed in this area are the small-gauge cutter and the new illuminating systems. Compared to the traditional 20-gauge PPV, transconjunctival sutureless small-gauge PPV is a safe and effective strategy to treat a variety of vitreoretinal diseases. Chandelier illumination allows better visualisation of vitreous for bimanual surgery. The small-gauge PPV provides benefits in terms of less inflammation, less patient discomfort, and faster recovery of the visual acuity.

  4. Vitreous enamel coatings as porous composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardakov, N.T.; Pychmintsev, I.Yu. [Science and Research Inst. for Materials and Technology, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kudyakov, V.Ya. [Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown, that vitreous enamel coatings can be considered as composite materials properties of which are determined more by macrostructure rather than microstructure. Detrimental effect of both the bubble structure and the presence of solid inclusions on such important properties as adhesion and protection potential in different corrosive environment was found. Typical microstructure parameters found experimentally were applied for analytical macrostructure-properties relationships. (author)

  5. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan

    2012-11-01

    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  6. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissection of human vitreous body elements for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Jessica M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2011-01-23

    The vitreous is an optically clear, collagenous extracellular matrix that fills the inside of the eye and overlies the retina. (1,2) Abnormal interactions between vitreous substructures and the retina underlie several vitreoretinal diseases, including retinal tear and detachment, macular pucker, macular hole, age-related macular degeneration, vitreomacular traction, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and inherited vitreoretinopathies. (1,2) The molecular composition of the vitreous substructures is not known. Since the vitreous body is transparent with limited surgical access, it has been difficult to study its substructures at the molecular level. We developed a method to separate and preserve these tissues for proteomic and biochemical analysis. The dissection technique in this experimental video shows how to isolate vitreous base, anterior hyaloid, vitreous core, and vitreous cortex from postmortem human eyes. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE analyses of each vitreous component showed that our dissection technique resulted in four unique protein profiles corresponding to each substructure of the human vitreous body. Identification of differentially compartmentalized proteins will reveal candidate molecules underlying various vitreoretinal diseases.

  8. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the vitreous humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Géhl

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that diabetes-associated redox alterations also reach the vitreous with the most prominent changes being increased protein carbonylation and increased antioxidant levels.

  9. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  10. Thermodynamic Origin of the Vitreous Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tournier F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The vitreous transition is characterized by a freezing of atomic degrees of freedom at a temperature Tg depending on the heating and cooling rates. A kinetic origin is generally attributed to this phenomenon instead of a thermodynamic one which we develop here. Completed homogeneous nucleation laws reflecting the energy saving due to Fermi energy equalization of nascent crystals and their melt are used. They are applied to bulk metallic glasses and extended to inorganic glasses and polymers. A transition T*g among various Tg corresponds to a crystal homogeneous nucleation temperature, leading to a preliminary formation of a cluster distribution during the relaxation time preceding the long steady-state nucleation time of crystals in small samples. The thermally-activated energy barrier ΔG*2ls/kBT at T*g for homogeneous nucleation is nearly the same in all glass-forming melts and determined by similar values of viscosity and a thermally-activated diffusion barrier from melt to cluster. The glass transition T*g is a material constant and a linear function of the energy saving associated with charge transfers from nascent clusters to the melt. The vitreous transition and the melting temperatures alone are used to predict the free-volume disappearance temperature equal to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann temperature of fragile glass-forming melts, in agreement with many viscosity measurements. The reversible thermodynamic vitreous transition is determined by the disappearance temperature T*g of the fully-relaxed enthalpy Hr that is not time dependent; the observed specific heat jump at T*g is equal to the proportionality coefficient of Hr with (T*g − Ta for T ≤ T*g as expected from the enthalpy excess stored by a quenched undercooled melt at the annealing temperature Ta and relaxed towards an equilibrium vitreous state. However, the heat flux measurements found in literature over the last 50 years only gave an out-of-equilibrium Tg since the enthalpy

  11. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Gopal, L

    1996-12-01

    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  12. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  13. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye. PMID:25147810

  14. Dynamic Imaging of a Pigmented Free-Floating Vitreous Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dilraj S; Fekrat, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    The authors present an incidentally noted pigmented anterior vitreous cyst in an asymptomatic male adult. Observation was elected. Stability during the course of 2 years and mobility of the vitreous cyst using dynamic imaging are demonstrated. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:975-977.].

  15. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an...

  16. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Isakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye.

  17. Use of intravitreal bevacizumab or triamcinolone acetonide as a preoperative adjunct to vitrectomy for vitreous haemorrhage in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Araújo Ferraz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB or triamcinolone (IVT on the rate of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. METHODS: Eligible eyes were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: the IVB group received 1.25 mg bevacizumab, the IVT group received 4,0mg triamcinolone and the control group underwent a sham procedure. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage. Secondary outcome measures included changes in visual acuity (BCVA and adverse events. RESULTS: Twenty and seven eyes, 9 in each group were randomized. The incidence of vitreous hemorrhage was lower in the IVB group (p=0.18. Postoperative vitreous hemorrhage at 1 month also was less in the IVB group compared with the control group (p > 0.05. The rate of bleeding immediately after surgery was higher in IVT group with 4 (44.4% cases. The overall mean visual acuity was 1.72 ± 0.37 logMAR preoperatively and 1.32 ± 0.73 logMAR in 6 months after surgery. Accessing visual acuity by group evidenced that the IVB group had initial mean logMAR VA of 1.87 and 1.57 logMAR VA at the six months (p = 0.84. In IVT group, initial mean VA was 1.75 logMAR and 0.96 logMAR VA at six months (p < 0.001. And in control group, the initial mean VA was 1.85 logMAR and 1.57 logMAR VA at six months (p= 0.34. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1 week before vitrectomy seems to reduce the incidence of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage in diabetic patients. There was a better visual acuity outcome in the triamcinolone group.

  18. Optical characterization of vitreous structure in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Khoshnevis, Matin; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Sebag, J.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with myopic vitreopathy (MV) and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) see floaters, which often can degrade contrast sensitivity to a significant extent. The floaters are associated with irregularly shaped vitreous opacities. In contrast, asteroid hyalosis (AH), which is characterized by microscopic, spherical, white asteroid bodies (ABs) that move with vitreous displacement during eye movements, does not interfere significantly with vision. We hypothesize that the irregular surface of vitreous opacities associated with MV distinguish MV from AH and its smooth-surfaced ABs. A finite-element model was developed to characterize the light-scattering field of vitreous opacities in MV and AH. Vitreous opacities were modeled as spherical bodies and illuminated by a plane wave of light in the optical wavelength of 400-1000 nm. The model has provisions to add random perturbations to the spherical surfaces to vary light-scattering properties and mimic disturbances in vision from simple diffraction rings to more-complex patterns. Samples of ex vivo porcine vitreous (0.4-0.5 ml) were placed in a custom spectrophotometer and the static, light-scattering field of the sample was measured in the spectral range of 400-1000 nm with a resolution of 0.3 nm. Model solutions mimicking healthy vitreous and AH were experimentally validated using a laboratory optical apparatus. Model-based estimates of scattering cross-sections of calibrated gold nanoparticles were found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulation results potentially can complement experimental data to quantitatively characterize vitreous opacities and distinguish between structures that significantly impact vision, such as those due to myopic vitreopathy and aging, from those that have little impact, like ABs. Such techniques to determine the structural significance of vitreous opacification would be very useful in selecting patients for surgery as well as evaluating the efficacy of

  19. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  20. Hemorrhagic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930167 Relationship among changes of bloodpicture and hemorrhage to skin,fundus occuliand brain in 220 cases of hematologic disease.WU Bingquan(吴秉权),et al.Blood Dis Hosp,CMAS.Tianjin Med J 1992;20(9):515-517.Changes of blood picture related to bleedingof the skin,fundus occuli and brain were ana-lyzed in 220 cases of blood diseases.Resultsshowed,in iron deficient anemia with pro-

  1. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  2. Systemic Treatments for Noninfectious Vitreous Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous inflammation, or vitritis, may result from many causes, including both infectious and noninfectious, including rheumatologic and autoimmune processes. Vitritis is commonly vision threatening and has serious sequelae. Treatment is frequently challenging, but, today, there are multiple methods of systemic treatment for vitritis. These categories include corticosteroids, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, T-cell inhibitors/calcineurin inhibitors, and biologic agents. These treatment categories were reviewed last year, but, even over the course of just a year, many therapies have made progress, as we have learned more about their indications and efficacy. We discuss here discoveries made over the past year on both existing and new drugs, as well as reviewing mechanisms of action, clinical dosages, specific conditions that are treated, adverse effects, and usual course of treatment for each class of therapy.

  3. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, H; Bellmann, B

    1995-10-01

    Methods for the determination of biodurability of man-made vitreous fibres are reviewed. For mineral wools the first step was the preparation of respirable fibre fractions. Fibres were administered to rats by inhalation or by intratracheal instillation. After serial sacrifice their lungs were digested by low-temperature ashing or by hypochlorite. The total number of fibres per lung and the distributions of length and diameter were analysed by electron microscopy. This resulted in a bivariate distribution of fibres at the various sacrifice dates. If the logarithm of the number of fibres decreased approximately linearly with time after exposure then the elimination kinetics of fibres can be characterized by a half-time. The half-times were compared between various experiments with rats exposed to mineral wool samples. In summary good agreement was found for the elimination of fibres after long-term inhalation and intratracheal instillation whereas shorter half-times were found after short-term inhalation.

  4. "Vitreous loss: Incidence and complications in extracapsular Cataract extractions "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeghbali A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the dangerous complications of cataract extractions is vitreous loss. The purpose of this stuy is to evaluate the incidence of vitreous loss and its sepuale while teaching residents at Rasoul Akram Hospital in Iran. This study has been conducted on existing records of 730 eyes which were subjectd to extracapsular cataract extractions by 3rd and 4th year, right handed resident of Rasoul Akram hospital. The information was taken from the records of patients who had vitreous loss during cataract surgery and the following data was extracted. The presence of any systemic diseases, phase of operation where vitreous loss occurred, vision on the next day, one month and 3 months later, the cause of low vision and any post operative sequale of the eye were evaluated. Extracted data collected and the prevalence of vitreous loss and its sequale were indentified and presented. Forty-nine eyes (6.7% had vitreous loss, thirty-one of them were in the left eye (63.3% and eighteen of them were in the right eye (36.7%. Regarding the stage of operation in which vitrous loss had occurred: twenty –eight eyes while nucleous delivery (57.7% eighteen eyes during aspiration of cortical material (36.7% and in three cases during IOL implantation. Five eyes had pseudoexfoliaton syndrome, four patients were diabetic and three had high myopia. Post operational sequale of these 49 eyes were: thirty-five with transient corneal edema (71.4%. Nine with misshaped pupils (18.9%, four with high astigmatism (8.1%, tow with cystoid macular edema (4%, two with retinal detachment (4% and seven with cloudy vitreous. (14.3%. The incidence of vitreous loss is more than expected. More extensive research to evaluated the prognositc factors according to the eye (OD/OS and the stage of the operation the leads to vitreous loss and to decrease its incidence is still needed.

  5. Syneresis of Vitreous by Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, T. J.; Patel, C. K. N.; Strnad, A. R.; Wood, O. R.; Brewer, E. S.; Karlin, D. B.

    1983-03-01

    In carbon dioxide laser surgery of the vitreous a process of vaporization has been advocated. In this report syneresis, a thermal liquefaction of gel, is shown to be over ten times more efficient on an energy basis than vaporization. Syneresis of vitreous is experimentally shown to be a first-order kinetic process with an activation energy of 41 ± 0.5 kilocalories per mole. A theory of laser surgery in which this figure is used agrees closely with results from laser experiments on human eye-bank vitreous. The syneresis of vitreous by carbon dioxide laser radiation could lead to a more delicate form of ocular microsurgery, and application to other biological systems may be possible.

  6. Objective Measurement of Vitreous Inflammation using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Pearse A.; Karampelas, Michael; Sim, Dawn A.; Sadda, Srinivas R.; Tufail, Adnan; Sen, H. Nida; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Dick, Andrew D.; Lee, Richard W.; Murray, Philip I.; Pavesio, Carlos E.; Denniston, Alastair K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To obtain measurements of vitreous signal intensity from optical coherence tomography (OCT) image sets in patients with uveitis, with the aim of developing an objective, quantitative marker of inflammatory activity in patients with this disease. Design Retrospective, observational case-control series. Participants Thirty patients (30 eyes), with vitreous haze secondary to intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis; twelve patients (12 eyes) with uveitis but without evidence of vitreous haze; and 18 patients (18 eyes) without intraocular inflammation or vitreoretinal disease. Methods Clinical and demographic characteristics were recorded, including visual acuity (VA), diagnosis, and anatomic type of uveitis. In each eye, the anterior chamber (AC) was graded for cellular activity and flare according to standardized protocols. The presence and severity of vitreous haze was classified according to the National Eye Institute system. Spectral domain OCT images were analyzed using custom software. This software provided an “absolute” measurement of vitreous signal intensity, which was then compared to that of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), generating an optical density ratio with arbitrary units (“VIT/RPE-Relative Intensity”). Main Outcome Measures Correlation between clinical vitreous haze scores and OCT-derived measurements of vitreous signal intensity. Results VIT/RPE-Relative Intensity was significantly higher in uveitic eyes with known vitreous haze (0.150) than in uveitic eyes without haze or in healthy controls (0.0767, p=0.0001). VIT/RPE-Relative intensity showed a significant, positive correlation with clinical vitreous haze scores (r=0.566, p=0.0001). Other ocular characteristics significantly associated with VIT/RPE-Relative Intensity included VA (r=0.573, p=0.0001), AC cells (r=0.613, p=0.0001), AC flare (r=0.385, p=0.003). Measurement of VIT/RPE-Relative Intensity showed a good degree of inter-grader reproducibility (95% limits of agreement

  7. Intra-ocular lens implantation after vitreous loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah N

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous loss is a dreaded complication of cataract surgery, especially so with IOL implant which then may have to be abandoned. Thirty three cases of IOL implants, either anterior chamber or posterior chamber, after vitreous loss done in the past 3 years were studied. Of these, 18 (55% had a final visual acuity of 6/18 or better and none was worse than 6/60. The postoperative complications and findings and a review of literature are discussed.

  8. Characterisation of the vitreous proteome in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes can lead to serious microvascular complications such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, which results in severe vision loss. The diabetes-induced alterations in the vitreous protein composition in diabetic patients with PDR may be responsible for the presence of PDR. The vitreous humour can be utilised in a variety of studies aimed toward the discovery of new targets for the treatment or prevention of PDR and the identification of novel disease mechanisms. The aim of this study was to compare the protein profile of vitreous humour from diabetic patients with PDR with that of vitreous humour from normal human eyes donated for corneal transplant. Results Vitreous humour from type 2 diabetic patients with PDR (n = 10 and from normal human eyes donated for corneal transplant (n = 10 were studied. The comparative proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE. Differentially produced proteins (abundance ratio > 2 or p Conclusions These data provide an in-depth analysis of the human vitreous proteome and reveal protein alterations that are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of PDR. Further investigation of these special proteins may provide potential new targets for the treatment or the prevention of PDR.

  9. Functional evaluation of a novel vitreous substitute using polyethylene glycol sols injected into a foldable capsular vitreous body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Feng, Songfu; Liu, Yaqin; Huang, Zhen; Sun, Xuyuan; Zhou, Lian; Lu, Xiaohe; Gao, Qianying

    2013-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a short-term (41 days) potential vitreous substitute and is too short for an ideal vitreous substitute. Previously, a foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB) was designed to mimic vitreous function. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether PEG injected into FCVB can serve as a long-term vitreous substitute. In vitro study, a concentration of 5% (w/v) PEG sols showed natural-like mechanical and optical properties in terms of pH, density, light transmittance, refractive index, interfacial tension, viscosity, rheology, and cytotoxicity. Then in vivo tests, 30 rabbits received standard pars plana vitrectomy, of which 12 eyes were implanted with PEG injected into FCVB, nine eyes were injected with PEG sols alone, and nine others were injected with balance salt solution as control. A clinical evaluation of the anterior segment, fundus, and intraocular pressure was measured pre- and postoperatively up to 180 days, which showed that FCVBs had good retina supporting function, except for a higher incidence of cataracts. Gross pathology, hematoxylin and eosin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining analysis also showed that FCVBs had good biocompatibility, and that all quadrants of the capsular wall fitted well with the retina. This study demonstrated that PEG injected into FCVB can serve as a long-term vitreous substitute and has potential clinical use.

  10. Successful displacement of a traumatic submacular hemorrhage in a 13-year-old boy treated by vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and intravitreal air tamponade: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Shinichiro; Kimura, Shuhei; Morizane, Yuki; Shiode, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Mio; Hirano, Masayuki; Hosogi, Mika; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Background The natural course of submacular hemorrhage resulting from traumatic choroidal rupture generally has a poor outcome unless treated. The intravitreal injection of gas only or gas with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been reported to be effective, but has also been reported to induce severe complications such as retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage. Recently, we reported a safe and effective procedure for treating submacular hemorrhage due to polypoidal cho...

  11. Airbag-Associated Severe Blunt Eye Injury Causes Choroidal Rupture and Retinal Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Hao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of choroidal rupture caused by airbag-associated blunt eye trauma and complicated with massive subretinal hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage that was successfully treated with intravitreal injection of expansile gas and bevacizumab is presented. A 53-year-old man suffered from loss of vision in his right eye due to blunt eye trauma by a safety airbag after a traffic accident. On initial examination, the patient had no light perception in his right eye. Dilated ophthalmoscopy revealed massive subretinal hemorrhage with macular invasion and faint vitreous hemorrhage. We performed intravitreal injection of pure sulfur hexafluoride twice for displacement, after which visual acuity improved to 0.03. For persistent subretinal hemorrhage and suspicion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injection was administered. After 3 weeks, the visual acuity of his right eye recovered to 0.4. For early-stage choroidal rupture-induced subretinal hemorrhage and complications of suspected CNV, intravitreal injection of expandable gas and intraocular injection of antiangiogenesis drugs seem to be an effective treatment.

  12. Identification of vitreous proteins in retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Saito, Akio; Kusaka, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of blood vessels in the retina developed in premature infants and the leading cause of the blindness in children. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify vitreous proteins specific to patients with ROP. Vitreous humor samples were obtained from three patients with ROP and two patients with congenital cataract, the latter included as a control group. The vitreous samples were separated by 2D-PAGE and the proteins running as definitive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. We identified 13 and 6 proteins in the vitreous from ROP and cataract patients, respectively. Albumin, transferrin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and transthyretin were found in both patient groups. In the samples from ROP patients, PEDF and transthyretin levels were lower than in those from cataract patients, and retinol binding protein 3 and prostaglandin D synthase were not detected. Of the 13 proteins, 9 proteins including α-2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein, α-1-antitrypsin, α-1-β-glycoprotein, hemopexin, apolipoprotein A-1 and A-lV were found in vitreous samples of only the ROP patients. PEDF has anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic functions. Whether PEDF is increased or decreased in diabetic retinopathy has been controversial but we observed lower PEDF in the ROP samples than in the controls. The proteins specific to or decreased in ROP, if confirmed in future studies, may provide clue to understanding its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of photochemically induced posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, A; Ueno, N; Chakrabarti, B

    1994-01-01

    Vitreous gel contraction and syneresis, commonly associated with age- and disease-related posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), were induced by a hematoporphyrin (HP)-photosensitized reaction. Calf vitreous gel was irradiated by white light in the presence of HP. Gel weights of the vitreous samples after 24 h of irradiation decreased by 14%, the irradiated control without HP by 8% and the control with HP stored in the dark by 8%. No significant difference in vitreous gel compressibility was found between the irradiated controls and the irradiated samples. In separate experiments, collagen gel in a glass capillary and hyaluronic acid (HA) were irradiated with white light in the presence of HP. The control collagen gel (irradiated without HP and stored in the dark with HP) decreased in length by 0.6% after 96 h, the experimental gel with HP decreased in length by 1.3 and 1.9% after 24- and 96-hour irradiation by visible light, respectively. The irradiated HA monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography showed a molecular weight decrease in the HP-treated polymer. Because the HP-sensitized reaction predominantly produces singlet oxygen, collagen gel contraction and HA degradation, in this case, are likely caused by this active oxygen species.

  14. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géhl, Zsuzsanna; Bakondi, Edina; Resch, Miklós D; Hegedűs, Csaba; Kovács, Katalin; Lakatos, Petra; Szabó, Antal; Nagy, Zoltán; Virág, László

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is accompanied by fundamental rearrangements in redox homeostasis. Hyperglycemia triggers the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which contributes to tissue damage in various target organs. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a common manifestation of diabetic complications but information on the possible role of reactive intermediates in this condition with special regard to the involvement of the vitreous in PDR-associated redox alterations is scarce. The aim of the study was to determine key parameters of redox homeostasis [advanced glycation endproducts (AGE); protein carbonyl and glutathione (GSH)] content in the vitreous in PDR patients. The study population involved 10 diabetic patients undergoing surgery for complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 8 control (non-diabetic) patients who were undergoing surgery for epiretinal membranes. Vitreal fluids were assayed for the above biochemical parameters. We found elevated levels of AGE in the vitreous of PDR patients (812.10 vs 491.69ng AGE/mg protein). Extent of protein carbonylation was also higher in the samples of diabetic patients (2.08 vs 0.67A/100μg protein). The GSH content also increased in the vitreous of PDR patients as compared to the control group (4.54 vs 2.35μmol/μg protein), respectively. The study demonstrates that diabetes-associated redox alterations also reach the vitreous with the most prominent changes being increased protein carbonylation and increased antioxidant levels. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of human vitreous collagen in diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, Jerry; Nie, Shuming; Reiser, Karen M.; Yu, Nai-Teng

    1992-08-01

    In diabetes nonenzymatic glycation alters collagen throughout the body resulting in the histopathology that underlies diabetic disease in several organs. In the eye such changes in vitreous collagen could contribute to vitreous degeneration and the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Previous studies have demonstrated early glycation and advanced endproducts in the vitreous of humans with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy was performed on vitreous obtained at surgery from diabetic patients and from non-diabetic control subjects. The findings were compared to measurements obtained in untreated and glycated (in vitro) rat-tail tendon collagen. The results demonstrated substantial changes in diabetic vitreous collagen resulting from glycation, most likely advanced glycation endproducts. This approach appears to be useful as a means of characterizing the molecular changes induced by diabetes. Furthermore, this technique could be developed as a way of quantifying these changes in vivo in several tissues, so as to gauge the severity of non-enzymatic glycation and monitor the response to therapy.

  16. 27-Gauge Vitrectomy for Symptomatic Vitreous Floaters with Topical Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhong; Moonasar, Nived; Wu, Rong Han; Seemongal-Dass, Robin R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally acceptable methods of anesthesia for vitrectomy surgery are quite varied. However, each of these methods has its own potential for complications that can range from minor to severe. The surgery procedure of vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is much simpler, mainly reflecting in the nonuse of sclera indentation, photocoagulation, and the apparently short surgery duration. The use of 27-gauge cannulae makes the puncture of the sclera minimally invasive. Hence, retrobulbar anesthesia, due to its rare but severe complications, seemed excessive for this kind of surgery. Method Three cases of 27-gauge, sutureless pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters with topical anesthesia are reported. Results The vitrectomy surgeries were successfully performed with topical anesthesia (proparacaine, 0.5%) without operative or postoperative complications. Furthermore, none of the patients experienced apparent pain during or after the surgery. Conclusion Topical anesthesia can be considered for 27-guage vitrectomy in patients with symptomatic vitreous floaters. PMID:28203195

  17. The vitreous state thermodynamics, structure, rheology, and crystallization

    CERN Document Server

    Gutzow, Ivan S

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the experimental evidence and modern classical and theoretical approaches in understanding the vitreous state, from structural problems, over equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, to statistical physics. Glasses, and especially silicate glasses, are only the best known representatives of this particular physical state of matter. Other typical representatives include organic polymer glasses, and many other easily vitrifying organic and inorganic substances, technically important materials, amidst them vitreous water and vitrified aqueous solutions, and also many metallic alloy systems. Some of these systems only form glasses under particular conditions, e.g. through ultra-rapid cooling. This book describes the properties and the formation of both every-day technical glasses and especially of such more exotic forms of vitreous matter. It is a unique source of knowledge and new ideas for materials scientists, engineers and researchers working on condensed matter. The new edition e...

  18. Morphology and Accommodative Function of the Vitreous Zonule in Human and Monkey Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin; Croft, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The vitreous zonule may be a therapeutic target for presbyopia. The age-related changes in the vitreous zonular system and the correlation with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body are reported.

  19. Trypsin-mediated enzymatic degradation of type II collagen in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Kuijer, Roel; Pas, Hendri Harm; van der Worp, Roelofje Jacoba; Hooymans, Johanna Martina Maria; Los, Leonoor Inge

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aging of the vitreous body can result in sight-threatening pathology. One aspect of vitreous aging is liquefaction, which results from the vanishing of collagen fibrils. We investigated the possibility that trypsins are involved in vitreous type II collagen degradation. Methods: Immunohisto

  20. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  1. Use of pars plana vitrectomy with phacoemulsification in vitreous cavity to treat complete posterior dislocation of lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutoh T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with phacoemulsification in the vitreous cavity for treatment of complete posterior dislocation of the lens without any damage to the lens capsule.Methods: We evaluated factors such as cause of dislocation, scleral fixation of an intraocular lens (IOL, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, corneal endothelial cell density, and intraoperative and postoperative complications.Results: Displacement in the eleven eyes studied was mostly caused by ocular trauma and was idiopathic (four eyes each. Scleral fixation of the IOL was performed in seven of the eyes during first-time PPV. Visual acuity was improved in two eyes, unchanged in eight eyes, and worse in one eye. Mean corneal endothelial cell density was 2485 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 2301 cells/mm2 postoperatively. No significant differences were seen before and after the surgeries (P = 0.15, paired t-test. Intraoperative complications included retinal detachment and suprachoroidal hemorrhage in one eye each. The most common postoperative complication was transient ocular hypertension, which occurred in three eyes. IOL dislocation and vitreous incarceration of the anterior chamber in one eye required a second operation, while retinal detachment in one eye required a third operation.Conclusion: When treating a completely dislocated lens, prevention of retinal detachment which subsequently can affect the visual prognosis is the most important factor to be addressed after PPV with intravitreal phacoemulsification.Keywords: lens dislocation, pars plana vitrectomy, phacoemulsification in the vitreous cavity, retinal detachment

  2. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Nancy J; Wijman, Christine A C

    2010-11-01

    Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic infarcts (both venous and arterial). Imaging findings in common and less common causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage are reviewed.

  3. Preparation of homogeneous vitreous materials for electronic and optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, H. C.; Platakis, N. S.; Witt, A. F.

    1971-01-01

    Vitreous material builds up as series of solidified layers on inside walls of sealed quartz ampoule containing molten constituents of material, and forms well defined shapes to close dimensional tolerances. Ampoules are made of material which does not react with melt and has lower thermal expansion coefficient than solidified layer.

  4. Enzymatic Breakdown of Type II Collagen in the Human Vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Pas, Hendri H.; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate whether enzymatic collagen breakdown is an active process in the human vitreous. METHODS. Human donor eyes were used for immunohistochemistry to detect the possible presence of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced type II collagen breakdown product col2-3/4C-short in

  5. 21 CFR 872.3680 - Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vitreous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... materials. 872.3680 Section 872.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3680 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vitreous carbon materials. (a) Identification. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)...

  6. Asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst masquerading as cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganger, Anita; Agarwal, Rinki; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-02

    A male patient aged 37 years, referred with the diagnosis of right eye intravitreal cysticercosis, was diagnosed as asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst after thorough evaluation. The patient was kept under observation, since baseline visual acuity was unaffected. No change was noted over the period of 6 months.

  7. Enzymatic Breakdown of Type II Collagen in the Human Vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deemter, Marielle; Pas, Hendri H.; Kuijer, Roel; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate whether enzymatic collagen breakdown is an active process in the human vitreous. METHODS. Human donor eyes were used for immunohistochemistry to detect the possible presence of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced type II collagen breakdown product col2-3/4C-short in th

  8. Ultrasound biomicroscopy study of vitreous incarceration subsequent to intravitreal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Riazi, Mohammad; Faghihi, Hooshang; Khorami, Azita

    2012-02-01

    To study the existence of vitreous incarceration by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) at the pars plana after direct intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide ± bevacizumab without anterior chamber paracentesis. Interventional case series. Patients undergoing intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide with or without intravitreal bevacizumab. In 21 eyes, the existence of vitreous incarceration at the pars plana site of intravitreal injection of 0.05 mL of drug was studied by UBM (50 MHz probe of the VUmax, Sonomed, NY), the day after surgery, by 1 technician. The reason for injection was diabetic retinopathy in 12 (57.1%) eyes; age-related macular degeneration in 6 (28.6%) eyes; branch retinal vein occlusion in 2 (9.5%) eyes; and choroiditis in 1 eye (4.8%). In 1 eye, only triamcinolone acetonide was injected, and in the other eyes, bevacizumab mixed with triamcinolone acetonide was injected. We studied 21 eyes in 13 patients. Of the subjects, 61.5% were male. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 years. On the day after intravitreal injection of the drug, vitreous incarceration into the pars plana site was detected by UBM in 42.9% of the eyes. Vitreous incarceration exists after intravitreal injection of drug, but its clinical importance is still unknown. Further long-term prospective studies are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  10. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajesh; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Kumar, Chandrashekhar; Shekhar, Himanshu; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2013-01-01

    To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife) and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months). The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic). None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8) of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  11. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV. Materials and Methods: In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months. The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic. None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8 of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Conclusion: Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  12. Effects of mechanical stress and vitreous samples in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Eri, E-mail: eritakahashi@fc.kuh.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Fukushima, Ayako; Haga, Akira; Inomata, Yasuya; Ito, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Mikiko; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2016-02-12

    In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), scattered RPE cells from the basement membrane into the vitreous cavity undergo an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and form the intraocular fibrous membrane in response to vitreous fluid. We investigated whether exposure to vitreous samples was associated with EMT-associated signals and mesenchymal characters. Human vitreous samples were collected from patients with RRD, epiretinal membrane (ERM), or macular hole (MH). We evaluated the effects of vitreous on ARPE-19 cells in suspension cultures using poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coated dishes and three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel cultures. We found that exposure to vitreous samples did not induce morphological changes or accelerate wound closure in monolayers. Several samples showed increased phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Mechanical stress triggered an elevation of phosphorylation levels in Smad2. In addition, exposure to vitreous fluid increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cell suspension cultures after mechanical stress. Moreover, ARPE-19 cells showed a stellate invasive phenotype in 3D Matrigel cultures with vitreous samples. In this study, we demonstrated that mechanical stress and vitreous were associated with EMT-associated signals and invasive phenotypes in 3D cultures but not in monolayers. These results have important implications for the role of vitreous humor in the induction of EMT and intraocular fibrosis.

  13. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  14. STUDIES OF CHALCOGENIDE VITREOUS SEMICONDUCTORS IN THE IOFFE PHYSICOTECHNICAL INSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomiets, B.

    1981-01-01

    The broad class of semiconductors discovered at the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute in 1955-56 [1] and termed at present chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVS) has recently been attracting ever increasing interest of the researchers due to many properties which are unusual for crystalline semiconductors. During a number of years, our interests here been primarily connected with such basic problems as the transport phenomena, electronic spectrum, the role of impurities, optical and pho...

  15. Mixing processes in the vitreous chamber induced by eye rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a model of flow in the vitreous humour in the posterior chamber of the human eye, induced by saccadic eye rotations. We concentrate on the effect of the shape of the chamber upon the mixing properties of the induced flows. We make particle image velocimetry measurements of the fluid velocity in a transparent plastic (Perspex) model of the posterior chamber during sinusoidal torsional oscillations about a vertical axis. We use a Newtonian fluid to model the vitreous humour, which is most realistic when either the vitreous humour is liquefied or has been replaced by purely viscous tamponade fluids. The model of the posterior chamber is a sphere with an indentation, representing the effect of the lens. In spite of the purely periodic forcing, a steady streaming flow is generated, which plays a fundamental role in the mixing processes in the domain. The streaming flow differs markedly from that in a perfect sphere, and its topological characteristics change substantially as the frequency of oscillation varies. We discuss the flow characteristics in detail and show that, for physiological parameter values, the Péclet number (based on a suitable measure of the steady streaming velocity) is large, suggesting that advection strongly dominates over diffusion for mass transport phenomena. We also compute particle trajectories based on the streaming velocity and use these to investigate the stirring properties of the flow.

  16. Mixing processes in the vitreous chamber induced by eye rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocchino, Alessandro [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy); Repetto, Rodolfo [Department of Engineering of Structures, Water and Soil, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Siggers, Jennifer H [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jorma@diam.unige.it

    2010-01-21

    In this paper, we study a model of flow in the vitreous humour in the posterior chamber of the human eye, induced by saccadic eye rotations. We concentrate on the effect of the shape of the chamber upon the mixing properties of the induced flows. We make particle image velocimetry measurements of the fluid velocity in a transparent plastic (Perspex) model of the posterior chamber during sinusoidal torsional oscillations about a vertical axis. We use a Newtonian fluid to model the vitreous humour, which is most realistic when either the vitreous humour is liquefied or has been replaced by purely viscous tamponade fluids. The model of the posterior chamber is a sphere with an indentation, representing the effect of the lens. In spite of the purely periodic forcing, a steady streaming flow is generated, which plays a fundamental role in the mixing processes in the domain. The streaming flow differs markedly from that in a perfect sphere, and its topological characteristics change substantially as the frequency of oscillation varies. We discuss the flow characteristics in detail and show that, for physiological parameter values, the Peclet number (based on a suitable measure of the steady streaming velocity) is large, suggesting that advection strongly dominates over diffusion for mass transport phenomena. We also compute particle trajectories based on the streaming velocity and use these to investigate the stirring properties of the flow.

  17. Intravitreal Devices for the Treatment of Vitreous Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Christoforidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye is a well-suited organ for local delivery of therapeutics to treat vitreous inflammation as well as other pathologic conditions that induce visual loss. Several conditions are particularly challenging to treat and often require chronic courses of therapy. The use of implantable intravitreal devices for drug delivery is an emerging field in the treatment of vitreous inflammation as well as other ophthalmologic diseases. There are unique challenges in the design of these devices which include implants, polymers, and micro- and nanoparticles. This paper reviews current and investigational drug delivery systems for treating vitreous inflammation as well as other pathologic conditions that induce visual loss. The use of nonbiodegradable devices such as polyvinyl alcohol-ethylene vinyl acetate polymers and polysulfone capillary fibers, and biodegradable devices such as polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, and polylactic-co-glycolic acid, polycaprolactones, and polyanhydrides are reviewed. Clinically used implantable devices for therapeutic agents including ganciclovir, fluocinolone acetonide, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone are described. Finally, recently developed investigational particulate drug delivery systems in the form of liposomes, microspheres, and nanoparticles are examined.

  18. Post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Madsen, Anders Rørbaek; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler;

    2009-01-01

    risk factors for hemorrhage. Increased hospital stay and infection rates were found in patients treated with drainage. The median time for onset of postoperative hemorrhage was 3 h (range 0-105). Compared with international literature our incidence of post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage is relatively high....... Improvement might be reached by the exchange of experience between departments with focus on adequate surgical technique and careful hemostasis....

  19. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding. Grade 1 is also referred to as germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). Grades 3 and 4 involve ... Saunders; 2015:chap 60. Volpe JJ. Intracranial hemorrhage: germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage. In Volpe JJ, ed. Neurology ...

  20. Materials in the vitreous during cataract surgery: nature and incidence, with two cases of histological confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Andrew W; Chen, Tony S; Wang, Sarah B; Jain, Neeranjali S; Goh, Aaron Yj; Douglas, Christopher P; McKelvie, Penny A; Agar, Ashish; Osher, Robert H; Francis, Ian C

    2016-12-01

    To identify and classify materials in the vitreous observed during phacoemulsification cataract surgery (phaco). Prospective, consecutive, observational case series at one ophthalmic day surgery in Sydney, Australia. A total of 767 consecutive phaco cases. Cases were excluded if there was posterior capsule rupture or vitreous loss intraoperatively. For each patient, age, gender, baseline corrected distance visual acuity, presence of pseudoexfoliation, nuclear sclerosis grade and phacoemulsification ultrasound time were recorded. The relationship between these variables and materials in the vitreous was evaluated with regression analysis. Two patients with materials in the vitreous developed an acute intraoperative rock-hard eye syndrome. In these two patients, pars plana needle aspiration of retrolenticular fluid was performed to re-establish normal intraocular pressure. Histology was undertaken to compare this fluid with known lens material retrieved from the Fluid Management System bags in two unrelated cases. Presence of materials in the vitreous during phaco. Materials in the vitreous were observed in either Berger's space or the anterior vitreous in 386 eyes (50.3% of cases); the majority was putatively lens material (46.5% of all cases). Pigment and ophthalmic viscoelastic device were seen in the anterior vitreous in 9.8% and 1.7% of cases, respectively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher nuclear sclerosis grade (P = 0.025), male gender (P = 0.003) and greater age (P = 0.016) were predictive of the presence of materials in the vitreous. Histological assessment with light microscopy and birefringence techniques identified the materials in the vitreous as lens material. Materials in the vitreous were seen in 50.3% of phaco cases. It has been histologically demonstrated that lens materials can be introduced into the anterior vitreous during phaco. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Turkel, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mnaymneh, W. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Simple prepatellar bursitis is easily diagnosed both clinically and by MRI. MRI shows the typical T1 and T2 lengthening of fluid within the bursa. However, because of complex MRI appearance of hemorrhage, chronic hemorrhagic bursitis and the size of the prepatellar mass the clinical and MRI appearance can be very different. (orig.)

  2. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  3. Vitreoretinal Surgery for Intraocular Lens Dislocated into the Vitreous Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Özçelik Soba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sex, age, accompanying eye examination findings, and the outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery (VRS for intraocular lens (IOL dislocated into the vitreous cavity. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 30 patients who underwent VRS for IOL dislocation into the vitreous cavity were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopic, and posterior segment examination findings were assessed. Results: The average age of the patients was 63.1 (range: 38-83 years. Twenty-one patients were male (70% and 9 patients were female (30%. As etiologic causes, 18 cases (60% had late spontaneous dislocation, 5 cases (16.6% had dislocation after phacoemulsification surgery, 4 cases (13.3% had trauma, 2 cases (6.6% had previously undergone vitrectomy, and 1 case (3.3% had undergone YAG laser capsulotomy. VRS including 23-gauge triamcinolone-assisted pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular lens extraction, posterior hyaloid membrane removing, endolaser photocoagulation, and fluid-air exchange was performed. Posterior chamber IOL implantation on to the anterior capsule in 13 cases (43.3%, anterior chamber IOL implantation in 10 cases (33.3%, and scleral fixated posterior IOL implantation in 4 cases (13.3% were performed. The corrected visual acuity recorded at the last follow-up was better than the first visit in 23 cases (76.6%, the same in 5 eyes (16.6%, and worse in 2 eyes (6.6%. Conclusion: VRS combined IOL implantation is a successful surgery method for IOL dislocated into the vitreous cavity and can avoid poor visual outcomes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 56-9

  4. A model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-liaoLI; Xiao-liangWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To build a simple and repeatable animal model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: SAH was introduced by passing a nylon thread up through the right internal carotid artery and piercing a hone in the right anterior cerebral artery. At 12 and 24 h, the rats were evaluated with rotarod test and the behavior scale (5-point scale). RESULTS: The ratswere trained through rotarod test and then randomly divided into

  5. Influence of sclerotomy use on vitreous incarceration in an experimental model of vitrectomized eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez-Herreros J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Javier Benitez-Herreros,1 Lorenzo Lopez-Guajardo,1,2 Cristina Camara-Gonzalez,1 Aurora Perez-Crespo,1 Agustin Silva-Mato,3 Miguel A Teus1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Príncipe de Asturias, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Surgery, Medical and Social Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Alcalá University, Madrid, Spain; 3Department of Health and Sociomedical Sciences, Alcalá University, Madrid, Spain Purpose: To evaluate the influence of sclerotomy use during vitrectomy (vitreous cutter, illumination probe, or infusion-line entrance on postoperative vitreous incarceration using an experimental model of vitrectomized eye. Materials and methods: Experimental, randomized, and observer-masked study in which 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in cadaveric pig eyes. Postoperative incisional vitreous entrapment was evaluated by direct visualization. No vitreous incarceration was classified as grade 0 (G0, thin vitreous entrapment was classified as grade 1 (G1, and thick vitreous strands as grade 2 (G2. Results: A total of 46 eyes were included. Vitreous incarceration was detected in 91.3% (43.5% G1, 47.8% G2 of the sclerotomies used by the vitreous cutter probe, 95.7% (45.7% G1, 50% G2 of the illumination-pipe entrances, and 93.5% (45.7% G1, 47.8% G2 of the infusion-line incisions. No statistical differences were found when comparing incisional vitreous incarceration after vitrectomy according to sclerotomy use. Conclusion: Different manipulation of the sclerotomies, depending on their use, does not seem to influence postvitrectomy vitreous entrapment in our experimental model. Keywords: vitrectomy, vitreous incarceration, direct visualization, sclerotomy use, experimental model

  6. Age-dependent vitreous separation from the macula in a clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zahid Syed,1 Michael W Stewart2 1Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: Vitreous degeneration begins soon after birth and accelerates throughout life. Vitreous liquefaction with a slowly progressive separation of the posterior hyaloid from the peripheral macula usually leads to complete posterior vitreous detachment. The purpose of this study is to measure the age-related prevalence of partial vitreous separation and the length of residual vitreous adhesion in an ophthalmology clinic population. Methods: Patients examined by the senior author (MWS during a 6-month period were included in a retrospective chart review. Demographic data and spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan results were gathered. Data analysis with descriptive statistics focused on the prevalence and extent of partial vitreous separation. Results: The mean age of the study patients was 69.9 years, and 62% were phakic. The highest prevalence of partial posterior hyaloid separation from the internal limiting membrane (71.2% was seen in the 50- to 54-year age group. This prevalence rate steadily decreased to 5.6% in the 95- to 99-year age group. The prevalence of complete vitreous detachment as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy increased from 1.7% in the <50-year age group to a maximum of 29.2% in the 75- to 79-year group. The length of vitreomacular adhesion averaged 4.6 mm in the 50- to 54-year age group and steadily decreased to 2.1 mm in the 90- to 95-year group. Conclusion: Vitreomacular separation affects the majority of eyes in the sixth decade of life. The prevalence of partial vitreous separation decreases with advancing age, probably because an increasing number of these patients progress to complete posterior vitreous detachment. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, posterior hyaloid, posterior vitreous detachment, syneresis, vitreomacular adhesion, vitreous

  7. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization Using Vitreous Ceramics Interim Progress Report October 1994-September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X; Hahn, W K; Gong, M [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gong, W; Wang, L; Ewing, R C [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1995-01-01

    Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy`s environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs{sub 2}O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms.

  8. Complex Study of the Physical Properties of Reticulated Vitreous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Cherepanov, V. V.; Morzhukhina, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We give an example of using a two-level identifi cation system incorporating an augmented mathematical model covering the structure, the thermal, electrophysical, and optical properties of nonmetallic ultraporous reticulated materials. The model, when combined with a nonstationary thermal experiment and methods of the theory of inverse heat transfer problems, permits determining the little studied characteristics of the above materials. We present some of the results of investigations of reticulated vitreous carbon confirming the possibility of using it in a number of engineering applications.

  9. Localized vitreous adhesion to the retina after ocular contusion with a baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Kimura, Akira Nishimura, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report a series of five cases of vitreous adhesions after blunt trauma caused by a baseball strike.Methods: The medical records of patients with ocular contusion after being struck by a baseball, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, were reviewed. An aqueous suspension of triamcinolone acetonide was used intraoperatively to facilitate visualization of the vitreous.Results: Five eyes were reviewed in this study. There were two cases of retinal detachment, two cases of traumatic macular hole, and one case of retinal detachment due to traumatic macular hole. Despite the surgical creation of posterior vitreous detachment, if not already present, the thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion to the retinal necrotic area with/without retinal hole was found between the major vascular arcades and the equator in all cases. The thin layer of the vitreous was removed with a vitreous cutter and diamond-dusted membrane scraper, but complete removal was impossible.Conclusions: A thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion at the area of retinal degeneration was observed in eyes following ocular contusion.Keywords: localized, vitreous adhesion, triamcinolone acetonide, ocular contusion, pars plana vitrectomy

  10. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this m

  11. Remodeling of the adult human vitreous and vitreoretinal interface : a dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, Theodorus Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    The vitreous body (or vitreous) of the human eye is an almost acellular, transparent loose-meshed connective tissue consisting mainly of water (99%) and of just 0.1% macromolecules, such as glycosaminoglycans (e.g. hyaluronan), proteoglycans, glycoproteins (such as opticin), collagens, and noncollag

  12. Increased Vitreous Shedding of Microparticles in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Chahed, Sadri; Leroyer, Aurélie S.; Benzerroug, Mounir; Gaucher, David; Georgescu, Adriana; Picaud, Serge; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Gaudric, Alain; Tedgui, Alain; Massin, Pascale; Boulanger, Chantal M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy is associated with progressive retinal capillary activation and proliferation, leading to vision impairment and blindness. Microparticles are submicron membrane vesicles with biological activities, released following cell activation or apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that proangiogenic microparticles accumulate in vitreous fluid in diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Levels and cellular origin of vitreous and plasma microparticles from control ...

  13. Mature enzymatic collagen cross-links, hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline, in the aging human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, T.L.; van Deemter, M.; Bank, R.A.; Snabel, J.M.; Zijlstra, G.S.; van der Worp, R.J.; Hooymans, J.M.M.; Los, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The vitreous body of the human eye undergoes progressive morphologic changes with aging. Since the enzymatic collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) are known to be important for the integrity of the collagen matrix, the presence in the vitreous on agin

  14. Mature Enzymatic Collagen Cross-Links, Hydroxylysylpyridinoline and Lysylpyridinoline, in the Aging Human Vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, Theodorus L.; van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Rudolf A.; Snabel, Johanna M.; Zijlstra, Gerrit S.; van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE. The vitreous body of the human eye undergoes progressive morphologic changes with aging. Since the enzymatic collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) are known to be important for the integrity of the collagen matrix, the presence in the vitreous on agin

  15. Pneumatic displacement without tissue plasminogen activator in premacular subhyaloid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumita S. Kadarisman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal injection of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 gas without the use of tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA in premacular Subhyaloid Hemorrhage (SHH, 5 eyes of 5 patients with premacular SHH were enrolled. After performing paracentesis of the anterior chamber, 0.3 ml pure SF6 gas was injected through pars plana with a 30 gauge needle. Facedown position was maintained for 5 days. Subhyaloid Hemorrhage was displaced in 4/5 (80% eyes with a duration of SHH less than 2 weeks. The pre-injection visual acuity of all 5 eyes was finger counting and improved in 4/5 ( 80% eyes within 3 days to 7 days post-injection to 6/20 - 6/6. The underlying disease was hypercoagulation in 1 patient, diabetes mellitus in 2 patients, hypertension in 1 patient and unknown in 1 patient. No complications were encountered. In conclusion, SF6 gas injected into the vitreous without the use of tPA, can displace SHH if performed within 14 days of duration, and results in rapid visual recovery. This procedure is proven to be safe. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:104-7 Keywords: subhyaloid hemorrhage, pneumatic displacement, sulfur hexafluoride gas

  16. MR imaging of model drug distribution in simulated vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo characterization of intravitreal injections plays an important role in developing innovative therapy approaches. Using the established vitreous model (VM and eye movement system (EyeMoS the distribution of contrast agents with different molecular weight was studied in vitro. The impact of the simulated age-related vitreal liquefaction (VL on drug distribution in VM was examined either with injection through the gel phase or through the liquid phase. For comparison the distribution was studied ex vivo in the porcine vitreous. The studies were performed in a magnetic resonance (MR scanner. As expected, with increasing molecular weight the diffusion velocity and the visual distribution of the injected substances decreased. Similar drug distribution was observed in VM and in porcine eye. VL causes enhanced convective flow and faster distribution in VM. Confirming the importance of the injection technique in progress of VL, injection through gelatinous phase caused faster distribution into peripheral regions of the VM than following injection through liquefied phase. VM and MR scanner in combination present a new approach for the in vitro characterization of drug release and distribution of intravitreal dosage forms.

  17. Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Liu

    Full Text Available To describe enhanced vitreous imaging for visualization of anatomic features and microstructures within the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. The study hypothesis was that long-wavelength, high-speed, volumetric SS-OCT with software registration motion correction and vitreous window display or high-dynamic-range (HDR display improves detection sensitivity of posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal features compared to standard OCT logarithmic scale display.Observational prospective cross-sectional study.Multiple wide-field three-dimensional SS-OCT scans (500×500A-scans over 12×12 mm2 were obtained using a prototype instrument in 22 eyes of 22 healthy volunteers. A registration motion-correction algorithm was applied to compensate motion and generate a single volumetric dataset. Each volumetric dataset was displayed in three forms: (1 standard logarithmic scale display, enhanced vitreous imaging using (2 vitreous window display and (3 HDR display. Each dataset was reviewed independently by three readers to identify features of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. Detection sensitivities for these features were measured for each display method.Features observed included the bursa premacularis (BPM, area of Martegiani, Cloquet's/BPM septum, Bergmeister papilla, posterior cortical vitreous (hyaloid detachment, papillomacular hyaloid detachment, hyaloid attachment to retinal vessel(s, and granular opacities within vitreous cortex, Cloquet's canal, and BPM. The detection sensitivity for these features was 75.0% (95%CI: 67.8%-81.1% using standard logarithmic scale display, 80.6% (95%CI: 73.8%-86.0% using HDR display, and 91.9% (95%CI: 86.6%-95.2% using vitreous window display.SS-OCT provides non-invasive, volumetric and measurable in vivo visualization of the anatomic microstructural features of the posterior vitreous and vitreoretinal interface. The

  18. Diagnostic cellular yield is superior with full pars plana vitrectomy compared with core vitreous biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhar, H S; Sheard, R

    2013-01-01

    Vitreous biopsy for the cytological assessment of suspected intraocular lymphoma and vitritis of uncertain aetiology is a standard investigation. The types of specimens generated and the diagnostic rate are variable within and between centres. There are many reasons for this but one observation that has not been considered previously is the differential distribution of cells in the vitreous gel. To test this possibility, five consecutive patients with suspected vitreous involvement by lymphoma or vitritis of uncertain aetiology underwent a core vitreous biopsy immediately before a planned full pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and the cellularity of the two sampling techniques compared. A prospective study of five consecutive patients requiring vitreous sampling to secure a firm diagnosis. For each of five patients, the core vitreous biopsy specimen was received in a universal tube and the PPV specimen was received in a vitreous cassette. Fluid (0.25 ml) was removed from both specimens, centrifuged and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides prepared per sampling method. The slides were examined with a light microscope, the most cellular field selected and the number of cells per mm(2) counted and compared between sampling techniques. PPV specimen's, revealed a cellularity range that was 7.4 to 78 × (average 31 ×) greater than a core vitreous biopsy. In the two cases of a final diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma, the vitreous core biopsy was non-diagnostic. Furthermore, the PPV specimen generated additional cellular material for numerous ancillary investigations to permit a secure diagnosis. The results of this differential vitreous sampling study has strengthened our anecdotal slit lamp clinical observations that inflammatory cells and lymphoma cells are concentrated more in the cortical vitreous. Therefore, vitreous cells have less chance to be sampled if a single core vitreous biopsy is performed. Indeed, the two cases of confirmed lymphoma generated a non

  19. Interleukin-6 concentrations in the vitreous body of patients with retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Collazos, J M; Cantón, M

    2015-11-01

    To measure interleuquin-6 (IL-6) levels in the vitreous body of patients with retinal detachment (RD). Undiluted vitreous samples were obtained from 40 patients with no history of prior vitreous or intraocular surgery. Patients were divided into two groups: A (n=20) patients with RD and B (n=20) patients with pre-retinal macular membranes and macular holes. IL-6 was determined using radioimmunoassay. IL-6 vitreous concentration in group A was 122.4+-16pg/mL (range 91.5-620) and in group B was 46+/-23pg/mL (range 3-150) (p <.001). These results show that the concentration of IL-6 in the vitreous body was significantly higher in patients with RD than in the control group. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitreous humor and albumin augment the proliferation of cultured retinal precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Intravitreal injection is an important delivery route for studies involving the transplantation of various types of precursor cells to the retina; however, the effect on these cells of exposure to the vitreous microenvironment has not been specifically investigated. Here vitreous humor was evalua......Intravitreal injection is an important delivery route for studies involving the transplantation of various types of precursor cells to the retina; however, the effect on these cells of exposure to the vitreous microenvironment has not been specifically investigated. Here vitreous humor...... was evaluated for the potential to influence the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in vitro. Cells were isolated at embryonic day 19 and plated in standard proliferation medium in the presence or absence of fluid expressed from porcine vitreous humor. Cellular proliferation at different...

  1. Lipid partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm highlights relationships among starch lipids, amylose, and vitreousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier

    2015-04-08

    Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.

  2. Vitreous asteroid hyalosis prolapse into the anterior chamber simulating iris metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Romanelli-Gobbi, Massi; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A

    2012-01-01

    Two asymptomatic elderly women who underwent cataract extraction 7 or more years previously and with intraocular lens placement presented with a linear bead-like white multinodular mass in the inferior angle simulating iris metastasis versus large inflammatory precipitates. There was no iris infiltration. In the first case, the posterior lens capsule was intact and there was no evidence of gelatinous vitreous in the anterior chamber, whereas in the second case, the capsule was open and there was gelatinous vitreous prolapse. In both cases, there was asteroid hyalosis in the vitreous. Both patients were diagnosed with prolapsed vitreous asteroid hyalosis into the anterior chamber and managed with observation. Vitreous asteroid hyalosis can prolapse into the anterior chamber of pseudophakic elderly patients with or without capsular opening and can simulate an intraocular tumor.

  3. Vitreous asteroid hyalosis prolapse into the anterior chamber simulating iris metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Shields

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two asymptomatic elderly women who underwent cataract extraction 7 or more years previously and with intraocular lens placement presented with a linear bead-like white multinodular mass in the inferior angle simulating iris metastasis versus large inflammatory precipitates. There was no iris infiltration. In the first case, the posterior lens capsule was intact and there was no evidence of gelatinous vitreous in the anterior chamber, whereas in the second case, the capsule was open and there was gelatinous vitreous prolapse. In both cases, there was asteroid hyalosis in the vitreous. Both patients were diagnosed with prolapsed vitreous asteroid hyalosis into the anterior chamber and managed with observation. Vitreous asteroid hyalosis can prolapse into the anterior chamber of pseudophakic elderly patients with or without capsular opening and can simulate an intraocular tumor.

  4. Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary manifestations of cryoglobulinemia are uncommon and their clinical behaviour is unpredictable, ranging from mild dyspnea to life-threatening presentations. A patient with cryoglobulinemia who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure attributed to pulmonary hemorrhage is reported.

  5. Title:- retrobulbar hemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Gagan

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. 1. Department of .... technique of orbital decompression that involves fracturing the orbital ... hemorrhage after retrobulbar anesthesia.

  6. Organization of the rabbit vitreous body : Lamellae, Cloquet's channel and a novel structure, the 'alae canalis Cloqueti'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van Luyn, MJA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    1999-01-01

    Even though the rabbit is a frequently used animal model for studies on Vitreous function and pathobiology, data on the structural organization of the rabbit Vitreous are scarce. The aim of the present study is to give a detailed description of rabbit vitreous structure in order to provide a basis f

  7. Organization of the rabbit vitreous body : Lamellae, Cloquet's channel and a novel structure, the 'alae canalis Cloqueti'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van Luyn, MJA; Nieuwenhuis, P

    1999-01-01

    Even though the rabbit is a frequently used animal model for studies on Vitreous function and pathobiology, data on the structural organization of the rabbit Vitreous are scarce. The aim of the present study is to give a detailed description of rabbit vitreous structure in order to provide a basis f

  8. Clear visualization of anterior vitreous incarceration into cannulae during 25-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with asteroid hyalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Takayuki; Mori, Ryusaburo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate anterior vitreous incarceration in the cannulae at 3 ports during 25-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with asteroid hyalosis. In 6 eyes with asteroid hyalosis, 3-port 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was conducted using conventional 25-gauge cannula (4 eyes) or 25-gauge EdgePlusTM trocar/cannula system (2 eyes). The relationship between the cannulae and anterior vitreous was observed during surgery. The 3 ports were observed at the beginning of vitrectomy. At the infusion port, incarceration of anterior vitreous containing asteroid bodies between the cannula and the infusion tip was clearly observed in all 6 eyes, irrespective of the cannula used. When the incarcerated vitreous fibers were excised using a vitreous cutter, the infusion fluid flowed toward the center of the vitreous. At both the left and right ports, anterior vitreous containing asteroid bodies was incarcerated into the cannulae in all 6 eyes irrespective of the cannula used. The incarcerated vitreous fibers were excised. At the end of surgery, no vitreous prolapse was found at the 3 ports in all eyes. When using the 25-gauge cannula system, incarceration of anterior vitreous fibers into the cannulae of 3 ports from the beginning of surgery was clearly depicted in eyes with asteroid hyalosis. Excising the incarcerated anterior vitreous fibers is useful to ensure good perfusion and prevent vitreous prolapse.

  9. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In order to study the clinical manifestation and risk factor of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH).Methods:The 256 patients were analysed who admitted to our hospital for intracerebral hemorrhage between 1995 and 1997.The 15(5 .86%)patients had a recurrent ICH.There were 9 men and 6 women and the mean age of the patients was 63.5 ± 6.4years at the first bleeding episode and 67.8± 8. 5 years at the second. The mean interval between the two bleeding episodes was 44.6 ± 12.5 months. The 73.3%patients were hypertensive .′The site of the first hemorrhage was ganglionic in 8 patients , ]ohar in six paients and brainstem in one .The recurrent hemorrhage occurred at a different location from the previous ICH.The most common pattern of recurrence was “ganglionic -ganglionic” (7 patients), lobar - ganglionic (3 patients), lobar-lobar(three patients), which was always observed in hypertensive patients. The outcome after the recurrent hemorrhage was usually poor. By comparison with 24 patients followed up to average 47.5± 18.7 months with isolated ICH without recurrence .Only lobar hematoma and a younger age were risk factors for recurrences whereas sex and previous hypertension were not. The mechanism of recurrence of ICH were multiple(hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy).Contral of blood pressure and good living habit after the first hemorrhage may prevent ICH recurrences.

  10. Clinical Features and Course of Patients with Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cebeci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients who were followed in our clinic with the diagnosis of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHC. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 12 patients who were diagnosed with PEHC in İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology between July 2006 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: This study included 21 eyes of 12 patients. Four (33.3% of the patients were male and 8 (66.7% were female and ages ranged between 73 and 89 years. Eight (66.7% of the patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of choroidal mass. Unilateral involvement was found in 3 and bilateral involvement in 9 patients. Temporal quadrants were involved in all eyes. Fifteen eyes (71.4% had subretinal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic/serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment, 11 (52.4% had lipid exudation, 5 (23.8% had chronic retinal pigment epithelium alterations, 2 (9.5% had subretinal fibrosis and 1 (4.8% had vitreous hemorrhage. PEHC lesions were accompanied by drusen in 11 eyes (52.4%, geographic atrophy in 2 eyes (9.5%, and choroidal neovascularization scar in 2 eyes (9.5%. Treatment was done in both eyes of a patient for lesions which threatened the macula, in a patient with bilateral macular edema and in a patient with vitreous hemorrhage. The remaining eyes were followed-up without any treatment because the lesions did not threaten the macula and they showed no progression during follow-up. Conclusion: PEHC is a degenerative disease of peripheral retina that is seen in older patients, and signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD may accompany this pathology. Especially in patients with AMD findings, the peripheral retina must be evaluated carefully for existing PEHC lesions.

  11. Managing the consequences of aggressive conservative treatment for refractory retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Brink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 4 year-old girl with bilateral, non-familial retinoblastoma (RB was referred to our care after primary enucleation OS and active tumor OD refractory to multiple therapies (intravenous chemotherapy, laser/cryotherapy, and I-125 plaque radiotherapy. Vitreous seeding OD, initially controlled by several sessions of Ophthalmic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy (OAIC and periocular chemotherapy, recurred shortly thereafter. The patient underwent intravitreal (IVit Melphalan injections achieving tumor control despite the concurrent development of keratopathy, pupillary synechiae, cataract, and necrosis of the inferior fornix and the adjacent orbital fat, all secondary to the treatments administered. Repeated amniotic membrane implants and tarsorrhaphy were performed to alleviate the symptoms. Despite being tumor free for 6 months, a poor fundus view and treatment-related complications prompted us to consider enucleation, but parents declined. Following recent negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, her cataract was removed. She was then found to have tumor recurrence. Her eye was enucleated 12 months ago and she recovered well from the surgery. As ocular oncology embarks in eye-preserving treatments for retinoblastoma, it is important to address the cumulative effects and associated impact of such treatments and the possibility of failure.

  12. Intravitreal tPA Injection and Pneumatic Displacement for Submacular Hemorrhage in a 10-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tsuyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Submacular hemorrhage can occur after blunt trauma to the eye. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and gas injection are often used for treatment and are effective for submacular hemorrhage caused by age-related macular degeneration. This report describes the clinical outcome in a child with submacular hemorrhage caused by traumatic choroidal rupture who underwent successful intravitreal tPA injection and pneumatic displacement. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old boy developed sudden decrease of vision and a central scotoma in his right eye after trauma. Submacular hemorrhage was found in the eye. Visual acuity was 20/70 OD. Tissue plasminogen activator (12.5 μg in 0.05 mL and 0.3 mL of pure sulfur hexafluoride were injected into the vitreous cavity under general anesthesia. After surgery, the patient was instructed to maintain a prone position. Displacement of the submacular hemorrhage from the fovea revealed a choroidal rupture, presumed to be the cause of the hemorrhage. After 4 months of follow-up, visual acuity was restored and final visual acuity is 20/16. Conclusion. Intravitreal tPA and gas injection can be an effective treatment for children with submacular hemorrhage.

  13. Risk Factors for Posterior Capsule Rupture and Vitreous Loss during Phacoemulsification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Ali-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Kiavash, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate and risk factors of vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts operated by ophthalmology residents and fellows at Labbafinejad Medical Center. Methods This prospective descriptive study included consecutive patients with cataracts undergoing phacoemulsification over a one year period. All patients were operated under local or general anesthesia using the divide and conquer technique. Preoperatively, all patients underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and dilated funduscopy. Main outcome measures included the rate of posterior capsular rupture and vitreous loss as well as associated risk factors such as surgical experience, ocular and systemic conditions, and type and severity of the cataract. Results Overall, 767 eyes of 767 patients with mean age of 63.7±10.3 (range, 25–91) years were operated. The overall rate of vitreous loss was 7.9% which was 5-fold greater in the hands of residents as compared to fellows. Among different factors, older age, female sex, small pupil, small capsulorrhexis, presence of pseudoexfoliation, and high myopia were significantly associated with vitreous loss. The highest rate of vitreous loss occurred in patients with dense nuclear cataracts. Conclusion Considering the higher rate of vitreous loss in patients operated by ophthalmology residents; patients with known risk factors for vitreous loss should better be operated by more experienced surgeons. PMID:23198076

  14. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) in two Siberian husky dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, J; Yoshikai, T; Yoshimura, S; Takenaka, S

    1998-02-01

    Three eyes in two Siberian husky dogs were clinically diagnosed as persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) by means of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasonography (USG). Examination of mildly affected PHPV eyes with an ophthalmoscope showed the axial part of the posterior capsule to be opaque. The central lesion of the posterior capsule in severely affected eyes had been opaque with many blood vessels. Echographic changes in mild cases of PHPV were outside of the lens, linearly hyperechoic, parallel to the posterior lens capsule. In a severely affected eyeball, funnel-shaped hyperechoic change was noted in the retrolental space. Two months later, phacoemulsification was performed for diagnostic treatment of PHPV since progressive cataract was observed in this eye.

  15. Synchrotron radiation analysis on ancient Egyptian vitreous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamahana, Kyoko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Lecture of Egyptian Archaeology

    2000-07-01

    Ancient Egyptian vitreous materials, namely faience and glass, share the same elemental composition. But they appear to have originated separately. Faience objects appear as early as the Predynastic period, and glass was introduced from Mesopotamia during the New Kingdom. These faience and glass objects were not of daily use, rather they were regarded as religious symbols or luxury status goods. Most of the products were coloured blue, but we see an increased use of other colours during the New Kingdom (c.1550-1069BC). This tendency corresponds to the period of both territorial and political expansion of Egypt. A non-destructive SR-XRF experiment at SPring-8 was conducted last winter, aiming to determine the regional trait of elemental composition by examining the pattern and ratio of rare earth elements. As a result, we could observe some distinctive rare earth elements that may indicate regional variation. (author)

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael; Dacheva, Ivanka; Nobl, Matthias; Siwy, Justyna; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mullen, William; Koch, Frank H. J.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Kretz, Florian T. A.; Auffarth, Gerd U.; Koss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH) samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30) and compared with controls (n = 16). To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14) and control samples (n = 8). Results Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides) could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02). Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), Opticin and Vitronectin), remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO) to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO. PMID:27362861

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reich

    Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.

  18. Acute cerebral paragonimiasis presenting as hemorrhagic stroke in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang; Lin, Jiangkai; Wu, Nan; Feng, Hua

    2008-08-01

    A hemorrhagic stroke in children is rarely secondary to cerebral paragonimiasis. We describe a 9-year-old boy in whom an intracerebral hemorrhage was the leading clinical indication of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. He was hospitalized because of a sudden onset of headache, right hemiparesis, and dysarthria. A computed tomography scan revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance angiography did not confirm any vascular abnormalities at the location of the hematoma. Four weeks later, he presented with right hemiparesis again, and fever. A diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis was based on repeated magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for paragonimiasis. The patient gradually recovered with praziquantel treatment. Cerebral paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic strokes in children in areas where paragonimiasis is epidemic.

  19. Unexplained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hisato Ohno, Kenji InoueInouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report five cases of unexplained retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. A 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy was performed for four cases of macular holes (MH and one case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD. Retinal hemorrhages were observed on the first day after surgery and disappeared within several months without leaving any recognizable damage. We speculate that the retinal hemorrhages might have resulted from repeated collapse of the globe through a cannula under air perfusion, but other causes such as retinal vein congestion by face-down positioning are also possible.Keywords: retinal hemorrhage, vitrectomy, postoperative, macular hole, sutureless surgery

  20. Treatment of Dropped Nucleus with a 27-Gauge Twin Duty Cycle Vitreous Cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Watanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a method for the treatment of dropped nucleus during cataract surgery with a 27-gauge twin duty cycle (TDC vitreous cutter. When a TDC vitreous cutter is used, suction flow volume is maintained even when the cutter is driven at a high speed. This enables an Emery-Little grade 3 nucleus that had been difficult to treat with a conventional 27-gauge cutter to be successfully excised using only a vitreous cutter, with no intra- or postoperative complications. A dropped lens during cataract surgery of up to moderate hardness can be removed using a TDC cutter alone with a 27-gauge cutter system.

  1. Ligands and modifiers in vitreous materials the spectroscopy of condensed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Margaryan, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    The study of the effect of ligand and modifier ions on the spectroscopic properties of dn or fn elements in vitreous materials is important for the development of controllable lasers and amplifiers. The spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic compounds of transition elements and their solutions are well understood theoretically in the spectrochemistry of complexes, but developments for vitreous materials in these conditions have not been well documented. This book fills the gap by applying the ligand field theory of solid materials to the vitreous state, and presenting the data obtained fro

  2. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  3. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  4. [Depiction of the structure of the vitreous body in horses without ocular diseases and in horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) using transmission electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, G; Wollanke, B; Hoffmann, R; Matiasek, K; Gerhards, H

    2006-06-01

    Neither the ultrastructure of the vitreous body from horses without ocular diseases, nor the pathomorphological changes in the vitreous body associated with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) have been described. However, the vitreous body plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ERU. Ten vitreous body samples obtained from 5 horses without ocular disease, and 38 vitreous body samples from horses with ERU (collected during vitrectomy) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The vitreous body samples of horses without ocular diseases were characterized by a loose network of unbranched fibrils 10-12 nm in width. In the vitreous body samples of horses with ERU numerous dense bundles of fibrils, mononuclear inflammatory cells and necrotic cells represent the destruction of the vitreous fibrillar network. In this study, equine vitreous body ultrastructure was described for the first time. Thus, demonstrating ultramorphologically, the clinically apparent changes of the vitreous body associated with ERU.

  5. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Deshpande, Gautam A; Omata, Fumio; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The number of sample cases of colonic diverticular hemorrhage treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been small to date. To elucidate the safety and efficacy of EBL for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Retrospective study. General hospital. A total of 29 patients with 31 colonic diverticula with stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Urgent colonoscopy was performed after bowel preparation. When diverticula with SRH were identified, marking with hemoclips was done near the diverticula. The endoscope was removed and reinserted after a band-ligator device was attached to the tip of endoscope. At first, EBL was attempted. In patients who could not be treated with EBL, epinephrine injection or endoscopic clipping was performed. Procedure time, rate of hemostasis and rebleeding, complications. The mean procedure time was 47 ± 19 minutes. EBL was successfully completed in 27 colonic diverticula (87%); except in 3 diverticula with a small orifice and large dome and 1 diverticula in which the orifice was too large. Early rebleeding after EBL occurred in 3 of 27 cases (11%). Although 2 cases of sigmoid rebleeding could be managed by repeat EBL or conservatively, right hemicolectomy was performed in 1 ascending diverticulum, in which the bleeding source was not identified on repeat colonoscopy. Scar formation at previously banded diverticula was identified in 7 of 11 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy. There were no complications after EBL in any of the patients. Retrospective study. EBL is a safe and effective treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and colonic diverticula resolve after EBL. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical arboviral infection that can have severe hemorrhagic complication.Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is rare and is a big challenge in neurosurgery.To perform surgery for management of acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is a controversial issue.Here, the authors try to summarize the previous reports on this topic and compare neurosurgery versus conservative management.

  7. Dynamic increase in extracellular ATP accelerates photoreceptor cell apoptosis via ligation of P2RX7 in subretinal hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Notomi

    Full Text Available Photoreceptor degeneration is the most critical cause of visual impairment in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. In neovascular form of AMD, severe photoreceptor loss develops with subretinal hemorrhage due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV, growth of abnormal blood vessels from choroidal circulation. However, the detailed mechanisms of this process remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that neovascular AMD with subretinal hemorrhage accompanies a significant increase in extracellular ATP, and that extracellular ATP initiates neurodegenerative processes through specific ligation of Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7; P2X7 receptor. Increased extracellular ATP levels were found in the vitreous samples of AMD patients with subretinal hemorrhage compared to control vitreous samples. Extravascular blood induced a massive release of ATP and photoreceptor cell apoptosis in co-culture with primary retinal cells. Photoreceptor cell apoptosis accompanied mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, namely activation of caspase-9 and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF from mitochondria to nuclei, as well as TUNEL-detectable DNA fragmentation. These hallmarks of photoreceptor cell apoptosis were prevented by brilliant blue G (BBG, a selective P2RX7 antagonist, which is an approved adjuvant in ocular surgery. Finally, in a mouse model of subretinal hemorrhage, photoreceptor cells degenerated through BBG-inhibitable apoptosis, suggesting that ligation of P2RX7 by extracellular ATP may accelerate photoreceptor cell apoptosis in AMD with subretinal hemorrhage. Our results indicate a novel mechanism that could involve neuronal cell death not only in AMD but also in hemorrhagic disorders in the CNS and encourage the potential application of BBG as a neuroprotective therapy.

  8. Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

  9. Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela

    2005-01-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...

  10. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  12. Possible vitreous involvement in a case with rapidly progressing choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT. Despite the sequential treatments, the CNV grew larger and finally penetrated the retina. Vitreous adhesion was observed at the edge of the supraretinal fibrotic tissue. The case highlighted the possible unexpected side-effect of PDT. The upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor or the enhanced vitreous traction was considered to be responsible for the event.

  13. A survey of vitreous cell components performed using liquid-based cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Mari; Nishitsuka, Koichi; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2015-08-01

    To confirm the efficacy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) method in the observation of vitreous cells in various vitreoretinal diseases in human. Vitreous fluid samples from 30 eyes were obtained by 23-gauge 3-port pars plana vitrectomy. After making three ports, we collected vitreous specimen from the core vitreous cavity without infusion. We divided the samples into a quiescent group and an active group based on clinical signs of inflammation. To confirm availability of LBC preparation slides for immunostaining, we also performed immunocytochemistry (ICC) for CD68, RPE65 and DEC-205 (CD205) using LBC slides of 10 cell-rich cases including retinal detachment and endophthalmitis. Using LBC method, small amounts of vitreous cells were observed efficiently. Vitreous cells were observed in inflammatory quiescent cases including macular pucker and macular hole. The number of vitreous cells increased significantly in the cases with clinically active inflammation (2297 versus 207 cells/ml, respectively, p < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test). The ICC results showed the presence of CD68(+) cells in all 10 cases. Large numbers of DEC-205(+) cells were observed in one case with infectious endophthalmitis. In the cases with retinal detachment, the predominant cell type was RPE65(+) . Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed. The LBC method makes it possible to examine vitreous specimens easily and efficiently, facilitating the expedient diagnosis of vitreoretinal diseases, and the preparation slides are available for immunocytochemistry. This study also showed that vitreoretinal disease involves the migration of various types of cells including macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, RPE65(+) pigmented cells and DEC-205(+) cells. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hydraulic Resistance of Vitreous Cutters: The Impact of Blade Design and Cut Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tommaso; Querzoli, Giorgio; Angelini, Giampiero; Malvasi, Carlo; Rossi, Alessandro; Morini, Mario; Esposito, Graziana; Micera, Alessandra; di Luca, Natale Mario; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the hydraulic resistance (HR) of vitreous cutters equipped with a Regular guillotine Blade (RB) or double edge blade (DEB) at cut rates comprised between 0 and 12,000 cuts per minute (CPM) and compare it with vitreous fragment size. This was an in vitro experimental study; in vivo HR measure and vitreous sampling. Methods HR, defined as aspiration pressure/flow rate, was measured in balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) (in vitro) and during pars plana vitrectomy of 20 consecutive patients aged 18 to 65, undergoing macular surgery. HR was recorded at increasing cut rates (500–6000 CPM for the RB and 500–12,000 CPM for the DEB; 5 mL/min flow). Vitreous samples were withdrawn and analyzed with Western and collagen type II and IX immunostaining to evaluate protein size. The main outcome measures were hydraulic resistance (mm Hg/ml/min [±SD]) and optic density for Western blot and immunostaining. Results RB and DEB showed identical HR in BSS between 0 and 3000 CPM. Above 3000 CPM, RB HR steadily increased, and was significantly higher than DEB HR. Vitreous HR was also similar for the two blades between 0 and 1500 CPM. Above 1500 CPM, RB offered a significantly higher resistance. Western blot and immunostaining of vitreous samples did not yield a significant difference in size, regardless of blade type and cut rate. Conclusions DEB is more efficient, offering a lower HR than RB over 1500 CPM in human vitreous. There is no viscosity reduction as a function of cut-rate between 1500 and 12,000 CPM, as HR does not vary. Translational Relevance Future vitreous cutters will benefit of a DEB; optimal cut rate needs to be defined, and the simple increase of cut rate does not provide benefits after a certain limit to be assessed. PMID:27441099

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Vitreous following Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach. Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days......, and α-1-antiproteinase F. Conclusions. Proteomic investigation of the rabbit vitreous has identified a set of proteins that help further our understanding of the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and its complications....

  16. [Detection of carotenoids in the vitreous body of the human eye during prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M A; Panova, I G; Fel'dman, T B; Zak, P P; Tatikolov, A S; Sukhikh, G T; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids were found for the first time in the vitreous body of human eye during the fetal period from week 15 until week 28. Their maximum content was timed to week 16-22. No carotenoids were found the vitreous body of 31-week fetuses, as well as adult humans, which corresponds to the published data. It was shown using HPLC that chromatographic characteristics of these carotenoids correspond to those of lutein and zeaxanthin, characteristic pigments of the retinal yellow macula.

  17. Bromatological characteristics and ruminal digestibility of grain corn hybrids with different vitreousness in silage maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandrei Santos Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate vitreousness in commercial corn hybrids with flint and dent grains and to study the effect of this characteristic on agronomic behavior, nutritional value, and ruminal degradability of grains harvested in silage maturity. Twelve commercial corn hybrids were evaluated. They were divided in two groups (six with flint grains and six with dent grains. The experiments were conducted in two municipalities represented by Guarapuava and Laranjeiras do Sul, both in Paraná State. The harvest for the grain quality analysis was performed at ¾ of the milk line stage in the grain. The following characteristics were evaluated: grain yield, grain yield in silage maturity, vitreousness, ruminal digestibility of grain, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein. The grains in the group of dent hybrids exhibited better degradability associated with lower vitreousness than the group of flint hybrids. The group of dent hybrids exhibited better ruminal digestibility of the grains associated with lower vitreousness versus the group of flint hybrids. There is a negative correlation between vitreousness and the digestibility of the grain; thus, vitreousness can be a criterion for selecting genotypes for forage production.

  18. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  19. Vitreous occlusion of tube implant in a phakic patient with traumatic glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube implants or glaucoma drainage devices have become an important method of intraocular pressure reduction when treating complex cases of traumatic glaucoma. However, it is not uncommon to have complications associated with tube implants. The optimal treatment of patients who have undergone glaucoma implant surgery complicated by vitreous incarceration is uncertain. If vitreous is present or is able to prolapse into anterior chamber, as in aphakic or pseudophakic patient without an intact posterior capsule, a concurrent anterior vitrectomy is usually performed. In such cases, pars plana vitrectomy has been found to be more effective in several studies. However, there are no set guidelines for management of such a case in a phakic eye and the management can be more challenging especially when there is no obvious deficiency in posterior capsule, zonular dialysis, or loose vitreous gel in the anterior chamber prior to or during tube implantation. We describe a case of 14-year-old phakic patient with traumatic glaucoma without vitreous gel in anterior chamber whose tube implant became occluded by vitreous resulting in increased intra ocular pressure. This is the first documented report of vitreous incarceration in a phakic patient and its successful management.

  20. Pullulanase and Starch Synthase III Are Associated with Formation of Vitreous Endosperm in Quality Protein Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    Full Text Available The opaque-2 (o2 mutation of maize increases lysine content, but the low seed density and soft texture of this type of mutant are undesirable. Lines with modifiers of the soft kernel phenotype (mo2 called "Quality Protein Maize" (QPM have high lysine and kernel phenotypes similar to normal maize. Prior research indicated that the formation of vitreous endosperm in QPM might involve changes in starch granule structure. In this study, we focused on analysis of two starch biosynthetic enzymes that may influence kernel vitreousness. Analysis of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of W64Ao2 and K0326Y revealed that pullulanase activity had significant positive correlation with kernel vitreousness. We also found that decreased Starch Synthase III abundance may decrease the pullulanase activity and average glucan chain length given the same Zpu1 genotype. Therefore, Starch Synthase III could indirectly influence the kernel vitreousness by affecting pullulanase activity and coordinating with pullulanase to alter the glucan chain length distribution of amylopectin, resulting in different starch structural properties. The glucan chain length distribution had strong positive correlation with the polydispersity index of glucan chains, which was positively associated with the kernel vitreousness based on nonlinear regression analysis. Therefore, we propose that pullulanase and Starch Synthase III are two important factors responsible for the formation of the vitreous phenotype of QPM endosperms.

  1. On the Spatiotemporal Material Anisotropy of the Vitreous Body in Tension and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nihar S; Beebe, David C; Lake, Spencer P; Filas, Benjamen A

    2016-10-01

    Although linked to several vitreoretinal pathologies including traumatic retinal tears, breaks, and symptomatic vitreomacular traction, the dynamic material behavior of the vitreous body in response to mechanical loads is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spatiotemporal patterns of collagen fiber reorganization and vitreous deformation (strain) in response to tensile and compressive forces. Using thick slabs of bovine eyes we examined collagen fiber reorganization following tensile and compressive step-loading with quantitative polarized light imaging. Strains were measured from sparse marker arrays and temporal collagen behavior was estimated from creep compliance rheological tests. Results showed that under applied loads (1) collagen fibers became significantly more aligned at the vitreous base (near the pars plana and the ciliary body), (2) vitreous located directly behind the lens deformed significantly more than surrounding regions, and (3) changes in collagen fiber alignment occurred on a short (body exhibits anisotropic material behavior in tension and compression. Spatiotemporal patterns of collagen rearrangement were consistent with epidemiological patterns of traumatic retinal damage and vitreoretinal topology. High strains in the vitreous corresponded with locations of lower collagen content that are prone to age-related degeneration. These data suggest that differential fiber alignment and mechanical deformation could contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Computational models that incorporate these experimental data will help improve our understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of traumatic retinal damage, vitreous degeneration, and vitreoretinal disease.

  2. Repeating hemorrhage after radiotherapy for glioma. Radiological and histological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Hirokazu [Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Kubota, Toshihiko; Hosotani, Kazuo

    1998-02-01

    A case of radiation necrosis which was observed six years after radiotherapy for a glioma in the right parietal lobe is reported. This patient developed hemiparesis, and radiological examinations showed similar findings consisted with recurrent glioma. Histological examination disclosed that the lesion is correspond to the radiation necrosis. (author)

  3. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaseelan Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made.

  4. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... during the first year of follow-up compared with controls (ICH: hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.09-3.24, p year (ICH: HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.75-2.32, p ... and SAH using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of death during the first year of follow-up and survivors at 1 year. RESULTS: Case fatality after ICH was 42.0%, compared with 28.7% after SAH. It increased with age (ICH: 29.7% for 20-49 years...

  5. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Study on the relationship between PMI and the concentration of 21 elements in vitreous humor of rabbit after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhi-qiang; Zeng, Xian-bin; Sun, Yue-gang

    2002-05-01

    To seek a precise method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic medicine practice. This study detected the concentration of 21 elements in the vitreous humor of rabbit within 96 hours after death and explored the relationship between their concentration and PMI using the method of ICP-MS. It was shown that the concentration of 9 elements in vitreous humor of rabbit within different intervals after death were correlated to PMI available as a reference indicator to estimate PMI. The changes in the concentration of certain elements in vitreous humor of vitreous humor are correlated with PMI and determination of such changes can be used to estimate the time of death.

  8. Comparison of cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Sarataho, M; Savolainen, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs): four refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs 1-4), two glasswool fibres (MMVF 10 and 11), a rockwool fibre (MMVF 21) and a slagwool fibre (MMVF 22). The ability of the fibres to induce haemolysis in sheep erythrocytes, to release lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and to increase the production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) was studied. To assess the relative cytotoxicity of MMVFs, their toxicity was compared with that induced by quartz, chrysotile or titanium dioxide. MMVFs induced a modest, but dose-dependent, increase of haemolysis at doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 mg ml-1. The amount of haemolysis and LDH release induced by MMVFs was generally similar to that induced by titanium dioxide. Glasswool fibre MMVF 10 induced less LDH release from rat AM than rockwool MMVF 21 or slagwool MMVF 22 fibres, whereas glasswool fibre MMVF 11 induced less LDH release than slagwool fibre MMVF 22 (P < 0.05). All fibres also dose-dependently increased the production of ROMs at doses between 25 and 500 micrograms ml-1. The shapes of the time-courses of MMVF-induced production of ROMs suggest that the mechanisms whereby the different fibres induce ROM production may exhibit similar features. There are clear-cut differences in the potency of various MMVFs to induce cytotoxicity and oxidative burst. The present results also emphasize the importance of using several measures of toxicity when assessing the biological activity of various fibres in vitro.

  9. Respiratory health effects of man-made vitreous (mineral) fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Swaen, G M; Pairon, J C; Brochard, P

    1995-12-01

    The group of man-made mineral or vitreous fibres (MMMFs or MMVFs) includes glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments and microfibres, and refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). Experimental observations have provided evidence that some types of MMVF are bioactive under certain conditions. The critical role of size parameters has been demonstrated in cellular and animal experiments, when intact fibres are in direct contact with the target cells. It is, however, difficult to extrapolate the results from these studies to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies are more realistic, but show differences between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumour induction by fibres. Fibre biopersistence is an important factor, as suggested by recent inhalation studies, which demonstrate positive results with RCF for fibrosis, lung tumours and mesothelioma. There is no firm evidence that exposure to glass-, rock- and slag wool is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions, or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. Exposure to RCF could enhance the effects of smoking in causing airways obstruction. An elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been demonstrated in cohorts of workers exposed to MMVF, especially in the early technological phase of mineral (rock slag) wool production. During that period, several carcinogenic agents (arsenic, asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) were also present at the workplace and quantitative data about smoking and fibre levels are lacking. It is not possible from these data to determine whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the MMVFs themselves. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in the cohorts of workers exposed to glass-, slag- or rock wool. There are in fact insufficient epidemiological data available concerning neoplastic diseases in RCF production workers because of the small size of the workforce and the

  10. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  11. Anomalous posterior vitreous detachment: a unifying concept in vitreo-retinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J

    2004-08-01

    Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is the consequence of changes in the macromolecular structure of gel vitreous that result in liquefaction, concurrent with alterations in the extracellular matrix at the vitro-retinal interface that allow the posterior vitreous cortex to detach from the internal limiting lamina of the retina. Gel liquefaction that exceeds the degree of vitro-retinal dehiscence results in anomalous PVD (APVD). APVD varies in its clinical manifestations depending upon where in the fundus vitreo-retinal adhesion is strongest. At the periphery, APVD results in retinal tears and detachments. In the macula, APVD causes vitreo-macular traction syndrome, results in vitreoeschisis with macular pucker or macular holes, or contributes to some cases of diabetic macular edema. At the optic disc and retina, APVD causes vitreo-papillary traction and promotes retinal and optic disc neovascularization. Unifying the spectrum of vitreo-retinal diseases into the conceptual frame-work of APVD underscores that to more effectively treat, and ultimately prevent, these disorders it is necessary to replicate the two components of an innocuous PVD, i.e., gel liquefaction and vitreo-retinal dehiscence. Pharmacologic vitreolysis is designed to mitigate against APVD by chemically breaking down vitreous macromolecules and weakening vitro-retinal adhesion to safely detach the posterior vitreous cortex. This would not only facilitate surgery, but if performed early in the natural history of disease, it should prevent progressive disease.

  12. Usefulness of the Vitreous Fluid Analysis in the Translational Research of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Simó-Servat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the major cause of acquired blindness in working-age adults. Current treatments for DR (laser photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, and vitreo-retinal surgery are applicable only at advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments for the early stages of the disease are needed. Vitreous fluid obtained from diabetic patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery is currently used to explore the events that are taking place in the retina for clinical research. However, several confounding factors such as vitreous haemorrhage and concentration of vitreous proteins should be considered in the analysis of the results. In this paper we will focus on the vitreous fluid as a tool for exploring the mediators of DR and in particular the molecules related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, their role in the pathogenesis of DR will be discussed. The usefulness of new technologies such as flow cytometry and proteomics in identifying new candidates involved in the inflammatory process that occurs in DR will be overviewed. Finally, a more personalized treatment based on vitreous fluid analysis aiming to reduce the burden associated with DR is suggested.

  13. Metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroshi; Ida, Tomoaki; Sato, Kota; Aizawa, Naoko; Sawa, Tomohiro; Tawarayama, Hiroshi; Murayama, Namie; Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the metabolomic profile of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy underwent microincision vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery. Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected and underwent mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides (polysulfidomics). The effect of reactive polysulfide species on the viability of immortalized retinal cells (the RGC-5 cell line) under oxidative stress (induced with H2O2) was also evaluated with an Alamar Blue assay. The experiments showed that cysteine persulfides (CysSSH), oxidized glutathione trisulfide (GSSSG) and cystine were elevated in the aqueous humor, and CysSSH, Cys, and cystine were elevated in the vitreous. Furthermore, GSSSG, cystine, and CysSSH levels were correlated in the aqueous and vitreous humors. A comparison, in DM and control subjects, of plasma levels of reactive persulfides and polysulfides showed that they did not differ. In vitro findings revealed that reactive polysulfide species increased cell viability under oxidative stress. Thus, various reactive persulfides and polysulfides appear to be present in the eye, and some reactive sulfide species, which have a protective effect against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the aqueous and vitreous humors of DM eyes. PMID:28169324

  14. Trace Elements Iron, Copper and Zinc in Vitreous of Patients with Various Vitreoretinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulochana Konerirajapuram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in human vitreous and to interpret their levels with various vitreoretinal diseases like proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign body, Eales′ disease and macular hole. Methods: Undiluted vitreous fluid collected during pars plana vitrectomy was used to measure trace elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The level of vitreous iron increased threefold in Eales′ disease (1.85 ± 0.36 pg/ml, 2.5-fold in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1.534 ± 0.17 pg/ml and 2.3-fold in eyes with intraocular foreign body (1.341 ± 0.25 pg/ml when compared with macular hole (0.588 ± 0.16 pg/ml. This was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Zinc was found to be low in Eales′ disease (0.57 ± 0.22 pg/ml when compared with other groups, though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The increased level of iron with decreased zinc content in Eales′ disease confirms the earlier reported oxidative stress mechanism for the disease. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy and intraocular foreign body the level of iron increases. This is undesirable as iron can augment glycoxidation, which can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, in turn causing vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment and ultimately retinal detachment and vision loss

  15. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  16. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  17. Clinical analysis of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous%永存原始玻璃体增生症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤玲; 吕勇; 杨琳; 吕建

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate visual acuity outcomes and their influencing factors in patients with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) treated with operation or non-operative treatment. Methods Clinical data of 23 cases (25 eyes) with PHPV in our hospital from January 2007 to December 2009 were analyzed. There were 20 eyes with vitreous or lens resection, and 5 eyes without operation. Clinical significance , visual outcomes and postoperative complications were observed. Results B ultrasound showed mushroom echo from optic disc in 25 eyes; Color ultrasound showed continuous blood flow in streak echo shadow of vitreous body and strengthening from optic disc to lens. In patients with operation,postoperative corrected visual acuity came to effective vision in 14 eyes, of which were 1 eye with microphthalmia and 13 eyes with normal ocular axis(ρ = 0.014) ;There were 3 eyes with retinal detachment,fold and dys-plasia and 11 eyes without these pathological changes(ρ= 0.018). There was 1 eye with chronic hypotension and vitreous hemorrhage in patients with operation. At following up time, best corrected visual acuity of none came to effective in patients without operative treatment. Conclusions Operation can improve visual acuity and prevent complication for PHPV patients. Prognosis is poor for patients without operative treatment. Visual prognosis has relation with microphthalmia,retinal detachment,fold and dysplasia.%目的 探讨永存原始玻璃体增生症(persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous,PHPV)经过手术或非手术治疗的视力预后及影响因素.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年1月至2009年12月23例(25眼)PHPV患者的临床资料,20眼行玻璃体或晶状体切除手术,5眼未手术.术后随访1.0~2.5 a,观察临床特征、视力预后及术后并发症等情况.结果 B超检查示25眼均有从视盘发出的蘑菇状回声;彩超示玻璃体內条索状回声影內有连续血流,由视盘向晶状体后延伸.手术组术后

  18. Design of an Injectable in Situ Gelation Biomaterials for Vitreous Substitute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annaka, Masahiko; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the physical properties of living materials to their biological function, nature developed various types of polymers with outstanding physical behavior. One example is the vitreous body, which is important intraocular elements not only because of its optical and mechanical performances......, but also due to its important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of conditions affecting adjacent tissues and eventually the whole eye. Here, we report a novel biocompatible material for injectable vitreous substitute, composed of thermosensitive amphiphilic polymer, which is capable of forming...... a transparent gel in the vitreous cavity. It is nontoxic, provides adequate support for the retina, and allows light to reach the sensory elements at the back of the eye. The amphiphilic polymer exhibits mechanical stability by assembling to form highly interconnected hydrophobic domains, which leads...

  19. Detection of Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid in Vitreous of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Deng; De-Zheng Wu; Rulong Gao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to investigate their roles in retinal ischemia.Method: Vitreous samples were collected from 25 patients (27 eyes) with PDR and 14patients ( 14 eyes) with idiopathic macular hole. Glutamate and GABA detection were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: Patients with PDR had significantly higher concentrations of glutamate and GABA than the control group. The glutamate level has a significantly positive correlation with GABA level.Conclusion: Detection of glutamate and GABA in vitreous provides biochemical support for the mechanism and treatment of ischemic retinal damage in patients with PDR.

  20. Intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography and pars plana vitrectomy for severe open globe injury with hemorrhagic retinal and choroidal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Nobuhiko; Wakabayashi, Taku; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-08-30

    Our purpose was to report the initial clinical experience of intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography in combination with 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for severe open globe injury with hemorrhagic retinal and choroidal detachment. Six eyes of six consecutive patients with severe open globe injury underwent intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography and 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy at Osaka University Hospital in Japan. The feasibility of intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal reattachment, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. Five patients presented with a ruptured globe and one patient with double penetration. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was no light perception in four eyes and light perception in two eyes. All patients underwent intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography and 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy within 12 h after open globe injury. Intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography was feasible in all cases and was useful for diagnosing choroidal hemorrhage (four eyes), massive subretinal hemorrhage (two eyes), and retinal detachment (five eyes). In addition, serial real-time B-scan imaging facilitated successful evacuation of the choroidal hemorrhage and massive subretinal hemorrhage by external drainage, resulting in opening of the vitreous space to allow subsequent pars plana vitrectomy without entry site-related complications. After surgery, all patients had successful retinal attachment, and there was no loss of light perception. Intraoperative B-scan ultrasonography is technically feasible and may potentially improve the safety and efficacy of severe open globe injury repair.

  1. Decreased angiogenin concentration in vitreous and serum in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Natalia; Raczyńska, Krystyna; Siebert, Janusz; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Reiwer-Gostomska, Magdalena; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2011-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in young adults in developed countries. The disease therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents gives some positive results, but is associated with retinal ischemia and vasoconstriction. Therefore, determination of factors involved in the physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the diabetic eye is of great importance for understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and its effective treatment. Previously, we found that diabetic patients were characterized by increased serum concentration of VEGF, but decreased levels of other proangiogenic factor-angiogenin. The involvement of VEGF in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is well established, but there is lack of data regarding angiogenin in retinopathy. Therefore, in the present study we measured angiogenin concentration in vitreous and serum samples of the patients with type 1 diabetes to determine its role in diabetic retinopathy. In addition, in each time, we compared the level of angiogenin with level of VEGF as a known factor involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Angiogenin was found to be significantly more abundant in serum than in vitreous in both diabetic groups. In addition, patients with retinopathy had twofold lower vitreous angiogenin levels than diabetic individuals without complications. On the contrary, vitreous concentration of VEGF was dramatically increased only in participants with retinopathy. Patients without diabetic complications had significantly lower VEGF levels in vitreous than in serum and were characterized by high local and systemic concentration of angiogenin. These data suggest a local imbalance between two proangiogenic factors-VEGF and angiogenin in retinopathy. Low vitreous concentration of angiogenin in diabetic patients suggests that this factor is not responsible for pathological neovascularization in diabetic eye. Further studies will elucidate if angiogenin can be

  2. Anosmia After Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greebe, Paut; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Anosmia frequently occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage not only after clipping, but also after endovascular coiling. Thus, at least in part, anosmia is caused by the hemorrhage itself and not only by surgical treatment. However, it is unknown whether anosmia is rel

  3. Sound attenuation at terahertz frequencies and the boson peak of vitreous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, G; Giordano, V M; Monaco, G; Ruta, B

    2010-05-14

    The propagation and damping of the acoustic excitations in vitreous silica is measured at terahertz frequencies using inelastic x-ray scattering. The apparent sound velocity shows a marked dispersion with frequency while the sound attenuation undergoes a crossover from a fourth to a second power law frequency dependence. This finding solves a recent controversy concerning the location of this crossover in vitreous silica, clarifying that it occurs at the position of the glass-characteristic excess of vibrational modes known as boson peak, and thus establishing a direct connection between boson peak and acoustic dispersion curves.

  4. A Case of Proliferative Retinopathy Complicated with Tuberous Sclerosis Treated by Vitreous Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Emika; Morishita, Seita; Akashi, Mari; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Fukumoto, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kida, Teruyo; Sugasawa, Jun; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative retinopathy complicated with retinal hamartoma in a tuberous sclerosis patient. This study involved a 16-year-old female patient who was diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis at birth. Ophthalmic examination revealed retinal hamartoma surrounding the optic disc in both eyes. Vitreous surgery involving a vitrectomy and resection of the proliferative membranes was performed for proliferative retinopathy in her right eye. Postoperative fundus findings showed improvement and decreased exudative changes. The proliferative and exudative changes appeared to be due to the retinal hamartoma, and vitreous surgery proved effective in this case. PMID:28101046

  5. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xionggao [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Shaochong, E-mail: zhshaochong@163.com [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous

  6. An intractable case of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to radiation colitis. Usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Koichi; Koyama, Tukasa [Yoka Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Sugamura, Kenji; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2003-05-01

    We tried transcatheter arterial embolization for lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to radiation colitis. In this case, colostomy and endoscopic therapy were not effective. We succeeded in arresting the hemorrhage without any complications. Transcatheter embolization is a low-invasive and safe method of treatment. For prevention of inflammation and iatrogenic abscess formation, we repeated this therapy and we tried arterial injection of antibiotics and steroid. And so, this therapy is one of the effective methods. (author)

  7. Multiple intracranial hemorrhages in a normotensive demented patient: A probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsaz, Ahmad; Norouzi, Rasul; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Salimianfard, Marzieh; Fard, Salman Abbasi

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the most common cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. Repeated bleeding may be presented with vascular dementia. We have reported a 68-year-old normotensive demented patient with probable CAA presented with hemiparesia, headache and vomiting. According to the experience of this case, it is recommended to consider CAA for normotensive elderly patients presented with multiple and superficial intracerebral hemorrhage.

  8. Inflammation and N-formyl peptide receptors mediate the angiogenic activity of human vitreous humour in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzola, Sara; Corsini, Michela; Chiodelli, Paola; Cancarini, Anna; Nawaz, Imtiaz M; Coltrini, Daniela; Mitola, Stefania; Ronca, Roberto; Belleri, Mirella; Lista, Liliana; Rusciano, Dario; De Rosa, Mario; Pavone, Vincenzo; Semeraro, Francesco; Presta, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation characterise proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), a major complication of diabetes mellitus. However, the impact of inflammation on the pathogenesis of PDR neovascularisation has not been elucidated. Here, we assessed the capacity of PDR vitreous fluid to induce pro-angiogenic/proinflammatory responses in endothelium and the contribution of the inflammation-related pattern recognition N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) in mediating these responses. Pooled and individual pars plana vitrectomy-derived PDR vitreous fluid ('PDR vitreous') samples were assessed in endothelial cell proliferation, motility, sprouting and morphogenesis assays, and for the capacity to induce proinflammatory transcription factor activation, reactive oxygen species production, intercellular junction disruption and leucocyte-adhesion molecule upregulation in these cells. In vivo, the pro-angiogenic/proinflammatory activity of PDR vitreous was tested in murine Matrigel plug and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Finally, the FPR inhibitors Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (Boc-FLFLF) and Ac-L-Arg-Aib-L-Arg-L-Cα(Me)Phe-NH2 tetrapeptide (UPARANT) were evaluated for their capacity to affect the biological responses elicited by PDR vitreous. PDR vitreous activates a pro-angiogenic/proinflammatory phenotype in endothelial cells. Accordingly, PDR vitreous triggers a potent angiogenic/inflammatory response in vivo. Notably, the different capacity of individual PDR vitreous samples to induce neovessel formation in the CAM correlates with their ability to recruit infiltrating CD45(+) cells. Finally, the FPR inhibitor Boc-FLFLF and the novel FPR antagonist UPARANT inhibit neovessel formation and inflammatory responses triggered by PDR vitreous in the CAM assay. This study provides evidence that inflammation mediates the angiogenic activity of PDR vitreous and paves the way for the development of FPR-targeting anti-inflammatory/anti-angiogenic approaches for PDR

  9. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  10. Hemostasis in Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Deepak; Dua, Dharti; Torbey, Michel T.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world with no proven effective treatment. Majority of hematoma expansion occur within 4 h after symptom onset and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. There is a vital role of ultra-early hemostatic therapy in ICH to limit hematoma expansion. Patients at risk for hematoma expansion are with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Treatment strategy should include appropriate intervention based on the history of use of antithrombotic use or an underlying coagulopathy in patients with ICH. For antiplatelet-associated ICH, recommendation is to discontinue antiplatelet agent and transfuse platelets to those who will undergo neurosurgical procedure with moderate quality of evidence. For vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH, administration of 3-factor or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) rather than fresh frozen plasma to patients with INR >1.4 is strongly recommended. For patients with novel oral anticoagulant-associated ICH, administering activated charcoal to those who present within 2 h of ingestion is recommended. Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against dabigatran (direct thrombin inhibitor) is approved by FDA for emergency situations. Administer activated PCC (50 U/kg) or 4-factor PCC (50 U/kg) to patients with ICH associated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) if idarucizumab is not available or if the hemorrhage is associated with a DTI other than dabigatran. For factor Xa inhibitor-associated ICH, administration of 4-factor PCC or aPCC is preferred over recombinant FVIIa because of the lower risk of adverse thrombotic events. PMID:28360881

  11. Vascular remnants in the rabbit vitreous body. II. Enzyme digestion and immunohistochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; Van Luyn, MJA; Eggli, PS; Dijk, F; Nieuwenhuis, P

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of ghost vessels and the newly identified intravitreal structures type 1and 2 (IVS-1 and 2) observed in the rabbit vitreous body. Rabbit eyes in = 10, 0.5- similar to 36 months of age were fixed and embedded in plastic. Post-embedding immune

  12. Vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruta M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta, Rika Kamada, Yumi Umeno, Ryoji YamakawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment.Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of four consecutive patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy in one eye for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy, with an emphasis on the preoperative condition of the posterior hyaloid membrane.Results: Two of four eyes were confirmed to have an attached posterior hyaloid membrane, which was subsequently removed during surgery. Following vitrectomy, these two eyes experienced an improvement in visual acuity with complete retinal attachment of the macula. However, the other two eyes, which already had a posterior vitreous detachment at the time of surgery, showed a decrease in visual acuity with persistent maculopathy postoperatively.Conclusion: Pars plana vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy was beneficial for improving visual acuity in two eyes without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment but not in two eyes with preoperative posterior vitreous detachment. Our study suggests that preoperative assessment of a posterior hyaloid membrane is clinically important in predicting the surgical outcome of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy.Keywords: gas tamponade, internal limiting membrane, macular hole, optical coherence tomography, posterior hyaloid membrane, retinal detachment

  13. Vascular remnants in the rabbit vitreous body. II. Enzyme digestion and immunohistochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; Van Luyn, MJA; Eggli, PS; Dijk, F; Nieuwenhuis, P

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of ghost vessels and the newly identified intravitreal structures type 1and 2 (IVS-1 and 2) observed in the rabbit vitreous body. Rabbit eyes in = 10, 0.5- similar to 36 months of age were fixed and embedded in plastic. Post-embedding immune

  14. [35 leptospira isolated from the vitreous body of 32 horses with recurrent uveitis (ERU)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, S; Gerhards, H; Wollanke, B; Meyer, P; Kopp, H

    1999-01-01

    130 vitreous samples, systematically collected in 1998 from 117 horses during vitrectomy, were cultured for the presence of leptospires. All horses suffered from equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), also known as periodic ophthalmia or moon blindness, and were treated surgically to combat painful attacks, and to preserve vision. In 35 out of 130 vitreous samples (35/130 = 26.9%), leptospires could be isolated. These isolates belong to the grippotyphosa serogroup (n = 31) and to the australis serogroup (n = 4). So, for the first time, leptospires were recovered from eyes in vivo in a large number of horses with ERU. Vitreous samples and one serum sample from each horse were also tested for leptospiral antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In 92 vitreous samples (92/130 = 70.7%) and 96 serum samples (96/117 = 82.0%) leptospiral antibodies were detected at a dilution of > 1:100. The presence of intact leptospires and specific antibodies in eyes affected with ERU demonstrates a local antibody production to leptospiral antigen. These results indicate an important etiological role of leptospires in equine recurrent uveitis.

  15. Characterization of a Stabilized Form of Microplasmin for the Induction of Posterior Vitreous Detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gad Elkareem; B. Willekens; M. Vanhove; B. Noppen; J.M. Stassen; M.D. de Smet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability and safety of a diluted acidified form of microplasmin and its ability to induce a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) following intravitreal injection in postmortem porcine eyes. Methods: Microplasmin diluted in normal saline (NS) and balanced salt solution (BS

  16. Radiation-optical properties of vitreous As{sub 2}S{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.I.; Matkovskii, A.O. [Scientific Research Institute of Materials, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Physical features and microstructural mechanism of radiation-induced effects in vitreous As{sub 2}S{sub 3} are studied. Observed changes, i.e., long-wave shift of fundamental edge absorption, increase of longitudinal ultrasonic velocity, decrease of frequency normalized acoustic loss coefficient and acoustooptical figure of merit, etc. are described. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  17. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS EGGS WITH NORMAL AND VITREOUS EGGSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reis Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of eggs classified as eggs with normal eggshell and eggs with vitreous eggshell, produced by hens at three different ages. Forty-five eggs of each eggshell type, normal and vitreous, were sampled at the ages of 30, 50, and 70 weeks. The weight of the egg, in both types of eggshell, increased with the advancing age of the hen. Higher concentration of calcium was found in eggs with normal eggshells comparing to eggs with vitreous eggshells. The eggshell type did not affect phosphorus percentage. The mineral deposition of the eggshell was constant. The skin thickness increased irrespective of the shell along the reproductive life of the chicken and decreased when the bird became older. The percentage of albumen increased, while the percentage of albumen protein and pH decreased throughout the ages. Percentage of egg yolk, humidity, and pH decreased with increase of age of the laying hen, whereas crude protein and lipid increased. Eggs with vitreous eggshell showed eggshell with lower quality compared to those with normal eggshell, without, however, compromising the internal quality of albumen and yolk. Keywords: egg quality; eggshell types; physical analysis.

  18. Rheology of the vitreous gel: effects of macromolecule organization on the viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Sassoon, Daniel; Kavehpour, H Pirouz

    2011-02-03

    The macromolecular organization of vitreous gel is responsible for its viscoelastic properties. Knowledge of this correlation enables us to relate the physical properties of vitreous to its pathology, as well as optimize surgical procedures such as vitrectomy. Herein, we studied the rheological properties (e.g. dynamic deformation, shear stress-strain flow, and creep compliance) of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer. All experiments were performed in a closed environment with the temperature set to that of the human body (i.e. 37°C) to mimic in-vivo conditions. We modeled the creep deformation using the two-element retardation spectrum model. By associating each element of the model to an individual biopolymeric system in the vitreous gel, a distinct response to the applied stress was observed from each component. We hypothesized that the first viscoelastic response with the short time scale (~1 s) is associated with the collagen structure, while the second viscoelastic response with longer time scale (~100 s) is related to the microfibrilis and hyaluronan network. Consequently, we were able to differentiate the role of each main component from the overall viscoelastic properties.

  19. The rabbit as an animal model for post-natal vitreous matrix differentiation and degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether rabbits are a suitable animal model to study post-natal vitreous differentiation and degeneration. Methods Human and rabbit eyes of various ages were studied by complementary anatomical techniques, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results T

  20. Packages of vitreous collagen (type II) in the human retina : an indication of postnatal collagen turnover?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, TL; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM; Los, LI

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitreoretinal border in the (pre-)equatorial area in nonpathologic human donor eyes, because the majority of retinal defects induced by posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) are located there. Nine eyes (24-80 years) were fixed and embedded in Technovit 81

  1. Experimental investigation of vitreous humour motion within a human eye model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria delle Strutture, delle Acque e del Terreno, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Stocchino, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Ambientale, University of Genova (Italy); Cafferata, Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Ambientale, University of Genova (Italy)

    2005-10-07

    We present an experimental study of the vitreous motion induced by saccadic eye movements. A magnified model of the vitreous chamber has been employed, consisting of a spherical cavity carved in a perspex cylindrical container, which is able to rotate with a prescribed time law. Care has been taken to correctly reproduce real saccadic eye movements. The spherical cavity is filled with glycerol and the flow field is measured on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation, through the PIV technique. Visualizations of the fully three-dimensional flow suggest that it essentially occurs on planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation, the motion orthogonal to such planes being smaller by three to four orders of magnitude. Theoretical results, based on a simplified solution, are in very good agreement with the experimental findings. The maximum value of the shear stress at the wall, which is thought to play a possibly important role in the pathogenesis of retinal detachment, does not significantly depend on the amplitude of saccadic movements. This suggests that relatively small eye rotations, being much more frequent than large movements, are mainly responsible for vitreous stresses on the retina. Results also illustrate the dependence of the maximum shear stress at the wall from the vitreous viscosity.

  2. Raman spectroscopy characterization of diabetes effects on human vitreous in diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, Jerry; Nie, Shuming; Reiser, Karen M.; Yu, Nai-Teng

    1993-06-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation alters collagen throughout the body, resulting in the histopathology that underlies diabetic disease in several organs. In the eye such changes in vitreous collagen could contribute to the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by inducing vitreous degeneration. In this study, near infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy was performed on vitreous obtained at surgery from diabetic patients and from non-diabetic control subjects. The findings were compared to measurements obtained in untreated and glycated (in vitro) rat-tail tendon collagen, as well as demineralized chick bone, rich in crosslinks. The results demonstrated substantial changes in diabetic vitreous collagen not resulting from enzyme-mediated crosslinking, but most likely advanced nonenzymatic glycation. This approach appears to be useful as a means of characterizing the molecular changes induced by diabetes. Furthermore, this technique could be developed as a way of quantifying these changes in vivo in several tissues, so as to gauge the severity of disease and monitor the response to therapy.

  3. Proteomics of vitreous humor of patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Janusz Koss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is absence of specific biomarkers and an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighty-eight vitreous samples (73 from patients with treatment naïve AMD and 15 control samples from patients with idiopathic floaters were analyzed with capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in this retrospective case series to define potential candidate protein markers of AMD. Nineteen proteins were found to be upregulated in vitreous of AMD patients. Most of the proteins were plasma derived and involved in biological (ion transport, acute phase inflammatory reaction, and blood coagulation. A number of proteins have not been previously associated to AMD including alpha-1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain and prostaglandin H2-D isomerase. Alpha-1-antitrypsin was validated in vitreous of an independent set of AMD patients using Western blot analysis. Further systems biology analysis of the data indicated that the observed proteomic changes may reflect upregulation of immune response and complement activity. CONCLUSIONS: Proteome analysis of vitreous samples from patients with AMD, which underwent an intravitreal combination therapy including a core vitrectomy, steroids and bevacizumab, revealed apparent AMD-specific proteomic changes. The identified AMD-associated proteins provide some insight into the pathophysiological changes associated with AMD.

  4. Intracranial hemorrhage in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooni, Puneet A; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Harmesh; Jain, B K

    2003-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) with particular reference to intracranial hemorrhage. Infants (n = 42) presenting with late HDN from January 1998 to December 2001 were studied. Majority (76%) were in the age group of 1-3 months. All were term babies on exclusive breast-feeding and none received vitamin K at birth. 71% patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, commonest site being intracerebral and multiple ICH. Visible external bleeding was noted in 1/3rd of patients only. Three patients expired. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Isolated intracranial hemorrhage is a common mode of presentation.

  5. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  6. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  7. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver dis...

  8. Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Chernykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF] in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05 higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05 positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45, VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48, VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51, PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48, PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59, MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72, MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45, IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65, IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71, IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59. Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  9. Staining of vitreous with triamcinolone acetonide in retained lens surgery with phacofragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Suleyman; Celik, Lider; Kocak, Nilufer; Oner, F Hakan; Kaynak, Tulin; Cingil, Guray

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the beneficial effects of triamcinolone-assisted vitrectomy during management of retained nuclei with phacofragmentation. Dokuz Eylul University, Medical Faculty, Ophthalmology Department, and Retina Eye Center, Izmir, Turkey. Twelve eyes of 12 patients were operated on between January 2002 and September 2003. Eleven patients were referred because of nucleus drop during phacoemulsification surgery. Six of these patients had mature white cataracts, and in 5 cases total nucleus luxation into vitreous cavity had occurred. In 1 case, approximately half of the nucleus was luxated. Five of the referred patients had pseudoexfoliation (PEX), 3 of whom also had phacodonesis. All of these patients had luxated nucleus segments of more than half. One patient was referred with an intraocular lens (IOL) implanted in the sulcus region. One patient who was not referred also had PEX, iridodonesis, and phacodonesis; total drop of nucleus had occurred in this case. All patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy with triamcinolone acetonide staining of the vitreous material and phacofragmentation of the dropped nucleus segments. In 2 cases, transscleral foldable IOL fixation surgery was combined simultaneously. One patient already had an IOL at the time of referral. Nine patients were left aphakic for secondary procedures. All patients except 1 with subretinal neovascular membrane achieved best corrected visual acuities of equal or better than 0.5. No intraoperative or postoperative retinal complications were observed after 9 to 15 months of follow-up. Staining of the vitreous material with triamcinolone acetonide during vitrectomy and phacofragmentation surgery for luxated nuclei helped in total removal of the vitreous body, thus preventing the aspiration of peripheral vitreous fibrils by the phaco tip, which might induce retinal detachment intraoperatively or postoperatively.

  10. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.

  11. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Let's Talk About Hemorrhagic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 About 13 percent of ... Should I Limit Sodium? How Do I Understand "Nutrition Facts" Labels? How Can I Quit Smoking? How ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Sparfloxacin in the Serum and Vitreous Humor of Rabbits: Physicochemical Properties That Regulate Penetration of Quinolone Antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Qing Feng; Perkins, Ruth; Drusano, George; Louie, Arnold; Madu, Assumpta; Mian, Umar; Mayers, Martin; Miller, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used a recently described animal model to characterize the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin in vitreous humor of uninfected albino rabbits following systemic administration and direct intraocular injection. The relationships of lipophilicity, protein binding, and molecular weight to the penetration and elimination of sparfloxacin were compared to those of ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin. To determine whether elimination was active, elimination rates following direct injection with and without probenecid or heat-killed bacteria were compared. Sparfloxacin concentrations were measured in the serum and vitreous humor by a biological assay. Protein binding and lipophilicity were determined, respectively, by ultrafiltration and oil-water partitioning. Pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares-regression program. The relationship between each independent variable and mean quinolone concentration or elimination rate in the vitreous humor was determined by multiple linear regression. The mean concentration of sparfloxacin in the vitreous humor was 59.4% ± 12.2% of that in serum. Penetration of sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin into, and elimination from, the vitreous humor correlated with lipophilicity (r2 > 0.999). The linear-regression equation describing this relationship was not improved by including the inverse of the square root of the molecular weight and/or the degree of protein binding. Elimination rates for each quinolone were decreased by the intraocular administration of probenecid. Heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased the rate of elimination of fleroxacin. Penetration of sparfloxacin into the noninflamed vitreous humor was greater than that of any quinolone previously examined. There was an excellent correlation between lipophilicity and vitreous entry or elimination for sparfloxacin as well as ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin

  13. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM, 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH, and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  14. [Demonstration of immunoglobulin isotypes in the vitreous body as a contribution to the etiology of recurrent equine uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B; Brandt, K; Sheoran, A; Holmes, M A; Deegen, E; Leibold, W

    1997-11-01

    The functional properties of different immunoglobulin isotypes in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has not been investigated yet. Here, we describe the quantitative determination of total immunoglobulin levels and isotype differentiation in the vitreous of four horses with ERU as compared to that of seven healthy horses. In contrast to almost equal amounts of total immunoglobulin in the vitreous of both groups, remarkable differences were found: All four of the horses with ERU had significantly higher IgA contents in their vitreous as compared to the control group. However, the other isotypes monitored (IgM, IgGa, IgGb, IgGc and IgG(T)) indicated no differences between both groups. Comparing the individual ratios of immunoglobulin isotypes in the vitreous and the autologous serum of two horses with ERU and two control animals provided informative results: IgM was only detected in serum but not at all in vitreous of all horses investigated. All four IgG isotypes monitored in the diseased animals as well as these IgG isotypes and the IgA in healthy animals were present in the same ratios in serum and in vitreous of the individual horses. In general, the content of such isotypes in the vitreous was about 1000 fold lower then the respective isotypes in the autologous serum. These results are compatible with a transfer of the IgG and IgA isotypes from the serum into the vitreous in healthy individuals. All four horses with ERU, however, had a selectively increased relative IgA content in the vitreous as compared to their serum. This argues for a preferential local IgA production within the framework of a local immunological reaction to antigens located within the eyes of horses with ERU.

  15. A new approach to evaluating the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis on vitreous diffusion coefficients using dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Sebag, J.

    2006-02-01

    PURPOSE: Pharmacologic vitreolysis is a new approach to improve vitreo-retinal surgery. Ultimately, the development of drugs to liquefy and detach vitreous from retina should prevent disease by mitigating the contribution of vitreous to retinopathy and eliminate the need for surgery. However, the mechanism of action of pharmacologic vitreolysis remains unclear. The technique of Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate the effects of microplasmin by following the diffusion coefficients of spherical polystyrene nano-particles injected with microplasmin into the vitreous. METHODS: Diffusion coefficients in dissected (n=9) porcine eyes were measured in vitro. DLS was performed on all specimens at 37°C as often as every 10 minutes for up to 6 hours following injections of human recombinant microplasmin at doses ranging from 0.125 mg to 0.8 mg, with 20 nm diameter tracer nanospheres. RESULTS: DLS findings in untreated porcine vitreous were similar to the previously described findings in bovine and human vitreous, demonstrating a fast (early) component, resulting from the flexible hyaluronan molecules, and a slow (late) component, resulting form the stiff collagen molecules. Microplasmin increased porcine vitreous diffusion coefficients. A new approach was developed to use DLS measurements of vitreous diffusion coefficients to evaluate the effects of microplasmin in intact eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic vitreolysis with human recombinant microplasmin increases vitreous diffusion coefficients in vitro. The results of these studies indicate that this new approach using DLS to measure vitreous diffusion coefficients can be used to study the effects of pharmacologic vitreolysis using microplasmin and other agents in intact eyes and ultimately in vivo.

  16. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Tanaka, Atsushi; Muraoka, Tadashi; Taguchi, Manzo; Sakurai, Yutaka; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th) cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes) with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM), 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH), and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  17. The neuro-behavioral profile in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Matthew; Azab, Abed N; Kuts, Ruslan; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Melamed, Israel; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2013-01-23

    Despite significant advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), little is known about the emotional consequences. The primary goal of this study was to describe the locomotor and behavioral patterns in rats following both a single-injection and double-injection model of SAH. In 48 rats, SAH was induced by injecting 0.3 ml of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magnum (single-hemorrhagic model). In 24 of these rats, post-SAH vasospasm was induced by a repeated injection of blood into the cisterna magnum 24h later (double-hemorrhagic model). In 24 additional rats, 0.3 ml of saline was injected into the cisterna magnum (sham group). Neurological performance was assessed at 24, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks after SAH. Four behavioral tests were performed for 3 weeks after SAH for the duration of 6 consequent days, in the following order: open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test. Following both, a single and double-hemorrhagic models of SAH, rats were found to have significant behavioral abnormalities on the open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test, and forced swimming test. A more prominent disability was found in rats that underwent the double-hemorrhagic model of SAH than rats that underwent the single-hemorrhagic model. Both a single and double injection model of rats SAH are associated with significant behavioral disturbances including locomotor abnormalities, depressive behavior and increased anxiety, even as early as 3 weeks after SAH.

  18. Intraventricular Hemorrhage of the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage IVH of the premature newborn is an important complication which determines its prognosis Intravascular vascular and extravascular factors should be considered in its etiology Cranial ultrasonography is the most suitable medical imagery technique IVH is graded from 1 to 4 according to its severity Prevention is the most crucial point in its management The literature and the management of IVH is reviewed Key words: Newborn Premature Intraventricular Hemorrhage

  19. Hemorrhagic complications in dermatologic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunick, Christopher G.; Aasi, Sumaira Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize, manage, and, most importantly, prevent hemorrhagic complications is critical to performing dermatologic procedures that have safe and high quality outcomes. This article reviews the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and patient dynamics that are central to preventing such an adverse outcome. Specifically, the role that anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, hypertension, and other medical conditions play in the development of postoperative hemorrhage are discussed. In addition, this article provides practical guidelines on managing bleeding during and after surgery. PMID:22515669

  20. [Detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses without ocular diseases and of horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) using transmission-electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, G; Wollanke, B; Hoffmann, R; Brem, S; Gerhards, H

    2006-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is caused by persistent intraocular leptospira, which appear to use the vitreous body as a refuge. The detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses with spontaneous ERU by histological methods has not yet been described. Thirty eight vitreous body samples from 36 horses with ERU (collected during vitrectomy), and 10 vitreous body samples obtained from 5 horses without ocular disease (control group) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Prior to sample collection, 2 ml of a leptospira culture suspension were injected into the vitreous body of 2 eyes enucleated from horses of the control group. The detection of leptospira in samples, experimentally inoculated with these bacteria was uncomplicated; in vitreous body samples from horses with spontaneous ERU the detection was successful in only a few cases (3/38). The morphologically varying envelope of leptospira in vitreous body samples of horses which developed ERU spontaneously suggests the existence of a bacterial masquerade in vivo.

  1. Statins and intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Haiping; Hu Zhiping; Lu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To briefly review the literature regarding the impact of statins on the prevention and treatment of stroke,especially on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).We described statins' effects,mechanism of ICH,serum total cholesterol and ICH,and the relationship between statins and ICH.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from the PubMed database with no limitations of language and year of publication.Study selection Randomized controlled studies,prospective cohort studies,animal experiments,and meta-analysis articles related to this topic in the past decade were selected.Results Statins play an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and also have an impact on the treatment of vascular diseases.There still exist controversies about the relationship between statins and ICH.More clinical and experimental trials indicate that statins do not increase the risk of ICH.Conclusion A low or a regular dose of statins would not increase the risk of ICH.

  2. Quantitative Intracerebral Hemorrhage Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschelli, John; Ullman, Natalie L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Eloyan, Ani; Martin, Neil; Vespa, Paul; Hanley, Daniel F.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The location of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is currently described in a qualitative way; we provide a quantitative framework for estimating ICH engagement and its relevance to stroke outcomes. Methods We analyzed 111 patients with ICH from the MISTIE II clinical trial. We estimated ICH engagement at a population level using image registration of CT scans to a template and a previously labeled atlas. Predictive regions of NIHSS and GCS stroke severity scores, collected at enrollment, were estimated. Results The percent coverage of the ICH by these regions strongly outperformed the reader-labeled locations. The adjusted R2 almost doubled from 0.129 (reader-labeled model) to 0.254 (quantitative-location model) for NIHSS and more than tripled from 0.069 (reader-labeled model) to 0.214 (quantitative-location model). A permutation test confirmed that the new predictive regions are more predictive than chance: p<.001 for NIHSS and p<.01 for GCS. Conclusions Objective measures of ICH location and engagement using advanced CT imaging processing provide finer, objective, and more quantitative anatomic information than that provided by human readers. PMID:26451031

  3. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  4. Vitreous humor as an alternative sample to blood for the supercritical fluid extraction of morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K S; Oliver, J S

    1999-01-01

    The use of vitreous humor as an alternative sample to blood was investigated for the detection of heroin abuse by quantifying levels of morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) in post-mortem samples. The levels achieved in each of the two toxicological specimens were compared on a case-to-case basis to determine if a correlation existed. A total of 20 positive morphine cases were examined. In general, the levels of morphine in blood were higher than in the corresponding vitreous humor samples, with some correlation existing. 6-MAM was found in 15 blood samples and 17 vitreous humor samples. Although no correlation was found between the levels of 6-MAM in blood and vitreous humor, the latter may still be used for verification of heroin abuse.

  5. NMR Spectroscopy of the Hydrated Layer of Composite Particles Based on Nanosized Al2O3 and Vitreous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turov, V. V.; Gerashchenko, I. I.; Markina, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The hydrated layer of composite particles prepared using Al2O3 and cattle vitreous humor was investigated using NMR spectroscopy. It was found that water bound to Al2O3 nanoparticles was present in the form of clusters with different degrees of association and energies of interaction with the surface. Water bound to the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite became more uniform upon immobilization of vitreous humor components on the surface of the Al2O3. With this, the clusters of adsorbed water had characteristics that were close to those found in air and weakly polar CHCl3 media. Addition of polar CH3CN led to the formation of very small water clusters. PMR spectra of the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid differentiated four types of hydrated structures that differed in the degree of water association.

  6. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Arslan, Duran; Gümüş, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kumandaş, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver disease are at risk for developing secondary vitamin K deficiency because of fat malabsorbtion and inadequate dietary intake. In this study, we described 11 infants with cholestatic liver disease with different etiologies exhibiting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Six patients underwent surgical evacuation of ICH, following the administration of vitamin K and/or fresh frozen plasma. The possibility of cholestatic liver disease should be considered in the treatment of ICH due to vitamin K deficiency.

  7. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  8. Prevalence of vitreous floaters in a community sample of smartphone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for vitreous floaters in the general population. METHODS: An electronic survey was administered through a smartphone app asking various demographic and health questions, including whether users experience floaters in their field of vision. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 603 individuals completed the survey, with 76% reporting that they see floaters, and 33% reporting that floaters caused noticeable impairment in vision. Myopes were 3.5 times more likely (P=0.0004, and hyperopes 4.4 times more likely (P=0.0069 to report moderate to severe floaters compared to those with normal vision. Floater prevalence was not significantly affected by respondent age, race, gender, and eye color. CONCLUSION: Vitreous floaters were found to be a very common phenomenon in this non-clinical general population sample, and more likely to be impairing in myopes and hyperopes.

  9. Use of triamcinolone during vitrectomy surgery to visualize membranes and vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Couch

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Couch, Sophie J BakriMayo Clinic Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Triamcinolone is a corticosteroid that is used to treat many ophthalmic diseases. Recently, its use has been advocated to aid in visualization of transparent tissue in ophthalmic surgery. It can be used in anterior segment surgery to help manage vitreous loss during complicated cataract surgery. It has been used to visualize the posterior cortical vitreous during pars plana vitrectomy. In addition, it can be useful in the visualization and peeling of the internal limiting membrane. Triamcinolone has been advocated in surgical repair of proliferative vitreoretinopathy both for its visualizing properties and its anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, triamcinolone use in surgery is safe with low incidence of complications including elevated intraocular pressure, cataract and endophthalmitis.Keywords: cataract surgery, chromovitrectomy, epiretinal membrane, internal limiting membrane, triamcinolone acetonide, vitrectomy

  10. Massive post-polypectomy hemorrhage: Successful tulip-bundle technique with endoloop for hemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Heng Yen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopic polypectomy is a common procedure for removing colonic polyps to prevent subsequent development of colon cancer. Hemorrhage is the most common complication following polypectomy, with a reported rate of 0.3% to 6.0%. The risk increases to 12.5% when the size of the polyp stalk exceeds 1 cm. The most commonly used endoscopic preventive techniques, such as injection therapy, prophylactic use of endoclip, or endoloop, were found to decrease the rate of post-polypectomy hemorrhage, and repeated use of these techniques is useful for controlling bleeding. Here, we reported a case of a 65-year-old man with refractory post-polypectomy hemorrhage for a 2-cm adenomatous polyp. Application of an endoloop using the tulip-bundle technique achieved successful hemostasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this technique being used to treat refractory acute post-polypectomy hemorrhage.

  11. Fleroxacin pharmacokinetics in aqueous and vitreous humors determined by using complete concentration-time data from individual rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M H; Madu, A; Samathanam, G; Rush, D; Madu, C N; Mathisson, K; Mayers, M

    1992-01-01

    Although composite data from separate subjects can be used to generate single-subject estimates, intersubject variation precludes rigorous ocular pharmacokinetic analysis. Therefore, a rabbit model in which sequential aqueous and vitreous humor samples were obtained following the administration of the quinolone fleroxacin was developed. Mean data from individual animals were used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Following direct intravitreal or systemic drug administration, sequential paracenteses did not alter pharmacokinetic constants or ocular penetration and were not associated with an increase in ocular protein; contamination of vitreous humor with blood was minimal (less than 0.1%). Following direct injection or intravenous administration, vitreous humor concentration-time data were best described by one- and two-compartment models, respectively. The maximum concentration and the penetration into the aqueous and vitreous humors were 1.54 and 0.5 micrograms/ml and 27 and 10%, respectively. Elimination rates from aqueous and vitreous humors and serum were similar following parenteral drug administration. Drug elimination following direct injection was rapid, and the elimination rate from the vitreous humor was not prolonged by the coadministration of probenecid. Our animal model provides a new approach to the rigorous examination of the ocular pharmacokinetics of quinolone antimicrobial agents in the eye.

  12. The incidence of vitreous loss and visual outcome in patients undergoing cataract surgery in a teaching hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence of vitreous loss in patients undergoing cataract surgery and the visual outcome in a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods: Hospital records of 2095 consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery between July 1999 and June 2000 were reviewed in this non-concurrent cohort study. Incidence and visual outcome of vitreous loss managed using standard vitrectomy techniques were assessed for different cataract surgical techniques (extracapsular, Blumenthal technique and phacoemulsification as well as at different levels of surgical training. The outcome was compared with matched cases without vitreous loss (controls. Results: Vitreous loss occurred in 160 of 2095 eyes (7.63%; CI -7 to 9.3: 8.3% for ECCE, 8.1% for the Blumenthal technique and 5% with phacoemulsification. Vision ž 6/18 was achieved in 85% of cases and 95% of controls. For experienced surgeons, 95% of the cases and controls had vision ž 6/18. 5.8 % of cases and 0.7% of controls had vision < 6/60. One patient in each group was blind following cataract surgery; both had operable cataracts in the fellow eye. Conclusions: The vitreous loss rate in this tertiary teaching hospital is relatively high. This complication, managed with standard surgical techniques, is compatible with good visual outcome. In eyes with vitreous loss, the final visual acuity achieved by experienced surgeons was similar to that in uncomplicated cases.

  13. Use of a cyanine dye probe to estimate the composition of the vitreous body after enzymatic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.; Sharova, Natalia P.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of enzymes such as proteinase K, trypsin, collagenase with hyaluronidase, as well as a mixture of all these enzymes, on albumin and collagens incorporated in the vitreous body, using a cyanine dye as a spectral-fluorescent probe. We studied the vitreous body of the eyes of 19/20-week human fetuses, in which, as we showed earlier, the concentration of albumin in the vitreous body is sufficiently high. Proteinase K steeply decreased the albumin content in the vitreous body, whereas trypsin and hyaluronidase with collagenase had no effect on the albumin content. Collagen was not subjected to proteinase K. Enzymatic digestion of collagen occurred under the action of collagenase with hyaluronidase. The content of albumin and collagen sharply decreased in the system after treatment of the vitreous body with mixture of all enzymes. Hence, the results obtained showed that, even being in the mixture, these enzymes have a selective effect on albumin and collagens. The possibility to study the dose-dependent character of enzymatic vitreolysis using a cyanine dye probe has been shown. The spectral-fluorescent probe for albumin and collagens proved to be useful for experimental approaches at screening the enzymatic mixtures possessing the selective action. The study performed is considered as a preclinical trial, and the method presented as promising for the further research in this field. The effect of the enzymes used for therapeutic purposes on the functional conditions of the vitreous body should be studied.

  14. Aqueous and vitreous penetration of ciprofloxacin following different modes of systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, A A; Mayers, M; Perkins, R; Liu, W; Drusano, G L; Aswani, R; Madu, C N; Miller, M H

    1996-08-01

    The overall importance of the peak or the mean serum concentrations as predictors of ocular drug penetration is unknown. To address this fundamental question with an agent which shows promise as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of endophthalmitis, we studied the penetration of ciprofloxacin into the aqueous and vitreous humors following three different modes of systemic administration. New Zealand white rabbits received either a single bolus dose (40 mg kg-1), three intermittent doses of 13.33 mg kg-1 evenly spaced over an 8 hr period, or a continuous infusion of 40 mg kg-1 over an 8 hr period. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using RSTRIP II, a non-linear, least square regression model analysis program. The serum area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for each mode of drug administration were similar: 32.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for single dose, 31.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for intermittent dose, and 33.8 micrograms hr ml-1 for continuous infusion modes. The percentage penetration into the aqueous and vitreous were also similar; 30.5% and 6.5% for a single dose, 31.6% and 7.4% for intermittent doses and 30.0% and 7.5% for continuous infusion. The penetration into the aqueous and vitreous humors was not influenced by mode of administration. As with other quinolones we have studied, elimination rates were similar for the central and peripheral compartments in the post-distributive phase. Vitreous humor ciprofloxacin concentrations achieved were below that which inhibits most Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most common isolate in patients with post-operative endophthalmitis.

  15. Estimation of postmortem interval using vitreous potassium levels in cases of fatal road traffic collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N. Foster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To produce a formula that can accurately predict postmortem interval (PMI based on vitreous potassium levels using road traffic collision fatalities. Material and methods: Vitreous humour samples were taken from 78 individuals who had died following road traffic collisions between 2010 and 2015. Samples were obtained from both eyes and were sent for on-site analysis. Measurement of potassium was by an indirect ion-specific electrode Siemens diagnostics ADVIA 2400 chemistry system. Exact time of death was known from police reports, the time of postmortem was recorded and the postmortem interval was calculated. Linear regression was then used to analyse the relationship between the two. The impact of age was also assessed. Results: PMI was between 6 and 162 hours. As vitreous potassium increases, the PMI also increases; exhibiting a linear relationship. This is illustrated by a regression equation of PMI = 6.42[K+] – 40.94, R = 0.67 (p < 0.001. This produced a formula closely comparable with three other studies proposed in previous literature and produces estimates that may exceed one calendar day. When both age and medical intervention are accounted for there is an insignificant improvement in prediction. Conclusions : Validated methods have been used to produce a formula for prediction of PMI using vitreous potassium. Although this is specific to road traffic collisions, the methods are transferable and can be seen to be comparable with other recently published methods. Nonetheless, if greater levels of accuracy are required it is suggested that biomarkers delivering a higher level of precision should still be sought.

  16. Precision of estimating time of death by vitreous potassium--comparison of various equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Lucas, J J; Romero, J L; Ramos, H M; Arufe, M I; Vizcaya, M A

    1992-10-01

    This paper is a study of the precision of estimating the time since death comparing the equations developed by different authors. Our aim is to determine with the maximum degree of accuracy the exact time of death of the individual. We consider that the study has been fully justified by the observed differences in the results obtained from the different equations under study when the concentration of potassium in the vitreous humour was identical.

  17. Managing the consequences of aggressive conservative treatment for refractory retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A 4 year-old girl with bilateral, non-familial retinoblastoma (RB) was referred to our care after primary enucleation OS and active tumor OD refractory to multiple therapies (intravenous chemotherapy, laser/cryotherapy, and I-125 plaque radiotherapy). Vitreous seeding OD, initially controlled by several sessions of Ophthalmic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy (OAIC) and periocular chemotherapy, recurred shortly thereafter. The patient underwent intravitreal (IVit) Melphalan injections achieving tu...

  18. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with muscle, vitreous, leptomeningeal, and cardiac involvement: Phenotypic, pathological, and MRI description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAN type 1 is a rare systemic disease that causes severe and disabling peripheral neuropathy. We describe the phenotypic, radiological, and pathological characteristics of a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy type 1 who had evidence of motor-sensory-autonomic neuropathy, ocular vitreous deposits, diffuse leptomeningeal involvement, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Muscle involvement, an infrequently reported feature, was also observed. Early recognition of the disease has significant therapeutic implications.

  19. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide e...

  20. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat; Wanasbodee Jindakarn; Sansroi Pornnapa

    2017-01-01

    Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. ...

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  2. Cocaine postmortem distribution in three brain structures: a comparison with whole blood and vitreous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Virginia M; Fukushima, André R; Fontes, Luiz R; Fuzinato, Daniela V; Florio, Jorge C; Chasin, Alice A M

    2013-04-01

    The presence of cocaine (COC) in fluids or tissues does not prove that death was due to drug consumption and the interpretation of postmortem concentrations is more complex than attempts at making such correlations in the living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in brain and compare with whole blood and vitreous humour. The distribution in three brain structures (prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum) was homogeneous. There is a strong correlation for cocaine concentrations between vitreous humour and brain, vitreous humour and whole blood, and whole blood and brain in overdose cases. In addition, the comparison of COC/benzoylecgonine (BE) ratios in different experimental specimens proved to be more appropriate for evaluating cocaine-related death than individual drug values. These findings suggest that the comparison of cocaine levels in different compartments is essential to assess the cause of death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Is Optical Coherence Tomography a Useful Tool to Objectively Detect Actual Posterior Vitreous Adhesion Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bertelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To objectively detect true posterior vitreous cortex (PVC adhesion status using a commercially available swept-source OCT device (DRI OCT-1, Atlantis©. Material and Methods. Case report, review of the literature, and methodical discussion of concepts to improve OCT-guided PVC imaging. Results. Standard OCT imaging misdiagnosed PVC adhesion status as totally detached in this case report when using a horizontal 6 mm scan only. Contrariwise imaging the same eye with a 12 mm horizontal scan, partial posterior vitreous detachment (PVD and the presence of a bursa premacularis were clearly discernible. Besides a broader scan, specific scan patterns, highest resolution, and contrast sensitivity, an anterior-to-posterior adjusted scan through the entire vitreous as well as the detection of characteristic undulating aftermovements might enhance the capability of OCT imaging to detect true PVC adhesion status. Conclusions. Further developments are needed to address these issues and to establish OCT recordings as the standard and objective method of choice in PVC adhesion status imaging.

  4. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  5. A case of iridoschisis associated with lens displacement into the vitreous cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Mutoh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh1, Yukihiro Matsumoto1, Makoto Chikuda11Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with a lens that was displaced into the vitreous cavity in one eye and ipsilateral iridoschisis. She was free from a history of ocular trauma or of heritable ocular disease. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 1.2 bilaterally and right eye showed signs of iridoschisis. The corneal endothelial cell density decreased to 1,263 cells/mm2 in the right eye preoperatively. We speculated that iris tissue flowing in the anterior chamber might have intermittently touched the corneal endothelium. 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and lens removal were performed immediately. Free-floating iris tissue was cut during surgery with care not to injure the corneal endothelial cells. The postoperative progress was satisfactory and scleral fixation of an intraocular lens is planned. Iridoschisis is an uncommon cause of lens displacement into the vitreous cavity.Keywords: lens displacement, vitreous cavity, iridoschisis, corneal endothelial cell density, free-floating iris tissue

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  7. Fatal hemorrhage in irradiated esophageal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ariga, Hisanori; Matsushita, Haruo; Wada, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    Between 1980 and 1994, 423 patients with esophageal cancer were given curative radiation therapy. Of these patients, 31 died of massive hemorrhage and were used as the subjects of analysis in this study. The incidence of massive hemorrhage in all patients was 7% (31/423). In the 31 patients who died of massive hemorrhage, 27 had local tumors and two had no tumors at hemorrhage (two unknown cases). The mean time interval from the start of radiation to hemorrhage was 9.2 months. In 9 autopsy cases the origin of hemorrhage was a tear of the aorta in 5 cases, necrotic local tumor in 3 cases and esophageal ulcer in 1 case. The positive risk factors for this complication seemed to be excess total dose, infection, metallic stent, and tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest pain or sentinel hemorrhage proceeding to massive hemorrhage was observed in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  8. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T

    1999-10-01

    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  9. [Sheehan's syndrome after obstetric hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-López, L; Pons-Canosa, V; Juncal-Díaz, J L; Núñez-Centeno, M B

    2014-12-01

    Sheehan's syndrome is described as panhypopituitarism secondary to a pituitary hypoperfusion during or just after obstetric hemorrhage. Advances in obstetric care make this syndrome quite unusual, but some cases are reported in underdeveloped countries. Clinical presentation may change depending on the severity of the hormone deficiencies. The diagnosis is clinical, but abnormalities are observed in the magnetic resonance in up to 70% of patients. We present a case of a woman with hypotension, hypothermia and edemas in relation to a previous massive postpartum hemorrhage. Failure in lactation was the clue to the diagnosis. A review of its main features, its diagnosis and treatment in the current literature is also presented.

  10. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  11. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  12. Tentorial hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.T. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lui, C.C. [Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-11-01

    Neuroimages of tentorial hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction have been rarely reported. The authors present the case of a 5-day-old newborn with this entity. CT showed retrocerebellar hemorrhage and MRI demonstrated tentorial hemorrhage extending inferiorly over the cerebellum and superiorly over the occipital regions. We believe that these imaging modalities are helpful in delineating the extent of the hemorrhage and assessing the prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  14. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labo...

  15. Adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Arebu T; Kriss, Vesna M; Bada, Henrietta S; Reynolds, Eric W

    2009-09-01

    Sometimes in the course of care in a neonatal intensive care unit, there may be a rush to intervene in cases where limited intervention is actually the correct course. One such example is that of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We present the case of a male term neonate with shock, metabolic acidosis, distended abdomen, and falling hematocrit. His prenatal and delivery histories were uneventful except for a nuchal cord. Apgar scores were 9 and 9. Because of his dramatic presentation, certain members of the medical team suggested immediate surgical intervention. However, a calm and careful evaluation revealed the true diagnosis and course of action. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed a mass between the liver and kidney, but the origin was difficult to identify. A computed tomography scan supported the diagnosis of right adrenal hemorrhage. His serum cortisol level was normal. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged home after a 1-week stay in the hospital. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage with minimal calcification. A review of the pertinent literature is presented. Physicians should remember adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating a newborn infant with shock, acidosis, abdominal distention, and falling hematocrit and that conservative management is usually indicated.

  16. The clinical practice of pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration in sundenly positive vitreous pressure during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment%经睫状体平坦部穿刺抽吸玻璃体液在眼前节内眼术中突发玻璃体正性压力下应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴育; 马千丽; 杨新光; 张璐; 陈曦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summary the clinical practice experience of pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment,to give suggestion to ophthalmologist in front of positive vitreous pressure.Methods A retrospective clinical study.The data of 24 patients (25 cases) who received pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment from December 2010 to March 2012 in Xi' an NO.4 hospital were collected.One of them had this practice in two time operations.Analysis the patients' sex,average age,preoperative diagnosis,operation mode,preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure,puncture time,puncture related complications.Results The ratio of male and female was 1:2; average age was 60.0±10.4; in all cases,the first diagnosis was glaucoma in 21 cases,4 cases was cataract;the operation mode included:14 cases with glaucoma surgery,3 cases underwent phacoemulsification,4 cases underwent phacoemulsification combined with anterior vitrectomy,1 case underwent phacoemulsification combined with pars plana vitretomy,3 cases underwent anti-glaucoma and phacoemulsification combined with anterior vitrectomy; the average intraocular pressure of those cases with maximum drugs was 32.50±13.41mmHg,average intraocular pressure was 21.95±10.69 mmHg within the first day of postoperative; par plana anterior vitreous aspiration was likely to practice in any operation steps; two cases had complication,one was little vitreous hemorrhage,one was posterior capsular rupture.Conclusions Positive vitreous pressure is an occasionally thorny issue during intraocular operation in ocular anterior segment.Pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration can be quickly relieved clinical symptoms,make operation turn the comer.The clinical practice have some risk,ophthalmic should pay attention to operation and reduce complications.%目的 研究总结经睫状体平坦部穿刺抽吸玻璃体液在眼前节内眼手术中

  17. Complication rate of posterior capsule rupture with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification at a Hawaiian cataract surgical center: a clinical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming Chen,1 Kara C LaMattina,2 Thomas Patrianakos,2 Surendar Dwarakanathan2 1Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2Division of Ophthalmology, John H Stroger, Jr Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA Purpose: To compare the complication rate of posterior capsule rupture (PCR with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification at an ambulatory surgical center with published results as a clinical audit for quality control. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 3,339 consecutive patients who underwent routine phacoemulsification by four experienced private practice surgeons from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012 at The Surgical Suites, Honolulu, HI, USA. All cases with PCR and vitreous loss were identified and selected for the study. Risk factors of this complication were further examined. Data were sent to John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County, Division of Ophthalmology, for literature review, analysis, and write-up. Results: Twenty-three of the 3,339 cases incurred PCR and vitreous loss during phacoemulsification, for an incidence rate of 0.68%. Miosis, shallow chamber, restlessness, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, floppy iris syndrome, and zonulopathy were the main causes. In addition, surgeon volume (number of cases was inversely correlated with PCR. Conclusion: The rate of PCR with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in this study may be lower than other published results done at academic centers. However, there was no compatible study available for comparison, as existing studies performed at academic centers included resident cases. This study identified risk factors for PCR/vitreous loss both preoperatively and postoperatively that may assist in application of preventive measures to decrease rates of PCR/vitreous loss. Keywords: phacoemulsification complications, posterior capsule rupture, vitreous loss, vitrectomy, miosis, pseudoexfoliation, floppy iris syndrome, zonulopathy

  18. Retrospective Study of Vitreous Tap Technique Using Needle Aspiration for Management of Shallow Anterior Chamber during Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ahmed Nossair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the technique of vitreous tap using needle aspiration for management of anterior chamber shallowness during phacoemulsification. Methods. A retrospective study included 26 eyes of 17 patients who underwent phacoemulsification in which vitreous tap was performed using a 27-gauge needle attached to a 5 ml syringe, inserted 3.5 mm from the limbus to aspirate 0.2 ml of liquefied vitreous if a cohesive (OVD failed to sufficiently deepen the anterior chamber. Results. Preoperative anterior chamber depth was 2.31 ± 0.26 mm, axial length was 21.7 ± 0.67 mm, lens thickness was 4.5 ± .19 mm, and cataract grade was 3.77 ± 1.4. Preoperative CDVA in LogMAR units was 0.98 ± 0.75. Coexisting angle closure glaucoma was present in 7 patients (26.92% preoperatively. Vitreous needle tap was successful in vitreous removal on the first attempt in 26 eyes (100%. Postoperative follow-up period was 22.88 ± 10.24 (4–39 months. The final postoperative CDVA in LogMAR units was 0.07 ± 0.1, while the final postoperative IOP was 16.54 ± 1.45 mmHg. No complications related to vitreous tap were noted. Conclusion. Vitreous needle tap is a simple, cost-effective, and safe technique for management of shallow anterior chamber in phacoemulsification.

  19. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

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    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  20. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matllooba Al-Zadjali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically.

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage due to late hemorrhagic disease in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kumandaş, Sefer; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Gümüş, Hakan; Karakukcu, Musa

    2006-07-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized by intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency, occurring particularly in exclusively breastfed infants. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. In this study, we report on two siblings with intracranial bleeding who were fully breastfed without a routine supplementation of vitamin K. Vitamin K should be given to all newborns as a single, intramuscular dose of 1 mg.

  2. Biocompatibility and durability of Teflon-coated platinum-iridium wires implanted in the vitreous cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Xie, Ping; Terasawa, Yasuo; Ozawa, Motoki; Kamei, Motohiro; Nishida, Kohji

    2011-12-01

    Teflon-coated platinum-iridium wires are placed in the vitreous as electrodes in artificial vision systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these wires have toxicity in the vitreous cavity, and to examine the durability of their coating when grasped by forceps. Rabbits were implanted with platinum-iridium wires that were 50 μm in diameter and coated with Teflon to a total diameter of 68 or 100 μm. To examine the biocompatibility, electroretinograms (ERGs) and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed before and 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after the implantation of the electrode. After 6 months, the eyes were histologically examined with light microscopy. To check the durability, the surface of a coated wire was examined with scanning electron microscopy after grasping with different types of forceps. At all times after the implantation the amplitudes and implicit times of the ERGs recorded were not significantly different from those recorded before the implantation (P > 0.05). FA showed no notable change during the follow-up periods. Histological studies showed that the retinas were intact after 6 months of implantation. There was no damage to the Teflon-coated wire after grasping the wire with forceps with silicon-coated tips, while surface damage of the Teflon that did not extend to the platinum-iridium wire was found when grasped by vitreoretinal forceps. We conclude that Teflon-coated platinum-iridium wire is highly biocompatible in the vitreous for at least 6 months. Wires should be handled with vitreoretinal forceps with silicone-coated tips in order to avoid causing damage during wire manipulation.

  3. A metabolomic approach to animal vitreous humor topographical composition: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Locci

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a (1H-NMR-based metabolomic approach to explore the metabolomic signature of different topographical areas of vitreous humor (VH in an animal model. Five ocular globes were enucleated from five goats and immediately frozen at -80 °C. Once frozen, three of them were sectioned, and four samples corresponding to four different VH areas were collected: the cortical, core, and basal, which was further divided into a superior and an inferior fraction. An additional two samples were collected that were representative of the whole vitreous body. (1H-NMR spectra were acquired for twenty-three goat vitreous samples with the aim of characterizing the metabolomic signature of this biofluid and identifying whether any site-specific patterns were present. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA of the spectral data were carried out, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA, and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. A unique metabolomic signature belonging to each area was observed. The cortical area was characterized by lactate, glutamine, choline, and its derivatives, N-acetyl groups, creatine, and glycerol; the core area was characterized by glucose, acetate, and scyllo-inositol; and the basal area was characterized by branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, betaine, alanine, ascorbate, lysine, and myo-inositol. We propose a speculative approach on the topographic role of these molecules that are mainly responsible for metabolic differences among the as-identified areas. (1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis has shown to be an important tool for investigating the VH. In particular, this approach was able to assess in the samples here analyzed the presence of different functional areas on the basis of a different metabolite distribution.

  4. Vitreous inflammatory factors and serous retinal detachment in central retinal vein occlusion: a case control series

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    Noma Hidetaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the vitreous fluid levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 were associated with the occurrence of serous retinal detachment (SRD in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Methods We recruited 33 patients with CRVO and macular edema, as well as 18 controls with nonischemic ocular diseases. Eighteen of the 33 patients with CRVO showed SRD on optical coherence tomography of the macula (defined as subretinal accumulation of fluid with low reflectivity, while the other 15 patients only had cystoid macular edema (CME, defined as hyporeflective intraretinal cavities. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the public domain Scion Image program, while central macular thickness (CMT was examined by optical coherence tomography. Vitreous fluid samples were obtained during pars plana vitrectomy and levels of the target molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ischemia was significantly more common in the SRD group (17/18 patients than in the CME group (5/15 patients (P ptrendptrend = 0.019. On the other hand, the vitreous fluid level of PEDF showed a significant decrease across the three groups (56.4 ± 40.0 ng/ml, 24.3 ± 17.3 ng/ml, and 16.4 ± 12.6 ng/ml, respectively, ptrend Conclusions Higher levels of inflammatory factors (sICAM-1 and sVEGFR-2 and lower levels of anti-inflammatory PEDF were observed in macular edema patients with SRD, suggesting that inflammation plays a key role in determining the severity of CRVO.

  5. Visual prognosis and vitreous molecules after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Noma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma1, Hideharu Funatsu1, Tatsuya Mimura2, Shuichiro Eguchi3, Katsunori Shimada41Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Yachiyo, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Eguchi Eye Hospital, Hakodate, Japan; 4Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: This study investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF influence the visual prognosis of patients with macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. In 47 consecutive patients (47 eyes undergoing vitrectomy, retinal thickness was examined by optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity and the vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF were also determined. Patients were followed for at least 6 months after surgery. Vitreous fluid levels of VEGF and sICAM-1 were significantly lower in the patients with more marked improvement of visual acuity after vitrectomy, while PEDF was significantly higher. VEGF and sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with greater postoperative improvement of macular edema, while PEDF was significantly lower. In BRVO patients, vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF may influence both the response of macular edema to vitrectomy and the visual prognosis.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, vitrectomy, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, pigment epithelium-derived factor 

  6. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: A rare cause of pituitary tumor hemorrhage and reversible vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is not reported till date: We herein report the first case of bilateral visual loss secondary to pituitary adenoma hemorrhage associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Urgent transnasal trans sphenoidal decompression of the macroadenoma prevented permanent visual loss in this patient. Pituitary apoplexy should be considered as differential diagnosis of visual deterioration apart from retinal hemorrhage, maculopathy, and optic neuropathy in cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Early decompression of optic nerves helped in the restoration of vision.

  7. MicroRNA signatures in vitreous humour and plasma of patients with exudative AMD

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Catherine; Rezende, Flavio A.; Miloudi, Khalil; Wilson, Ariel; Tétreault, Nicolas; Hardy, Pierre; SanGiovanni, John Paul; De Guire, Vincent; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide affecting individuals over the age of 50. The neovascular form (NV AMD) is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and responsible for the majority of central vision impairment. Using non-biased microRNA arrays and individual TaqMan qPCRs, we profiled miRNAs in the vitreous humour and plasma of patients with NV AMD. We identified a disease-associated increase in miR-146a and a decrease in miR-106b and...

  8. Stability of endogenous GHB in vitreous humor vs peripheral blood in dead bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Mannocchi, Giulio; Giorgetti, Raffaele; Pellegrini, Manuela; Baglio, Giovanni; Zaami, Simona; Marinelli, Enrico; Pichini, Simona

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, the stability of GHB was tested in post-mortem peripheral blood and vitreous humor samples, collected from 22 dead bodies at two different times: at the external body examination at the place of death and then during autopsy. An ad hoc method for the detection and quantification of GHB in vitreous humor by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated, with a good linearity between 0.1 and 50μg/mL (r(2)=0.991) and a precision and accuracy always better than 10% and an analytical recovery higher than 90%. The geometric mean of GHB concentration in the 22 peripheral blood samples at t0 was: 3.6μg/mL (95% CI: 2.3-5.9μg/mL) and at t1 it was 7.4μg/mL (95% CI: 5.0-10.9μg/mL); that of GHB in the 22 vitreous humor at t0 was: 2.5μg/mL (95% CI: 1.5-4.1μg/mL) and at t1 it was 3.0μg/mL (95% CI: 1.9-4.8μg/mL). There was no significant difference between the GHB concentrations in vitreous humor and peripheral blood at t0 in all the samples (p>0.10). Conversely at t1, the increase of GHB in the peripheral blood was significantly increased by a 102% (range: 86-120%) (phumor only a slight increase by 19% was observed (range: 16-21%) (p>0.05 vs t0). Finally at t1, GHB values in the two matrices were statistically different, being that of peripheral blood higher (phumor as a more stable alternative matrix in comparison to peripheral blood for the post-mortem determination of endogenous GHB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating for Vitreous Surgery Used in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy Grede D_3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is one of the main failure causes of retinal detachment repair. In this paper, 25 cases of vitreous surgery used in the PVR D3 are analyzed. The diagnosis of PVR depended on the classification of the America Retina Society Terminology Committee. Vitrectomy and peeling were carried out in all of the patients. Intraocular tamponade included silicone oil and gas tamponade. Follow-up is more than 3 months. The anatomic successful rate was 68% and 11 cases arrived 20/400...

  10. Changes in the contralateral eye in uncomplicated persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K J; Humayun, M

    1985-02-15

    In two adults (a 62-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman) uncomplicated full-blown unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic clinical features and ultrasonography. In the contralateral uninvolved eyes, we found open-angle glaucoma, anomalous blood vessels along the entire circumference of the anterior chamber angle, band keratopathy, and heterochromia iridis. The axial length of one involved eye was about 0.85 mm larger than that of the uninvolved eye.

  11. Barriers to transport induced by periodic oscillations in a physical model of the human vitreous chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Alberto; Stocchino, Alessandro; Storace, Marco

    2011-03-01

    Understanding mixing processes that occur in the human vitreous chamber is of fundamental importance due to the relevant clinical implications in drug delivery treatments of several eye conditions. In this article we rely on experimental observations (which demonstrated that dispersion coefficients largely dominate diffusive coefficients) on a physical model of the human eye to perform an analysis based on Lagrangian trajectories. In particular, we study barriers to transport in a particularly significant two-dimensional section of the eye model by using nonlinear dynamical systems theoretical and numerical tools. Bifurcations in the system dynamics are investigated by varying the main physical parameters of the problem.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of cocaine, amphetamines, opiates and cannabinoids in vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mariana Dadalto; Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Caleffi, Bruno; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

    2014-01-01

    A GC-MS method for simultaneous analysis of cocaine (COC), amphetamines (AMPs), opiates, cannabinoids and their metabolites in vitreous humor (VH) was developed and fully validated. VH samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and injected into the GC-MS, using a selected ion monitoring mode. Linearity ranged from 10 to 1000 ng/mL; the exception was anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), for which linearity ranged from 10 to 750 ng/mL. Inter-assay imprecision lay from 1.2 to 10.0%, intra-assay imprecision was opiates and their metabolites.

  13. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors studied with combined Raman scattering and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Vakiv, M. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)], E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2007-04-15

    A combination of Raman scattering and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) techniques to study charged defects in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVSs) was applied for the first time in this study. In the case of Ge{sub 15.8}As{sub 21}S{sub 63.2} glass, it is found that the main radiation-induced switching of heteropolar Ge-S bonds into heteropolar As-S ones, previously detected by IR fast Fourier transform spectroscopy, can also be identified by Raman spectroscopy in the depolarized configuration. Results obtained by Raman scattering are in good agreement with PALS data for the investigated glass composition.

  15. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development of vitreous ceramic tiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritwik Sarkar; Nar Singh; Swapan Kumar Das

    2010-06-01

    Steel melting through electric arc furnace route is gaining popularity due to its many advantages, but generates a new waste, electric arc furnace slag, which is getting accumulated and land/mine filling and road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to develop vitreous ceramic tiles. Slag, to the extent of 30–40 wt% with other conventional raw materials, were used for the development in the temperature range 1100–1150°C. The fired products showed relatively higher density with shorter firing range and good strength properties. Microstructural and EDAX studies were also done to evaluate the developed products.

  16. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-03

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  17. Recent progress in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ming; Duan, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease, which can be divided into three types: ischemic, hemorrhagic, and asymptomatic. Hemorrhagic MMD has attracted considerable attention due to its distinctive imaging features and the controversy over the treatment. This report presents a comprehensive review of the literature on hemorrhagic MMD, focusing on the epidemiological characteristics, etiology and pathogenesis, imaging features, predictors of hemorrhage, and treatment options and their efficacy of hemorrhagic MMD. Hemorrhagic MMD mainly occurs in adult patients in Asian countries, and many factors may contribute to the etiology and development of this disease. Hemorrhagic MMD has two major imaging features: the dilatation and abnormal branching of anterior choroidal artery or posterior communicating artery, and multiple microbleeds, which may predict subsequent hemorrhage. The treatment for hemorrhagic MMD is not standardized, and large sample prospective randomized clinical trials may help to determine which method is better. In hemorrhagic MMD patients, more attention should be paid to cognitive function and quality of life, and these assessments should be included in the evaluation of effectiveness of treatment modalities.

  18. Intracranial Hemorrhage Annotation for CT Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Hau Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we created a decision-making model to detect intracranial hemorrhage and adopted Expectation Maximization(EM segmentation to segment the Computed Tomography (CT images. In this work, basically intracranial hemorrhage is classified into two main types which are intra-axial hemorrhage and extra-axial hemorrhage. In order to ease classification, contrast enhancement is adopted to finetune the contrast of the hemorrhage. After that, k-means is applied to group the potential and suspicious hemorrhagic regions into one cluster. The decision-making process is to identify whether the suspicious regions are hemorrhagic regions or non-regions of interest. After the hemorrhagic detection, the images are segmented into brain matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by using expectation-maximization (EM segmentation. The acquired experimental results are evaluated in terms of recall and precision. The encouraging results have been attained whereby the proposed system has yielded 0.9333 and 0.8880 precision for extra-axial and intra-axial hemorrhagic detection respectively, whereas recall rate obtained is 0.9245 and 0.8043 for extra-axial and intra-axial hemorrhagic detection respectively.

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage with blister aneurysms: Endovascular management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dayanand Chinchure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blister aneurysms of are rare lesions representing a real challenge for diagnosis and management. They typically show small size, hemispherical shape, fragile wall, broad neck, and are arising from non-branching sites of intracranial arteries. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all aneurysms treated at our institution. Seventeen patients (6 male, 11 female with 17 blister aneurysms were identified (mean age 53.3, range 41-63 years. Clinical, procedural, angiographic data as well as follow up data were evaluated. Results: All patients presented with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Majority of the blister aneurysms were located in ICA while 1 was located at posterior cerebral artery, 1 at vertebral and 1 involving basilar artery. All patients were treated using single or overlapping stents and if possible additional coiling. There was no intra-operative rupture. Good outcome (mrs 0-2 was seen in 14 patients. Poor clinical outcome (mrs 3-5 was seen in 2 patients due to vasospasm induced ischemic deficits at discharge, both of them improved on follow up (mrs 1 on follow up. There were 3 mortalities, One patient died of rebleeding while other 2 died due to SAH induced complications. Follow-up angiography was available in 16 patients (one patient died before follow up angiogram and revealed complete or near complete aneurysm occlusion in 11, incomplete obliteration in 1 and no change in 2 cases. Two cases showed post-treatment angiographic aneurysm recurrence. Both cases were managed with repeat coiling and overlapping stent placement. Conclusion: Endovascular management using single/overlapping stent and if possible coil placement is technically safe and feasible in blister aneurysms. Overlapping stents lead to better aneurysm occlusion than a single stent. Blister aneurysm in dorso-medial ICA showed higher tendency of continued growth/recurrence, higher incidence of clinical vasospasm and in these cases early angiographic follow

  20. Delayed hemorrhage from hepatic artery after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen-Yu Ren; Xi-Xu Piao; Ailian Jin

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsy is considered one of the most important diagnostic tools to evaluate diffuse liver diseases. Pseudoaneurysm of hepatic artery is an unusual complication after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy. Delayed hemorrhage occurs much less frequently. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery of a 46-year-old man who was admitted for abdominal pain after 4 d of liver biopsy. The bleeding was controlled initially by angiographic embolization.However, recurrent bleeding could not be controlled by repeat angiography, and the patient died 4 d after admission from multiorgan failure. The admittedly rare possibility of delayed hemorrhage should be considered whenever a liver biopsy is performed.

  1. Hypothermia Improves Oral and Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygenation during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vollmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2 and perfusion (μflow under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design: hypothermia (34°C, hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2 and oral mucosal (μDO2 oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μHbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (−36 ± 4% and −27 ± 7%; however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (−15 ± 5% and −11 ± 5%. The improved μHbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μflow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (−51 ± 21 aU compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (−106 ± 19 aU. μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μHbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μflow.

  2. A model for the linear stability of the interface between aqueous humor and vitreous substitutes after vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Krystyna; Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids induced by periodic oscillations of a flat solid surface along its plane. The interface between the two fluids is parallel to the solid wall; one fluid occupies the region between the wall and the interface and the other extends from the interface to infinity. We study numerically the linear stability of the interface with respect to two-dimensional perturbations using the normal mode analysis and assuming quasi-steady flow conditions. The analysis is motivated by the need of understanding the behavior of vitreous substitutes inserted in the vitreous chamber of the eye after vitrectomy. This is a common surgical procedure adopted to treat retinal detachments, whereby the vitreous humor is removed from the eye and replaced by fluids immiscible with water. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, vitreous substitutes coexist in the vitreous chamber with a certain amount of aqueous humor (the fluid produced in the anterior part of the eye) and, typically, a thin layer of aqueous separates the tamponade fluid from the retina. A common problem with this treatment is that, in some cases, the interface between the two fluids breaks down and this might eventually lead to the generation of an emulsion. It is believed that mechanics plays an important role in this process but the problem remains very poorly understood. We find that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters that is relevant for the problem that motivated the present analysis. This suggests that shear instability is likely a possible mechanism triggering the onset of vitreous substitutes-aqueous interface instability.

  3. Effects of confined space and near vision stimulation on refractive status and vitreous chamber depth in adolescent rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sustained near vision stimulation,on the refractive development and elongation of the vitreous chamber in adolescent rhesus monkeys.A total of 12 adolescent rhesus monkeys(1.5-2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to 3 groups.In groups A(n=4) and B(n=4),monkeys were reared in close-vision cages for 8 and 4 h d-1,respectively;tiny granules were added on the cage floor to avoid visual deprivation and to encourage near gaze.In group C(n=4),monkeys were reared in open-vision cages,with non-granule food as a control.Vitreous chamber depth,refractive status,and corneal refractive power were assessed over 18 months.Paired t-test was used to compare the differences and a P-value<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.In group A,vitreous chamber depth and optical axis elongated significantly,and refractive error shifted towards myopia during the observation period.In group B,vitreous chambers and optical axis elongated but the refractive power did not show significant changes.In group C,there was no significant elongation in vitreous chambers and optical axis,and the refractive power changed slightly towards hypermetropia.There were no significant changes in corneal refractive power in each group.Sustained near vision can promote vitreous chamber growth and induce myopic shifts in refractive power in adolescent monkeys.Our results demonstrate the potential for a primate model of near-work-related myopia.

  4. Pneumatic displacement and intravitreal bevacizumab: A new approach for management of submacular hemorrhage in choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla Shobhit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM is one of the most common causes of submacular hemorrhage (SMH. Conventional treatment involves management of the SMH with pneumatic displacement with or without tissue plasminogen activator (TPA followed by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in a second sitting. We decided to assess the efficacy of treating SMH secondary to CNVM with pneumatic displacement using sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 gas and intravitreal bevacizumab. Four patients with SMH secondary to CNVM were included in this study. Intravitreal bevacizumab, 0.05 ml, along with 0.5 ml of SF6 was injected through the pars plana into the vitreous cavity. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes with complete or partial displacement of SMH out of the foveal area.

  5. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  6. The diffusion dynamics of PEGylated liposomes in the intact vitreous of the ex vivo porcine eye: A fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biodistribution study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Zebitz; Brewer, Jonathan; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2017-01-01

    correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to determine liposome diffusion coefficients in the intact vitreous (DVit) of ex vivo porcine eyes using a modified Miyake-Apple technique to minimize the disruption of the vitreous fine structure. We chose to investigate whether the zeta potential of polyethylene glycol...

  7. Investigation of the motion of a viscous fluid in the vitreous cavity induced by eye rotations and implications for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H.; Stocchino, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Intravitreal drug delivery is a commonly used treatment for several retinal diseases. The objective of this research is to characterize and quantify the role of the vitreous humor motion, induced by saccadic movements, on drug transport processes in the vitreous chamber. A Perspex model of the human vitreous chamber was created, and filled with a purely viscous fluid, representing eyes with a liquefied vitreous humor or those containing viscous tamponade fluids. Periodic movements were applied to the model and the resulting three-dimensional (3D) flow fields were measured. Drug delivery within the vitreous chamber was investigated by calculating particle trajectories using integration over time of the experimental velocity fields. The motion of the vitreous humor generated by saccadic eye movements is intrinsically 3D. Advective mass transport largely overcomes molecular diffusive transport and is significantly anisotropic, leading to a much faster drug dispersion than in the case of stationary vitreous humor. Disregarding the effects of vitreous humor motion due to eye movements when predicting the efficiency of drug delivery treatments leads to significant underestimation of the drug transport coefficients, and this, in turn, will lead to significantly erroneous predictions of the concentration levels on the retina.

  8. [Clinical aspects of viral hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is defined as virus infections that usually cause pyrexia and hemorrhagic symptoms with multiple organ failure. VHF includes following viral infections: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Lassa fever. In particular, the causative agents of EHF, MHF, CCHF, and Lassa fever are Ebola, Marburg, CCHF, Lassa viruses, respectively, and regarded as biosafety level-4 pathogens because of their high virulence to humans. Recently, relatively large outbreaks of EHF and MHF have occurred in Africa, and areas of EHF- and MHF-outbreaks seem to be expanding. Although outbreaks of VHF have not been reported in Japan, there is a possibility that the deadly hemorrhagic fever viruses would be introduced to Japan in future. Therefore, preparedness for possible future outbreaks of VHF is necessary in areas without VHF outbreaks.

  9. A Case of Sudden Deafness with Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage and Sudden Deafness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Se Won; Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    .... The prognosis SSNHL by intralabyrintine hemorrhage is generally known to be poor. We report a case of sudden deafness with intralabyrintine hemorrhage who has a history of anticoagulant administration, with a review of literature.

  10. Angiogenic and Vasculogenic Factors in the Vitreous from Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine levels of angiogenic and endothelial progenitor cell mobilizing (vasculogenic factors in vitreous fluid from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR patients and correlate their levels with clinical disease activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, stem cell factor (SCF, soluble c-kit (s-kit, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels were measured by ELISA in vitreous samples from 34 PDR and 15 nondiabetic patients. eNOS was not detected. VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SCF, and s-kit levels were significantly higher in PDR with active neovascularization compared with quiescent PDR and nondiabetic patients (; 0.007; 0.001; , resp.. In contrast, PGE2 levels were significantly higher in nondiabetic patients compared with PDR patients (. There were significant correlations between levels of sVEGFR-2 versus SCF (, , sVEGFR-2 versus s-kit (, , and SCF versus s-kit (, . Our findings suggest that upregulation of VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SCF, and s-kit supports the contributions of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in pathogenesis of PDR.

  11. Electronic sputtering of vitreous SiO{sub 2}: Experimental and modeling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [CIMAP (ENSICAEN, CEA, CNRS, Univ. Caen), Bd H. Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France); Assmann, W. [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholzzentrum, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The irradiation of solids with swift heavy ions leads to pronounced surface and bulk effects controlled by the electronic energy loss of the projectiles. In contrast to the formation of ion tracks in bulk materials, the concomitant emission of atoms from the surface is much less investigated. Sputtering experiments with different ions ({sup 58}Ni, {sup 127}I and {sup 197}Au) at energies around 1.2 MeV/u were performed on vitreous SiO{sub 2} (a-SiO{sub 2}) in order to quantify the emission rates and compare them with data for crystalline SiO{sub 2} quartz. Stoichiometry of the sputtering process was verified by monitoring the thickness decreases of a thin SiO{sub 2} film deposited on a Si substrate. Angular distributions of the emitted atoms were measured by collecting sputtered atoms on arc-shaped Cu catcher foils. Subsequent analysis of the number of Si atoms deposited on the catcher foils was quantified by elastic recoil detection analysis providing differential as well as total sputtering yields. Compared to existing data for crystalline SiO{sub 2}, the total sputtering yields for vitreous SiO{sub 2} are by a factor of about five larger. Differences in the sputtering rate and track formation characteristics between amorphous and crystalline SiO{sub 2} are discussed within the frame of the inelastic thermal spike model.

  12. Severe hemophilia in a girl infant with mosaic Turner syndrome and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mahdi; Bazrafshan, Asghar; Moghadam, Mohamad; Karimi, Mehran

    2016-04-01

    A 6-month-old girl was referred by an ophthalmologist because of postoperative bleeding. She was scheduled for operation because of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Workups were done and prolonged partial thromboplastin time with normal platelet count, normal bleeding time, and prothrombin time were detected. There was negative family history of bleeding tendency in both maternal and paternal family, so at the first step, Factor XI assay was requested which was normal. Then, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII were assayed which was 127% and less than 1%, respectively. Severe factor VIII deficiency was not suspected in a girl unless in siblings of a hemophilic patient who gets married with her carrier cousin. Chromosomal study and genetic testing were requested and mosaic Turner syndrome (45 XO) with ring X (p22, 2q13) along with inversion 22 (hemizygote) was detected. Abdominal and pelvic sonography showed absence of both ovaries with presence of infantile uterus. Maternal genetic study was in favor of carrier of hemophilia (heterozygote inversion 22). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of association of Turner syndrome with severe hemophilia A and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

  13. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. Sediment soil has been used as substituted material in ball clay for the first group, and substituted in kaolin for the second group. The specimens of each formula are formed by uniaxial pressing at 100 bar of size 50×100×7 mm. Then they have been sintered at two different temperatures, 1200°C and 1250°C, with heating rate 400° C/ hr and soaking for 30 minutes. The result reveals that the suitable formula for ceramics vitreous china is No. 2_4 of Group 2 with sintering temperature 1250°C. Its mixture consists of 0% kaolin, 35% ball clay, 30% feldspar, 20% silica sand and 15% sediment soil. The properties of this formula are 9.4% shrinkage, 9.39 MPa of bending strength, 6.34×10−6/K coefficient of thermal expansion, and 0.66% water absorption.

  14. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation; Persistencia hiperplastica do vitreo primitivo: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: biamjacob@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  15. Model propagation of a femtosecond laser radiation in the vitreous of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, P. Y.; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring due to propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in vitreous of the human eye. By methods of numerical simulation, we have solved a nonlinear spectral equation describing dynamics of two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation. The solution was performed in a homogeneous isotropic medium with instantaneous cubic nonlinearity without using slowly varying envelope approximation. For simulation we used medium with parameters close to the optical media of the eye. The model of femtosecond radiation takes into account the dynamics of the process of dispersion pulse broadening in time and occurrence of self-focusing of the retina when passing through vitreous body of the eye. The dependence between pulse duration on the retina and duration of the input pulse was found, as well as the values of power density at which self-focusing occurs. It was shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage caused while using Ti-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with the results obtained by other scientists. They can be used to create Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  16. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Improve the Diclofenac Availability in Vitreous after Intraocular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Majid; Vakili Ahrari Roodi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In order to improve the drug availability after intravitreal administration, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing diclofenac were prepared. Methods. In this experimental study, 18 albino rabbits were included. In right and left eyes of all rabbits, SLNs containing diclofenac and commercial form of diclofenac (0.3 mg drug) were intravitreally injected, respectively. One, four, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours after injection, vitreous and aqueous humor samples were obtained in all cases. Then, the concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples. Results. Size of nanoparticles was around 170 nm after preparation. Drug concentration in eyes injected with SLNs was significantly higher than left eyes injected with commercial formulation up to 4 hours after intravitreal injection (p < 0.05). Diclofenac was quantified in samples up to 48 hours after intraocular injection. Four hours after intravitreal injection, the concentration of diclofenac in vitreous and aqueous humor of eyes receiving SLNs was, respectively, 2.5 and 6.5 times higher than eyes injected with commercial form of drug. Conclusions. Here, we demonstrate the potential of SLNs as a carrier of diclofenac for intraocular injection in order to prevent the systemic effects of the drug, increase the injection intervals, and improve the patient compliance. PMID:27803815

  17. USE OF VITREOUS FERTILIZERS WITH SLOW RELEASE OF NUTRIENTS IN VITICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ion

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the possibility of using vitreous fertilizers made from waste from the glass industry in vineyards fertilization. Six recipes were tested having as composition the basic elements: P2O5 (43.5%, K2O (32.6%, MgO (18.5% and CaO (5.4%, plus the presence of some micronutrients (B, Fe, Zn, Mo, Mn as oxide form. The efficiency of these fertilizers was made in comparison both with an unfertilized plot and an fertilized plot with NPK applied on the base of optimal rates. The experimental results have shown that this type of fertilizers can replace the use of common chemical fertilizers, their effect on the fertility and productivity of grapevine being relative similar, the benefit consisting of slow release over a long period of time of the nutrients from their composition with positive effects in preventing environmental pollution. The presence of micronutrients in their composition determined even higher yields (by 10-19% as compare to chemical fertilization and a higher content (by 8-45 % of anthocyanins in grapes when vitreous fertilizers had B, Fe, Zn and Mo in their composition.

  18. Microstructural characterization and influence of manufacturing parameters on technological properties of vitreous ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njoya, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Hajjaji, M., E-mail: Hajjaji@ucam.ac.ma [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Bacaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Njopwouo, D. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux Mineraux, Departement de Chimie Inorganique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-03-15

    Microstructure of vitreous ceramic samples manufactured from kaolinitic-clay and feldspars raw materials from Cameroon was investigated in the range 1150-1250 deg. C by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring some technological properties. Moreover, the simultaneous influence of feldspars content, heating temperature and soaking time on water absorption and firing shrinkage was evaluated by adopting the response surface methodology (Doehlert matrix), using the New Efficient Methodology for Research using Optimal Design (NEMROD) software. The results show that a spinel phase, mullite, glassy phase and some amount of hematite were formed. However, the spinel phase and potassic feldspar, as compared to the sodic one, disappeared at moderate firing temperature and soaking time. Apparently, mullite developed from spinel phase, which is formed from the demixion of metakaolin. On the other hand, it is found that the effects of fluxing content and firing temperature on the measured properties were almost similar and more influent than soaking time. Antagonistic and synergetic interactions existed between the considered parameters, and their importance differed for the considered properties. By using this mathematical tool, suitable operating conditions for manufacturing vitreous bodies were determined.

  19. [Induction of posterior detachment of the vitreous body by intraoperative vitreo-syneresis with injection of water-soluble polymers (an experimental-morphological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvorchenko, D O; Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Andreeva, L D; Sharafetdinov, I Kh; Shtil'man, M I; Maklakova, I A; Uzunian, D G

    2001-01-01

    The capacity of water-soluble polymers (polyethylenimine, polyvinylpyrrolidone with copolymers) to induce posterior detachment of the vitreous by its rapid condensation (vitreosynerysis) was studied in experiments on 14 rabbits. Histological studies showed that water-soluble polymers specifically react forming complexes with components of the vitreous. The vitreous shrinks under the effect of polyelectrolytes (vitreosynerysis), which leads to its posterior detachment 1.5 h after injection of the polymer into the vitreous cavity: complete detachment was attained in 2 animals and partial in 8. The degree of vitreosynerysis depends on the complex-forming activity of polyelectrolytes towards the vitreous components. Polymers used in our study exerted no toxic or traction effects on the adjacent structures of the eye.

  20. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  1. Transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy with tissue plasminogen activator, gas and intravitreal bevacizumab in the management of predominantly hemorrhagic age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Luis Arias1,2, Jordi Monés11Institut de la Màcula i de la Retina, Centro Médico Teknon, Barcelona; 2Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, BarcelonaPurpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of treating predominantly hemorrhagic age-related macular degeneration (AMD with transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6, and intravitreal bevacizumab.Methods: Retrospective study, consecutive case series. Patients with acute hemorrhagic AMD treated with 25- or 23-gauge TSV, subretinal or intravitreal tPA, fluid-air-SF6 exchange and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. All operations were performed within the first 5 days after the start of symptoms, which consisted of visual acuity (VA loss and central scotoma.Results: Fifteen eyes from 15 patients were included. The patients’ mean age was 79.6 years, and the mean follow-up was 11.8 months. Five patients (33% were receiving oral anticoagulant treatment. At baseline, the mean VA (logMAR values was 1.5 (20/640 Snellen equivalent. At the last follow-up visit, the mean VA was 1.1 (20/250 (P < 0.0001; paired t-test. The submacular hemorrhage was successfully displaced in all the cases. Complications consisted of three cases of vitreous hemorrhage and a tear or the retinal pigment epithelium. Twelve cases (80% did not require further treatment during the follow-up period.Conclusion: A surgical approach with 25- or 23-gauge TSV, tPA, SF6 and intravitreal bevacizumab is an efficacious and safe procedure in patients with hemorrhagic AMD. Early treatment is advisable for obtaining the optimal outcome.Keywords: Hemorrhagic age-related macular degeneration, tissue plasminogen activator, intravitreal bevacizumab; transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy

  2. [Gastrontestinal hemorrhage following thoracic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, O; Tvrtković, R; Budalica, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors discuss eight cases who suffered hemorrhaging stress ulcers out of 200 cases on whom Thoracotomies were performed. Presented is the common factor of the onset of this complication, it's diagnosis, and therapy. Listed below are the diagnoses and operative procedures used on these eight patients. Cysta Aerea Permagna Lobi Inf. Pulm. Dexter/operation: Mytomis Longitudinalis Ooesophagi. Caverna Bronchiectatica Permagna Lobi Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Lobestomia Typica. Echinococcus Heaptis Complicatus, Empyema Pleurae Dexter/opetation: Decorticatio. Haemathorax Spontaneous Lobus Sinister/operation: Decorticatio Pleurae Sinister. Echi Comp. Cupolae Hepatis Permagnus/operation: Thoracotomia Phrenotomia, evacuatio, Triplex Drainage. Bronchiectasiae Lobi Medius et Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Biblobectomia Typica. Carcinoma Bronchi Lobi Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Lobectomia Typica. Gastric problems had troubled four of these eight patients in their past history. Bleeding in three patients occurred three days postoperatively, and in the remaining five, thirty days following their operation. Six patients had to be treated conservatively because of serious contraindications to reoperation. Four of them expired. Autopsy revealed: Pyothorax, Dehiscention Bronchi, Empyema, and Gastritis Errosiva with multiulcerations, hemoragia, and dilatation of the right heart. Two patients with recent stress ulcers were reoperated on, and were cured. The authors estimate that the occurrence of hemorrhaging stress ulcer following thoracic surgery are basically due to Hypoxia. The chain of events whic brought about the stress ulcer, however, began even before the operation, continued throughout the operation, and appeared postoperatively due to postoperative complications. The authors point out that these complications can be foreseen (early and late), but firstly, an attempt should be made to treat the patient with conservative therapy. Inasmuch as the hemorrhaging

  3. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  5. Characterization of the vitreous body of the human eye using a cyanine dye as a spectral and fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.

    2009-02-01

    We used one of cyanine dyes as a spectral and fluorescent probe in the study of the composition of the extracellular matrix of the human eye (its vitreous body). Owing to the unique ability of the dye to bind to collagens and human serum albumin, we revealed the simultaneous presence of both types of biomacromolecules in the vitreous body. The formation of the dye complex with human serum albumin leads to appearance of a long-wavelength absorption band (~612 nm) and a steep rise of fluorescence, whereas in the presence of collagens the dye forms J-aggregates with a longer-wavelength absorption band (640-660 nm) and moderate fluorescence. In this work we studied the composition of the human fetus vitreous body and its dynamics from 9 to 31 gestation weeks. On the basis of the data obtained by this method, we may assume that albumin, being a carrier protein, probably provides the vitreous body and surrounding tissues with necessary growth factors, hormones, lipids, vitamins, and some other biomolecules. The data show that the dye is promising not only for study of albumin functions in eye development, but also for characterization of some eye diseases and for analysis of other extracellular media.

  6. Age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body : LM and TEM evaluation of the role of proteoglycans and collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate morphologic aspects of age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body by fight and electron microscopy to provide a basis from which future studies directed at the pathogenesis of this phenomenon can be undertaken. The study focuses on changes in fibrillar Collagen and prot

  7. Age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body : LM and TEM evaluation of the role of proteoglycans and collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    PURPOSE. To evaluate morphologic aspects of age-related liquefaction of the human vitreous body by fight and electron microscopy to provide a basis from which future studies directed at the pathogenesis of this phenomenon can be undertaken. The study focuses on changes in fibrillar Collagen and

  8. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  9. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  10. Volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64 multidetector-row CT during aortography: utility for catheterization in transcatheter arterial embolization for acute arterial bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Nakai, Motoki; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Murotani, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Seiki; Nishioku, Tadayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aortography for detecting hemorrhage is limited when determining the catheter treatment strategy because the artery responsible for hemorrhage commonly overlaps organs and non-responsible arteries. Selective catheterization of untargeted arteries would result in repeated arteriography, large volumes of contrast medium, and extended time. A volume-rendered hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created with 64 multidetector-row CT (64MDCT) during aortography (MDCTAo) can be used both for hemorrhage mapping and catheter navigation. The MDCTAo depicted hemorrhage in 61 of 71 cases of suspected acute arterial bleeding treated at our institute in the last 3 years. Complete hemostasis by embolization was achieved in all cases. The hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram was used for navigation during catheterization, thus assisting successful embolization. Hemorrhage was not visualized in the remaining 10 patients, of whom 6 had a pseudoaneurysm in a visceral artery; 1 with urinary bladder bleeding and 1 with chest wall hemorrhage had gaze tamponade; and 1 with urinary bladder hemorrhage and 1 with uterine hemorrhage had spastic arteries. Six patients with pseudoaneurysm underwent preventive embolization and the other 4 patients were managed by watchful observation. MDCTAo has the advantage of depicting the arteries responsible for hemoptysis, whether from the bronchial arteries or other systemic arteries, in a single scan. MDCTAo is particularly useful for identifying the source of acute arterial bleeding in the pancreatic arcade area, which is supplied by both the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In a case of pelvic hemorrhage, MDCTAo identified the responsible artery from among numerous overlapping visceral arteries that branched from the internal iliac arteries. In conclusion, a hemorrhage-responsible arteriogram created by 64MDCT immediately before catheterization is useful for deciding the catheter treatment strategy for acute arterial bleeding.

  11. Posterior vitreous cortex contributes to macular hole in highly myopic eyes with retinal detachment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yun; ZOU Hai-dong; LIU Kun; SONG Zheng-yu; XU Xun; SUN Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background It was well known that tangential vitreoretinal traction and epiretinal membrane play important roles during the formation of macular hole (MH) associated with retinal detachment (RD) in highly myopic eyes. But it was not clear about the correlations between anteroposterior traction, posterior vitreous cortex (PVC) and MH-RD. The vitreous status in highly myopic eyes were analyzed to explore the effect of PVC in the role of MH-RD formation.Methods Sixteen consecutive highly myopic eyes with RD due to MH were retrospectively analyzed from January 2009 to April 2009. The preoperative examinations for detecting posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreoretinal traction included B-mode ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The residual PVC and PVD were confirmed intraoperatively during triamcinolone acetonide (TA) assisted vitrectomy.Results Under ultrasonography, the preoperative PVD patterns were stratified as: complete PVD in three (19%) eyes,partial PVD in eight (50%) eyes, and no PVD in five (31%) eyes. OCT confirmed vitreoretinal traction and no complete PVD in 10 (63%) eyes, including anteroposterior traction in four eyes and tangential traction in six eyes. During TA-assisted vitrectomy, it was confirmed that no complete PVD existed in 16 eyes, including six eyes (38%) finally diagnosed of partial PVD, and five (31%) eyes with vitreoschisis. Anteroposterior vitreoretinal traction around MH is always in conjunction with partial PVD (67%), and high proportion (80%) of vitreoschisis is associated with tangential vitreoretinal traction. Comparing with the precision of TA staining of PVD diagnosis, the coincidence rate of ultrasonography was 69% (P=-0.02), and that of OCT was 63% (P <0.01).Conclusions The residual PVC due to partial PVD or vitreoschisis may cause the anteroposterior or tangential traction of macular area, which contributes to the formation of MH and subsequent RD in highly myopic eyes. And it is necessary to

  12. Unusual Initial Manifestation of Acquired Hemophilia A: A Normal Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, Intramuscular Hematoma and Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyama, Nobuaki; Ichiba, Toshihisa; Naito, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of acquired hemophilia A with a normal activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT), intramuscular hematoma and cerebral hemorrhage occurring in a 73-year-old man. The patient visited our emergency department with gait disturbance, pain and swelling in his right leg. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed intramuscular hematoma and intracranial hemorrhage. The results of initial coagulation studies were normal, but repeated coagulation studies revealed an isolated prolongation of the aPTT. Additional laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. If the initial aPTT is normal, we should therefore repeat the aPTT and also perform other coagulation studies including a mixing study, factor VIII level and inhibitor, to investigate the underlying diseases in elderly patients with spontaneous hemorrhaging of unknown etiology. PMID:27853081

  13. How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids and red blood cells (RBC) in the early phase, and plasma and platelets in...

  14. Safety of anticoagulation after hemorrhagic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, M S; Estol, C J; Lafranchise, F; Caplan, L R

    1993-07-01

    Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction visualized on CT, secondary to embolic stroke in an anticoagulated individual, is usually associated with clinically stable or improving neurologic signs; fear of transforming the hemorrhagic infarction into a hematoma, however, usually prompts cessation of anticoagulation until the blood has cleared on CT, despite the recognized risk of recurrent embolism during this non-anticoagulated period. We now report our experience with 12 patients with hemorrhagic infarction who remained anticoagulated. Eleven men and one woman, ages 33 to 77, developed hemorrhagic infarction while on heparin, warfarin, or both, for prevention of recurrent embolism. Patients were either continued on uninterrupted anticoagulation from stroke onset (n = 6), or anticoagulation was withheld for several days and then resumed (n = 4), or it was withheld for 5 and 14 days (n = 2) after stroke onset and then continued uninterrupted despite the CT appearance of hemorrhagic infarction. Eleven patients had a definite cardioembolic source for stroke (atrial fibrillation, seven; ventricular thrombus, two; and ventricular dyskinesia, two). One patient had carotid occlusion with local intra-arterial embolism. Hemorrhagic infarcts varied in size and were located in the middle cerebral artery territory in 11 patients and posterior cerebral artery territory in one. All patients remained clinically stable or improved on anticoagulation. Serial CTs showed fading hemorrhagic areas. When the risk of recurrent embolism is high, anticoagulation may be safely used in some patients with hemorrhagic infarction.

  15. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  16. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  17. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  18. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  19. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis N Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words:“troponin elevation”and“subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr>1μg/L), worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients’ cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  20. Recurrent bleeding after perimesencephalic hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-08-31

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only one well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. In this case report we describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had two episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. In order to validate the radiological findings we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and two neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head CT scans of eight patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had after the onset headache two episodes with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CTs of eight patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have two episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on two subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Hosotani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage in young women is caused by the high frequency of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian bleeding. Here, we describe a case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage, which is a rare cause of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was suspected in a 38-year-old Japanese woman based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Her last menstrual period was 23 days prior, and ovarian bleeding was considered based on bloody ascites revealed by culdocentesis. She underwent emergency surgery for hypovolemic shock. Although both ovaries were of normal size and no abnormal findings were observed, we performed a partial omentectomy because multiple clots were attached only to the greater omentum. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred, and she was discharged 11 days after the surgery. Because she did not have a clear history of trauma and underlying disease, idiopathic omental hemorrhage was diagnosed.

  2. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...... to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive...... use, and health services utilization.The risk (odds ratio [OR]) of ICH among migraineurs was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.5), and of SAH was (1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5). The association with ICH was stronger for migraine diagnosed ≥20 years prior to ICH (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4), but not with SAH...

  3. Eye rotation induced dynamics of a Newtonian fluid within the vitreous cavity: the effect of the chamber shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocchino, Alessandro [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy); Repetto, Rodolfo [Department of Engineering of Structures, Water and Soil, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Cafferata, Chiara [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2007-04-07

    The dynamics of the vitreous body induced by eye rotations is studied experimentally. In particular, we consider the case in which the vitreous cavity is filled by a Newtonian fluid, either because the vitreous is liquefied or because it has been replaced, after vitrectomy, by a viscous fluid. We employ a rigid Perspex container which models, in a magnified scale, the vitreous cavity of the human eye. The shape of the cavity closely resembles that of the real vitreous chamber; in particular, the anterior part of the container is concave in order to model the presence of the eye lens. The container is filled with glycerol and is mounted on the shaft of a computer-controlled motor which rotates according to a periodic time law. PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation. The experimental measurements show that the velocity field is strongly influenced by the deformed geometry of the domain. In particular, the formation of a vortex in the vicinity of the lens, which migrates in time towards the core of the domain, is invariably observed. The vortex path is tracked in time by means of a vortex identification technique and it is found that it is significantly influenced by the Womersley number of the flow. Particle trajectories are computed from the PIV measurements. Particles initially located at different positions on the equatorial horizontal plane (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) tend to concentrate in narrow regions adjacent to the lens, thus suggesting the existence, in such regions, of a vertical fluid ejection. Such a strong flow three-dimensionality, which is essentially induced by the irregular shape of the domain, may play a significant role in the mixing processes taking place inside the eye globe. The tangential stresses acting on the rigid boundary of the domain are also computed from the experimental measurements showing that regions subject to particularly intense stresses

  4. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  5. Signature of a polyamorphic transition in the THz spectrum of vitreous GeO2

    CERN Document Server

    Cunsolo, Alessandro; Kodituwakku, Chaminda N; Wang, Shibing; Antonangeli, Daniele; Bencivenga, Filippo; Battistoni, Andrea; Verbeni, Roberto; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q R; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Bolmatov, Dima; Cai, Yong Q

    2016-01-01

    The THz spectrum of density fluctuations, $S(Q, \\omega)$, of vitreous GeO$_2$ at ambient temperature was measured by inelastic x-ray scattering from ambient pressure up to pressures well beyond that of the known $\\alpha$-quartz to rutile polyamorphic (PA) transition. We observe significant differences in the spectral shape measured below and above the PA transition, in particular, in the 30-80 meV range. Guided by first-principle lattice dynamics calculations, we interpret the changes in the phonon dispersion as the evolution from a quartz-like to a rutile-like coordination. Notably, such a crossover is accompanied by a cusp-like behavior in the pressure dependence of the elastic response of the system. Overall, the presented results highlight the complex fingerprint of PA phenomena on the high-frequency phonon dispersion.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and vitreous proteome changes in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelli H; Silva, Paolo S; Sun, Jennifer K

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic retinal diseases, particularly diabetic retinopathy, continue to significantly impact vision and remain a leading cause of vision loss in working-aged adults. Identifying specific genetic risk factors for ischemic-driven pathways that increase susceptibility to developing diabetic retinopathy is a priority to allow development of accurate risk assessment algorithms, employ earlier intervention, and design novel treatment strategies to reduce the associated visual complications. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene have been shown to influence the expression of the VEGF protein. Several studies suggest that SNPs in the VEGF gene mediate genetic predisposition to diabetic retinopathy. In addition, alterations in the vitreous proteome, including carbonic anhydrase mediated vascular permeability, have been found to be associated with sight-threatening proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Inhibition of these factors could provide new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Evaluation of Vitreous and Devitrifying Enamels as Hot Forming Lubricants for Aluminum AA5083 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A. R.; Morales, A. T.; Alpas, A. T.

    2008-06-01

    The adhesion of aluminum to tool surfaces during the hot forming of sheet aluminum alloys presents challenging tribological problems. Graphite and boron nitride are commonly used as aluminum adhesion mitigating solid lubricants for hot forming processes, but lubricant breakdown in high-stress areas, such as corners and bends, remains an issue compromising the quality of the formed parts as well as the tool life. Low-melting temperature enamels may provide an affordable and easy to apply alternative. In this study, vitreous (amorphous glass) and devitrifying (two phase crystalline glass) layers were deposited on the surface of sheet aluminum samples with a sedimentation technique. Enamel lubrication was effective in preventing aluminum transfer to the steel counterface. Hence, the prospect exists for the use of these enamels as aluminum workpiece lubricants in hot forming operations.

  8. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  9. Crystalline silica in heated man-made vitreous fibres: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry P; Harrison, Paul T C

    2014-02-01

    Refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) and alkaline earth silicate (AES) wools are types of man-made vitreous fibre (MMVF) that are used in demanding high-temperature industrial applications, generally above 900 °C and up to 1400 °C. When exposed to prolonged high temperatures, MMVF can devitrify with the formation of cristobalite and other crystalline silica species, which is of potential concern because crystalline silica (CS) is classified as carcinogenic. This article reviews the chemico-physical processes and morphological consequences of fibre devitrification, the forms and micro-location of CS produced, and the toxicity of devitrified fibres and the CS species formed in this way. It also examines scenarios for worker exposure to the products of fibre devitrification in industries using RCF and/or AES wools. We identify gaps in knowledge and make recommendations for future research.

  10. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification; Membranas vitreas empleadas en la purificacion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H{sub 2}S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H{sub 2}S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  11. Development of highly open polyhedral networks from vitreous carbon for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiza-Argüello, V.; Bayona-Becerra, M.; Cruz-Orellana, S.; Córdoba-Tuta, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highly open polyhedral networks were fabricated using an economical and environmentally friendly template route. Recycled cellulose foams were impregnated with a sucrose resin and then pyrolyzed in order to produce reticulated vitreous carbon foams with morphological features that closely resemble trabecular bone. Also, cell sizes ~1mm were achieved, a trait that will allow the mechanical reinforcement of such scaffolds using a biomaterial coating without compromising the pore size that favors osteoblast cell infiltration and growth (200-500µm). Moreover, initial studies showed that carbonization conditions have an effect on the mechanical properties of the synthesized foams and, therefore, such process parameters could be further evaluated towards the enhancement of the mechanical resistance of the scaffolds. The materials developed here are visualized as the porous component of a synthetic bone graft with features that could help overcome the current limitations associated with the medical treatments used for bone defect repair.

  12. Unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: intensive management approach with excellent outcome beyond visual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Imran H; Patel, Chetan Kantibhai; Salmon, John F

    2015-01-06

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8 weeks of life. Intensive optometric and orthoptic input was required for many years to manage the increasing anisometropic amblyopia with final visual acuity of 20/40 unaided in the affected eye and without evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This case illustrates the excellent visual outcome possible in a child with complex, unilateral PHPV using an intensive management approach comprising: early surgical intervention for congenital cataract and secondary glaucoma, meticulous monitoring of refraction, visual acuity and intraocular pressure and motivated parents who engaged in the management. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Association of High-Mobility Group Box-1 With Th Cell-Related Cytokines in the Vitreous of Ocular Sarcoidosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Taguchi, Manzo; Sato, Tomohito; Karasawa, Kyoko; Sakurai, Yutaka; Harimoto, Kohzou; Ito, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone DNA-binding nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, which is also secreted by activated leukocytes and acts as a primary proinflammatory cytokine. In this study, we compared vitreous HMGB1 levels in ocular sarcoidosis with those in noninflammatory vitreoretinal diseases and evaluated its association with Th cell-related and proinflammatory cytokines. The study group consisted of 24 patients with ocular sarcoidosis. The control group consisted of 27 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 24 with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). Vitreous fluid samples were obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy. Vitreous levels of HMGB1 and IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα were measured. High-mobility group box-1 was detected in the vitreous of 23 of 24 patients (95.8%) with ocular sarcoidosis. Mean vitreous level of HMGB1 was the highest in the sarcoidosis group, followed by the PDR and ERM groups, with significant differences between the three groups. In the sarcoidosis group, vitreous levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-31, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNFα were significantly higher than those in the idiopathic ERM group, and IFN-γ and sCD40L were significantly higher than those in the PDR group. Vitreous HMGB-1 level correlated significantly with IL-10, IFN-γ, and sCD40L levels but not with IL-6, IL-17, IL-31, or TNFα levels. The vitreous level of HMGB1 is elevated in ocular sarcoidosis and is associated with vitreous levels of Th1- and regulatory T-related cytokines, but not with proinflammatory or Th17-related cytokines.

  14. [Influence of pineal hormone melatonin on behavioral disturbances and neurological status of animals after hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, E B; Naumov, S S

    2011-01-01

    Experimental hemorrhagic stroke causes behavior and locomotor activity with memory impairment and neurological disturbances in rats. These shifts are weaker in the evening hours than after morning testing. The repeated administration of the pineal gland hormone melatonin (melaxen) during one week significantly decreases behavior and neurological deficits as well as pathomorphological signs in the lesion focus. The normalizing effect of the hormone is more distinct in the evening.

  15. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba

    2003-03-01

    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  16. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  17. Anatomic and functional outcome of eyes with massive submacular hemorrhage secondary to retinal macroaneurysm submitted to vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the anatomic and functional outcome in patients with severe visual loss after acute massive submacular hemorrhage secondary to retinal arterial macroaneurysm submitted to vitrectomy and subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator injection. Methods: Retrospective, observational, case-series of 4 eyes of 4 patients submitted to pars plana posterior vitrectomy (ppV combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM removal and subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA-12.5 mg/0.1 ml injection with dilute (20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas in the vitreous cavity of eyes with recent onset (≤7 days massive macular hemorrhage due to retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAMA. Optical coherence tomography (OCT was obtained both at presentation and during follow up. Results: Patients ranged in age from 63 to 78 years and all had systemic arterial hypertension. Visual acuity at presentation ranged from hand motions to count fingers at 50 cm. All eyes showed extensive retinal hemorrhage involving more than two-thirds of macular area. The time between the onset of symptoms and the surgery ranged from 3 to 7 days. After a mean postoperative follow-up of 15.5 ± 5.19 months (range, 10-22 months, all eyes showed visual acuity improvement and final visual acuity ranged from 20/30 to 20/80. All had complete displacement of the subretinal hemorrhage from the fovea after the surgery. OCT images showed neurosensory retina thinning and disruption of the reflective line that represents the junction between inner and outer photoreceptors segments (IS/OS line beneath the macular area and absence of the external limiting membrane (ELM. Conclusions: ppV associated with subretinal rtPA injection with intravitreal gas seems to be a safe and effective technique to promote visual improvement in patients with multilevel macular hemorrhage secondary to RAMA. Despite functional improvement, OCT images demonstrate that submacular hemorrhage

  18. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during pregnancy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFWRS is an acute infectious disease with abrupt onset, high fever, renal failure and frequent hemorrhages. HFWRS during the pregnancy has relatively low occurrence, with only few described cases mostly in the region of the former Soviet Union. Although, according to the data from the literature, the disease is less severe during the pregnancy, the eclampsy, stillbirth and fetal infection were also described. Material and methods During the summer period, June-September 2002 in the area of nort-heast Montenegro, and mainly among people whose job was connected with rural areas, the HFRS was observed more frequently. In that area during the stated period , 12 patients underwent treatment whose disease was confirmed by the I I F method at the Torlak Institute of Virology in Belgrade. Among the patients there were two pregnant women aged 23 and 29 (both in their second pregnancies, in the 23rd and 26th gestational week, respectively. The aim of this study is to present 2 case studies and to show the disease impact on fetal development. Results The patients aged 23 and 29 yrs, were previously healthy women in their second pregnancies (23rd and 26th gestational week, respectively. The disease had typical beginning. The predictions made according to the laboratory abnormalities and the level of oliguria were that the disease would have a less severe course. Hemorrhagic syndrome was less prominent, and the laboratory analyses were normalized after 15 to 18 days. The monitoring of pregnancy during the disease period and after recovering showed no fetal suffering. The patients had PV delivery, in 39-th an 40-th, respectively. The newborns blood testing on Hantan viruses was done by ELISA method in Torlak Institute, Belgrade. Only the IgG antibodies (1/ 512, were detected, the IgM antibodies were not found. Two years later the tests were repeated, and showed negative results.

  19. Treatment of TBI and Concomitant Hemorrhage with Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    battlefield setting. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic brain injury ; hemorrhagic shock; ghrelin; treatment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...hemorrhagic shock. 2. Ghrelin treatment improves sensorimotor and reflex function after traumatic brain injury and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock...3. Ghrelin treatment reduces cortical apoptosis after traumatic brain injury and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. 4. Ghrelin treatment

  20. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  1. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  2. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  3. Ethyl sulphate and ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor as postmortem evidence marker for ethanol consumption prior to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierauf, Annette; Kempf, Jürgen; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Auwärter, Volker; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2011-07-15

    To clarify the circumstances of death, the degree of inebriation is of importance in many cases, but for several reasons the determination of the ethanol concentration in post-mortem samples can be challenging and the synopsis of ethanol and the direct consumption markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) has proved to be useful. The use of a rather stable matrix like vitreous humor offers further advantages. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of ethanol and the biomarkers in the robust matrix of vitreous humor and to compare them with the respective levels in peripheral venous blood and urine. Samples of urine, blood from the femoral vein and vitreous humor were taken from 26 deceased with suspected ethanol consumption prior to death and analyzed for ethanol, EtS and EtG. In the urine samples creatinine was also determined. The personal data, the circumstances of death, the post-mortem interval and the information about ethanol consumption prior to death were recorded. EtG and EtS analysis in urine was performed by LC-ESI-MS/MS, creatinine concentration was determined using the Jaffé reaction and ethanol was detected by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method. In general, the highest concentrations of the analytes were found in urine and showed statistical significance. The mean concentrations of EtG were 62.8mg/L (EtG100 206.5mg/L) in urine, 4.3mg/L in blood and 2.1mg/L in vitreous humor. EtS was found in the following mean concentrations: 54.6mg/L in urine (EtS100 123.1mg/L), 1.8mg/L in blood and 0.9mg/L in vitreous humor. Ethanol was detected in more vitreous humor samples (mean concentration 2.0g/kg) than in blood and urine (mean concentration 1.6g/kg and 2.1g/kg respectively). There was no correlation between the ethanol and the marker concentrations and no statistical conclusions could be drawn between the markers and matrices.

  4. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  5. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  6. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage after hemodialysis involving anticoagulant agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xing FAN; Song-min HUANG; Ping FU; Zheng-xu DENG; Fang LIU; Rong-bo LIU; Ling HE; Bogati AMRIT; Li ZANG; Jing-wen LI; Xian-rong LIU

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we described the symptoms and treatment of a patient with diabetic nephropathy accompanied by spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage after hemodialysis.An elderly female patient with diabetic nephropathy presented with severe pain,numbness,and an increasing swelling in the left hip and left thigh after six sessions of hemodialysis involving the use of an antiplatelet drug and an anticoagulant agent.Her hemoglobin decreased to 46 g/L.An abdominal ultrasound showed a hematoma in the left retroperitoneal space,and computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a 6 cm×8 cm×10 cm hematoma in the left psoas muscle.After aggressive supportive therapy [the administration of packed red blood cell transfusion,carbazochrome sodium sulfonate injection,and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CWH)],the patient's vital signs stabilized and her hemoglobin increased to 86 g/L.Repeat CT showed that the hematoma had been partially absorbed after two weeks.Eventually,the patient was discharged with stable vital signs.Physicians should be aware of the possibility of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage,particularly in patients with diabetic nephropathy undergoing hemodialysis involving the use of anticoagulant agents.

  7. Delayed, spontaneous conversion of type 2 closure to type 1 closure following surgery for traumatic macular hole associated with submacular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with diminution of vision in the left eye following a firecracker injury. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/125 in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed vitreous hemorrhage, a macular hole, and submacular hemorrhage in the left eye. The patient underwent vitrectomy, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-assisted evacuation of the submacular hemorrhage, internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, and 14% C3F8 gas insufflation. After two months, the BCVA remained 20/125 and optical coherence tomography (OCT showed type 2 macular hole closure. On a follow-up, seven months after surgery, BCVA improved to 20/80, N6, with type 1 closure of the macular hole. The clinical findings were confirmed on OCT. Delayed and spontaneous conversion of the traumatic macular hole could occur several months after the primary surgery and may be associated with improved visual outcome. Larger studies are required to better understand the factors implicated in such a phenomenon.

  8. ESTUDIO ARQUEOHISTÓRICO DEL REGISTRO VÍTREO EN SITIOS MINEROS (MENDOZA, ARGENTINA) (Archaeohistorical Study of the Vitreous Record in Mining Sites (Mendoza, Argentina))

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osvaldo Sironi

    2017-01-01

    ... medicinales entre la clase trabajadora minera de la Precordillera de Mendoza (Argentina). ENGLISH: Results of the analysis of the vitreous record from Minas Paramillos Sur and Mina La Atala are presented...

  9. Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGerminal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is the most common variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and is characteristics of the premature infant. The importance of the lesion relates not only to its high incidence but to their attendant complications (IC: hydrocephalus. Brain sonography is the procedure of choice in diagnosis of germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study we have used brain sonography for detection of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and their incidences. The studied population was consisted of premature neonate (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks who admitted in Mofid Hospital NICU (Tehran, Iran during a one year period. For all neonate (including criteria brain sonography in first week of life was done and in presence of IVH, serial Brain sonography was done weekly for detection of hydrocephalus. A total of 57 neonate entered the study. Intraventicular-germinal matrix hemorrhage was seen in 64.4% (35 patients. Forty percent of patients with intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage had grade I, 11% grade II, 25.7% grade III, 2.8% grade VI. Hydrocephalus was detected in 20 percent of patients who had intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage. That incidence of IVH in our study in comparison with other area and situation is higher. Hydrocephaly had direct relation with severity of IVH. This shows that with control of risk factor of IVH, we can control Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

  10. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Li; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a routine procedure for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and is associated with many complications. A delayed hemorrhage after the VP shunt surgery, however, is quite rare. In this study, we report a case involving late-onset hemorrhage. The 67-year-old male patient with a history of head trauma and brain surgery underwent a VP shunt placement for hydrocephalus. The surgery course was uneventful and no bleeding was revealed in the first computed tomographic (CT) scan after the procedure. However, a massive intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred 8 h following adjustment of the valve system on the 8th day after surgery. Erosion of the vasculature by catheter cannulation and a sudden reduction of CSF pressure after downregulation of the valve could be one of the possible causes of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PMID:26632700

  11. Factor XIII Deficiency and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A 38 month old boy with excessive bleeding following circumcision as a newborn and two episodes of intracranial hemorrhage at four months and at 85 months of age is reported from the Scott and White Clinic, Temple, TX.

  12. Aspirin-Induced Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    A term newborn infant with intracranial hemorrhage associated with maternal acetylsalicylic acid ingestion before delivery is reported from the Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

  13. [Hemorrhagic complications of anti-vitamin K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajje, A; Calop, N; Bosson, J L; Calop, J; Allenet, B

    2009-03-01

    Adverse events related to oral anticoagulants represent a major public health problem. Hemorrhagic episodes are the most frequent complications and can be life-threatening. A 10 month prospective survey on all cases treated with anti-vitamin K (AVK), and admitted to emergency room of CHU Grenoble, was conducted to identify the hemorrhagic adverse drug events (HADE). The evaluation support was a directive questionnaire and consisted of 3 parts: patient characteristics, patient's medicated treatment and the hemorrhagic event. 216 patients treated with AVK were identified and 68 of them presented a hemorrhagic adverse drug event. 60 patients older than 65 years out of 158, presented HADE (38%); versus 8 patients or = 5, 79% developed HADE versus 16% in the group who had their INR AVK were significant. Concerning missed dose, 48 patients declared taking the missed dose with the next dose or when they remembered: 35% of them developed HADE (p = 0.49).

  14. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  15. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  16. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...

  17. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  18. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  19. [Advances in the studies of postmortem interval estimation by the levels of chemical components in human vitreous humor after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-qing; Cai, Ji-feng; Wen, Ji-fang

    2009-02-01

    Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the problems that need to be solved for forensic examination of the dead body. Accurate estimation of PMI has great values to criminal investigation and trial. The levels of chemical components in human vitreous humor are changed with time after death, which can help estimate the PMI. The levels of certain chemical components, such as potassium, magnesium, ammonia, urea, creatinine, uric acid, hypoxanthine, lactic acid and so on, in human vitreous humor will gradually increase with time after death, while others such as calcium, sodium, enzymes, glucose, vitamin C and so on will decrease. The updates and advances in those studies were reviewed in this article.

  20. Effects of confined space and near vision stimulation on refractive status and vitreous chamber depth in adolescent rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yunxia; Lan, Weizhong; Yu, Keming; Liu, Bingqian; Yang, Zhikuan; Li, Zheng; Zhong, Xingwu; Zhang, Shaochong; Ge, Jian

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sustained near vision stimulation, on the refractive development and elongation of the vitreous chamber in adolescent rhesus monkeys. A total of 12 adolescent rhesus monkeys (1.5-2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. In groups A (n=4) and B (n=4), monkeys were reared in close-vision cages for 8 and 4 h d(-1), respectively; tiny granules were added on the cage floor to avoid visual deprivation and to encourage near gaze. In group C (n=4), monkeys were reared in open-vision cages, with non-granule food as a control. Vitreous chamber depth, refractive status, and corneal refractive power were assessed over 18 months. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences and a P-valuemonkeys. Our results demonstrate the potential for a primate model of near-work-related myopia.

  1. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2011-03-01

    Roller coasters are probably one of the more popular rides at amusement parks around the world, and there are few reported injuries. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster in a previously healthy woman. The clinical course, management, and etiology of her case are discussed; and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described.

  2. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  3. Spontaneous Splenic Hemorrhage in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic hemorrhage in the newborn is a rare entity. The presentation is usually with a triad of bleeding, abdominal distension, and hemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis is essential as left untreated, death is inevitable. We present a case with an unusual initial presentation of a scrotal hematocele and ultrasonography suggesting an adrenal hemorrhage. At laparotomy, splenic preservation was unsuccessful, and therefore, splenectomy was performed. The child recovered well from the proce...

  4. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography.

  5. Cataleptic postures in thalamic hemorrhage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saposnik Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of catalepsy associated with thalamic hemorrhage. A 72 year-old hypertensive woman had acute onset of right-sided weakness and speech disturbances. She was on anticoagulants because of aortic valve replacement. When postures were imposed, the patient maintained the left upper limb raised for several minutes, even in uncomfortable or bizarre positions. A CT scan of the head revealed a left thalamic hemorrhage. Cataleptic postures have been reported in few cases with acute stroke.

  6. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  7. Closed-Loop Resuscitation of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-21

    of care arterial blood pressure. We collected data from hemorrhaged sheep experiments (funded by this ONR grant), and from a series of hemorrhaged...ongoing, and is the focus of engineering graduate student Ben Voigt. 9) We continued close collaborations with the Institute of Surgical Research on...finger), and pigs (tail). This provides the opportunity to perform testing in reproducible animal models. CareTaker will have to be tested in patients

  8. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  9. Study on the drift mobility of carriers in vitreous Se thin film by the voltage-pulse injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.J.; Kim, I.H.; Choi, K.W.; Choi, C.K. (Gyeonsang National Univ., Jinju (Republic of Korea))

    1982-05-01

    The drift mobility of carriers in the vitreous Se thin films were measured by the Haynes-Schokley method. It had been shown that the hole mobility was about 0.83 cm/sup 3//V-sec and the drift velocity showed no time dependence. It had also been shown that the value of Pool-Frenkel parameter was approximately 2 from the I-V curve.

  10. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  11. Reversible radiation effects in vitreous As[sub 2]S[sub 3]. Pt. 1. Changes of physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.I. (Lviv Scientific Research Inst. of Materials (Ukraine)); Kovalskii, A.P. (Lviv Scientific Research Inst. of Materials (Ukraine)); Vakiv, M.M. (Lviv Scientific Research Inst. of Materials (Ukraine)); Mrooz, O.Ya. (Lviv Scientific Research Inst. of Materials (Ukraine))

    1994-08-16

    Reversible changes of microhardness, optical, and acoustooptical properties of vitreous As[sub 2]S[sub 3] in multiple cycles of [gamma]-irradiation with absorbed doses of 10[sup 5] to 10[sup 7] Gy and thermoannealing near the glass transition temperature are investigated. It is shown that the observed effects can be explained by interconnected processes of reversible intrinsic defect formation and irreversible impurity radiolysis. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of viscoelastic poly(ethylene glycol) sols as vitreous substitutes in an experimental vitrectomy model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Christopher D; Crafoord, Sven; Andréasson, Sten; Arnér, Karin M; O'Shea, Timothy M; Langer, Robert; Ghosh, Fredrik K

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to employ an experimental protocol for in vivo evaluation of sols of 5 wt.% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in phosphate-buffered saline as artificial vitreous substitutes. A 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy and posterior vitreous detachment were performed in the right eye of eight pigmented rabbits. Approximately 1 ml of the viscoelastic PEG sols was then injected into the vitreous space of six eyes. PEG with an average molecular weight of 300,000 and 400,000 g mol(-1) was used in two and four eyes, respectively. Two eyes received balanced salt solution and served as controls. Full-field electroretinography was carried out and intra-ocular pressure (IOP, palpation) measured pre- and post-operatively at regular intervals up to 41 days. The rabbits were killed and the eyes examined by retinal photography, gross macroscopic examination and histology. The viscoelastic sols were successfully injected and remained translucent throughout the post-operative period, with some inferior formation of precipitates. None of the eyes displayed IOP elevation post-operatively, but in three of the PEG sol injected eyes transient hypotony was noted. One eye sustained retinal detachment during surgery and another two in the post-operative period. ERG recordings confirmed preservation of retinal function in three out of four eyes injected with 400,000 g mol(-1) PEG. Histological examination revealed up-regulation of glial acidic fibrillary protein in Müller cells in PEG sol injected eyes, but normal overall morphology in eyes with attached retinas. The viscosity of the sol was not retained throughout the post-operative period, indicating the demand for polymer cross-linking to increase residence time. The results provide promising preliminary results on the use of PEG hydrogels as a vitreous substitute. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SPINE-compatible `carboloops': a new microshaped vitreous carbon sample mount for X-ray and neutron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, Filippo; Mossou, Estelle; Cuypers, Maxime; van der Linden, Peter; Carpentier, Philippe; Mason, Sax A; Forsyth, V Trevor; McSweeney, Sean

    2014-05-01

    A novel vitreous carbon mount for macromolecular crystallography, suitable for neutron and X-ray crystallographic studies, has been developed. The technology described here is compatible both with X-ray and neutron cryo-crystallography. The mounts have low density and low background scattering for both neutrons and X-rays. They are prepared by laser cutting, allowing high standards of production quality, the ability to custom-design the mount to specific crystal sizes and large-scale production.

  14. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  15. Occult hemorrhage in children with severe ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adolfo; Buchanan, George R

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the frequency and significance of clinically unapparent or occult hemorrhage in ITP. Therefore, we prospectively explored the sites and frequency of occult bleeding in children with severe ITP at diagnosis or upon symptomatic relapse in a prospective, single-institution cohort study of patients ≤ 18 years of age and a platelet count ≤ 10,000/mm(3) . Data collected included bleeding severity assessment, urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, and non-contrast brain MRI. Stool and urine samples were tested within 7 days of diagnosis or symptomatic relapse. Three months after diagnosis or relapse a noncontrast brain MRI evaluated hemosiderin deposits resulting from prior localized hemorrhage. Fifty-two ITP patients were enrolled with a mean platelet count of 4,000/mm(3) . A significant occurrence of occult hemorrhage was identified in the urine (27%) compared with clinically overt hematuria (0.91%, P occult bleeding in the urinary tract. There was no relationship between occult hemorrhage and bleeding manifestations on physical examination. Occult hemorrhage was not a harbinger of subsequent bleeding. Our findings suggest that occult hemorrhage occurs with greater frequency than overt bleeding in children with severe ITP. CNS microbleeding is a potential risk in this patient population. Assessment of brain microbleeds and microscopic hematuria in this patient population require additional study.

  16. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  17. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Qing, Quan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong; Hu, Jin-Lian; Qin, Ting-Wu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  18. Hemorrhagic aspects of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2014-10-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC) to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed "Gaucher cells." Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD) and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. FOUR MAIN ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS ACCOUNT FOR THE HEMOSTATIC DEFECT IN GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  19. Tamoxifen treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Guan, Jian; Wu, Gang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study we investigated whether or not tamoxifen reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. In all experiments, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of 100 μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. In the first set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 2 and 24 h after ICH and were killed at day 3 for brain edema measurement. In the second set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (5 mg/kg) or vehicle and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavior tests were performed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28. Rats were killed at day 28 for brain histology. We found that tamoxifen at 5 but not at 2.5 mg/kg reduced perihematomal brain edema at day 3 (ptamoxifen reduced caudate atrophy at day 28 (pTamoxifen also improved functional outcome (ptamoxifen-treated rats. However, two out of five rats treated with tamoxifen developed hydrocephalus. These results suggest that tamoxifen has neuroprotective effects in ICH, but the cause of hydrocephalus development following tamoxifen treatment needs to be examined further.

  20. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Rsenbaum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  1. Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami

    2012-04-01

    Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH.

  2. A new perspective in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J I; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Otero, X L; Rodríguez-Calvo, M S; Costas, E; Miguéns, X; Concheiro, L

    2001-03-01

    The relation between the potassium concentration in the vitreous humor, [K+], and the postmortem interval has been studied by several authors. Many formulae are available and they are based on a correlation test and linear regression using the PMI as the independent variable and [K+] as the dependent variable. The estimation of the confidence interval is based on this formulation. However, in forensic work, it is necessary to use [K+] as the independent variable to estimate the PMI. Although all authors have obtained the PMI by direct use of these formulae, it is, nevertheless, an inexact approach, which leads to false estimations. What is required is to change the variables, obtaining a new equation in which [K+] is considered as the independent variable and the PMI as the dependent. The regression line obtained from our data is [K+] = 5.35 + 0.22 PMI, by changing the variables we get PMI = 2.58[K+] - 9.30. When only nonhospital deaths are considered, the results are considerably improved. In this case, we get [K+] = 5.60 + 0.17 PMI and, consequently, PMI = 3.92[K+] - 19.04.

  3. Vitreous lavage fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid have equal diagnostic value in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Inaba, Tohru; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-12-01

    Here, we elucidate the immunological features of both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and vitreous lavage fluid (VLF) samples from patients with histopathologically verified sarcoidosis. In addition, we assess the safety of vitrectomy in sarcoidosis patients by investigating the occurrence of complications and the recovery of visual acuity.Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with tissue-proven sarcoidosis were enrolled in this study. BALF and VLF samples were obtained and compared in each patient, and the clinical course (including visual acuity) was followed. The presence of sarcoidosis was assessed with a flow cytometric analysis of T-lymphocytes in the BALF and VLF samples.Our results indicated that the CD4 T-cell population and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly higher in the VLF T-lymphocytes than the BALF T-lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CD8+ T-cell population was significantly lower in the VLF T-lymphocytes.Therefore, our findings suggest that VLF samples have a high diagnostic value (equal to that of BALF samples) for sarcoidosis. Moreover, we found that the sample collection did not affect visual acuity and that there were no adverse events after surgery. A flow cytometric analysis of a VLF sample may therefore be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  4. Vitreous Humour Extrusion after Suxamethonium Induction of Anaesthesia in a Polytraumatized Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ebegue Amadasun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Suxamethonium, a deepolarizing muscle relaxant, increases intraocular pressure. It is therefore advised to be avoided in open globe surgery, for fear of extruding ocular contents. Several anecdotal reports support this fear. Some workers however, dispute this claim. There is as yet no formal case report in the literature on the subject. Case Presentation. A 34-year old Nigerian male, was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented at the Accident & Emergency Unit of our hospital about 2 hours after the accident. Clinical examination revealed right corneal laceration (with intact ocular contents and intra-abdominal visceral injury. Emergency laparotomy was scheduled, to be followed with corneal repair. Anaesthesia was induced with 10 mg midazolam, 100 mg ketamine, and 100 mg suxamethonium given intravenously in sequence. After laparotomy, the ophthalmologists reported for the corneal repair, only to find that the vitreous humour has been extruded. Conclusion. The fear about the use of suxamethonium in open globe situations is real. It will be good clinical judgment to use alternative drugs and techniques to effect rapid muscle relaxation, in the anaesthetic management of the open globe patient. This would be of interest to anaesthetists, ophthalmologists and clinical pharmacologists among others.

  5. Distribution of opiates in femoral blood and vitreous humour in heroin/morphine-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Kelly A; Pounder, Derrick J; Osselton, M David

    2013-03-10

    The distribution of free morphine (FM), codeine and 6-acetylmorphine (6AM) in vitreous humour (VH) and femoral blood (FB) was measured in 70 cases involving heroin/morphine. The relationship between tissue drug concentrations was assessed with respect to case circumstances. Total morphine (TM) concentrations in FB are also reported. The relative concentrations of FM in VH and FB were influenced by survival time. In rapid deaths (3h; n=12) the VH concentration (median 0.15 mg/L) was higher than in FB (0.092 mg/L; p>.05). Free morphine VH/FB ratios were significantly higher in delayed (median 1.3) compared to rapid deaths (0.64). Although these findings indicate a lag in the distribution of morphine into the VH, overlaps were observed in the VH/FB ratio in rapid and delayed death groups which limits the interpretive use of VH/FB ratios. Codeine and 6AM appeared to distribute more rapidly into the VH. Despite the observation that all opiate analytes were correlated between FB and VH (r ≥ 61; p<.01), our results indicate that in the absence of a blood sample, blood concentrations cannot be reliably inferred from that measured in the VH. In the absence of additional toxicological evidence, the use of FM to TM ratios in blood as an indicator of survival time is not advised.

  6. Smart platform for the time since death determination from vitreous humor cystine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Niha; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we report the smart application of AgNPs based sensors for determination of time since death (TSD) via recognition and quantification of vitreous humor (VH) cystine as well as provide the portability for on spot determination of TSD. The lower detection limit was found to be 7.0ng/ml with prominent selectivity. It was found that there is a linear correlation between the VH cystine concentration and TSD as the concentration of cystine increases up to 96h±3.9h. Further for the first time TSD determination is given a smart approach and it proves to have a great utility up to 24h±2.6h. The linear regression equation between TSD (the dependent variable), RGB intensity of cystine concentration till 24h (the independent variable) was found to be TSD=26.69+-0.05*x. The proposed method gives the smart detection, portability, rapidity, sensitivity, selectivity as well as cost effectiveness for determination of time since death.

  7. Monitoring the Modifications of the Vitreous Humor Metabolite Profile after Death: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied a metabolomic approach to monitor the modifications occurring in goat vitreous humor (VH metabolite composition at different times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after death. The 1H-NMR analysis of the VH samples was performed for the simultaneous determination of several metabolites (i.e., the metabolite profile representative of the VH status at different times. Spectral data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and by Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS regression technique. PCA and OPLS suggested that different spectral regions were involved in time-related changes. The major time-related compositional changes, here detected, were the increase of lactate, hypoxanthine, alanine, total glutathione, choline/phosphocholine, creatine, and myo-inositol and the decrease of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. We attempted a speculative interpretation of the biological mechanisms underlying these changes. These results show that multivariate statistical approach, based on 1H NMR metabolite profiling, is a powerful tool for detecting ongoing differences in VH composition and may be applied to investigate several physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Measurements and empirical model of the acoustic properties of reticulated vitreous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Beamer, C. Walter; Tinianov, Brandon D.

    2005-02-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a highly porous, rigid, open cell carbon foam structure with a high melting point, good chemical inertness, and low bulk thermal conductivity. For the proper design of acoustic devices such as acoustic absorbers and thermoacoustic stacks and regenerators utilizing RVC, the acoustic properties of RVC must be known. From knowledge of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number most other acoustic properties can be computed. In this investigation, the four-microphone transfer matrix measurement method is used to measure the complex characteristic impedance and wave number for 60 to 300 pore-per-inch RVC foams with flow resistivities from 1759 to 10 782 Pa s m-2 in the frequency range of 330 Hz-2 kHz. The data are found to be poorly predicted by the fibrous material empirical model developed by Delany and Bazley, the open cell plastic foam empirical model developed by Qunli, or the Johnson-Allard microstructural model. A new empirical power law model is developed and is shown to provide good predictions of the acoustic properties over the frequency range of measurement. Uncertainty estimates for the constants of the model are also computed. .

  9. Vitreous Cavity-Associated Immune Deviation Induced by Retinal S Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijie Li; Guanghua Peng; Chen Li

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the vitreous cavity(VC) supports the induction of deviant immune responses to retinal soluble(S) antigen and to observe the influence of interleukin-1 (IL-1) on the immunologic properties of the VC. Methods: Retinal S antigen was inoculated into the anterior chamber(AC) and the VC in Wistar rats. Seven days after antigen inoculation, the recipient animals were immunized with S antigen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Delayed-type hypersen- sitivity(DTH) was assessed by footpad challenge. To alter systemic immune conditions,IL-1 was administrated by intraperitoneal injection.Results: Antigen-specific DTH did not develop in rats in which S antigen was injected into the AC and the VC. By contrast, when IL-1 administrated systemically, S antigen was injected into the AC and VC elicited strong DTH.Conclusion: The VC supports immune deviation for soluble antigen by acitivity suppressing antigen-Specific DTH. Systemic administration of exogenous IL-1 eliminates the capacity of the VC to support immune deviation to soluble antigen locally injected.

  10. Determination of memantine in plasma and vitreous humour by HPLC with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Belen; Hernandez, Esther; Perez, Susana; Pablo, Luis; Prieto, Esther; Garcia, Maria Angeles; Bregante, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    A new HPLC procedure with precolumn derivatization and rimantadine as the internal standard for determining memantine, a candidate agent for the treatment of glaucoma in plasma and vitreous humour, has been developed and validated. Precolumn derivatization was performed with 9-fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate-chloride (FMOC-Cl) as the derivatization reagent and followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. Optimal conditions for derivatization were an FMOC-Cl concentration of 1.5 mM, a reaction time of 20 min, the temperature at 30°C, the borate buffer pH 8.5, and a borate buffer-acetonitrile ratio of 1:1. The derivatives were analyzed by isocratic HPLC with the fluorescence detector λex 260 nm λem 315 nm on a Novapack C(18) reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (73:27, v/v), 40°C, and a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The linear range was 10-1000 ng/mL with a quantification limit of ∼ 10 ng/mL for both types of samples. This analytical method may be suitable for using in ocular availability studies.

  11. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  12. Vitreo-Retinal Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis In A Patient With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eHormese

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bleeding is the major side effect of thrombolysis with alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator, t-PA used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Life-threatening intracranial, retroperitoneal, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary bleeding can occur with the use of t-PA. Vitreo-retinal bleeding in the context of acute ischemic stroke treatment has not been reported in the literature before and therefore is not posed as a potential risk during decision making. Here we describe the first reported case of vitreo-retinal hemorrhage due to alteplase administration in a patient with acute ischemic stroke.Summary: An 84 year old white male presented to the emergency room with complaints of right arm and leg weakness. The onset of symptoms was approximately 30 minutes prior to presentation to the emergency room. After ruling out contraindications including the presence of hemorrhage on head CT scan, patient was administered alteplase within 2 hours of symptom onset. Four hours after the administration of alteplase, the patient developed right-sided vision changes. A repeat CT scan demonstrated a newly developed right intraocular hemorrhage. Throughout the hospital course, patient’s neurological status improved, but he continued to have right-sided visual loss.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the potential for ocular hemorrhage especially in high-risk patients. The likelihood of a subsequent vision-loss needs to be therefore discussed with the patient and family in such situations.

  13. Increased expression of angiogenic and inflammatory proteins in the vitreous of patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ehlken

    Full Text Available Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is a common disease characterized by a disrupted retinal blood supply and a high risk of subsequent vision loss due to retinal edema and neovascular disease. This study was designed to assess the concentrations of selected signaling proteins in the vitreous and blood of patients with ischemic CRVO.Vitreous and blood samples were collected from patients undergoing surgery for ischemic CRVO (radial optic neurotomy (RON, n = 13, epiretinal gliosis or macular hole (control group, n = 13. Concentrations of 40 different proteins were determined by an ELISA-type antibody microarray.Expression of proteins enriched in the vitreous (CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, TNFRSF11B (OPG was localized by immunohistochemistry in eyes of patients with severe ischemic CRVO followed by secondary glaucoma. Vitreal expression levels were higher in CRVO patients than in the control group (CRVO / control; p < 0.05 for ADIPOQ (13.6, ANGPT2 (20.5, CCL2 (MCP1 (3.2, HGF (4.7, IFNG (13.9, IGFBP1 (14.7, IGFBP2 (1.8, IGFBP3 (4.1, IGFBP4 (1.7, IL6 (10.8, LEP (3.4, MMP3 (4.3, MMP9 (3.6, MMP10 (5.4, PPBP (CXCL7 or NAP2 (11.8, TIMP4 (3.8, and VEGFA (85.3. In CRVO patients, vitreal levels of CCL2 (4.2, HGF (23.3, IGFBP2 (1.23, MMP10 (2.47, TNFRSF11B (2.96, and VEGFA (29.2 were higher than the blood levels (vitreous / blood, p < 0.05. Expression of CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, and TNFRSF11B was preferentially localized to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.Proteins related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and inflammation were significantly elevated in the vitreous of CRVO patients. Moreover, some markers known to indicate atherosclerosis may be related to a basic vascular disease underlying RVO. This would imply that local therapeutic targeting might not be sufficient for a long term therapy in a systemic disease but hypothetically reduce local changes as an initial therapeutic approach.

  14. A Case of Sudden Deafness with Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage and Sudden Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Se Won; Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Su-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden hearing deterioration may occur in our population, but it is difficult to explain the exact pathophysiology and the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is usually useful to evaluate neural lesions such as acoustic schwannoma and hemorrhage in labyrinth. Recently some cases of SSNHL caused by intralabyrintine hemorrhage were reported by the advance of MRI. In the case of intralabyrintine hemorrhage, MRI showed a hyperintense signal in the labyrinth on the pre-contrast and contrast enhanced T1-weighted image and relatively weak intensity on T2-weighted image. The prognosis SSNHL by intralabyrintine hemorrhage is generally known to be poor. We report a case of sudden deafness with intralabyrintine hemorrhage who has a history of anticoagulant administration, with a review of literature.

  15. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following γ knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed.

  16. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Lyden, Elizabeth R. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Haney, Suzanne B. [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  17. Computed tomography and intracranial hemorrhages in the neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Iekado; Kushida, Yoshimasa; Shishido, Masaru; Nagasawa, Sadatsugu; Seiki, Yoshikatsu (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-two of 290 neonates admitted to the Perinatal Intensive Care Unit, Toho University Medical School, were examined by CT scan because of tentative clinical diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. CT scanner employed in this study was TCT-60 A from the Toshiba The Electric Co., Ltd. Fourteen cases (44%) were confirmed by the CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. Four cases had hemorrhage in the ventricle, while the remaining ten cases had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subdural hemorrhage was not revealed in our series. Three of the four cases with intraventricular hemorrhage showed a typical subependymal germinal matrix hemorrhage. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates seemed to be poor; two of the four cases died within a week. Their body weight at birth was apparently under the standard, and their Apgar score was 3 points. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was the main type of intracranial neonatal hemorrhages. In our series, it was constituted approximately 70% of the intracranial hemorrhages. The CT images of the subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonate were greatly different from those in adults. An irregular, wide high-density area around the falxtentorial junction was characteristic of the CT in many neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. In severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, a characteristic Y-shaped, high-density figure was demonstrated. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the deep venous system, high-density spreading immediately ventral to the falx-tentrium junction was demonstrated. These high-density areas due to blood in the subarachnoid space rapidly disappeared with the lapse of time. On the other hand, high-density areas in cerebral cisterns and/or fissures were rarely demonstrated in neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. The prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates was fairly good in the sense of life and cerebral functions.

  18. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  19. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Reza; Zandi, Behrouz; Pezeshki-Rad, Masoud; Farrokh, Donya

    2017-01-01

    Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly. PMID:28210514

  20. Mediastinal hemorrhage: An evaluation of radiographic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodring, J.H.; Loh, F.K.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    Eleven common radiographic signs of mediastinal hemorrhage were evaluated by two observers for the following three patient groups: normal subjects, patients with mediastinal hemorrhage and no arterial injury, and patients with major thoracic arterial injury. Supine chest radiographs were studied in all cases. Four major conclusions can be made based upon these finding. M/C ratio (mediastinal width to chest width), tracheal deviation, left hemothorax, paraspinal line widening, and aorto-pulmonary window opacification do not reliably separate these three groups of patients. The diagnosis of mediastinal hemorrhage may be made if the aortic contour is abnormal or if one of the following signs is positive: abnormal mediastinal width, apical cap, widening of the right paratracheal stripe, or deviation of the nasogastric tube. Due to interobserver variation, there is good agreement between observers for the following four signs only: transverse mediastinal width, tracheal deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, and right paratracheal stripe widening.

  1. Elastic and anelastic properties of densified vitreous B2O3: Relaxations and anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Giovanni, Jr.; Carini, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Gaspare; di Marco, Gaetano; Gilioli, Edmondo

    2012-03-01

    The elastic and anelastic properties of densified B2O3 glasses, melt quenched under pressures of 2 and 4 GPa, were investigated by measuring the sound velocity and the acoustic attenuation of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves in the megahertz range over the temperature interval between 8 and 300 K. Densification from 1826 to 2373 kg/m3 leads to an extraordinarily large growth of both bulk and shear moduli but leaves the Poisson's ratio nearly constant. In the glass compacted at 4 GPa, the elastic moduli become larger by a factor of five than those characterizing normal vitreous B2O3 (v-B2O3) as a consequence of modifications of the chemical bonding in the network. The thermally activated relaxations of intrinsic structural defects, which dominate the acoustic behaviors of normal glass below 150 K, giving rise to an intense attenuation peak and a corresponding steep decrease in sound velocity, are increasingly depressed by growing densification. Above 150 K, the ultrasonic velocity is mainly regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity and shows a nearly linear decrease as the temperature is increased, with a substantially smaller slope with increasing densification. Modeling the relaxation losses and the related velocity variations by an asymmetric double-well potential model that has a distribution of both the barrier potential and the asymmetry, it has been possible to separate the relaxation and the anharmonic contributions to the sound velocity. The former has been ascribed to local motions of boroxol rings formed by connected BO3 planar triangles, the basic units building up the network of v-B2O3, while the latter has been interpreted in terms of the Akhiezer mechanism concerning the “thermal vibration viscosity.”

  2. Varied manifestations of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with graded somatic mosaic deletion of a single gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary-Sinclair, Michelle N.; Wang, XiaoFei; Swanson, Douglas J.; Sung, Caroline Y.; Mendonca, Eneida A.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Baumer, Shannon H.; Goldowitz, Dan; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) represents a developmental eye disease known to have diverse manifestations ranging from a trivial remnant of hyaloid vessels to a dense fibrovascular mass causing lens opacity and retinal detachment. PHPV can be modeled in mice lacking individual genes, but certain features of such models differ from the clinical realm. For example, mice lacking the Arf gene have uniformly severe disease with consistent autosomal recessive disease penetrance. We tested whether the graded somatic loss of Arf in a subset of cells in chimeric mice mimics the range of disease in a non-heritable manner. Methods Wild type ↔ Arf −/− mouse chimeras were generated by morulae fusion, and when the mice were 10 weeks old, fundoscopic, slit-lamp, and histological evaluations were performed. The relative fraction of cells of the Arf −/− lineage was assessed with visual, molecular genetic, and histological analysis. Objective quantification of various aspects of the phenotype was correlated with the genotype. Results Sixteen chimeras were generated and shown to have low, medium, and high contributions of Arf −/− cells to tail DNA, the cornea, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), with excellent correlation between chimerism in the tail DNA and the RPE. Phenotypic differences (coat color and severity of eye disease) were evident, objectively quantified, and found to correlate with the contribution of Arf −/− cells to the RPE and tail-derived DNA, but not the cornea. Conclusions Generating animals composed of different numbers of Arf −/− cells mimicked the range of disease severity observed in patients with PHPV. This establishes the potential for full manifestations of PHPV to be caused by somatic mutations of a single gene during development. PMID:24623965

  3. Physicochemical properties and morphology of vitreous waste forms incorporating hazardous incineration ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Tae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Joon Hyung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Ja Kong [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Ash melting experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of glass matrix as a binder for the solidification of hazardous incineration ash. Several batches of hazardous incineration ash from a paint-factory were melt at 1300 deg C. to fabrication solidified waste forms with the addition of different contents of base-glass material as an additive. The XRD analysis of the final waste forms indicated mixtures of ash and additive are satisfactorily vitrified to form amorphous phases. Even though solidification agents (base-glass) were added, the total waste volume was reduced after vitrification. The volume reduction factor increased with HWI ash loading and reached up t 4.6. The minimum compressive strength and microhardness were 54 MPA and 5.9 GPa, respectively, which were higher than those of cement-solidified incineration ash. All the vitreous waste forms passes the standard extraction tests performed in accordance with Korean MOE's EP and US EPA's TCLP method and thus they could be classified as non-hazardous wastes to save disposal cost. The total mass leach rates were several g/m{sup 2}.d after 14 days of MCC-5S leaching test. Morphology and chemical analysis of waste glass by SEM/EDS before and after leaching tests showed that titanium in the glass network was very durable to leave a Ti-rich layer at the surface of the waste form after leaching. The overall assessment of experimental results showed that the applicability of vitrification technology to treat hazardous incineration ashes would be viable. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Production of reactive oxygen species by man-made vitreous fibres in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, M; Hirvonen, M R; Luoto, K; Savolainen, K M

    1999-06-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) or erythrocytes, isolated from human blood, were exposed to graded doses of asbestos (chrysotile), quartz, or man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), i.e. refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), glasswool, or rockwool fibres. None of the MMVF affected either the viability of PMNL, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test, or induced haemolysis, whereas the positive controls, quartz and chrysotile, dose-dependently induced haemolysis in PMNL. MMVF did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the PMNL, whereas the positive controls, chrysotile and quartz, induced a marked and dose-dependent release of LDH. When PMNL were exposed to MMVF, some of the fibre types slightly increased the levels of free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) within the cells in a manner similar to that induced by chrysotile or quartz. All MMVF induced a dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PMNL, with RCF-induced production of ROS being the most marked. Production of ROS by MMVF seemed to depend on the availability of extracellular calcium because it could be attenuated with a Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil, or a Ca2+ chelating agent, EGTA. Production of ROS may be a common pathway through which PMNL respond to MMVF-induced cell activation, but alterations of levels of free intracellular Ca2+ do not seem to be an absolute prerequisite for this effect. Fibre length seemed not to be an important factor in affecting the ability of MMVF to induce ROS production in PMNL. However, the balance between different elements in the fibre seemed importantly to affect the biological activity of a fibre.

  5. Evaluation of the oncogenic potential of man-made vitreous fibres: the inhalation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Thevenaz, P; Fleissner, H; Anderson, R; Hesterberg, T W; Mast, R

    1995-10-01

    A rodent inhalation model has been developed for the evaluation of the eoncogenic potential of man-made vitreous fibres. It is successful in delivering a quantified dose of well-characterized fibres to the lungs of rodents, and with it sufficiently high fibre aerosol concentrations were lofted to enable a maximum tolerated dose to be achieved. Fischer 344 male rats were exposed to a well-defined rat-respirable aerosol at concentrations for MMVF of 30, 16 or 3 mg m-3, 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks with final sacrifice at 20% survival. A control group was exposed to filtered air. The high dose was chosen based upon a 28-day maximum tolerated dose study with refractory ceramic fibres (RCF). The fibre aerosol generation system lofted fibres without breaking, grinding or contaminating the bulk material. Exposure was by flow-past nose-only systems which provided fresh fibre in a laminar stream to each animal individually. The study was performed according to the Good Laboratory Practice regulations. Fibre count, fibre diameter and length distribution, aerosol mass and chemical composition were determined throughout the study. Interim sacrifices were performed at 3 or 6 month intervals for 24 months. At each sacrifice, full necropsy was performed, the accessory lobe removed for subsequent digestion to determine the fibre lung burden and the remaining lobes inflated with fixative for histopathological evaluation. The lungs were evaluated by a pathologist and graded for the degree of macrophage infiltration, bronchiolization, fibrosis and pleural thickening, and were also scored according to the Wagner scale. Lesions were evaluated according to the number of adenomas, carcinomas and mesotheliomas. The accessory lobe was digested by low-temperature plasma ashing and the number, size distribution and chemical composition of the fibres determined. This model provides a sensitive and reproducible method for evaluating existing and new fibres. A variety of different

  6. Possible application of urinary analysis to estimate dissolution of some man-made vitreous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastiaux, A; Blanchard, O; Honnons, S

    1994-10-01

    A preliminary study at the institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS) examined the dissolution of three man-made vitreous fiber samples (glasswool, rockwool, glass microfibers: JM 100) after intraperitoneal injections in male Wistar rats. The chemical composition of the original fibers was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). The urine of the rats was collected at fixed times between day 1 and day 204, and the ICP was used to look for elements known to be present in the original fibers. At day 204, a piece of omentum was removed at autopsy, ashed and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) to identify the elements remaining in the fibers. Silicon and aluminium were retained in the fibers from all samples at day 204. Losses in calcium, sodium, magnesium, and sulfur were observed, but these elements were not studied in the urine samples because they are naturally present in relatively high concentrations in rat cells and biological fluids. Although there was a loss of zinc from the glass microfibers, no corresponding difference was observed between the zinc levels excreted by the treated animals and by the controls. Similarly, despite the loss of manganese from the rockwool fibers at day 204, none was detectable in the urine samples. Titanium, present at the 0.3% level in rockwool, was not detectable by EDXA at day 204, but small quantities were detected in the first 2 weeks in the urine samples of rats treated with rockwool.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Microbial profile of the vitreous aspirates in culture proven exogenous endophthalmitis: A 10-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bhattacharjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the microbiological profile and clinical outcome in the eyes with culture-proven exogenous endophthalmitis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 495 eyes diagnosed as exogenous endophthalmitis was performed over a period of 10 years. In all, aseptically collected aqueous and vitreous aspirates were cultured for bacteria and fungus using standard microbiological techniques. Gram-stain and KOH preparation of the specimens were also performed. The antibiotic susceptibility testing for bacterial isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The treatment was modified according to the antibiotic sensitivity profile. The final clinical ocular condition was divided into improved, stable or deteriorated. Results: Of 148 culture-proven endophthalmitis eyes, 137 (92.57% were referred from elsewhere, and 11 (7.43% belonged to our institute. Aetiologically, 76 (51.35% eyes were post-cataract surgery, 61 (41.22% were post-traumatic, 5 (3.38% eyes post-intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, 5 associated with corneal diseases and 1 bleb-related endophthalmitis. In 31 (20.95% eyes, primary intravitreal antibiotics were given outside. The cultures revealed monomicrobial growth in 92.57% (n = 137 and polymicrobial growth in 7.43% (n = 11. Among the bacteria (n = 121, 81.76%, Pseudomonas species dominated overall (n = 32, 27.11% and post-operative (n = 26, 38.23% endophthalmitis group. Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14, 28% was prominent in post-traumatic endophthalmitis group. Ninety-two percent (n = 108 isolates of bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin. In 78 (52.7% eyes, the clinical ocular condition improved or remained stable while deteriorated in 51 (34.46%. Conclusion: A bacterial predominance was observed among causative organisms of exogenous endophthalmitis with Pseudomonas species being the most common. The appropriate surgical intervention improved or stabilised the visual acuity in nearly

  8. Transfontanelle Sonography of Brain in Neonates: Focused on Anatomy, Doppler and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "M. Rahmani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Sonography of the brain is now very important in the care of neonates, especially among high risk premature infants. Screening of premature infants with transfontanelle ultrasonography is highly sensitive and specific for intracranial hemorrhage. It is also valuable in follow-up of hydrocephalus and periventricular leukomalacia. Patients & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 high risk premature newborns admitted to neonate ICU of Vali-e-Asr hospital were evaluated by a sonograghy through fontanels. The time of sonograghy for ICH was in the first day of life If it was negative for ICH, evaluation was repeated in the 3rd day and again if negative, the last examination was performed in the 7th day. Result: Overall, 200 neonates were evaluated. The most common pathologic finding in our high risk premature neonates was germinal matrix hemorrhage, mostly grade 1and 2. A few cases of congenital anomalies were also found.

  9. Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NDFRT: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic (N0000000834) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic ... ...Overview Alternate Names: PharmGKB Accession Id: PA166048914 External Vocabularies

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommargren, Claire E

    2002-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious neurological disorder that is often complicated by the occurrence of electrocardiographic abnormalities unexplained by preexisting cardiac conditions. These morphological waveform changes and arrhythmias often are unrecognized or misinterpreted, potentially placing patients at risk for inappropriate management. Many previous investigations were retrospective and relied on data collected in an unsystematic manner. More recent studies that included use of serial electrocardiograms and Holter recordings have provided new insight into the high prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Research on the prevalence, duration, and clinical significance of these electrocardiographic abnormalities and on associated factors and etiological theories is reviewed.

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo; Jaffe, Stephen L

    2008-12-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with progressive visual loss, headache, and two days of confusion. A computed tomography of his head suggested subarachnoid hemorrhage with accompanying right parietal ischemic infarction. The magnetic resonance image was consistent with right parietal perisulcal pial and superficial cortical inflammation; a subjacent vasogenic edema with a 1 cm diameter abscess was also present. Funduscopy revealed bilateral multifocal choroidal lesions and retinal perivascular sheathing. He was diagnosed with pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to cryptococcal meningitis and choroidal microabscesses with retinal inflammation after a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed cryptococcal yeast forms, as well as high titers of CSF cryptococcal antigen, but no CSF red blood cells.

  12. [Study on the relationship between PMI and the concentration of magnesium and iron in the vitreous humor of rabbit after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-ming; Gong, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yue-gang

    2002-05-01

    To seek a exact method of estimating postmortem interval (PMI). This study detected the concentration of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) in vitreous humor of rabbit at 96 h after death and explored the relationship between their concentration and PMI using a method ICP-MS. The concentra-tion of Mg in vitreous humor of rabbit at 48 h after death and Fe in vitreous humor of rabbit at 6-48 h after death were related to PMI significantly. The formulae of the relationship between PMI and Mg concentrations is y = 0.0738x2 + 0.6997x + 11.45 (within 48 h, R2 = 0.9119). The formulae of the relationship between PMI and Fe concentrations is y = 0.0411x2 - 0.3148x + 1.4113 (within 6-48 h, R2 = 0.9594). The concentration of Mg in vitreous humor of rabbit at 48 h after death and Fe in vitreous humor of rabbit at 6-48 h after death may be as reference indicator to estimate PMI.

  13. Effect of Topical Iloprost and Nitroglycerin on Gastric Microcirculation and Barrier Function during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truse, Richard; Hinterberg, Jonas; Schulz, Jan; Herminghaus, Anna; Weber, Andreas; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Bauer, Inge; Picker, Olaf; Vollmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Topical drug application is used to avoid systemic side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze whether locally applied iloprost or nitroglycerin influence gastric mucosal perfusion, oxygenation, and barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. In repeated experiments, 5 anesthetized dogs received iloprost, nitroglycerin, or normal saline during physiological and hemorrhagic (-20% blood volume) conditions. Macro- and microcirculatory variables were recorded continuously. Gastric barrier function was assessed via translocation of sucrose into the blood. During hemorrhage, gastric mucosal oxygenation decreased from 77 ± 4 to 37 ± 7%. This effect was attenuated by nitroglycerin (78 ± 6 to 47 ± 13%) and iloprost (82 ± 4 to 54 ± 9%). Sucrose plasma levels increased during hemorrhage from 7 ± 4 to 55 ± 15 relative amounts. This was alleviated by nitroglycerin (5 ± 8 to 29 ± 38 relative amounts). These effects were independent of systemic hemodynamic variables. During hemorrhage, topical nitroglycerin and iloprost improve regional gastric oxygenation without affecting perfusion. Nitroglycerin attenuated the shock-induced impairment of the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, local drug application improves gastric microcirculation without compromising systemic hemodynamic variables, and it may also protect mucosal barrier function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Leukotriene biosynthesis inhibition ameliorates acute lung injury following hemorrhagic shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Najah R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation is conceived as an insult frequently induces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and oxidative stress that results in multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome including acute lung injury. MK-886 is a leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor exerts an anti inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Objectives The objective of present study was to assess the possible protective effect of MK-886 against hemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury via interfering with inflammatory and oxidative pathways. Materials and methods Eighteen adult Albino rats were assigned to three groups each containing six rats: group I, sham group, rats underwent all surgical instrumentation but neither hemorrhagic shock nor resuscitation was done; group II, Rats underwent hemorrhagic shock (HS for 1 hr then resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (1 hr (induced untreated group, HS; group III, HS + MK-886 (0.6 mg/kg i.p. injection 30 min before the induction of HS, and the same dose was repeated just before reperfusion period. At the end of experiment (2 hr after completion of resuscitation, blood samples were collected for measurement of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. The trachea was then isolated and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was carried out for measurement of leukotriene B4 (LTB4, leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and total protein. The lungs were harvested, excised and the left lung was homogenized for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH and the right lung was fixed in 10% formalin for histological examination. Results MK-886 treatment significantly reduced the total lung injury score compared with the HS group (P 4, LTC4 & total protein compared with the HS group (P P Conclusions The results of the present study reveal that MK-886 may ameliorate lung injury in shocked rats via interfering with inflammatory and oxidative pathways implicating the role of

  15. Nursing experience of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yan ZHANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the nursing methods of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Methods: Through careful nursing, 1 case of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, summed up the experience. Results: Patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever were 2 days later improved, within 6 months to fully recover. Conclusion: With proper treatment and careful nursing, patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever are able to fully recover.

  16. Acute viral hemorrhage disease:A summary on new viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  17. SURGICAL TACTICS REGARDING CEREBRAL METASTASES WITH HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Prozorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases occur with 10 to 30 % of all oncological patients. Hemorrhages into cerebral metastases are one of the most dangerous complications of the metastatic process. With that, cerebral metastases of such widespread solid malignant tumors as melanoma, kidney cancer, germ cell tumors, less frequently, lung cancer and breast cancer are prone to hemorrhages. The purpose of the work is to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with brain metastases complicated with hemorrhages.Materials  and  methods. Surgical  treatment  of  69  patients  with  brain  metastases complicated  with  hemorrhages was  performed in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center. Hemorrhage on the macroscopic level was confirmed intraoperatively and in accordance with the results of the morphological study of surgical drugs. Total microsurgical resection of one or several cerebral metastases with hemor rhages was performed regarding all patients studied. The time interval of observation of patients after the surgical treatment comprises 1 to 72 months. There were 27 women and 42 men. The age range was from 18 to 74 y.o. Besides, the state of veins of lower extremities and the state of the coagulation blood system in accordance with the data of coagulograms was studies. The analysis of the macrostructure and the microstructure of metastases with hemorrhages as well as the morphological study of the brain tissue adjacent to hematomas was performed with a morphological study and histological techniques. The patients were distributed in accordance with the RPA (recursive partitioning analysis classes: I class (n = 7, II class (n = 39, III class (n = 23; in accordance with the hemorrhage type: intratumoral type (26 metastases, perifocal type (20, mixed type (32; in accordance with the histological principle: melanoma (n = 25, lung cancer (n = 13, kidney cancer (n = 17, breast cancer (n = 4, colorectal cancer (n = 1, soft tissue sarcoma (n

  18. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  19. Electrogenerative gold recovery from cyanide solutions using a flow-through cell with activated reticulated vitreous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chin Yean; Mohamed, Norita

    2008-10-01

    An electrogenerative flow-through reactor with an activated reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was developed. The influence of palladium-tin activation of the cathode towards gold deposition was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The reactor proved to be efficient in recovering more than 99% of gold within 4 h of operation. The performance of the reactor was evaluated with initial gold concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 mg L-1 and various electrolyte flow rates. Gold recovery was found to be strongly dependent on electrolyte flow rate and initial gold concentration in the cyanide solution under the experimental conditions used.

  20. Surgical treatment and histopathology of a symptomatic free-floating primary pigment epithelial iris cyst in the anterior vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Kahtani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surgical removal of an iris pigment epithelial cyst that was floating freely in the posterior chamber of an 18-month-old child. The reason for surgical removal was disturbance in near vision secondary to the movement of the cyst across the visual axis. Visual disturbance secondary to a unilateral anterior vitreous iris cyst at this age is a rare presentation and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported previously as an indication for surgery. We performed histopathological study of the cyst aspirate to determine its contents and its possible origin.

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage after aneurysm surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Carlotti Junior

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms by clipping is recognized as effective and definitive. However some cases that suffered a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH some time after they were submitted to aneurysm clipping have raised doubts about the concept of "cure"after this treatment. Eleven patients previously submitted to aneurysm clipping who presented a new SAH were analyzed. The time elapsed from surgery to SAH varied from 3 to 10 years. After SAH four patients had a poor outcome. The new episode of SAH occurred due to intrinsic factors of the cerebral vasculature: 1. a weak point of the vessel wall near the previous aneurysm, 2. a weak point of another vessel far from the previous aneurysm, 3. a previous infundibular dilation of the posterior communicating artery; and due to technical problems: 1. aneurysm not identified during the previous treatment, 2. aneurysm deliberately left untreated, 3. persistence of the aneurysm due to inappropriate surgery, 4. persistency of part of the aneurysm neck after clipping and 5. slipping of the clip from the neck of the aneurysm. The measures to prevent new SAH after surgery start with adequate preoperative angiographic studies, a careful inspection of the position of the clip and emptying of the aneurysm. Early angiography studies may reveal a persistent neck and later ones may reveal newly developed aneurysms. In conclusion, SAH after aneurysm clipping is a late and severe phenomenon and the concept of "cure" after this surgery should be interpreted with caution.O tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas cerebrais através de sua clipagem é reconhecido como eficaz e definitivo. Entretanto alguns casos sofrem nova hemorragia algum tempo após a cirurgia, deixando dúvidas sobre a "cura" pelo tratamento. Onze pacientes submetidos anteriormente a clipagem do aneurisma e que apresentaram nova hemorragia foram analisados. O intervalo de tempo da cirurgia para a nova hemorragia foi de 3 a 10 anos

  2. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  3. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  4. [Arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever at IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    To know the arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever in patients at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. A follow-up study was made in patients with probable diagnosis of hemorrhagic dengue. Blood samples were taken to look for dengue fever, yellow fever and San Luis, Tonate and Mayaro encephalitis viruses. Frequencies and proportions of the interest variables were analyzed. 35 patients were studied. Isolation and PCR results of the 13 samples were negative in 12 of them and positive to denguevirus-3 in one of them. The determination of IgM was positive for dengue fever in 25 cases; 2 were positive to Mayaro virus and 8 were negative to what was looked for. Hemorrhages and thrombocytopenia were more frequent in patients infected with dengue and Mayaro viruses; jaundice and encephalopathy were more frequent in the latter, and renal dysfunction, in patients with a negative result. Evolution was satisfactory in all cases, except for one (Mayaro), which presented hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, jaundice and encephalopathy that lead to death. The results show the risk of appearance and dissemination of several vector-born diseases in Mexico. Thus, they require intensive epidemiological surveillance to identify them and to know their real occurrence and specific clinical profile.

  5. Prior Exercise Alters Responses to Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    similarly in both groups. Posthemorrhage lactate and glucose concentrations were lower in exercise. The increase in plasma epinephrine was reduced in...exercise, with significantly lower levels in epinephrine and norepinephrine noted posthemorrhage. Vasopressin levels and plasma renin activity were...of a patient with hemorrhage caused by traumatic injuries. KEYWORDS—Cardiac output, blood pressure, vasopressin, catecholamines, plasma renin activity

  6. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhagic infarction in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, G; Lambert, M; Annet, L; Lefebvre, C

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare disease associated with various conditions. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain. The diagnostic work-up showed a left adrenal gland infarction associated with essential thrombocythemia. Treatment consisted in painkillers and treating the underlying condition in order to prevent further thrombotic events.

  7. [Selective embolization to treat obstetric hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Puchol, M D; Lanciego, C; Esteban, E; Ciampi, J J; Edo, M A; Ferragud, S

    2014-01-01

    To describe cases of obstetric hemorrhage that have called for selective intra-arterial embolization and the different embolization techniques used. To assess the clinical outcomes and postprocedural fertility. We studied 27 women with obstetric hemorrhage. In 24 patients, embolization was performed by catheterizing both uterine arteries and in 2 patients only one uterine artery was catheterized (pseudoaneurysm). The materials used for embolization consisted of Spongostan in 17/27, particles in 9/27, and coils in 1/27. Clinical follow-up included an analysis of early and late complications and of postprocedural fertility. Hemorrhage was classified as primary (25/27) or secondary (2/27). The cause of bleeding was vaginal delivery (20), cesarean sections (5), abortion (1), and cervical ectopic pregnancy (1). The initial technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 92.6% (25 of the 27 patients). Bleeding ceased and the outcome was satisfactory in 25 patients. During clinical follow-up ranging from one to seven years, 23 patients had normal menstruation and 6 patients completed 7 full-term pregnancies. Intra-arterial embolization for obstetric hemorrhage leads to good outcomes and few complications and it preserves fertility. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  9. [Study on the relationship between PMI and the concentration of zincum and nickel in the vitreous humor of rabbit after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z Q; Xu, X M; Zeng, X B; Sun, Y G; Wang, D W

    2001-08-01

    To seek a exact method of estimating postmortem interval (PMI). This study detected the concentration of zincum(Zn) and nickel(Ni) in vitreous humor of rabbit at hour 96 after death and explored the relationship between their concentration and PMI using a method ICP-MS. The concentration of Zn and Ni in vitreous humor of rabbit at hour 24 after death were related to PMI significantly; The formulae of the relationship between PMI and Zn concentrations is y = 0.1404x2 - 1.3351x + 3.8298 (within 24 h; R2 = 0.9202). The formula of the relationship between PMI and Ni concentrations is y = 0.0043x2 - 0.0596x + 0.2665(within 24 h; R2 = 0.9103). The concentration of Zn and Ni in vitreous humor of rabbit may be a reference indicator to estimate early PMI.

  10. Unraveling the distinctive features of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases using molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Raoni Almeida; Díaz, Natalia; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Suárez, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases are important toxins that play fundamental roles during envenomation. They share a structurally similar catalytic domain, but with diverse hemorrhagic capabilities. To understand the structural basis for this difference, we build and compare two dynamical models, one for the hemorrhagic atroxlysin-I from Bothrops atrox and the other for the non-hemorraghic leucurolysin-a from Bothrops leucurus. The analysis of the extended molecular dynamics simulations shows some changes in the local structure, flexibility and surface determinants that can contribute to explain the different hemorrhagic activity of the two enzymes. In agreement with previous results, the long Ω-loop (from residue 149 to 177) has a larger mobility in the hemorrhagic protein. In addition, we find some potentially-relevant differences at the base of the S1' pocket, what may be interesting for the structure-based design of new anti-venom agents. However, the sharpest differences in the computational models of atroxlysin-I and leucurolysin-a are observed in the surface electrostatic potential around the active site region, suggesting thus that the hemorrhagic versus non-hemorrhagic activity is probably determined by protein surface determinants.

  11. Effects of hemorrhage on cytokine gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1993-08-01

    Injury and blood loss are often followed by infection and the rapid development of organ system dysfunction, frequently involving mucosal sites, such as the lung and intestine. To examine possible mechanisms contributing to these conditions, we used semiquantitative polymerase chain reactions to determine cytokine mRNA expression among cellular populations isolated from mucosal and systemic anatomic sites of mice at predetermined time points following 30% blood volume hemorrhage with resuscitation 1 hr later. Within 1 hr after hemorrhage, significant increases were observed in mRNA levels for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-5, and TGF-beta in intraparenchymal pulmonary mononuclear cells. The levels of TGF-beta transcripts among alveolar macrophages were increased 1 hr following blood loss, and increase in IL-1 alpha transcripts was found starting 2 hr posthemorrhage. Cells from Peyer's patches showed significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta during the 4 hr following hemorrhage. Significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were present within 4 hr of blood loss among cells isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The expression of mRNA for most cytokines was not significantly altered in splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells at any time point following hemorrhage. These experiments demonstrate that blood loss, even if resuscitated, produces significant increases in proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine gene transcription as early as 1 hr following hemorrhage. These posthemorrhage alterations in cytokine mRNA expression were particularly prominent at mucosal sites, suggesting a mechanism for the increased incidence of pulmonary and intestinal involvement in organ system failure following severe blood loss and injury.

  12. Predictors of Hemorrhage Volume after Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sang Hyun; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Kim, Bum Joon; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kwon, Youngnam; Yi, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Seo; Kim, Hyun Young; Koh, Seong-Ho; Chang, Dae-Il

    2016-10-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most feared complications after administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA). The aim of this study was to determine correlations between hemorrhage volume (HV) after IV rtPA treatment and risk factors for sICH. We analyzed 318 patients from the stroke registries of 4 hospitals in Korea. We confirmed hemorrhage by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging within 36 hours. Patient groups were classified by HV (0, 0-10, 10-25, and greater than 25 mL). Based on the HV, we evaluated the following: (1) predictors for hemorrhage; (2) rates of sICH according to various sICH definitions; and (3) 3-month functional outcomes after IV rtPA treatment. Among the 318 patients, hemorrhage occurred in 72 patients. HV was significantly correlated with atrial fibrillation (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.87-6.09), early CT changes (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.69-5.93), and dense artery sign (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.07-3.39). Compared with the groups with HV less than 25 mL, patients with an HV of greater than 25 mL were more likely to have higher mortality rates (33.3% versus 11.8%) and worse outcomes at 3 months (good: 8.3% versus 50.3%; excellent: 0% versus 33.7%). HV after IV rtPA is an important predictor of clinical outcomes. Atrial fibrillation, early CT changes, and dense artery sign were significantly associated with large HVs; therefore, these patient factors might be considered before and after thrombolytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use.

  14. End-user exposures to synthetic vitreous fibers: II. Fabrication and installation fabrication of commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, P N; Lees, P S; Rooney, B C; McArthur, B R; Miller, M E; Robbins, C

    2001-04-01

    This article summarizes the results of exposure monitoring conducted during the installation and fabrication of commercial synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) products. Included in this investigation were fiberglass duct insulation and construction applications (duct board, duct liner, and duct wrap), pipe and vessel insulation, batt insulation for prefabricated homes, and general fiberglass products. Commercial mineral wool products sampled as a part of this investigation included ceiling tiles, building safing, and loose insulation for prefabricated homes. A total of 520 valid air samples were collected as a part of this investigation and were analyzed using gravimetric, phase contrast microscopy (PCM), or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Airborne fiber-size distributions were also determined for a subset of samples collected for SEM analysis. As a result of the task-based sampling strategy used in this study, sample times reflect exposures over the time the person was actually engaged in SVF-related work activities, and exposure results are therefore presented as task-length averages (TLAs). Thirty-five total dust samples were collected as a part of this investigation, resulting in 14 TLAs ranging from 0.3 to 7.6 mg/m3. A total of 125 PCM-based TLAs were collected, with the mean TLA time for all product and occupation categories ranging from 277 to 443 minutes. The mean PCM-based TLAs for all product/occupations were below 1.0 f/cm3, ranging from 0.04 to 0.68 f/cm3. A total of 116 SEM TLAs were determined. Average SEM-based TLA concentrations were slightly lower than the PCM-based estimates and ranged from <0.01 to 0.16 f/cm3. The geometric mean fiber diameters for commercial products and occupations sampled as a part of the investigation ranged from 0.8 microm to 1.9 microm. Geometric mean fiber length varied by a factor of approximately three, ranging from 9.5 microm to 29.5 microm.

  15. Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis in an Elderly Patient Taking Aspirin and Cilostazol

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    David S. Morris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Patients who develop this complication often are receiving anticoagulation therapy or have a pathologic coagulopathy. We present a case of an elderly patient who developed hemorrhagic cholecystitis while taking aspirin and cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The patient underwent an emergent abdominal exploration. A large, blood-filled gallbladder was found along with a large hematoma between the liver and gallbladder. We also briefly review the literature regarding hemorrhagic cholecystitis, hemorrhage into the biliary tree, and hemorrhage as a complication of aspirin and phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy.

  16. [Study of the content of alpha-fetoprotein and serum albumin in the vitreous body of the eye of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, I G; Tatikolov, A S

    2011-01-01

    The content of serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein in the vitreous body of the eyes of human embryos from the 16th through the 24th week was investigated. It was detected that albumin and alpha-fetoprotein in the vitreous body of human eyes are presented in equal molar concentrations in the 16th week. There is 1.5-fold increased concentration of alpha-fetoprotein in comparison to albumin during the 17th week. Seventeen weeks later, there was a reduction in the concentration of both proteins. It was reported that cyanine dye, used for detection of albumin, does not interact with alpha-fetoprotein.

  17. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki [Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Yakushiji, Yusuke [Saga University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Saga University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  18. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  19. Characterization of hemorrhages in the tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; McEvoy, Fintan; Larsen, Helle Daugaard;

    2016-01-01

    Muscle hemorrhages are regularly observed in especially the tip of the tenderloin muscles of slaughter pigs. In order to characterize the hemorrhages, a macro- and microscopic examination of tenderloins with (n = 5) and without (n = 4) hemorrhages and the associated vertebral column was carried out....... Furthermore, all columns were radiographed and two were CT scanned. Histologically, the muscle hemorrhages contained cells from bone marrow and growth line cartilage. Ventral epiphysiolysis in either the cranial or caudal epiphysis of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) in 8 out of the 9 vertebral columns...... was present. In the 5 cases with tenderloin hemorrhage, similar hemorrhage with growth line cartilage was found within the fracture of the epiphysis. The hemorrhages develop secondarily to epiphysiolysis in the lumbar vertebrae, where the tenderloin attaches to the spine. The lesions probably develop around...

  20. Recurrent craniospinal subarachnoid hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA usually manifests as cerebral hemorrhage, especially as nontraumatic hemorrhages in normotensive elderly patients. Other manifestations are subarachnoid (SAH, subdural, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and superficial hemosiderosis. A 52-year-old hypertensive woman presented with recurrent neurological deficits over a period of 2 years. Her serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans showed recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and also intracerebral, IVH and spinal hemorrhage, with superficial siderosis. Cerebral angiograms were normal. Right frontal lobe biopsy showed features of CAA. CAA can present with unexplained recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and may be the initial and prominent finding in the course of disease in addition to superficial cortical siderosis and intracerebal and spinal hemorrhages.

  1. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistency of the current classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages is discussed in the article. The author explains divergence of including of the subependymal (1st stage and intracerebral (4th stage hemorrhages into this classification. A new classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages including their origin, phases and stages is offered. The most common origin of intraventricular hemorrhages is subependymal hemorrhage (82,2%. Two phases of hemorrhage were distinguished: bleeding phase and resorption phase. Stages of intraventricular hemorrhages reflecting the blood movement after the onset of bleeding are the following: 1 — infill of the up to ½ of the lateral ventricles without their enlargement; 2 — infill of more than ½ of the lateral ventricles with their enlargement; 3 — infill of the IV ventricle, of the cerebellomedullary cistern and its dislocation into the subarachnoid space of the cerebellum, pons varolii, medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

  2. RESEARCH OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PROCESSES AT FEMTOSECOND LASER RADIATION PROPAGATION IN THE MEDIUM SIMULATING THE HUMAN EYE VITREOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Rogov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the usage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  3. Assessment of the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on the chorioretinal and vitreous inflammatory reaction to cryotherapy in rabbits

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    Eugênio Santana de Figueirêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the inflammatory response in the choroid, retina and vitreous in rabbit eyes underwent cryotherapy followed by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to compare with those underwent cryotherapy followed by intravitreal injection of saline solution. METHODS: This is a prospective case-control study. Surgical procedures were performed in eleven rabbits. Two animals were excluded because they did not complete the postoperative period or had intraoperative or postoperative complications. All rabbits underwent superior temporal peritomy and transscleralcryotherapy in both eyes. After cryotherapy, animals received intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide in one eye and saline solution in the fellow eye. Animals were sacrificed seven days after the procedure and their eyes were enucleated. Histological sections of eyeballs were prepared and the vitreous humor was aspirated. The count of inflammatory cells was performed by light microscopy. RESULTS: Histological sections of both eyes of nine rabbits were analyzed. Inflammatory cells were found only in the choroid. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells between the two groups, regardless of cell type analyzed. CONCLUSION: This study showed no statistically significant difference between the use or absence of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in the inflammatory response to cryotherapy in rabbit eyes. Studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the trend of this paper.

  4. Mass transfer study on the electrochemical removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents using reticulated vitreous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto-Costa, Pedro H; Ruotolo, Luís Augusto M

    2013-01-01

    Porous electrodes have been successfully used for metal electrodeposition from diluted aqueous solution due to their high porosity and specific surface area, which lead to high mass transfer rates. This work studies the mass transfer of copper electrodeposition on reticulated vitreous carbon in a flow reactor without membrane. The flow configuration, otherwise the filter-press electrochemical reactors, was designed in order to minimize the pressure drop. The mass transfer coefficient was determined by voltammetric and galvanostatic electrodeposition. In the voltammetric experiments a Luggin capillary was used to measure the current-potential curves and to determine the limiting current (and, consequently, the mass transfer coefficient). In the galvanostatic experiments the concentration-time curves were obtained and considering a limiting current kinetics model, the mass transfer coefficient (k(m)) was determined for different flow velocities. The results showed that both methods give similar values of k(m), thus the voltammetric method can be recommended because it is faster and simpler. Finally, the reactor performance was compared with others from literature, and it was observed that the proposed reactor design has high Sherwood numbers similar to other reactor configurations using membranes and reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes.

  5. Evaluation of 292 ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in pathologies with severe prognosis during a 24-month observation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giardini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different part of the eye can be infected by bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses (5. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of ocular swabs culture in pathologies with severe prognosis. Methods.We examined 292 patients with a severe diseases: 98% of those used topical and/or systemic antibiotic therapy.All sample were cultured both into a chocolate agar medium and into an Haemophilus selective agar and, at the same time, inoculated onto a modified blood cuture. Results. 75 out of 292 (25.7% patients tested negative.The most representative microorganisms were: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (20%, Staphylococcus aureus (12%, member of the Pseudomonadaceae family (10.9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9%, alpha haemolytic streptococci (8.2%, Fungus and Yeast (5.4%. Considering the type of cultures: 54.5% of the vitreous cultures were positive and 45.5% were negative; 38.2% of the positive cultures were referred to endophthalmitis, with prevalence of CNS (32.5% and S. aureus (22.9%, while 27.6% were due to an abscesces, with prevalence of members of the Pseudomonadaceae family (53.3%, CNS (23.3% and S. pneumoniae (16.7%. Conclusions. This data suggest the importance of the ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in the therapeutic approach of the diseases with a severe prognosis and emphasize the good performance of the modified Bactec Plus system.

  6. Overexpression of CD163 in vitreous and fibrovascular membranes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy: possible involvement of periostin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Shigeo; Nakama, Takahito; Zhou, Yedi; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Arita, Ryoichi; Nakao, Shintaro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Sassa, Yukio; Oshima, Yuji; Izuhara, Kenji; Kono, Toshihiro; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether CD163, a specific marker for M2 macrophages, is involved in the formation of preretinal fibrovascular membranes (FVMs) present in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We measured the levels of soluble (s)CD163, periostin and vascular endothelial growth factor by sandwich ELISA in vitreous samples from 74 eyes of 62 patients with PDR, 20 eyes of 18 patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and 56 eyes of 54 patients with non-diabetic ocular diseases (control group). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine the expressions of CD68, CD163 and periostin in the surgically resected FVMs and idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs). The concentrations of sCD163 and periostin in the vitreous were significantly higher in patients with PDR than in non-diabetic controls (pCD163+ macrophages were significantly higher in the FVMs than in the idiopathic ERMs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed co-localisation of CD163 and periostin in FVM cells. These findings indicate that the overexpression of CD163 by macrophages may be involved in the development of FVMs partly through periostin production. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

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    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  8. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  9. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  10. Permanent Sensorineural Deafness in a Patient with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Secondary to Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Kapur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male presented with tinnitus and fullness in left ear for one day. Workup revealed a white blood cell count of 685×103/μL with marked increase in granulocyte series and myeloid precursors on peripheral smear. The initial impression was chronic myelogenous leukemia with hyperleukocytosis, and patient was started on hydration, hydroxyurea, and allopurinol. Patient tolerated bone marrow biopsy well but continued to bleed excessively from the biopsy site. Results confirmed Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (chronic phase. On day three of hospitalization, patient developed sudden slurred speech along with shaking movements involving extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple hemorrhages throughout the brain. Hydroxyurea was continued until insurance coverage for nilotinib was getting approved. On day nine of hospitalization, patient developed sudden bilateral sensorineural deafness. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple new hemorrhages throughout the brain. Computer tomography of the temporal bones showed inflammatory changes in right and left mastoid cells. Nilotinib was started on day eleven of hospitalization. Patient’s white blood cell count continued to decrease, but there was no improvement in hearing. Four months later, patient was treated with bilateral transmastoid cochlear implants. This case highlights permanent deafness as a hemorrhagic complication secondary to chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  11. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  12. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  13. Damage control resuscitation for massive hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaree Akaraborworn

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the second most common cause of death among trauma patients and almost half of the deaths occur within 24 hours after arrival.Damage control resuscitation is a new paradigm for patients with massive bleeding.It consists of permissive hypotension,hemostatic resuscitation and transfusion strategies,and damage control surgery.Permissive hypotension seems to have better results before the bleeding is controlled.The strategy of fluid resuscitation is minimizing crystalloid infusion and increasing early transfusion with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma to packed red cells.Damage control surgery is done when the patient's condition is unfit for definitive surgery.Hemorrhage and contamination control with temporary abdominal closure is performed before transferring the patients to intensive care unit and the operating room for a permanent laparotomy.

  14. Anaplastic Medullary Ependymoma Presenting as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Nicolas Nicastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-41-year old man presented with violent thunderclap headache and a bilateral proprioceptive sensibility deficit of the upper limbs. Cerebral CT scan and MRI were negative. Lumbar puncture confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, but cerebral angiography was negative. Three months later, the patient presented with paraparesis, and a thorough work-up revealed a diffuse, anaplastic extramedullary C7-D10 ependymoma with meningeal carcinomatosis considered the source of hemorrhage. The patient went through a D5-D8 laminectomy, temozolomide chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The situation remained stable for a few months. In this paper, we would like to emphasize that spinal masses should be considered in cases of SAH with negative diagnostic findings for aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation.

  15. Meningioma with hemorrhagic onset: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Vij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a rare complication of meningiomas that can occur spontaneously, after embolization, stereotactic radiation and perioperatively. Our first case was a 16 year old male, admitted with spastic quadriparesis, and retention of urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI revealed anteriorly placed cervical intradural extramedullary mass. Patient underwent emergency surgery following sudden worsening of neurological symptoms and intratumoral bleed was noted peroperatively. Tumor was labeled as angiomatous meningioma with hemorrhage. The second case was of a 45 year female who presented with history of sudden onset weakness in right upper and lower limb followed by unconsciousness. MRI revealed heterogeneous lesion in left parasagittal area with intratumoral bleed. Left frontal craniotomy with tumour decompression was performed. Tumour was labelled as meningothelial meningioma with haemorrhage. Meningiomas with hemorrhagic onset remain rare, and pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Prevention and outcome of intratumoral haemorrhage highly depends on early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  16. Pathophysiology of cyclic hemorrhagic ascites and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussia, Anastasia; Betsas, George; Corona, Roberta; De Cicco, Carlo; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemorrhagic ascites (4470 mL, range 1-10 L) in women with endometriosis is a rare condition occurring predominantly in black women. Of the 43 case reports published, 42 are compatible with the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic ascites is predominantly a consequence of excessive ovarian transudation similar to a Meigs syndrome. Indeed, bilateral ovariectomy cures the condition without recurrences, whereas after unilateral ovariectomy or cystectomy recurrence rate is more than 50%; during ovarian suppression by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist ascites disappears, but reappears after treatment. Superficial pelvic endometriosis also contributes to the ascites because after superficial endometriosis destruction the recurrence rate is only 4 in 14. Based on these data, it is suggested, to scrutinize the ovaries for tumors given the analogy with Meigs syndrome. In women desiring fertility, conservative treatment with destruction of endometriosis only can be attempted given the cure rate of some 20%. It is unknown what the effect of ovulation induction would be.

  17. Vitamin K deficiency and hemorrhage in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    1995-09-01

    Hemorrhage in the infant from vitamin K deficiency is still a concern in pediatrics. Vitamin K given intramuscularly will largely prevent hemorrhagic disease in the newborn, even in infants who are exclusively breast-fed and are thus at the greatest risk for bleeding. The vitamin K content of human milk is very low compared with standard infant formulas. Results with oral vitamin K prophylaxis, currently used in some countries following the association found in a single report between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K, are far more controversial. Any role of vitamin K in the prevention of IVH in premature infants has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Ongoing developments in this field will lead to improved methods of detecting early vitamin K deficiency and perhaps suitable alternatives to intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn.

  18. Clinical investigation of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Shinji; Araki, Hiroshi; Takada, Jun; Watanabe, Naoki; Asano, Takahiko; Iwashita, Masahide; Tagami, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Takao; Maeda, Teruo; Saito, Koshiro

    2010-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is sometimes reported as one of the serious complications. Our purpose was to clarify the cause of upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. We retrospectively investigated the causes of upper GI hemorrhage among a total of 416 patients out of 426 consecutive patients who underwent PEG in our institution, excluding 10 patients who showed upper GI tumors on PEG placement. Among 17 patients who developed upper GI hemorrhage after PEG, three and four patients showed PEG tube placement and replacement-related hemorrhage, respectively; these lesions were vascular or mucosal tears around the gastrostomy site. Ten patients experienced 12 episodes of upper GI hemorrhage during PEG tube feeding. The lesions showing bleeding were caused by reflux esophagitis (five patients), gastric ulcer (two patients), gastric erosion due to mucosal inclusion in the side hole of the internal bolster (two patients), and duodenal diverticular hemorrhage (one patient). Anticoagulants were administered in six patients, including four patients with replacement-related hemorrhage and one patient each with reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer. Reflux esophagitis was the most frequent reason for upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. The interruption of anticoagulants should be considered for the prevention of hemorrhage on the placement as well as replacement of a gastrostomy tube.

  19. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  20. Renal hemorrhagic actinomycotic abscess in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Bhardwaj, Neha R; Di Giovanni, Laura M; Eggener, Scott; Torre, Micaela Della

    2014-02-18

    Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  1. Renal hemorrhagic actinomycotic abscess in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela C. Smid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  2. Renal Hemorrhagic Actinomycotic Abscess in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare in...

  3. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  5. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis; Leptospirosis hemorragica pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V.; Lopez, P. [Complejo Hospitalario Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. Sant Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characteristic of humid eastern countries. It is relatively uncommon in the West. it usually presents with either hepatorenal or pulmonary involvement, two forms which generally overlap to a certain degree. We report a case of severe onset hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis in a man who, during the course of the disease, presented multi systemic embolism (spleen, kidney and central nervous system). (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  7. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  8. Pontine hemorrhage in a patient with pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigli, K; Biller, J; Brooks, M H; Cespedes, L E; Posniak, H V

    1985-02-01

    A 24-year-old woman with a two-year history of hypertension was hospitalized for coma and quadriplegia secondary to pontine hemorrhage. A seven-year history of intermittent severe headaches, diaphoresis, and anxiety together with persistent severe hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. This unusual but devastating manifestation of pheochromocytoma illustrates the importance of excluding remedial forms of hypertension in young patients before initiating antihypertensive therapy.

  9. Management of variceal hemorrhage:current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu; LI Zhao-shen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Despite much progress has been made in treatment and research in recent decades,variceal hemorrhage is still one of the most severe complications of liver cirrhosis.1 Studies of the natural history of gastroesophageal varices indicate that gastroesophageal varices are present in about half of cirrhotic patients when endoscopy is performed at the time of the diagnosis of cirrhosis.The presence of gastroesophageal varices correlates with the severity of liver disease.

  10. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  11. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  12. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. Determination of robust ocular pharmacokinetic parameters in serum and vitreous humor of albino rabbits following systemic administration of ciprofloxacin from sparse data sets by using IT2S, a population pharmacokinetic modeling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusano, G L; Liu, W; Perkins, R; Madu, A; Madu, C; Mayers, M; Miller, M H

    1995-08-01

    Robust determination of the concentration-time profile of anti-infective agents in certain specialized compartments is often limited by the inability to obtain more than a single sample from such a site in any one subject. Vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid are obvious examples for which the determination of concentrations of anti-infective agents is limited. Advances in pharmacodynamics have pointed out the importance of understanding the profiles of drugs in the plasma and in specialized compartments in order to dose the drugs to obtain the best patient outcomes. Advances in population pharmacokinetic modeling hold the promise of allowing proper estimation of drug penetration into the vitreous (or other specialized compartment) with only a single vitreous sample, in conjunction with plasma sampling. We have developed a rabbit model which allows multiple samples of vitreous to be obtained without breaking down the blood-vitreous barrier. We have employed this model to test the hypothesis that robust estimates of vitreous penetration by the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin can be obtained from a traditional intensive plasma sampling set plus a single vitreous sample. We studied 33 rabbits which were receiving 40 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight intravenously as short infusions and from which multiple plasma and vitreous samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by the iterative two-stage population modeling technique (IT2S), employing the iterative two-stage program of Forrest et al. (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1065-1072, 1993). Two data sets were analyzed: all plasma and vitreous samples versus all plasma samples and the initially obtained single vitreous sample. The pharmacokinetic parameter values identified were used to calculate the percent vitreous penetration as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve for the vitreous to that for the plasma. The

  15. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  16. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75 mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers.

  17. Hemorrhage after transoral robotic-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Scott A; White, Hilliary N; Kejner, Alexandra E; Rosenthal, Eben L; Carroll, William R; Magnuson, J Scott

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of head and neck surgeons have begun using transoral robotic-assisted surgery. Our objective was to examine the postoperative bleeding complications we have encountered to determine risk factors and to discuss the topic of hemorrhage control. Case series with chart review. Medical records were reviewed in 147 consecutive patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery for any indication at one tertiary academic medical center between March 2007 and September 2011. Eleven of 147 (7.5%) patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery experienced some degree of postoperative hemorrhage, with 9 patients requiring reoperation for examination and/or control of bleeding. Bleeding occurred at a mean of 11.1 ± 9.2 days after initial operation. Eight of 11 (72%) patients who bled were on antithrombotic medication (anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents) for other medical comorbidities. The postoperative hemorrhage rate in patients taking antithrombotic medication (8/48 patients = 17%) was significantly higher than in those not taking antithrombotics (3/99 patients = 3%), P = .0057. While the bleeding rate in salvage surgery (3/29 = 10.3%) was slightly higher than in primary surgery (8/118 = 6.8%), this difference did not reach statistical significance. Potential for postoperative bleeding in association with antithrombotic medications in patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery should be recognized. Various effective techniques for management of these patients without robotic assistance were demonstrated.

  18. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Belma [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cad. 10. sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: belmac@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cad. 10. sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  19. Hemorrhage control by microsecond electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Yossi; Manivanh, Richard; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Phil; Wang, Jenny; Brinton, Mark; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Non-compressible hemorrhages are the most common preventable cause of death on battlefield or in civilian traumatic injuries. We report the use of sub-millisecond pulses of electric current to induce rapid constriction in femoral and mesenteric arteries and veins in rats. Extent of vascular constriction could be modulated by pulse duration, amplitude and repetition rate. Electrically-induced vasoconstriction could be maintained at steady level until the end of stimulation, and blood vessels dilated back to their original size within a few minutes after the end of stimulation. At higher settings, a blood clotting could be introduced, leading to complete and permanent occlusion of the vessels. The latter regime dramatically decreased the bleeding rate in the injured femoral and mesenteric arteries, with a complete hemorrhage arrest achieved within seconds. The average blood loss from the treated femoral artery was about 7 times less than that of a non-treated control. This new treatment modality offers a promising approach to non-damaging control of bleeding during surgery, and to efficient hemorrhage arrest in trauma patients.

  20. Anxiety and depression after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul Graham; Wilson, J T Lindsay; Dunn, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to emotional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study assessed levels of anxiety and depression among SAH survivors and related these to clinical indices. Seventy SAH patients from a consecutive series of neurosurgical admissions participated in semistructured assessments of functional outcome; 52 of the patients also returned standardized measures of emotional outcome. These data were compared with clinical indices collected during the initial hospital admission. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety were present in approximately 40% of patients 16 months after hemorrhage, with approximately 20% experiencing moderate to severe levels of depression. Although anxiety was more likely to be reported at interview by those with an SAH of Fisher Grade 4, the standardized measures of anxiety and depression were not associated with severity of hemorrhage or any other clinical variables. Both anxiety and depression were significantly associated with outcome indices such as return to work and engagement in social activities. Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome.