Sample records for repeated vascular imaging

  1. A Low Cost Metal-Free Vascular Access Mini-Port for Artifact Free Imaging and Repeated Injections in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Small injection ports for mice are increasingly used for drug testing or when administering contrast agents. Commercially available mini-ports are expensive single-use items that cause imaging-artifacts. We developed and tested an artifact-free, low-cost, vascular access mini-port (VAMP for mice.Leakage testing of the VAMP was conducted with high speed bolus injections of different contrast agents. VAMP-induced artifacts were assessed using a micro-CT and a small animal MRI (9.4T scanner ex vivo. Repeated contrast administration was performed in vivo.With the VAMP there was no evidence of leakage with repeated punctures, high speed bolus contrast injections, and drawing of blood samples. In contrast to the tested commercially available ports, the VAMP did not cause artifacts with MRI or CT imaging.The VAMP is an alternative to commercially available mini-ports and has useful applications in animal research involving imaging procedures and contrast agent testing.

  2. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies. (United States)

    Restrepo, Ricardo


    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  3. Imaging of peripheral vascular disease

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    Mo Al-Qaisi


    Full Text Available Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King1, Sam Kaddoura2, Mo Hamady31Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; 3St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UKAbstract: This illustrated review article gives an evidence-based update on the different modalities used for imaging peripheral vascular disease (duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. After discussing the latest technological developments for each modality, their limitations are also highlighted. The evidence is presented for the various modalities’ roles in the imaging of peripheral vascular disease, including problem-solving applications. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality are therefore critically appraised, including the salient technological, clinical, and financial aspects. This review allows the general and specialist practitioner to make an informed decision on how best to deploy imaging tests in peripheral vascular disease as part of an evidence-based approach. The article concludes with a rational imaging algorithm for the investigation of peripheral vascular disease.Keywords: imaging, peripheral, vascular, duplex, angiography, arterial 

  4. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong


    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  5. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. de Korte (Chris); H.H.G. Hansen (Hendrik); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)


    textabstractCardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the

  6. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

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    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  7. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JB


    Full Text Available Joshua B Johnson, Petrice M Cogswell, Michael A McKusick, Larry A Binkovitz, Stephen J Riederer, Phillip M Young Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. Keywords: time-resolved MRA, cartesian acquisition with projection-like reconstruction, endovascular treatment, magnetic resonance angiography

  8. Imaging vascular implants with optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Dal Ponte, Donny B.; Williams, Stuart K.; Ford, Bridget K.; Descour, Michael R.


    Vascular stents and grafts have many proven and promising clinical applications, but also a large number of complications. A focus of current research is the development of biocompatible implants. Evaluation of these devices generally requires a large number of animals due to the need for explanation and histological evaluation of the implant at several time intervals. It would be desirable to use instead a high resolution, in situ assessment method. An in vitro study was performed to determine if OCT could image cell proliferation and thrombus formation on vascular stents and grafts. First, images were taken of explanted stents. The implants were locate din peripheral vessels of a porcine model of atherosclerosis. The images clearly show the vessel response to initial damage, the materials of the implant, extent of intimal cell hyper proliferation, and small platelet aggregates. Next, a tissue engineered graft, which had been sodded with smooth muscle cells and incubated in a bioreactor, was evaluated. Cross-section images showed the pores of the polymer material and the layer of smooth muscle cells beginning to invade the graft material. For comparison, in vitro 20 MHz IVUS images of the same grafts were obtained. A catheter was designed for intravascular imaging. The 2.3 mm diameter catheter contains a fiber with GRIN lens and right angle prism, a monorail guidewire, and a novel positioning wire that can be protruded to push the catheter against the vessel wall, potentially eliminating the need for saline flush. Preliminary in vitro results with this catheter are encouraging.

  9. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

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    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Departmento de Diagnostico por Imagem


    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  10. Digital image processing of vascular angiograms (United States)

    Selzer, R. H.; Beckenbach, E. S.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.


    The paper discusses the estimation of the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery through the use of a digital image processing system for vascular angiograms. The film digitizer uses an electronic image dissector camera to scan the angiogram and convert the recorded optical density information into a numerical format. Another processing step involves locating the vessel edges from the digital image. The computer has been programmed to estimate vessel abnormality through a series of measurements, some derived primarily from the vessel edge information and others from optical density variations within the lumen shadow. These measurements are combined into an atherosclerosis index, which is found in a post-mortem study to correlate well with both visual and chemical estimates of atherosclerotic disease.

  11. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings* (United States)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe


    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. PMID:27777480

  12. Characterization of tissue-simulating polymers for photoacoustic vascular imaging (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Jia, Congxian; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, T. Joshua


    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a maturing imaging technique which combines optical excitation and acoustic detection to enable deep tissue sensing for biomedical applications. Optical absorption provides biochemical specificity and high optical contrast while ultrasonic detection provides high spatial resolution and penetration depth. These characteristics make PAT highly suitable as an approach for vascular imaging. However, standard testing methods are needed in order to characterize and compare the performance of these systems. Tissue-mimicking phantoms are commonly used as standard test samples for imaging system development and evaluation due to their repeatable fabrication and tunable properties. The multi-domain mechanism behind PAT necessitates development of phantoms that accurately mimic both acoustic and optical properties of tissues. While a wide variety of materials have been used in the literature, from gelatin and agar hydrogels to silicone, published data indicates that poly(vinyl chloride) plastisol (PVCP) is a promising candidate material for simulating tissue optical and acoustic properties while also providing superior longevity and stability. Critical acoustic properties of PVCP phantoms, including sound velocity and attenuation, were measured using acoustic transmission measurements at multiple frequencies relevant to typical PAT systems. Optical absorption and scattering coefficients of PVCP gels with and without biologically relevant absorbers and scatterers were measured over wavelengths from 500 to 1100 nm. A custom PAT system was developed to assess image contrast in PVCP phantoms containing fluid channels filled with absorbing dye. PVCP demonstrates strong potential as the basis of high-fidelity polymer phantoms for developing and evaluating PAT systems for vascular imaging applications.

  13. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

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    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  14. Diverse imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion. (United States)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju


    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated wih surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the "honeycomb" and "sunburst" radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  15. Surveillance of hemodialysis vascular access with ultrasound vector flow imaging (United States)

    Brandt, Andreas H.; Olesen, Jacob B.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Rix, Marianne; Jensen, Jørgen A.; Nielsen, Michael B.


    The aim of this study was prospectively to monitor the volume flow in patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with the angle independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging (VFI). Volume flow values were compared with Ultrasound dilution technique (UDT). Hemodialysis patients need a well-functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has proven to be more precise, when performing single repeated instantaneous measurements. Three patients with AVF were monitored with UDT and VFI monthly for five months. A commercial ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer with integrated VFI was used to obtain data. UDT values were obtained with Transonic HD03 Flow-QC Hemodialysis Monitor. Three independent measurements at each scan session were obtained with UDT and VFI each month. Average deviation of volume flow between UDT and VFI was 25.7 % (Cl: 16.7% to 34.7%) (p= 0.73). The standard deviation for all patients, calculated from the mean variance of each individual scan sessions, was 199.8 ml/min for UDT and 47.6 ml/min for VFI (p = 0.002). VFI volume flow values were not significantly different from the corresponding estimates obtained using UDT, and VFI measurements were more precise than UDT. The study indicates that VFI can be used for surveillance of volume flow.

  16. Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Ditte Marie;


    .5% plasma extracted from CB-exposed ApoE-/- mice caused vasoconstriction in aorta rings isolated from naïve mice; this effect was abolished by the treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist Ketanserin. In conclusion, repeated pulmonary exposure to nanosized CB and LPS caused lung inflammation without......Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered the main drivers of vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis after inhalation of particulate matter. In addition, new studies have shown that particle exposure can induce the level of bioactive mediators in serum, driving vascular......- and systemic toxicity. We aimed to investigate if pulmonary inflammation would accelerate nanoparticle-induced atherosclerotic plaque progression in Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. ApoE -/- mice were exposed to vehicle, 8.53 or 25.6 μg nanosized carbon black (CB) alone or spiked with LPS (0.2 μg...

  17. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming


    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  18. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas


    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...

  19. Dynamic, nondestructive imaging of a bioengineered vascular graft endothelium.

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    Bryce M Whited

    Full Text Available Bioengineering of vascular grafts holds great potential to address the shortcomings associated with autologous and conventional synthetic vascular grafts used for small diameter grafting procedures. Lumen endothelialization of bioengineered vascular grafts is essential to provide an antithrombogenic graft surface to ensure long-term patency after implantation. Conventional methods used to assess endothelialization in vitro typically involve periodic harvesting of the graft for histological sectioning and staining of the lumen. Endpoint testing methods such as these are effective but do not provide real-time information of endothelial cells in their intact microenvironment, rather only a single time point measurement of endothelium development. Therefore, nondestructive methods are needed to provide dynamic information of graft endothelialization and endothelium maturation in vitro. To address this need, we have developed a nondestructive fiber optic based (FOB imaging method that is capable of dynamic assessment of graft endothelialization without disturbing the graft housed in a bioreactor. In this study we demonstrate the capability of the FOB imaging method to quantify electrospun vascular graft endothelialization, EC detachment, and apoptosis in a nondestructive manner. The electrospun scaffold fiber diameter of the graft lumen was systematically varied and the FOB imaging system was used to noninvasively quantify the affect of topography on graft endothelialization over a 7-day period. Additionally, results demonstrated that the FOB imaging method had a greater imaging penetration depth than that of two-photon microscopy. This imaging method is a powerful tool to optimize vascular grafts and bioreactor conditions in vitro, and can be further adapted to monitor endothelium maturation and response to fluid flow bioreactor preconditioning.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of vascular networks in transgenic mice (United States)

    Laufer, J. G.; Cleary, J. O.; Zhang, E. Z.; Lythgoe, M. F.; Beard, P. C.


    The preferential absorption of near infrared light by blood makes photoacoustic imaging well suited to visualising vascular structures in soft tissue. In addition, the spectroscopic specificity of tissue chromophores can be exploited by acquiring images at multiple excitation wavelengths. This allows the quantification of endogenous chromophores, such as oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, and hence blood oxygenation, and the detection of exogenous chromophores, such as functionalised contrast agents. More importantly, this approach has the potential to visualise the spatial distribution of low concentrations of functionalised contrast agents against the strong background absorption of the endogenous chromophores. This has a large number of applications in the life sciences. One example is the structural and functional phenotyping of transgenic mice for the study of the genetic origins of vascular malformations, such as heart defects. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos have been acquired to study the development of the vasculature following specific genetic knockouts.

  1. Immediate Vascular Imaging Needed for Efficient Triage of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Initially Admitted to Nonthrombectomy Centers. (United States)

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Siddiqui, Khawja-Ahmeruddin; Lauer, Arne; Charidimou, Andreas; Regenhardt, Robert W; Viswanathan, Anand; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Rost, Natalia; Schwamm, Lee H


    Current guidelines for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) used to select patients for transfer to thrombectomy-capable stroke centers (TSC) may result in unnecessary transfers. We sought to determine the impact of simulated baseline vascular imaging on reducing unnecessary transfers and clinical-imaging factors associated with receiving EVT after transfer. We identified patients with stroke transferred for EVT from 30 referring hospitals between 2010 and 2016 who had a referring hospitals brain computed tomography and repeat imaging on TSC arrival available for review. Initial Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores and TSC vascular occlusion level were assessed. The main outcome variable was receiving EVT at TSC. Models were simulated to derive optimal triaging parameters for EVT. A total of 508 patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 69±14 years; 42% women). Application at referring hospitals of current guidelines for EVT yielded sensitivity of 92% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.96) and specificity of 53% (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.57) for receiving EVT at TSC. Repeated simulations identified optimal selection criteria for transfer as National Institute of Health Stroke Scale >8 plus baseline vascular imaging (sensitivity=91%; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.95; and specificity=80%; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.83). Our findings provide quantitative estimates of the claim that implementing vascular imaging at the referring hospitals would result in significantly fewer futile transfers for EVT and a data-driven framework to inform transfer policies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. High resolution imaging of vascular function in zebrafish.

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    Simon C Watkins

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The role of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is an emerging field of study, necessitating the development of appropriate model systems and methodologies to investigate the multifaceted nature of endothelial dysfunction including disturbed barrier function and impaired vascular reactivity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and test an optimized high-speed imaging platform to obtain quantitative real-time measures of blood flow, vessel diameter and endothelial barrier function in order to assess vascular function in live vertebrate models. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a combination of cutting-edge optical imaging techniques, including high-speed, camera-based imaging (up to 1000 frames/second, and 3D confocal methods to collect real time metrics of vascular performance and assess the dynamic response to the thromboxane A(2 (TXA(2 analogue, U-46619 (1 µM, in transgenic zebrafish larvae. Data obtained in 3 and 5 day post-fertilization larvae show that these methods are capable of imaging blood flow in a large (1 mm segment of the vessel of interest over many cardiac cycles, with sufficient speed and sensitivity such that the trajectories of individual erythrocytes can be resolved in real time. Further, we are able to map changes in the three dimensional sizes of vessels and assess barrier function by visualizing the continuity of the endothelial layer combined with measurements of extravasation of fluorescent microspheres. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that this system-based microscopic approach can be used to combine measures of physiologic function with molecular behavior in zebrafish models of human vascular disease.

  3. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results (United States)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin


    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  4. An initial investigation of radiologist eye movements in vascular imaging (United States)

    Toomey, R. J.; Hodgins, S.; Evanoff, M. E.; Rainford, L. A.


    Eye tracking has been used by many researchers to try to shed light on the perceptual processes involved in medical image perception. Despite a large volume of data having been published regarding radiologist viewing patterns for static images, and more recently for stacked imaging modalities, little has been produced concerning angiographic images, which commonly have substantially different characteristics. A study was performed in which 7 expert radiologists viewed a range of digital subtraction angiograms of the peripheral vascular system. Initial results are presented. The observers were free to control the rate at which they viewed the images. Eye position data was recorded for each participant using Tobii TX300 eyetrackers. Analysis was performed in Tobii Studio software and included qualitative analysis of gaze pattern and analysis of metrics including first and total fixation duration etc. for areas of clinical interest. Early results indicate that experts briefly fixate on lesions but do not dwell in the area, rather continuing to inspect the more distal vascular segments before returning. Some individual variation was noted. Further research is required and ongoing.

  5. Mouse Hepatic Tumor Vascular Imaging by Experimental Selective Angiography.

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    Sang Kyum Kim

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has unique vascular features, which require selective imaging of hepatic arterial perfusion and portal venous perfusion with vascular catheterization for sufficient evaluation. Unlike in humans, vessels in mice are too small to catheterize, and the importance of separately imaging the feeding vessels of tumors is frequently overlooked in hepatic tumor models. The purpose of this study was to perform selective latex angiography in several mouse liver tumor models and assess their suitability.In several ectopic (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16/F10 melanoma cell lines and spontaneous liver tumor (Albumin-Cre/MST1fl/fl/MST2fl/fl, Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl, and H-ras12V genetically modified mouse models, the heart left ventricle and/or main portal vein of mice was punctured, and latex dye was infused to achieve selective latex arteriography and/or portography.H-ras12V transgenic mice (a HCC and hepatic adenoma model developed multiple liver nodules that displayed three different perfusion patterns (portal venous or hepatic artery perfusion predominant, mixed perfusion, indicating intra-tumoral vascular heterogeneity. Selective latex angiography revealed that the Lewis lung carcinoma implant model and the Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl model reproduced conventional angiography findings of human HCC. Specifically, these mice developed tumors with abundant feeding arteries but no portal venous perfusion.Different hepatic tumor models showed different tumor vessel characteristics that influence the suitability of the model and that should be considered when designing translational experiments. Selective latex angiography applied to certain mouse tumor models (both ectopic and spontaneous closely simulated typical characteristics of human HCC vascular imaging.

  6. Quasar Variability Measurements With SDSS Repeated Imaging and POSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ivezic, Z; Juric, M; Anderson, S; Hall, P B; Richards, G T; Rockosi, C M; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Turner, E L; Knapp, G R; Gunn, J E; Schlegel, D J; Strauss, M A; Schneider, D P


    We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for 13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Ang. to 6000 Ang. We demonstrate that 66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.

  7. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium. (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi


    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  8. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology. (United States)

    Heijblom, M; Piras, D; Brinkhuis, M; van Hespen, J C G; van den Engh, F M; van der Schaaf, M; Klaase, J M; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W; Manohar, S


    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  9. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology (United States)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.


    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  10. Repeat scanning technology for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yenn Chong, See; Sunuwar, Nitam; Park, Chan Yik


    Laser ultrasonic scanning in combination with contact or non-contact sensors provides new paradigms in structural health management (SHM) and non-destructive in-process quality control (IPQC) for large composite structures. Wave propagation imaging technology based on laser ultrasonic scanning and fixed-point sensing shows remarkable advantages, such as minimal need for embedded sensors in SHM, minimum invasive defect visualization in IPQC and general capabilities of curved and complex target inspection, and temporal reference-free inspection. However, as with other SHM methods and non-destructive evaluation based on ultrasound, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prevalent issue in real structural applications, especially with non-contact thin-composite sensing or with thick and heterogeneous composites. This study proposes a high-speed repeat scanning technique for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) technology, which is realized with the scanning speed of 1 kHz of a Q-switched continuous wave laser, and precise control of the laser beam pulses for identical point scanning. As a result, the technique enables the achievement of significant improvement in the SNR to inspect real-world composite structures. The proposed technique provides enhanced results for impact damage detection in a 2 mm thick wing box made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the low sensitivity of non-contact laser ultrasonic sensing. A field-applicable pure laser UPI system has been developed using a laser Doppler vibrometer as the non-contact ultrasonic sensor. The proposed technique enables the visualization of the disbond defect in a 15 mm thick wind blade specimen made of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the high dissipation of ultrasound in the thick composite.

  11. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging (United States)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron


    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  12. High resolution MR angiography with rephasing and dephasing sequences for selective vascular imaging of arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiderer, M.; Laub, G.; Staebler, A.; Yousry, P.; Lauterjung, L.


    With rephasing and dephasing sequences the vascular system is imaged with high or low signal intensity whereas stationary tissue is imaged with identical signal intensity. With images recorded in systole and diastole followed by image subtraction separate imaging of arteries or veins without background superposition is possible. 13 patients with vascular lesions of the lower extremities and 7 volunteers were examined. Vascular stenosis, aneurysm, dilatation, occlusion and collateral vessels could be imaged similar to digital subtraction angiography. Vessels with a diameter down to 1 mm could be imaged. The large slice thickness up to 80 mm results in projection type images where the vascular tree is imaged over the whole field of view and without partial volume effects.

  13. The highest-copy repeats are methylated in the small genome of the early divergent vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii is a vascular plant that diverged from the fern/seed plant lineage at least 400 million years ago. Although genomic information for S. moellendorffii is starting to be produced, little is known about basic aspects of its molecular biology. In order to provide the first glimpse to the epigenetic landscape of this early divergent vascular plant, we used the methylation filtration technique. Methylation filtration genomic libraries select unmethylated DNA clones due to the presence of the methylation-dependent restriction endonuclease McrBC in the bacterial host. Results We conducted a characterization of the DNA methylation patterns of the S. moellendorffii genome by sequencing a set of S. moellendorffii shotgun genomic clones, along with a set of methylation filtered clones. Chloroplast DNA, which is typically unmethylated, was enriched in the filtered library relative to the shotgun library, showing that there is DNA methylation in the extremely small S. moellendorffii genome. The filtered library also showed enrichment in expressed and gene-like sequences, while the highest-copy repeats were largely under-represented in this library. These results show that genes and repeats are differentially methylated in the S. moellendorffii genome, as occurs in other plants studied. Conclusion Our results shed light on the genome methylation pattern in a member of a relatively unexplored plant lineage. The DNA methylation data reported here will help understanding the involvement of this epigenetic mark in fundamental biological processes, as well as the evolutionary aspects of epigenetics in land plants.

  14. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M


    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  15. Inflammation and Vascular Effects after Repeated Intratracheal Instillations of Carbon Black and Lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Ditte Marie


    -and systemic toxicity. We aimed to investigate if pulmonary inflammation would accelerate nanoparticle-induced atherosclerotic plaque progression in Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. ApoE-/- mice were exposed to vehicle, 8.53 or 25.6 mu g nanosized carbon black (CB) alone or spiked with LPS (0.2 mu g...... mediators in plasma of exposed ApoE-/- mice was assessed in aorta rings isolated from naive C57BL/6 mice. Pulmonary exposure to CB and/or LPS resulted in pulmonary inflammation with a robust influx of neutrophils. The CB exposure did not promote plaque progression in aorta or BCA. Incubation with 0.......5% plasma extracted from CB-exposed ApoE-/- mice caused vasoconstriction in aorta rings isolated from naive mice; this effect was abolished by the treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist Ketanserin. In conclusion, repeated pulmonary exposure to nanosized CB and LPS caused lung inflammation without...

  16. Involvement of Inflammation and Adverse Vascular Remodelling in the Blood Pressure Raising Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Ng


    Full Text Available Oil thermoxidation during deep frying generates harmful oxidative free radicals that induce inflammation and increase the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, aortic morphometry, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, fresh palm oil (FPO, one-time-heated palm oil (1HPO, five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO, or ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO. Feeding duration was six months. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. After six months, the rats were sacrificed and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. FPO group showed significantly lower blood pressure than all other groups. Blood pressure was increased significantly in 5HPO and 10HPO groups. The aortae of 5HPO and 10HPO groups showed significantly increased thickness and area of intima-media, circumferential wall tension, and VCAM-1 than other groups. Elastic lamellae were disorganised and fragmented in 5HPO- and 10HPO-treated rats. VCAM-1 expression showed a significant positive correlation with blood pressure. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil causes blood pressure elevation, adverse remodelling, and increased VCAM-1, which suggests a possible involvement of inflammation.

  17. Atlas image labeling of subcortical structures and vascular territories in brain CT images. (United States)

    Du, Kaifang; Zhang, Li; Nguyen, Tony; Ordy, Vincent; Fichte, Heinz; Ditt, Hendrik; Chefd'hotel, Christophe


    We propose a multi-atlas labeling method for subcortical structures and cerebral vascular territories in brain CT images. Each atlas image is registered to the query image by a non-rigid registration and the deformation is then applied to the labeling of the atlas image to obtain the labeling of the query image. Four label fusion strategies (single atlas, most similar atlas, major voting, and STAPLE) were compared. Image similarity values in non-rigid registration were calculated and used to select and rank atlases. Major voting fusion strategy gave the best accuracy, with DSC (Dice similarity coefficient) around 0.85 ± 0.03 for caudate, putamen, and thalamus. The experimental results also show that fusing more atlases does not necessarily yield higher accuracy and we should be able to improve accuracy and decrease computation cost at the same time by selecting a preferred set with the minimum number of atlases.

  18. Vascular contrast in narrow-band and white light imaging. (United States)

    Du Le, V N; Wang, Quanzeng; Gould, Taylor; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Pfefer, T Joshua


    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a spectrally selective reflectance imaging technique that is used clinically for enhancing visualization of superficial vasculature and has shown promise for applications such as early endoscopic detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia. We have studied the effect of vessel geometry and illumination wavelength on vascular contrast using idealized geometries in order to more quantitatively understand NBI and broadband or white light imaging of mucosal tissue. Simulations were performed using a three-dimensional, voxel-based Monte Carlo model incorporating discrete vessels. In all cases, either 415 or 540 nm illumination produced higher contrast than white light, yet white light did not always produce the lowest contrast. White light produced the lowest contrast for small vessels and intermediate contrast for large vessels (diameter≥100  μm) at deep regions (vessel depth≥200  μm). The results show that 415 nm illuminations provided superior contrast for smaller vessels at shallow depths while 540 nm provided superior contrast for larger vessels in deep regions. Besides 540 nm, our studies also indicate the potential of other wavelengths to achieve high contrast of large vessels at deep regions. Simulation results indicate the importance of three key mechanisms in determining spectral variations in contrast: intravascular hemoglobin (Hb) absorption in the vessel of interest, diffuse Hb absorption from collateral vasculature, and bulk tissue scattering. Measurements of NBI contrast in turbid phantoms incorporating 0.1-mm-diameter hemoglobin-filled capillary tubes indicated good agreement with modeling results. These results provide quantitative insights into light-tissue interactions and the effect of device and tissue properties on NBI performance.

  19. A simple method of image analysis to estimate CAM vascularization by APERIO ImageScope software. (United States)

    Marinaccio, Christian; Ribatti, Domenico


    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is a well-established method to test the angiogenic stimulation or inhibition induced by molecules and cells administered onto the CAM. The quantification of blood vessels in the CAM assay relies on a semi-manual image analysis approach which can be time consuming when considering large experimental groups. Therefore we present here a simple and fast volumetric method to inspect differences in vascularization between experimental conditions related to the stimulation and inhibition of CAM angiogenesis based on the Positive Pixel Count algorithm embedded in the APERIO ImageScope software.

  20. Research of thoracolumbar spine lateral vascular anatomy and imaging. (United States)

    OuYang, H; Ding, Z


    This study introduces an anatomical basis for surgeries such as thoracoscope-assisted thoracolumbar spinal anterior interbody fusion in terms of image observing and corpse specimen anatomising. The observation of the 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) image indicates that segmental arteries are visible and run in the central supersulcus of the corresponding vertebral body's side, while the branches are invisible. The distances between adjacent segmental arteries in T(10/11), T(11/12), T₁₂/L₁, L(1/2), and L(2/3) are 23.35 ± 1.48, 25.61 ± 2.08, 29.12 ± 2.30, 32.53 ± 2.18, and 33.73 ± 2.29 (mm), respectively. And the observation by the thoracolumbar spine side of the adult corpse specimens shows that segmental arteries and veins constantly exist and run in the central supersulcus of the corresponding vertebral body's side; each segmental artery has some small branches; the zone between the upper and lower segmental arteries form a relatively non-vascular nerve safe zone, where the intervertebral space (disc) locates. The distances between adjacent segmental arteries in T(10/11), T(11/12), T₁₂/L₁, L(1/2), L(2/3) are 23.34 ± 0.78, 25.54 ± 0.85, 29.11 ± 1.01, 32.82 ± ± 1.28, and 33.71 ± 1.42 (mm), respectively. The safe zone, with the intervertebral disc as the reference mark, can provide enough operation space for surgeries like thoracoscope-assisted anterior interbody fusion and reducing damage to blood vessels as well as surgical complications. Additionally, the arrangement and distribution of segmental arteries can be clearly displayed on the 3-dimensional CT image and the result is basically consistent with that of corpse specimens. Therefore, the 3-dimensional CT image can be regarded as the reference for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery plans.

  1. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  2. Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer


    -functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has...... be used for surveillance of volume flow....

  3. Management of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations: Clinical Presentation, Classification, Patient Selection, Imaging and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, Ian, E-mail: [Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (QEHB) & Birmingham Children’s Hospital (BCH) (United Kingdom)


    This review article aims to give an overview of the current state of imaging, patient selection, agents and techniques used in the management of low-flow vascular malformations. The review includes the current classifications for low-flow vascular malformations including the 2014 updates. Clinical presentation and assessment is covered with a detailed section on the common sclerosant agents used to treat low-flow vascular malformations, including dosing and common complications. Imaging is described with a guide to a simple stratification of the use of imaging for diagnosis and interventional techniques.

  4. Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations;Achados de imagem e alternativas terapeuticas das malformacoes vasculares perifericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Santos, Daniela dos; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica


    Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents. (author)

  5. Vascular Profile Characterization of Liver Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Hemodynamic Response Imaging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Edrei


    Full Text Available Recently, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using hemodynamic response imaging (HRI, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method combined with hypercapnia and hyperoxia, for monitoring vascular changes during liver pathologies without the need of contrast material. In this study, we evaluated HRI ability to assess changes in liver tumor vasculature during tumor establishment, progression, and antiangiogenic therapy. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were injected intrasplenically to model colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM and the Mdr2 knockout mice were used to model primary hepatic tumors. Hepatic perfusion parameters were evaluated using the HRI protocol and were compared with contrast-enhanced (CE MRI. The hypovascularity and the increased arterial blood supply in well-defined CRLM were demonstrated by HRI. In CRLM-bearing mice, the entire liver perfusion was attenuated as the HRI maps were significantly reduced by 35%. This study demonstrates that the HRI method showed enhanced sensitivity for small CRLM (1–2 mm detection compared with CE-MRI (82% versus 38%, respectively. In addition, HRI could demonstrate the vasculature alteration during CRLM progression (arborized vessels, which was further confirmed by histology. Moreover, HRI revealed the vascular changes induced by rapamycin treatment. Finally, HRI facilitates primary hepatic tumor characterization with good correlation to the pathologic differentiation. The HRI method is highly sensitive to subtle hemodynamic changes induced by CRLM and, hence, can function as an imaging tool for understanding the hemodynamic changes occurring during CRLM establishment, progression, and antiangiogenic treatment. In addition, this method facilitated the differentiation between different types of hepatic lesions based on their vascular profile noninvasively.

  6. Multimodality Imaging of Normal Hepatic Transplant Vasculature and Graft Vascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Roberts


    Full Text Available Orthotopic liver transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease. Advances in surgical technique, along with improvements in organ preservation and immunosuppression have improved patient outcomes. Post-operative complications, however, can limit this success. Ultrasound is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of hepatic transplants, providing real-time information about vascular flow in the graft. Graft vascular complications are not uncommon, and their prompt recognition is crucial to allow for timely graft salvage. A multimodality approach including CT angiography, MRI, or conventional angiography may be necessary in cases of complex transplant vascular anatomy or when sonography and Doppler are inconclusive to diagnose the etiologies of these complications. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the normal post-transplant vascular anatomy and the imaging appearances of the major vascular complications that may occur within the hepatic artery, portal vein, and venous outflow tract, with an emphasis on ultrasound.

  7. Vascular Tree Segmentation in Medical Images Using Hessian-Based Multiscale Filtering and Level Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoying Jin


    extraction of vascular trees from 2D medical images is presented, which combines Hessian-based multiscale filtering and a modified level set method. In the proposed algorithm, the morphological top-hat transformation is firstly adopted to attenuate background. Then Hessian-based multiscale filtering is used to enhance vascular structures by combining Hessian matrix with Gaussian convolution to tune the filtering response to the specific scales. Because Gaussian convolution tends to blur vessel boundaries, which makes scale selection inaccurate, an improved level set method is finally proposed to extract vascular structures by introducing an external constrained term related to the standard deviation of Gaussian function into the traditional level set. Our approach was tested on synthetic images with vascular-like structures and 2D slices extracted from real 3D abdomen magnetic resonance angiography (MRA images along the coronal plane. The segmentation rates for synthetic images are above 95%. The results for MRA images demonstrate that the proposed method can extract most of the vascular structures successfully and accurately in visualization. Therefore, the proposed method is effective for the vascular tree extraction in medical images.

  8. Mid-Term Vascular Safety of Renal Denervation Assessed by Follow-up MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Axel, E-mail:; Schmieder, Raphael; Lell, Michael; Janka, Rolf [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Veelken, Roland; Schmieder, Roland E. [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Uder, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ott, Christian [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany)


    Background/AimsRenal denervation (RDN) emerged as a treatment option for reducing blood pressure (BP) in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). However, concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of late renal artery stenosis or thromboembolism after RDN. The goal of the current study was, therefore, to conduct a prospective clinical trial on the mid-term vascular integrity of the renal arteries and the perfusion of the renal parenchyma assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the follow-up after catheter-based RDN.MethodsIn our single-centre investigator initiated study, 51 patients with true TRH underwent catheter-based RDN using the Symplicity Flex{sup TM} catheter (Medtronic Inc., Palo Alto, CA). Follow-up MRI was performed at a median of 11 months (interquartile range 6–18 months) after RDN on a 1.5T MR unit. High-resolution MR angiography (MRA) and MRI results were compared to the baseline digital angiography of renal arteries obtained at time of RDN. In case of uncertainties (N = 2) catheter angiography was repeated.ResultsBoth office and 24-h ambulatory BP were significantly reduced 6 and 12 months after RDN. Renal function remained unchanged 6 and 12 months after RDN. In all patients, MRA excluded new or progression of pre-existing low grade renal artery stenosis as well as focal aneurysms at the sites of radiofrequency ablation. In none of the patients new segmental perfusion deficits in either kidney were detected on MRI.ConclusionsNo vascular or parenchymal complications after radiofrequency-based RDN were detected in 51 patients followed up by MRI.

  9. Molecular imaging of the human pulmonary vascular endothelium in pulmonary hypertension: a phase II safety and proof of principle trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel, Francois [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Langleben, David; Abikhzer, Gad [McGill University, Lady Davis Institute and Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Provencher, Steve; Guimond, Jean [Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, Alain; Letourneau, Myriam [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Finnerty, Vincent; Nguyen, Quang T.; Levac, Xavier [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Mansour, Asmaa; Guertin, Marie-Claude [Montreal Health Innovation Coordination Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Montreal Heart Institute, Research Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    The adrenomedullin receptor is densely expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PulmoBind, an adrenomedullin receptor ligand, was developed for molecular diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease. We evaluated the safety of PulmoBind SPECT imaging and its capacity to detect pulmonary vascular disease associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a human phase II study. Thirty patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 23) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH, n = 7) in WHO functional class II (n = 26) or III (n = 4) were compared to 15 healthy controls. Lung SPECT was performed after injection of 15 mCi {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind in supine position. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of lung uptake were performed. Reproducibility of repeated testing was evaluated in controls after 1 month. PulmoBind injection was well tolerated without any serious adverse event. Imaging was markedly abnormal in PH with ∝50% of subjects showing moderate to severe heterogeneity of moderate to severe extent. The abnormalities were unevenly distributed between the right and left lungs as well as within each lung. Segmental defects compatible with pulmonary embolism were present in 7/7 subjects with CTEPH and in 2/23 subjects with PAH. There were no segmental defects in controls. The PulmoBind activity distribution index, a parameter indicative of heterogeneity, was elevated in PH (65% ± 28%) vs. controls (41% ± 13%, p = 0.0003). In the only subject with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic PAH, PulmoBind lung SPECT was completely normal. Repeated testing 1 month later in healthy controls was well tolerated and showed no significant variability of PulmoBind distribution. In this phase II study, molecular SPECT imaging of the pulmonary vascular endothelium using {sup 99m}Tc-PulmoBind was safe. PulmoBind showed potential to detect both pulmonary embolism and abnormalities indicative of pulmonary vascular disease in PAH. Phase III studies with this novel tracer and

  10. Vascular Imaging: The Evolving Role of the Multidisciplinary Team Meeting in Peripheral Vascular Disease


    Christie, Andrew; Roditi, Giles


    This article reviews the importance of preinterventional cross-sectional imaging in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease, as well as discussing the pros and cons of each imaging modality. The importance of a multidisciplinary team approach is emphasized.

  11. Vascular imaging: the evolving role of the multidisciplinary team meeting in peripheral vascular disease. (United States)

    Christie, Andrew; Roditi, Giles


    This article reviews the importance of preinterventional cross-sectional imaging in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease, as well as discussing the pros and cons of each imaging modality. The importance of a multidisciplinary team approach is emphasized.

  12. Modeling the behavior of signal-to-noise ratio for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; Wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong


    For imaging of static object by the means of sequential repeated independent measurements, a theoretical modeling of the behavior of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with varying number of measurement is developed, based on the information capacity of optical imaging systems. Experimental veritification of imaging using pseudo-thermal light source is implemented, for both the direct average of multiple measurements, and the image reconstructed by second order fluctuation correlation (SFC) which is closely related to ghost imaging. Successful curve fitting of data measured under different conditions verifies the model.

  13. Segmentation of vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3D microscopy images and quantitative analysis (United States)

    Mu, Jian; Yang, Lin; Kamocka, Malgorzata M.; Zollman, Amy L.; Carlesso, Nadia; Chen, Danny Z.


    In this paper, we present image processing methods for quantitative study of how the bone marrow microenvironment changes (characterized by altered vascular structure and hematopoietic cell distribution) caused by diseases or various factors. We develop algorithms that automatically segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells in 3-D microscopy images, perform quantitative analysis of the properties of the segmented vascular structures and cells, and examine how such properties change. In processing images, we apply local thresholding to segment vessels, and add post-processing steps to deal with imaging artifacts. We propose an improved watershed algorithm that relies on both intensity and shape information and can separate multiple overlapping cells better than common watershed methods. We then quantitatively compute various features of the vascular structures and hematopoietic cells, such as the branches and sizes of vessels and the distribution of cells. In analyzing vascular properties, we provide algorithms for pruning fake vessel segments and branches based on vessel skeletons. Our algorithms can segment vascular structures and hematopoietic cells with good quality. We use our methods to quantitatively examine the changes in the bone marrow microenvironment caused by the deletion of Notch pathway. Our quantitative analysis reveals property changes in samples with deleted Notch pathway. Our tool is useful for biologists to quantitatively measure changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, for developing possible therapeutic strategies to help the bone marrow microenvironment recovery.

  14. The Role of Vascular Imaging in the Initial Assessment of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. (United States)

    Qazi, Emmad; Al-Ajlan, Fahad S; Najm, Mohamed; Menon, Bijoy K


    Over the last few years, improvement in radiological imaging and treatment has changed the management of acute ischemic stroke. We have made significant advances in not only the imaging modalities themselves but also in identifying imaging parameters that can help us predict patient outcomes with both intravascular thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy. In this review, we describe the added utility of baseline vascular imaging including computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute ischemic stroke. We focus on information these imaging modalities provide on clot characteristics, tissue state, collateral status, and endovascular planning. We also highlight the benefits of newer imaging modalities like dynamic computed tomography angiography (CTA) and multi-phase CTA. Lastly, we also describe some of the disadvantages of vascular imaging in ischemic stroke.

  15. Application of PET/SPECT imaging in vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, M. G.; Meerwaidt, R.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; van Dam, G. M.; Tio, R. A.; Zeebregts, C. J.


    Background. Nuclear medicine imaging differs from other imaging modalities by showing physiological processes instead of anatomical details. Objective. To describe the current applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as a diagnostic to

  16. Nephrotoxicity in mice after repeated imaging using 111In- labeled peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Melis (Marleen); E. Vegt (Erik); M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Visser (Monique); M. Bijster (Magda); M. Vermeij (Marcel); E.P. Krenning (Eric); O.C. Boerman (Otto); M. de Jong (Marion)


    textabstractWe determined the renal radiation dose of a series of111Inlabeled peptides using animal SPECT. Because the animals' health deteriorated, renal toxicity was assessed. Methods: Wild-type and megalin-deficient mice were imaged repeatedly at 3- to 6-wk intervals to quantify renal retention a

  17. Nephrotoxicity in mice after repeated imaging using 111In-labeled peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, M.; Vegt, E.; Konijnenberg, M.W.; Visser, M. de; Bijster, M.; Vermeij, M.; Krenning, E.P.; Boerman, O.C.; Jong, M. de


    We determined the renal radiation dose of a series of (111)In-labeled peptides using animal SPECT. Because the animals' health deteriorated, renal toxicity was assessed. METHODS: Wild-type and megalin-deficient mice were imaged repeatedly at 3- to 6-wk intervals to quantify renal retention after inj

  18. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, California (United States); Nagy, Ladislav [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland)


    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  19. Between a rock and a hard place: clinical and imaging features of vascular compression syndromes. (United States)

    Eliahou, Ruth; Sosna, Jacob; Bloom, Allan I


    Vascular compression syndromes are caused by the entrapment of vessels between rigid or semirigid surfaces in a confined anatomic space. Chronic entrapment may lead to arterial ischemia and embolism, venous stasis and thrombosis, and hematuria. These syndromes are usually seen in otherwise healthy young patients, among whom underdiagnosis is common. Most occurrences of vascular compression are associated with an underlying anatomic abnormality. In a small percentage of cases, other contributing factors, including repetitive microtrauma, may cause pathologic changes leading to the onset of pain and other symptoms of vascular and neural compression. Hence, the diagnosis must be based on both clinical and radiologic findings. Because some cases of vascular entrapment become symptomatic only when specific physical maneuvers are performed, dynamic diagnostic imaging methods are especially useful. Digital subtraction angiography has been the mainstay of imaging-based diagnosis for most vascular compression syndromes, but other methods (eg, color Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography) are used with increasing frequency for initial diagnostic evaluation. Because vascular compression syndromes are caused by the external compression of vessels, endoluminal treatment alone is rarely adequate and surgical decompression is likely to be required for optimal and durable clinical benefit. Supplemental material available at

  20. Detection of vascular morphology by high frequency intravascular ultrasonic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Gussenhoven (Wilhelmina Johanna); G.S. Madretsma (Guno); H. Pieterman; S.H.K. The (Salem); L. Wenguang; F.C. van Egmond (F.); N. Bom (Klaas)


    textabstractThis study was designed to validate the potential clinical utility of intravascular ultrasonic imaging in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed to assess the accuracy of dimensional and morphological information. In vitro images of human vessels (n = 75) demonstrated that le

  1. Detection of vascular morphology by high frequency intravascular ultrasonic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Gussenhoven (Wilhelmina Johanna); G.S. Madretsma (Guno); H. Pieterman; S.H.K. The (Salem); L. Wenguang; F.C. van Egmond (F.); N. Bom (Klaas)


    textabstractThis study was designed to validate the potential clinical utility of intravascular ultrasonic imaging in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed to assess the accuracy of dimensional and morphological information. In vitro images of human vessels (n = 75) demonstrated that le

  2. Comparing Destination Image and Loyalty between First-time and Repeat-visit Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad M.


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the difference between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The study was undertaken to examine aspects of underlying factors of destination image that influenced tourists’ willingness to recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as well as spread positive word-of-mouth to others. In addition, it was to ascertain the relationship between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The data was collected at Kuala Lumpur International Airport at the departure hall using self-administered questionnaires. 248 usable questionnaires were returned and analysed. The findings of the study revealed that both groups of tourists perceived Malaysia as providing a nature-based destination. The study also empirically proved that both first-time and repeat-visit tourists were willing to disseminate positive word-of-mouth and recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as a vacation destination to visit. However, there was a significant difference in destination loyalty between first-visit and repeat-visit tourists.

  3. Assessment and Monitoring Tumor Vascularity With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Maximum Intensity Persistence Imaging (United States)

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Foygel, Kira; Panje, Cedric M.; Needles, Andrew; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.


    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used in the clinic for assessment of tissue vascularity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different contrast administration parameters on the in vivo ultrasound imaging signal in tumor-bearing mice using a maximum intensity persistence (MIP) algorithm and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo MIP imaging in assessing tumor vascularity. The potential of in vivo MIP imaging for monitoring tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic cancer treatment was further evaluated. Materials and Methods In intraindividual experiments, varying contrast microbubble concentrations (5 × 105, 5 × 106, 5 × 107, 5 × 108 microbubbles in 100 µL saline) and contrast injection rates (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min) in subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice were applied and their effects on in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values were obtained using a dedicated small animal ultrasound imaging system (40 MHz). Reliability of MIP ultrasound imaging was tested following 2 injections of the same micro-bubble concentration (5 × 107 microbubbles at 1.2 mL/min) in the same tumors. In mice with subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts, longitudinal contrast-enhanced ultrasound MIP imaging plateau values (baseline and at 48 hours) were compared between mice with and without antiangiogenic treatment (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody). Ex vivo CD31 immunostaining of tumor tissue was used to correlate in vivo MIP imaging plateau values with microvessel density analysis. Results In vivo MIP imaging plateau values correlated significantly (P = 0.001) with contrast microbubble doses. At 3 different injection rates of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL/min, MIP imaging plateau values did not change significantly (P = 0.61). Following 2 injections with the same microbubble dose and injection rate, MIP imaging plateau values were obtained with high reliability with an intraclass correlation

  4. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images (United States)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.


    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  5. RGB imaging system for monitoring of skin vascular malformation's laser therapy (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Kuzmina, Ilona; Berzina, Anna; Spigulis, Janis


    A prototype RGB imaging system for mapping of skin chromophores consists of a commercial RGB CMOS sensor, RGB LEDs ring-light illuminator and orthogonally orientated polarizers for reducing specular reflectance. The system was used for monitoring of vascular malformations (hemagiomas and telangiectasias) therapy.

  6. Automatic detection of vascular bifurcations in segmented retinal images using trainable COSFIRE filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzopardi, G; Petkov, N.


    Background: The vascular tree observed in a retinal fundus image can provide clues for cardiovascular diseases. Its analysis requires the identification of vessel bifurcations and crossovers. Methods: We use a set of trainable keypoint detectors that we call Combination Of Shifted FIlter REsponses

  7. Overdiagnosing Vascular Dementia using Structural Brain Imaging for Dementia Work-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F. E.; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan


    Hypothesizing that non-significant cerebrovascular lesions on structural brain imaging lead to overdiagnosis of a vascular etiology of dementia as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis, we set up a study including 71 patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients in the population (

  8. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)


    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT enables in vivo imaging of port wine stains (PWS lesions. The knowledge of vascular structure and epidermal thickness (ET of PWS may aid the objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. To obtain the structural parameters more rapidly and avoid user intervention, an automated algorithm of energy map is introduced based on intensity and edge information to extract the skin surface using dynamic programming method. Subsequently, an averaged A-scan analysis is performed to obtain the mean ET and the relative intensity of dermis indicating the corresponding vascular density. This approach is currently successfully applied in clinical diagnosis and shows promising guidance and assessment of PDT treatment.

  10. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Astaf'eva, N. G.; Meglinski, I. V.


    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials.

  11. Useful signs for the assessment of vascular rings on cross-sectional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Sharon W. [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Medical Imaging, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); McCulloch, Michael [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Pediatric Cardiology, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); Pizarro, Christian [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, P.O. Box 269, Wilmington, DE (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States)


    Vascular rings can be challenging to diagnose because they can contain atretic portions not detectable with current imaging modalities. In these cases, where the compressed airway and esophagus are not encircled by patent, opacified vessels, there are useful secondary signs that should be considered and should raise suspicion for the presence of a vascular ring. These signs include a double aortic arch, the four-vessel sign, the distorted subclavian artery sign, a diverticulum of Kommerell, a ductal diverticulum contralateral to the aortic arch, and a descending aorta contralateral to the arch or circumflex aorta. If none of these findings is present, a ring can be excluded with confidence. (orig.)

  12. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain. (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K


    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  13. Macro-to-micro cortical vascular imaging underlies regional differences in ischemic brain (United States)

    Dziennis, Suzan; Qin, Jia; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ruikang K.


    The ability to non-invasively monitor and quantify hemodynamic responses down to the capillary level is important for improved diagnosis, treatment and management of neurovascular disorders, including stroke. We developed an integrated multi-functional imaging system, in which synchronized dual wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging (DWLS) was used as a guiding tool for optical microangiography (OMAG) to test whether detailed vascular responses to experimental stroke in male mice can be evaluated with wide range sensitivity from arteries and veins down to the capillary level. DWLS enabled rapid identification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), prediction of infarct area and hemoglobin oxygenation over the whole mouse brain and was used to guide the OMAG system to hone in on depth information regarding blood volume, blood flow velocity and direction, vascular architecture, vessel diameter and capillary density pertaining to defined regions of CBF in response to ischemia. OMAG-DWLS is a novel imaging platform technology to simultaneously evaluate multiple vascular responses to ischemic injury, which can be useful in improving our understanding of vascular responses under pathologic and physiological conditions, and ultimately facilitating clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapeutic interventions of neurovascular diseases.

  14. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, Patrick; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Krings, Timo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)


    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting. First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access. In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is

  15. Medical image of the week: lung cancer with vascular invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malo J


    Full Text Available A 73-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with seizures and a subacute history of mild dyspnea on exertion. Her admission chest x-ray demonstrated a large right upper lobe lung mass, and MRI of the brain demonstrated multiple bilateral enhancing lesions concerning for a cardiac embolic source. Representative axial (Figure 1A and coronal (Figure 1B images from her chest CT scan demonstrate tumor invading the left atrium via the right superior pulmonary vein (arrow. The tumor was confirmed to be small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  16. Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer;


    The aim of this study was prospectively to monitor the volume flow in patients with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with the angle independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging (VFI). Volume flow values were compared with Ultrasound dilution technique (UDT). Hemodialysis patients need a well...... obtained with Transonic HD03 Flow-QC Hemodialysis Monitor. Three independent measurements at each scan session were obtained with UDT and VFI each month. Average deviation of volume flow between UDT and VFI was 25.7 % (Cl: 16.7% to 34.7%) (p= 0.73). The standard deviation for all patients, calculated from...

  17. Desorption electrospray ionization-based imaging of interaction between vascular graft and human body. (United States)

    Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna; Drabik, Anna; Mystkowska, Joanna; Chlabicz, Michal; Gacko, Marek; Dabrowski, Jan R; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy; Suder, Piotr


    The desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) is known as a fast and convenient MS-based method for lipid imaging in various biological materials. Here, we applied this technique to visualize lipid distribution in a vascular graft removed from a patient's body. This is a good example of the DESI system capabilities toward imaging of interaction between artificial material and living tissues. Detailed analysis allowed for visualization of the spatial distribution of selected lipids in this implanted, artificial material. Not only DESI-MSI allowed visualization of lipid distribution in the investigated material but also enabled identification of the detected molecular species using MS/MS. Here, this technique was successfully used to evaluate the saturation and spatial distribution of endogenous lipids in the artificial vascular graft. Unambiguous identification of the lipids was done with the aid of fragmentation procedure. We also showed that various lipids localize preferably in graft material or internal plaque existing inside the graft.

  18. The effect of vascular curvature on three-dimensional reconstruction of intravascular ultrasound images. (United States)

    Wiet, S P; Vonesh, M J; Waligora, M J; Kane, B J; McPherson, D D


    To characterize the effect of vessel curvature on the geometric accuracy of conventional three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) algorithms for intravascular ultrasound image data. A common method of 3DR for intravascular ultrasound image data involves geometric reassembly and volumetric interpolation of a spatially related sequence of tomographic cross sections generated by an ultrasound catheter withdrawn at a constant rate through a vascular segment of interest. The resulting 3DR is displayed as a straight segment, with inherent vascular curvature neglected. Most vascular structures, however, are not straight but curved to some degree. For this reason, vascular curvature may influence the accuracy of computer-generated 3DR. We collected image data using three different intravascular ultrasound catheters (2.9 Fr, 4.3 Fr, 8.0 Fr) during a constant-rate pullback of 1 mm/sec through tubing of known diameter with imposed radii of curvature ranging from 2 to 10 cm. Image data were also collected from straight tubing. Image data were digitized at 1.0-mm intervals through a length of 25 mm. Two passes through each radius of curvature were performed with each intravascular ultrasound catheter. 3DR lumen volume for each radius of curvature was compared to that theoretically expected from a straight cylindrical segment. Differences between 3DR lumen volume of theoretical versus curved (actual) tubes were quantified as absolute percentage error and categorized as a function of curvature. Tubing deformation error was quantified by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Volumetric errors ranged from 1% to 35%, with an inverse relationship demonstrated between 3DR lumen volume and segmental radius of curvature. Higher curvatures (r curvatures (r > 6.0 cm). This trend was exhibited for all three catheters and was shown to be independent of tubing deformation artifacts. QCA-determined percentage diameter stenosis indicated no deformation error as a function of curvature. Total

  19. Different imaging methods in the comparative assessment of vascular lesions: color-coded duplex sonography, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and infrared thermography (United States)

    Urban, Peter; Philipp, Carsten M.; Weinberg, Lutz; Berlien, Hans-Peter


    Aim of the study was the comparative investigation of cutaneous and subcutaneous vascular lesions. By means of color coded duplex sonography (CCDS), laser doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and infrared thermography (IT) we examined hemangiomas, vascular malformations and portwine stains to get some evidence about depth, perfusion and vascularity. LDI is a helpful method to get an impression of the capillary part of vascular lesions and the course of superficial vessels. CCDS has disadvantages in the superficial perfusion's detection but connections to deeper vascularizations can be examined precisely, in some cases it is the only method for visualizing vascular malformations. IT gives additive hints on low blood flow areas or indicates arterial-venous-shunts. Only the combination of all imaging methods allows a complete assessment, not only for planning but also for controlling the laser treatment of vascular lesions.

  20. Unexpected diagnosis of superficial neurofibroma in a lesion with imaging features of a vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Patrick; Reid, Janet; Morrison, Stuart [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vidimos, Allison [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Dermatology, Cleveland, OH (United States); DiFiore, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Plexiform neurofibroma is a pathognomonic, often disabling feature of neurofibromatosis type I. Although the target-like appearance of deep plexiform neurofibroma on T2-weighted MRI has been well-described, a second superficial form of plexiform neurofibroma has differing imaging features. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented with multiple cutaneous lesions exhibiting clinical and imaging characteristics of a venolymphatic malformation. These lesions were histologically proved to represent superficial plexiform neurofibromas. We wish to emphasize the unique MR findings of superficial plexiform neurofibromas; these findings are different from the imaging characteristics of the deep form and can be confused with a low-flow vascular malformation. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary Vascular Tree Segmentation from Contrast-Enhanced CT Images

    CERN Document Server

    Helmberger, M; Pienn, M; Balint, Z; Olschewski, A; Bischof, H


    We present a pulmonary vessel segmentation algorithm, which is fast, fully automatic and robust. It uses a coarse segmentation of the airway tree and a left and right lung labeled volume to restrict a vessel enhancement filter, based on an offset medialness function, to the lungs. We show the application of our algorithm on contrast-enhanced CT images, where we derive a clinical parameter to detect pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients. Results on a dataset of 24 patients show that quantitative indices derived from the segmentation are applicable to distinguish patients with and without PH. Further work-in-progress results are shown on the VESSEL12 challenge dataset, which is composed of non-contrast-enhanced scans, where we range in the midfield of participating contestants.

  2. Repeatability of Detecting Visual Cortex Activity in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ma'soumbeigi


    Full Text Available Introduction As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is too expensive and time consuming, its frequent implementation is difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate repeatability of detecting visual cortex activity in fMRI. Materials and Methods In this study, 15 normal volunteers (10 female, 5 male; Mean age±SD: 24.7±3.8 years attended. Functional magnetic resonance images were obtained during a visual task of sine-wave with spatial frequency of 1.84 cpd and temporal frequency of 8 Hz in three scan runs. Two runs of functional images were provided consecutively in a session, and the third run was provided 1-6 weeks later. The activation map was created using the data obtained from the block-designed fMRI study. Voxels whose Z value was above a threshold of 2.3, at a significance level p=0.05, were considered activated. After image processing, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal changes and the number of activated voxels in response to visual stimuli were compared in different runs. Results The results of this study demonstrate no significant difference between the number of activated voxels and BOLD signal in first and second runs in one session (Paired t-test, p>0.05. Moreover, there is a considerable correlation between first and second scan runs (rsignal=0.74, p=0.006 and rvoxel=0.62, p=0.03, while the correlation between the runs in separate sessions is weak (rsignal=0.28, p=0.38 and rvoxel=0.32, p=0.31. Conclusion Since the repeatability of BOLD signal and number of activated voxels in one session is considerably better than that in the separate sessions, it is suggested that in fMRI visual studies that need repeated scanning, scans should be acquired during a single session.

  3. Development of an Open Source Image-Based Flow Modeling Software - SimVascular (United States)

    Updegrove, Adam; Merkow, Jameson; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Marsden, Alison; Shadden, Shawn


    SimVascular ( is currently the only comprehensive software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image data segmentation to patient specific blood flow simulation. This software and its derivatives have been used in hundreds of conference abstracts and peer-reviewed journal articles, as well as the foundation of medical startups. SimVascular was initially released in August 2007, yet major challenges and deterrents for new adopters were the requirement of licensing three expensive commercial libraries utilized by the software, a complicated build process, and a lack of documentation, support and organized maintenance. In the past year, the SimVascular team has made significant progress to integrate open source alternatives for the linear solver, solid modeling, and mesh generation commercial libraries required by the original public release. In addition, the build system, available distributions, and graphical user interface have been significantly enhanced. Finally, the software has been updated to enable users to directly run simulations using models and boundary condition values, included in the Vascular Model Repository ( In this presentation we will briefly overview the capabilities of the new SimVascular 2.0 release. National Science Foundation.

  4. Grading vascularity from histopathological images based on traveling salesman distance and vessel size (United States)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Hemminger, Jessica; Kurt, Habibe; Lozanski, Gerard; Gurcan, Metin


    Vascularity represents an important element of tissue/tumor microenvironment and is implicated in tumor growth, metastatic potential and resistence to therapy. Small blood vessels can be visualized using immunohistochemical stains specific to vascular cells. However, currently used manual methods to assess vascular density are poorly reproducible and are at best semi quantitative. Computer based quantitative and objective methods to measure microvessel density are urgently needed to better understand and clinically utilize microvascular density information. We propose a new method to quantify vascularity from images of bone marrow biopsies stained for CD34 vascular lining cells protein as a model. The method starts by automatically segmenting the blood vessels by methods of maxlink thresholding and minimum graph cuts. The segmentation is followed by morphological post-processing to reduce blast and small spurious objects from the bone marrow images. To classify the images into one of the four grades, we extracted 20 features from the segmented blood vessel images. These features include first four moments of the distribution of the area of blood vessels, first four moments of the distribution of 1) the edge weights in the minimum spanning tree of the blood vessels, 2) the shortest distance between blood vessels, 3) the homogeneity of the shortest distance (absolute difference in distance between consecutive blood vessels along the shortest path) between blood vessels and 5) blood vessel orientation. The method was tested on 26 bone marrow biopsy images stained with CD34 IHC stain, which were evaluated by three pathologists. The pathologists took part in this study by quantifying blood vessel density using gestalt assessment in hematopoietic bone marrow portions of bone marrow core biopsies images. To determine the intra-reader variability, each image was graded twice by each pathologist with two-week interval in between their readings. For each image, the ground

  5. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.


    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  6. Variable frequency of plastid RNA editing among ferns and repeated loss of uridine-to-cytidine editing from vascular plants. (United States)

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Mower, Jeffrey P


    The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information from several key lineages limits our understanding of their evolution. To examine the evolutionary diversity of RNA editing among ferns, we sequenced the plastid transcriptomes from two early diverging species, Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum. Using a relaxed automated approach to minimize false negatives combined with manual inspection to eliminate false positives, we identified 297 C-to-U and three U-to-C edit sites in the O. californicum plastid transcriptome but only 27 C-to-U and no U-to-C edit sites in the P. nudum plastid transcriptome. A broader comparison of editing content with the leptosporangiate fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae uncovered large variance in the abundance of plastid editing, indicating that the frequency and type of RNA editing is highly labile in ferns. Edit sites that increase protein conservation among species are more abundant and more efficiently edited than silent and non-conservative sites, suggesting that selection maintains functionally important editing. The absence of U-to-C editing from P. nudum plastid transcripts and other vascular plants demonstrates that U-to-C editing loss is a recurrent phenomenon in vascular plant evolution.

  7. Gap-free segmentation of vascular networks with automatic image processing pipeline. (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yang; Ghaffari, Mahsa; Alaraj, Ali; Flannery, Michael; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Linninger, Andreas


    Current image processing techniques capture large vessels reliably but often fail to preserve connectivity in bifurcations and small vessels. Imaging artifacts and noise can create gaps and discontinuity of intensity that hinders segmentation of vascular trees. However, topological analysis of vascular trees require proper connectivity without gaps, loops or dangling segments. Proper tree connectivity is also important for high quality rendering of surface meshes for scientific visualization or 3D printing. We present a fully automated vessel enhancement pipeline with automated parameter settings for vessel enhancement of tree-like structures from customary imaging sources, including 3D rotational angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and computed tomography angiography. The output of the filter pipeline is a vessel-enhanced image which is ideal for generating anatomical consistent network representations of the cerebral angioarchitecture for further topological or statistical analysis. The filter pipeline combined with computational modeling can potentially improve computer-aided diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases by delivering biometrics and anatomy of the vasculature. It may serve as the first step in fully automatic epidemiological analysis of large clinical datasets. The automatic analysis would enable rigorous statistical comparison of biometrics in subject-specific vascular trees. The robust and accurate image segmentation using a validated filter pipeline would also eliminate operator dependency that has been observed in manual segmentation. Moreover, manual segmentation is time prohibitive given that vascular trees have more than thousands of segments and bifurcations so that interactive segmentation consumes excessive human resources. Subject-specific trees are a first step toward patient-specific hemodynamic simulations for assessing treatment outcomes.

  8. Intracranial aneurysms that repeatedly reopen over time after coiling: imaging characteristics and treatment outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooij, Willem J. van; Sprengers, Marieke E.; Sluzewski, Menno [St Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Beute, Guus N. [St Elisabeth Ziekenhuis, Department of Neurosurgery, Tilburg (Netherlands)


    We report imaging and clinical characteristics of patients with aneurysms that repeatedly reopened over time and were coiled three times or more during a follow-up period of 2-11 years. At angiographic follow-up of 624 of 827 aneurysms coiled between 1995 and 2005, 74 aneurysms (8.9%) reopened and were additionally coiled. During an extended follow-up, 12 aneurysms (1.5%) in 12 patients repeatedly reopened and were repeatedly coiled. Initial aneurysm sizes ranged from 15 to 30 mm. Four aneurysms contained intraluminal thrombus. Eight aneurysms were associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage and two with a mass effect, and two were incidentally discovered. The locations of aneurysms were basilar artery (eight), carotid artery (two), anterior communicating artery (one) and middle cerebral artery (one). Altogether, 49 coil treatments were performed in the 12 aneurysms, ranging from three to six coil treatments per aneurysm. Of the 49 coil treatments, 20 (41%) were performed with a supporting device. There were no procedural complications (0%, 97.5% CI 0-5.7%). The mean clinical follow-up period was 70.6 months (median 60, range 25-135 months). All 12 patients are neurologically doing well (GOS 5). Reopening was by compaction in nine aneurysms and by migration of coils into intraluminal thrombus in three aneurysms. In two aneurysms, late regrowth became apparent at 76 and 95 months after the previous coiling. Aneurysms that reopen over time and need to be coiled for a second time should be imaged at regular intervals to detect repeated reopening or regrowth. The treatment strategy of regular follow-up and additional treatments when necessary is effective and safe. (orig.)

  9. Management of Combat Vascular Injuries Using Modern Imaging: Are We Getting Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy S. Nitecki


    Full Text Available Background. Vascular injuries often result in life threatening hemorrhage or limb loss. When they present with a single entry or exit wound, surgery is immediately indicated. With multiple injuries, however, imaging such as CTA is necessary for diagnosis and choice of treatment. Methods. For all combat-related vascular cases admitted to our medical center during the Lebanon wars in 1982 and 2006, we compiled and compared presenting signs and symptoms, means of diagnosis, treatments, and results. Results. 126 patients with vascular injuries were admitted (87 in 1982, 39 in 2006. 90% were male; mean age of 29 years (range 20–53. All injuries were accompanied by insult to soft tissue, bones, and viscera. 75% presented with injury to arteries in the extremities. 75% of these patients presented with limb ischemia, and 25% sustained massive blood loss. Treatments included venous interposition graft, end-to-end anastomosis, venous patch, endovascular technique (only in 2006, and ligation/observation. Complications included thrombosis and wound infections. Mortality and amputations occurred only in 1982, and this may be attributed to the use of imaging, advanced technique, and shorter average time from injury to hospital (7 hours. Conclusions. We recommend CTA as the first line modality for diagnosis of vascular injuries, as its liberal use allowed for early and appropriate treatment. Treatment outcomes improved with fast and effective resuscitation, liberal use of tourniquets and fasciotomies, and meticulous treatment by a multidisciplinary team.

  10. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement. (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon


    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  11. Multiscale vascular surface model generation from medical imaging data using hierarchical features. (United States)

    Bekkers, Eric J; Taylor, Charles A


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of blood flow from image-based patient specific models can provide useful physiologic information for guiding clinical decision making. A novel method for the generation of image-based, 3-D, multiscale vascular surface models for CFD is presented. The method generates multiscale surfaces based on either a linear triangulated or a globally smooth nonuniform rational B-spline (NURB) representation. A robust local curvature analysis is combined with a novel global feature analysis to set mesh element size. The method is particularly useful for CFD modeling of complex vascular geometries that have a wide range of vasculature size scales, in conditions where 1) initial surface mesh density is an important consideration for balancing surface accuracy with manageable size volumetric meshes, 2) adaptive mesh refinement based on flow features makes an underlying explicit smooth surface representation desirable, and 3) semi-automated detection and trimming of a large number of inlet and outlet vessels expedites model construction.

  12. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)


    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel-loaded microbubbles. (United States)

    Zhu, Xu; Guo, Jun; He, Cancan; Geng, Huaxiao; Yu, Gengsheng; Li, Jinqing; Zheng, Hairong; Ji, Xiaojuan; Yan, Fei


    Paclitaxel (PTX) has been recognized as a promising drug for intervention of vascular reconstructions. However, it is still difficult to achieve local drug delivery in a spatio-temporally controllable manner under real-time image guidance. Here, we introduce an ultrasound (US) triggered image-guided drug delivery approach to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microbubbles (PLM) in a rabbit iliac balloon injury model. PLM was prepared through encapsulating PTX in the shell of lipid microbubbles via film hydration and mechanical vibration technique. Our results showed PLM could effectively deliver PTX when exposed to US irradiation and result in significantly lower viability of vascular smooth muscle cells. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed the US signals from PLM in the iliac artery were greatly increased after intravenous administration of PLM, making it possible to identify the restenosis regions of iliac artery. The in vivo anti-restenosis experiments with PLM and US greatly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at the injured site, showing an increased lumen area and reduced the ratio of intima area and the media area (I/M ratio). No obvious functional damages to liver and kidney were observed for those animals. Our study provided a promising approach to realize US triggered image-guided PTX delivery for therapeutic applications against iliac restenosis.

  14. Optical coherence tomography angiography of retinal vascular occlusions produced by imaging-guided laser photocoagulation (United States)

    Soetikno, Brian T.; Shu, Xiao; Liu, Qi; Liu, Wenzhong; Chen, Siyu; Beckmann, Lisa; Fawzi, Amani A.; Zhang, Hao F.


    Retinal vascular occlusive diseases represent a major form of vision loss worldwide. Rodent models of these diseases have traditionally relied upon a slit-lamp biomicroscope to help visualize the fundus and subsequently aid delivery of high-power laser shots to a target vessel. Here we describe a multimodal imaging system that can produce, image, and monitor retinal vascular occlusions in rodents. The system combines a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system for cross-sectional structural imaging and three-dimensional angiography, and a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscope for Rose Bengal monitoring and high-power laser delivery to a target vessel. This multimodal system facilitates the precise production of occlusions in the branched retinal veins, central retinal vein, and branched retinal arteries. Additionally, changes in the retinal morphology and retinal vasculature can be longitudinally documented. With our device, retinal vascular occlusions can be easily and consistently created, which paves the way for futures studies on their pathophysiology and therapeutic targets. PMID:28856036

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the placenta identifies placental vascular abnormalities independently of Doppler ultrasound. (United States)

    Messerschmidt, A; Baschat, A; Linduska, N; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Bauer, A; Weber, M; Prayer, D


    To evaluate the relationship between placental vascular pathology detected by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perinatal outcome. This was a retrospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study in which all fetal MRI examinations of singleton pregnancies with vascular placental pathology (i.e. infarction with/without hemorrhage, subchorionic thrombi/hemorrhages, intervillous thrombi/hemorrhages, or retroplacental hematoma) in the period 2002-2007 were included. The extent of the pathology was expressed as a percentage of the total placental volume. Abnormalities of umbilical artery Doppler ultrasound examinations within 7 days between MRI and ultrasound examination were noted. Death in utero or postnatally was the primary outcome. Gestational age at MRI and at birth and the occurrence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were noted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of gestational age at MRI, extent of the vascular lesion and presence of pathological Doppler ultrasound measurements on the prediction of mortality. Fifty-nine structurally normal singleton pregnancies with placental vascular abnormalities were included in the analysis. Mortality rate was 36%; among the survivors, 87% were born before 37 + 0 gestational weeks and 50% suffered from IUGR. In 55% of the pregnancies pathological umbilical artery Doppler findings were identified, of which 27% were non-survivors. Mortality was predicted by earlier gestational age at fetal MRI for placental pathology (P < 0.05) and increasing extent of the vascular lesion (P < 0.05), but not by the presence of pathological Doppler ultrasound data. Accuracy of the prediction was 82%, sensitivity was 67% and specificity 89%. MRI-detected vascular placental pathologies may help to identify pregnancies at risk for adverse outcome and fetal death independently of umbilical artery Doppler status. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Imaging-guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer (United States)

    Kalmuk, James

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in American men and is characterized by dependence on androgens (Testosterone/Dihydrotestosterone) for growth and survival. Although reduction of serum testosterone levels by surgical or chemical castration transiently inhibits neoplastic growth, tumor adaptation to castrate levels of androgens results in the generation of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Progression to CRPC following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with changes in vascular morphology and increased angiogenesis. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that targeting tumor vasculature in combination with ADT would result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy against prostate cancer. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic activity of a tumor-vascular disrupting agent (tumor-VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin(TM)), alone and in combination with ADT in a murine model of prostate cancer (Myc-CaP). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to characterize tumor response to therapy and to guide preclinical trial design. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic (H&E) and immunohistochemical (CD31) assessment as well as tumor growth inhibition and survival analyses. Results: Our imaging techniques were able to capture an acute reduction (within 24 hours) in tumor perfusion following castration and VDA monotherapy. BLI revealed onset of recurrent disease 5-7 days post castration prior to visible tumor regrowth suggestive of vascular recovery. Administration of VDA beginning 1 week post castration for 3 weeks resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth, and conferred a more pronounced survival benefit compared to either monotherapy. Conclusion: The high mortality rate associated with CRPC underscores the need for investigating novel treatment

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging differentiates vascular parkinsonism from parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverdun, Jérémy [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221 - Université Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); I2FH, Institut d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, CHRU de, Montpellier (France); Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Clinique du Parc, Castelnau-le-Lez (France); Cabello-Aguilar, Simon [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); I2FH, Institut d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, CHRU de, Montpellier (France); Maury, Florence [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Molino, François [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221 - Université Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, UMR 5203 - INSERM U661 - Université Montpellier II - Université, Montpellier I (France); Charif, Mahmoud [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Leboucq, Nicolas [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Ayrignac, Xavier; Labauge, Pierre [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); and others


    Background and Purpose: The etiologic diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes is of particular importance when considering syndromes of vascular or degenerative origin. The purpose of this study is to find differences in the white-matter architecture between those two groups in elderly patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients were prospectively included (multiple-system atrophy, n = 5; Parkinson's disease, n = 15; progressive supranuclear palsy, n = 9; vascular parkinsonism, n = 6), with a mean age of 76 years. Patients with multiple-system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease were grouped as having parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. Brain MRIs included diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy and mean-diffusivity maps were spatially normalized, and group analyses between parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin and vascular parkinsonism were performed using a voxel-based approach. Results: Statistical parametric-mapping analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data showed decreased fractional anisotropy value in internal capsules bilaterally in patients with vascular parkinsonism compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin (p = 0.001) and showed a lower mean diffusivity in the white matter of the left superior parietal lobule (p = 0.01). Fractional anisotropy values were found decreased in the middle cerebellar peduncles in multiple-system atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The mean diffusivity was increased in those regions for these subgroups. Conclusion: Clinically defined vascular parkinsonism was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in the deep white matter (internal capsules) compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. These findings are consistent with previously published neuropathological data.

  18. Repeatability of Choroidal Thickness Measurements on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Using Different Posterior Boundaries. (United States)

    Vuong, Vivian S; Moisseiev, Elad; Cunefare, David; Farsiu, Sina; Moshiri, Ala; Yiu, Glenn


    To assess the reliability of manual choroidal thickness measurements by comparing different posterior boundary definitions of the choroidal-scleral junction on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Reliability analysis. Two graders marked the choroidal-scleral junction with segmentation software using different posterior boundaries: (1) the outer border of the choroidal vessel lumen, (2) the outer border of the choroid stroma, and (3) the inner border of the sclera, to measure the vascular choroidal thickness (VCT), stromal choroidal thickness (SCT), and total choroidal thickness (TCT), respectively. Measurements were taken at 0.5-mm intervals from 1.5 mm nasal to 1.5 mm temporal to the fovea, and averaged continuously across the central 3 mm of the macula. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of reliability (CR) were compared to assess intergrader and intragrader reliability. Choroidal thickness measurements varied significantly with different posterior boundaries (P choroidal-scleral junction visibility was Choroidal thickness measurements are more reproducible when measured to the border of the choroid stroma (SCT) than the vascular lumen (VCT) or sclera (TCT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging With Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection. (United States)

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Solomon, Oren; Adam, Dan; Eldar, Yonina C


    Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current super-localization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.

  20. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M


    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study.

  1. Future non-invasive imaging to detect vascular plaque instability and subclinical non-obstructive atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnon Blum; Menachem Nahir


    Atherosclerosis underlies the major causes of death in the Western World. Our main goal is to detect early changes of atherosclerosis and to identify subjects at highest cardiovascular risk that may aid in the development of prevention approaches and better management that will decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The new methods that are of interest include the advanced vascular ultrasound methods, the infra red and near infra red imaging techniques, the EndoPat device that reflects peripheral arterial tone, the electron beam computed tomography, the magnetic resonance imaging, and the molecular imaging techniques. In this review we will focus on the future of advanced imaging techniques that are being developed to detect early (pre-clinical) development of atherosclerosis.

  2. 18F-FDG PET imaging in detection of radiation-induced vascular disease in lymphoma survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus S.; Hag, Anne Mette; Knudsen, Andreas;


    Radiation therapy (RT) induces vascular changes that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in some patients. The objective was to determine if in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) can identify increased vascular inflammation in patients without changes...... in vascular intima media thickness (IMT). Patients previously receiving unilateral RT due to lymphoma were prospectively recruited (N=10). The untreated contralateral artery functioned as control. All patients underwent a dedicated vascular PET/CT. Vascular tracer uptake was quantified by drawing regions...... (P=0.04). Measurement of IMT showed that 4 patients had the highest thickness in the irradiated side, while the other 4 patients had the highest thickness in the non-irradiated side (P=0.8). In conclusion, we found that (18)F-FDG PET imaging may be used to detect vascular changes induced by RT...

  3. X-ray imaging of differential vascular density in MMP-9-/-, PAR-1-/+, hyperhomocysteinemic (CBS-/+) and diabetic (Ins2-/+) mice. (United States)

    Givvimani, S; Sen, U; Tyagi, N; Munjal, C; Tyagi, S C


    Although protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) play significant role in vascular remodelling in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, CBS-/+) and diabetes, mechanism remains nebulous. We hypothesized that differential vascular density and remodelling in different vascular beds in HHcy and diabetes were responsible for an adaptive metabolic homeostasis during the pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, vascular density in mice lacking PAR-1, MMP-9, CBS and Insulin-2 gene mutant (Ins2-/+, Akita) was measured and compared with wild type (WT, C57BL/6J) mice. The vascular density was detected by x-ray angiography using KODAK 4000 MM image station, using barium sulphate as contrasting agent. The % vascular density in the hearts of WT, CBS-/+ (HHcy), MMP-9-/-, PAR-1-/+ and Ins2-/+ (type-1 diabetes) was 100 ± 2.8, 85 ± 3.3, 90 ± 3.3, 95 ± 3.8 and 73 ± 1.7, respectively. The vascular density in CBS-/+ and Akita hearts decreased while it was increased in lungs of CBS-/+ and MMP-9-/-.There was decreased vascular density in liver and kidney of Akita mice. Vascular density in brain, kidney and mesentery was decreased in CBS-/+ mice. These findings support the notation that metabolic derangement in diabetes and HHcy causes the chronic decline and/or rarefaction in vascular density.

  4. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish. (United States)

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N; Mochizuki, Naoki


    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs.

  5. Clarification of mural cell coverage of vascular endothelial cells by live imaging of zebrafish (United States)

    Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Izumi, Nanae; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Kelsh, Robert N.; Mochizuki, Naoki


    Mural cells (MCs) consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes cover the endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate vascular stability and homeostasis. Here, we clarified the mechanism by which MCs develop and cover ECs by generating transgenic zebrafish lines that allow live imaging of MCs and by lineage tracing in vivo. To cover cranial vessels, MCs derived from either neural crest cells or mesoderm emerged around the preformed EC tubes, proliferated and migrated along EC tubes. During their migration, the MCs moved forward by extending their processes along the inter-EC junctions, suggesting a role for inter-EC junctions as a scaffold for MC migration. In the trunk vasculature, MCs derived from mesoderm covered the ventral side of the dorsal aorta (DA), but not the posterior cardinal vein. Furthermore, the MCs migrating from the DA or emerging around intersegmental vessels (ISVs) preferentially covered arterial ISVs rather than venous ISVs, indicating that MCs mostly cover arteries during vascular development. Thus, live imaging and lineage tracing enabled us to clarify precisely how MCs cover the EC tubes and to identify the origins of MCs. PMID:26952986

  6. Integrating the Radiology Information System with Computerised Provider Order Entry: The Impact on Repeat Medical Imaging Investigations. (United States)

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew


    Repeat and redundant procedures in medical imaging are associated with increases in resource utilisation and labour costs. Unnecessary medical imaging in some modalities, such as X-Ray (XR) and Computed Tomography (CT) is an important safety issue because it exposes patients to ionising radiation which can be carcinogenic and is associated with higher rates of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of implementing an integrated Computerised Provider Order Entry (CPOE)/Radiology Information System (RIS)/Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) system on the number of XR and CT imaging procedures (including repeat imaging requests) for inpatients at a large metropolitan hospital. The study found that patients had an average 0.47 fewer XR procedures and 0.07 fewer CT procedures after the implementation of the integrated system. Part of this reduction was driven by a lower rate of repeat procedures: the average inpatient had 0.13 fewer repeat XR procedures within 24-hours of the previous identical XR procedure. A similar decrease was not evident for repeat CT procedures. Reduced utilisation of imaging procedures (especially those within very short intervals from the previous identical procedure, which are more likely to be redundant) has implications for the safety of patients and the cost of medical imaging services.

  7. OCT imaging of acute vascular changes following mild traumatic brain injury in mice (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chico-Calero, Isabel; Shishkov, Milen; Welt, Jonathan; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J.


    While most people recover completely from mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) and concussions, a subset develop lasting neurological disorders. Understanding the complex pathophysiology of these injuries is critical to developing improved prognostic and therapeutic approaches. Multiple studies have shown that the structure and perfusion of brain vessels are altered after mTBI. It is possible that these vascular injuries contribute to or trigger neurodegeneration. Intravital microscopy and mouse models of TBI offer a powerful platform to study the vascular component of mTBI. Because optical coherence tomography based angiography is based on perfusion contrast and is not significantly degraded by vessel leakage or blood brain barrier disruption, it is uniquely suited to studies of brain perfusion in the setting of trauma. However, existing TBI imaging models require surgical exposure of the brain at the time of injury which conflates TBI-related vascular changes with those caused by surgery. In this work, we describe a modified cranial window preparation based on a flexible, transparent polyurethane membrane. Impact injuries were delivered directly through this membrane, and imaging was performed immediately after injury without the need for additional surgical procedures. Using this model, we demonstrate that mTBI induces a transient cessation of flow in the capillaries and smaller vessels near the injury point. Reperfusion is observed in all animals within 3 hours of injury. This work describes new insight into the transient vascular changes induced by mTBI, and demonstrates more broadly the utility of the OCT/polyurethane window model platform in preclinical studies of mTBI.

  8. Overt attention and context factors: the impact of repeated presentations, image type, and individual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kaspar

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the dynamic of the attention focus during observation of different categories of complex scenes and simultaneous consideration of individuals' memory and motivational state. We repeatedly presented four types of complex visual scenes in a pseudo-randomized order and recorded eye movements. Subjects were divided into groups according to their motivational disposition in terms of action orientation and individual rating of scene interest.Statistical analysis of eye-tracking data revealed that the attention focus successively became locally expressed by increasing fixation duration; decreasing saccade length, saccade frequency, and single subject's fixation distribution over images; and increasing inter-subject variance of fixation distributions. The validity of these results was supported by verbal reports. This general tendency was weaker for the group of subjects who rated the image set as interesting as compared to the other group. Additionally, effects were partly mediated by subjects' motivational disposition. Finally, we found a generally strong impact of image type on eye movement parameters. We conclude that motivational tendencies linked to personality as well as individual preferences significantly affected viewing behaviour. Hence, it is important and fruitful to consider inter-individual differences on the level of motivation and personality traits within investigations of attention processes. We demonstrate that future studies on memory's impact on overt attention have to deal appropriately with several aspects that had been out of the research focus until now.

  9. Optical tomographic imaging of vascular and metabolic reactivity in rheumatoid joints (United States)

    Lasker, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Edward; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    Our group has recently established that joints affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) can be distinguished from healthy joints through measurements of the scattering coefficient. We showed that a high scattering coefficient in the center of the joint is indicative of a joint with RA. While these results were encouraging, data to date still suffers from low sensitivity and specificity. Possibly higher specificities and sensitivities can be achieved if dynamic measurements of hemodynamic and metabolic processes in the synovium are considered. Using our dual-wavelength imaging system together with previously implemented model-based iterative image reconstruction schemes, we have performed initial dynamic imaging studies involving healthy human volunteers and patients affected by RA. These case studies seem to confirm our hypothesis that differences in the vascular reactivity exist between affected and unaffected joints.

  10. Morphological, functional and metabolic imaging biomarkers: assessment of vascular-disrupting effect on rodent liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huaijun; Li, Junjie; Keyzer, Frederik De; Yu, Jie; Feng, Yuanbo; Marchal, Guy; Ni, Yicheng [University Hospitals, University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Chen, Feng [University Hospitals, University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China); Nuyts, Johan [University Hospitals, University of Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)


    To evaluate effects of a vascular-disrupting agent on rodent tumour models. Twenty rats with liver rhabdomyosarcomas received ZD6126 intravenously at 20 mg/kg, and 10 vehicle-treated rats were used as controls. Multiple sequences, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with the microvascular permeability constant (K), were acquired at baseline, 1 h, 24 h and 48 h post-treatment by using 1.5-T MRI. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG {mu}PET) was acquired pre- and post-treatment. The imaging biomarkers including tumour volume, enhancement ratio, necrosis ratio, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and K from MRI, and maximal standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) from FDG {mu}PET were quantified and correlated with postmortem microangiography and histopathology. In the ZD6126-treated group, tumours grew slower with higher necrosis ratio at 48 h (P < 0.05), corresponding well to histopathology; tumour K decreased from 1 h until 24 h, and partially recovered at 48 h (P < 0.05), parallel to the evolving enhancement ratios (P < 0.05); ADCs varied with tumour viability and perfusion; and SUV{sub max} dropped at 24 h (P < 0.01). Relative K of tumour versus liver at 48 h correlated with relative vascular density on microangiography (r = 0.93, P < 0.05). The imaging biomarkers allowed morphological, functional and metabolic quantifications of vascular shutdown, necrosis formation and tumour relapse shortly after treatment. A single dose of ZD6126 significantly diminished tumour blood supply and growth until 48 h post-treatment. (orig.)

  11. Dual-Modality Activity-Based Probes as Molecular Imaging Agents for Vascular Inflammation. (United States)

    Withana, Nimali P; Saito, Toshinobu; Ma, Xiaowei; Garland, Megan; Liu, Changhao; Kosuge, Hisanori; Amsallem, Myriam; Verdoes, Martijn; Ofori, Leslie O; Fischbein, Michael; Arakawa, Mamoru; Cheng, Zhen; McConnell, Michael V; Bogyo, Matthew


    Macrophages are cellular mediators of vascular inflammation and are involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. These immune cells secrete proteases such as matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins that contribute to disease formation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that activity-based probes (ABPs) targeting cysteine cathepsins can be used in murine models of atherosclerosis to noninvasively image activated macrophage populations using both optical and PET/CT methods. The probes can also be used to topically label human carotid plaques demonstrating similar specific labeling of activated macrophage populations.

  12. Cephalic vascular anatomy in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on novel vascular injection and computed tomographic imaging analyses. (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M; Ridgely, Ryan C; Balanoff, Amy M; Witmer, Lawrence M


    Head vascular anatomy of the greater (or Caribbean) flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is investigated and illustrated through the use of a differential contrast, dual vascular injection technique, and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing arteries and veins to be differentiated radiographically. Vessels were digitally isolated with segmentation tools and reconstructed in 3D to facilitate topographical visualization of the cephalic vascular tree. Major vessels of the temporal, orbital, pharyngeal, and encephalic regions are described and illustrated, which confirm that the general pattern of avian cephalic vasculature is evolutionarily conservative. In addition to numerous arteriovenous vascular devices, a previously undescribed, large, bilateral, paralingual cavernous sinus that excavates a large bony fossa on the medial surface of the mandible was identified. Despite the otherwise conservative vascular pattern, this paralingual sinus was found only in species of flamingo and is not known otherwise in birds. The paralingual sinus remains functionally enigmatic, but a mechanical role in association with the peculiar lingual-pumping mode of feeding in flamingos is perhaps the most likely hypothesis.

  13. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models. (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L


    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  14. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs. (United States)

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P


    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05). Total percentage of matching was achieved when images were obtained from older lambs (180 and 388 d). In conclusion, retinal imaging was a useful tool for verifying the identity and auditing the traceability of live lambs from suckling to yearling. Matching scores were satisfactory when the reference retinal images were obtained from 1-mo-old or older lambs.

  15. High-resolution vascular tissue characterization in mice using 55MHz ultrasound hybrid imaging. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Sandoval, Cesar; Teng, Bunyen; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Martin, Karen H; Mustafa, S Jamal; Mukdadi, Osama M


    Ultrasound and Duplex ultrasonography in particular are routinely used to diagnose cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, these techniques may not be able to characterize vascular tissue compositional changes due to CVD. This work describes an ultrasound-based hybrid imaging technique that can be used for vascular tissue characterization and the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired and processed in time, frequency, and wavelet domains to extract six parameters including time integrated backscatter (T(IB)), time variance (T(var)), time entropy (T(E)), frequency integrated backscatter (F(IB)), wavelet root mean square value (W(rms)), and wavelet integrated backscatter (W(IB)). Each parameter was used to reconstruct an image co-registered to morphological B-scan. The combined set of hybrid images were used to characterize vascular tissue in vitro and in vivo using three mouse models including control (C57BL/6), and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-knockout (APOE-KO) and APOE/A(1) adenosine receptor double knockout (DKO) mice. The technique was tested using high-frequency ultrasound including single-element (center frequency=55 MHz) and commercial array (center frequency=40 MHz) systems providing superior spatial resolutions of 24 μm and 40 μm, respectively. Atherosclerotic vascular lesions in the APOE-KO mouse exhibited the highest values (contrast) of -10.11±1.92 dB, -12.13±2.13 dB, -7.54±1.45 dB, -5.10±1.06 dB, -5.25±0.94 dB, and -10.23±2.12 dB in T(IB), T(var), T(E), F(IB), W(rms), W(IB) hybrid images (n=10, p<0.05), respectively. Control segments of normal vascular tissue showed the lowest values of -20.20±2.71 dB, -22.54±4.54 dB, -14.94±2.05 dB, -9.64±1.34 dB, -10.20±1.27 dB, and -19.36±3.24 dB in same hybrid images (n=6, p<0.05). Results from both histology and optical images showed good agreement with ultrasound findings within a maximum

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of vascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasms; The efficacy of oblique sagittal view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Tohru; Omata, Tomohiro; Sugita, Masao; Nukui, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Hajime; Kumagai, Hiroshi (Yamanashi Medical College, Tamaho (Japan)); Sasaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Reizou


    We show how neurosurgical planning can benefit from the better visualization of the precise vascular compression of the nerve provided by the oblique-sagittal and gradient-echo method (OS-GR image) using magnetic resonance images (MRI). The scans of 3 patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and of 15 with hemifacial spasm (HFS) were analyzed for the presence and appearance of the vascular compression of the nerves. Imaging sequences consisted of an OS-GR image (TR/TE: 200/20, 3-mm-thick slice) cut along each nerve shown by the axial view, which was scanned at the angle of 105 degrees taken between the dorsal line of the brain stem and the line corresponding to the pontomedullary junction. In the OS-GR images of the TN's, the vascular compressions of the root entry zone (REZ) of the trigeminal nerve were well visualized as high-intensity lines in the 2 cases whose vessels were confirmed intraoperatively. In the other case, with atypical facial pain, vascular compression was confirmed at the rostral distal site on the fifth nerve, apart from the REZ. In the 15 cases of HFS, twelve OS-GR images (80%) demonstrated vascular compressions at the REZ of the facial nerves from the direction of the caudoventral side. During the surgery for these 12 cases, in 11 cases (excepting the 1 case whose facial nerve was not compressed by any vessels), vascular compressions were confirmed corresponding to the findings of the OS-GR images. Among the 10 OS-GR images on the non-affected side, two false-positive findings were visualized. It is concluded that OS-GR images obtained by means of MRI may serve as a useful planning aid prior to microvascular decompression for cases of TN and HFS. (author).

  17. Evaluation of hyperspectral imaging technology in patients with peripheral vascular disease. (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Jain, Jitendra K; Sleigh, Jamie; Vasudevan, Thodur


    Hyperspectral imaging technology is a novel method of using transcutaneous measurement of oxyhemoglobin (HT-Oxy) and deoxyhemoglobin (HT-Deoxy) concentrations to create a two-dimensional, color-coded "oxygen map." The aims of this study were to compare the use of a hyperspectral imaging device with the transcutaneous oxygen measurement (TCOM), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and severity of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and to assess their correlations. This prospective study recruited 294 participants divided into three distinct groups composed of healthy volunteers and patients with PVD. Patients underwent measurements of lower limbs at a standardized point over the head of the first metatarsal on the plantar aspect using the hyperspectral imaging device, generating four outputs including HT-Oxy, HT-Deoxy, oxygen saturation (HT-Sat), and skin temperature, and the TCOM system, generating transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (TcpO2) and carbon dioxide (TcpCO2). Demographic data, severity of PVD, ABI, and other pertinent information were obtained from both the participants and medical records. Interoperator reliability ranged from 86% to 94% across the four hyperspectral imaging device outputs, whereas intraoperator reliability ranged from 92% to 94%. The HT-Oxy, HT-Sat, TcpCO2, and ABI of the diseased limb correlated significantly with the severity of PVD. HT-Sat significantly correlated with TcpO2 (R = 0.19), TcpCO2 (R = -0.26), ABI (R = 0.42), and skin temperature (R = 0.56). HT-Deoxy also correlated with TcpCO2 (R = 0.27). This study demonstrates the reliability of hyperspectral imaging in comparison to TCOM, ABI, skin temperature, and severity of PVD in a series of patients. Its correlation to other established modalities and low interoperator and intraoperator variability could enable this modality to be a useful screening tool in PVD. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging of vascular recovery in a model of peripheral arterial disease (United States)

    Poole, Kristin M.; Sit, Wesley W.; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.


    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) leads to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. The mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model is the most commonly used system for studying the mechanisms of collateral vessel formation and for testing new PAD therapies, but there is a lack of techniques for acquiring physiologically-relevant, quantitative data intravitally in this model. In this work, non-invasive, quantitative optical imaging techniques were applied to the mouse HLI model over a time course. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaged changes in blood flow (Doppler OCT) and microvessel morphology (speckle variance OCT) through the skin of haired mice with high resolution. Hyperspectral imaging was also used to quantify blood oxygenation. In ischemic limbs, blood oxygenation in the footpad was substantially reduced after induction of ischemia followed by complete recovery by three weeks, consistent with standard measures. Three dimensional images of the vasculature distal to vessel occlusion acquired with speckle variance OCT revealed changes in OCT flow signal and vessel morphology. Taken together, OCT and hyperspectral imaging enable intravital acquisition of both functional and morphological data which fill critical gaps in understanding structure-function relationships that contribute to recovery in the mouse HLI model. Therefore, these optical imaging methods hold promise as tools for studying the mechanisms of vascular recovery and evaluating novel therapeutic treatments in preclinical studies.

  19. Traversing and labeling interconnected vascular tree structures from 3D medical images (United States)

    O'Dell, Walter G.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja Tirumalai; Salgia, Ankit; Hegde, Satyanarayan; Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Finol, Ender A.; White, R. James


    Purpose: Detailed characterization of pulmonary vascular anatomy has important applications for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Prior efforts have emphasized using vessel segmentation to gather information on the number or branches, number of bifurcations, and branch length and volume, but accurate traversal of the vessel tree to identify and repair erroneous interconnections between adjacent branches and neighboring tree structures has not been carefully considered. In this study, we endeavor to develop and implement a successful approach to distinguishing and characterizing individual vascular trees from among a complex intermingling of trees. Methods: We developed strategies and parameters in which the algorithm identifies and repairs false branch inter-tree and intra-tree connections to traverse complicated vessel trees. A series of two-dimensional (2D) virtual datasets with a variety of interconnections were constructed for development, testing, and validation. To demonstrate the approach, a series of real 3D computed tomography (CT) lung datasets were obtained, including that of an anthropomorphic chest phantom; an adult human chest CT; a pediatric patient chest CT; and a micro-CT of an excised rat lung preparation. Results: Our method was correct in all 2D virtual test datasets. For each real 3D CT dataset, the resulting simulated vessel tree structures faithfully depicted the vessel tree structures that were originally extracted from the corresponding lung CT scans. Conclusion: We have developed a comprehensive strategy for traversing and labeling interconnected vascular trees and successfully implemented its application to pulmonary vessels observed using 3D CT images of the chest.

  20. Worldwide widespread decadal-scale decrease of glacier speed revealed using repeat optical satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heid


    Full Text Available Matching of repeat optical satellite images to derive glacier velocities is an approach that is much used within glaciology. Lately, focus has been put into developing, improving, automating and comparing different image matching methods. This makes it now possible to investigate glacier dynamics within large regions of the world and also between regions to improve knowledge about glacier dynamics in space and time. In this study we investigate whether the negative glacier mass balance seen over large parts of the world has caused the glaciers to change their speeds. The studied regions are Pamir, Caucasus, Penny Ice Cap, Alaska Range and Patagonia. In addition we derive speed changes for Karakoram, a region assumed to have positive mass balance and that contains many surge-type glaciers. We find that the mapped glaciers in the five regions with negative mass balance have decreased their speeds over the last decades, Pamir by 43 % in average per decade, Caucasus by 8 % in average per decade, Penny Ice Cap by 25 % in average per decade, Alaska Range by 11 % in average per decade and Patagonia by 20 % in average per decade. Glaciers in Karakoram have generally increased their speeds, but surging glaciers and glaciers with flow instabilities are most prominent in this area.

  1. Delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride PET/CT imaging does not improve quantification of vascular calcification metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; Takx, Richard A P


    This study aimed to determine if delayed sodium (18)F-fluoride (Na(18)F) PET/CT imaging improves quantification of vascular calcification metabolism. Blood-pool activity can disturb the arterial Na(18)F signal. With time, blood-pool activity declines. Therefore, delayed imaging can potentially im...

  2. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming


    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions.

  3. Vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging, and their relationship with otologic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz de Abreu Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To use magnetic resonance imaging to identify vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and to evaluate their relationship with otologic symptoms. Materials and Methods: We selected 33 adults with otologic complaints who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at our institution between June and November 2013. Three experienced independent observers evaluated the trajectory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery in relation to the internal auditory meatus and graded the anterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular loops according to the Chavda classification. Kappa and chi-square tests were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The interobserver agreement was moderate. Comparing ears that presented vascular loops with those that did not, we found no association with tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Similarly, we found no association between the Chavda grade and any otological symptom. Conclusion: Vascular loops do not appear to be associated with otoneurological manifestations.

  4. Vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging, and their relationship with otologic symptoms* (United States)

    de Abreu Junior, Luiz; Kuniyoshi, Cristina Hiromi; Wolosker, Angela Borri; Borri, Maria Lúcia; Antunes, Augusto; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi Arashiro; Uchida, Daniela


    Objective To use magnetic resonance imaging to identify vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and to evaluate their relationship with otologic symptoms. Materials and Methods We selected 33 adults with otologic complaints who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at our institution between June and November 2013. Three experienced independent observers evaluated the trajectory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery in relation to the internal auditory meatus and graded the anterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular loops according to the Chavda classification. Kappa and chi-square tests were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results The interobserver agreement was moderate. Comparing ears that presented vascular loops with those that did not, we found no association with tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Similarly, we found no association between the Chavda grade and any otological symptom. Conclusion Vascular loops do not appear to be associated with otoneurological manifestations. PMID:27818543

  5. Computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensities related to subcortical vascular dementia in brain MR images (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kawata, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro


    We have developed a computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) regions for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) based on magnetic resonance (MR) images, and implemented the proposed method as a graphical interface program. The WMH regions were segmented using either a region growing technique or a level set method, one of which was selected by using a support vector machine. We applied the proposed method to MR images acquired from 10 patients with a diagnosis of VaD. The mean similarity index between WMH regions determined by a manual method and the proposed method was 78.2+/-11.0%. The proposed method could effectively assist neuroradiologists in evaluating WMH regions.

  6. Imaging and analyzing the elasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells by atomic force acoustic microscope. (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Qian; Chen, Ming; Yao, Wengang; Qian, Menglu; Hu, Bing


    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in the good performance of the vasculature. To study the surface, intracellular structure and elasticity of VSMCs, atomic force acoustic microscope (AFAM) was used for imaging VSMCs from A7r5 rat aorta arteries. The topography images of VSMCs were obtained in contact mode and the acoustic images were obtained by AFAM in sample vibration mode. Then, the force curve measurement derived using Young's modulus of the interested areas was used for evaluating elasticity properties. The acoustic images were found in higher resolution with more information than the topography images. The force curves showed the difference in Young's modulus of the different parts of VSMC. These findings demonstrate that AFAM is useful for displaying the surface, structure and elasticity property of VSMCs clearly, with short scanning time, negligible harm or damage to cell and nanometer-level resolution. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of post crosslinking haze on the repeatability of Scheimpflug-based and slit-scanning imaging devices

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    Rohit Shetty


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of postcollagen crosslinking (CXL haze on the measurement and repeatability of pachymetry and mean keratometry (Km of four corneal topographers. Materials and Methods: Sixty eyes of sixty patients with progressive keratoconus who had undergone accelerated CXL (ACXL underwent imaging with a scanning slit imaging device (Orbscan II and three Scheimpflug imaging devices (Pentacam HR, Sirius, and Galilei. Post-ACXL haze was measured using the densitometry software on the Pentacam HR. Readings of the thinnest corneal thickness (TCT and Km from three scans of each device were analyzed. Effect of haze on the repeatability of TCT and Km measurements was evaluated using regression models. Repeatability was assessed by coefficient of variation. Results: Corneal densitometry in different zones affected the repeatability of TCT measurement of Orbscan (P < 0.05 significantly but not the repeatability of TCT with Pentacam HR and Sirius (P = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. Km values were affected by haze when measured with the Pentacam HR (P < 0.05. The repeatability of Km readings for all devices was unaffected by haze. In the anterior 0–2 mm and 2–6 mm zone, TCT (P = 0.43 and 0.45, respectively, Km values (P = 0.4 and 0.6, respectively, repeatability of TCT (P = 0.1 in both zones, and Km (P = 0.5 and 0.1, respectively with Galilei were found to be the most reliable. Conclusion: Galilei measurements appear to be least affected by post-ACXL haze when compared with other devices. Hence, topography measurements in the presence of haze need to be interpreted with caution.

  8. Core Biopsy of Vascular Neoplasms of the Breast: Pathologic Features, Imaging, and Clinical Findings. (United States)

    Mantilla, Jose G; Koenigsberg, Tova; Reig, Beatriu; Shapiro, Nella; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Fineberg, Susan


    Vascular lesions (VLs) of the breast present a diagnostic challenge on breast core biopsy (BCBx). We report on 27 VLs presenting on BCBx. The mean patient age was 60 years, and mean size was 7.5 mm (range, 1.6 to 16 mm). Presentation included palpable mass in 6 (22%), incidental in 6 (22%), and an imaging abnormality in 15 (56%) cases. Imaging impression included hematoma (24%), lymph node (10%), fat necrosis (10%), tortuous vessel (5%), and not provided in 52%. The lesions were classified on the basis of BCBx or BCBx and excision (available in 16 pts) as follows: 1 low-grade angiosarcoma, 8 angiolipomas, 6 capillary hemangiomas, 4 cavernous hemangiomas, 2 hemangiomas (not otherwise specified), 1 papillary endothelial hyperplasia, and 5 perilobular hemangiomas. The angiosarcoma was 9 mm, detected incidentally by magnetic resonance imaging, and showed dissection of stromal collagen, infiltration of glands, high cellularity, moderate cytologic atypia, scant mitotic activity, and Ki-67 reactivity of 10%. Among the 26 benign VLs, worrisome histologic features were noted in 14 on BCBx, including anastomosing vascular channels in 9, moderate cytologic atypia in 4, high cellularity in 2, Ki-67>10% in 2, mitotic activity in 1, and infiltration of glands in 1. Of the 12 VLs without worrisome features, the lesion extended to edge of core in 8, precluding complete evaluation. BCBx of VLs presents diagnostic challenges due to overlapping clinicopathologic and radiologic features with low-grade angiosarcoma. If completeness of removal is documented on BCBx, and cytoarchitectural changes are not worrisome, follow-up could be considered rather than excision. However, only 4 of these cases fulfilled those criteria.

  9. Multi-shot turbo spin-echo for 3D vascular space occupancy imaging. (United States)

    Cretti, Fabiola R; Summers, Paul E; Porro, Carlo A


    Vascular space occupancy (VASO) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to cerebral blood volume, and is a potential alternative to the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) sensitive technique as a basis for functional mapping of the neurovascular response to a task. Many implementations of VASO have made use of echo-planar imaging strategies that allow rapid acquisition, but risk introducing potentially confounding BOLD effects. Recently, multi-slice and 3D VASO techniques have been implemented to increase the imaging volume beyond the single slice of early reports. These techniques usually rely, however, on advanced scanner software or hardware not yet available in many centers. In the present study, we have implemented a short-echo time, multi-shot 3D Turbo Spin-Echo (TSE) VASO sequence that provided 8-slice coverage on a routine clinical scanner. The proposed VASO sequence was tested in assessing the response of the human motor cortex during a block design finger tapping task in 10 healthy subjects. Significant VASO responses, inversely correlated with the task, were found at both individual and group level. The location and extent of VASO responses were in close correspondence to those observed using a conventional BOLD acquisition in the same subjects. Although the spatial coverage and temporal resolution achieved were limited, robust and consistent VASO responses were observed. The use of a susceptibility insensitive volumetric TSE VASO sequence may have advantages in locations where conventional BOLD and echo-planar based VASO imaging is compromised.

  10. Multichannel optical brain imaging to separate cerebral vascular, tissue metabolic, and neuronal effects of cocaine (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Luo, Zhongchi; Yuan, Zhijia; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu


    Characterization of cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation metabolic changes, as well neuronal function is of great importance to study of brain functions and the relevant brain disorders such as drug addiction. Compared with other neuroimaging modalities, optical imaging techniques have the potential for high spatiotemporal resolution and dissection of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobing oxygenation and intracellular Ca ([Ca2+]i), which serves as markers of vascular function, tissue metabolism and neuronal activity, respectively. Recently, we developed a multiwavelength imaging system and integrated it into a surgical microscope. Three LEDs of λ1=530nm, λ2=570nm and λ3=630nm were used for exciting [Ca2+]i fluorescence labeled by Rhod2 (AM) and sensitizing total hemoglobin (i.e., CBV), and deoxygenated-hemoglobin, whereas one LD of λ1=830nm was used for laser speckle imaging to form a CBF mapping of the brain. These light sources were time-sharing for illumination on the brain and synchronized with the exposure of CCD camera for multichannel images of the brain. Our animal studies indicated that this optical approach enabled simultaneous mapping of cocaine-induced changes in CBF, CBV and oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin as well as [Ca2+]i in the cortical brain. Its high spatiotemporal resolution (30μm, 10Hz) and large field of view (4x5 mm2) are advanced as a neuroimaging tool for brain functional study.

  11. A Description of Quasar Variability Measured Using Repeated SDSS and POSS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Chelsea L; Sesar, Branimir; de Vries, Wim; Kochanek, Christopher S; Kelly, Brandon C; Becker, Andrew C; Lupton, Robert H; Hall, Patrick B; Richards, Gordon T; Anderson, Scott F; Schneider, Donald P


    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 34,727 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining ~25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000A to 6000A. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic time scale and an asymptotic variabilit...

  12. Repeat optical satellite images reveal widespread and long term decrease in land-terminating glacier speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heid


    Full Text Available By matching of repeat optical satellite images it is now possible to investigate glacier dynamics within large regions of the world and also between regions to improve knowledge about glacier dynamics in space and time. In this study we investigate whether the negative glacier mass balance seen over large parts of the world has caused the glaciers to change their speeds. The studied regions are Pamir, Caucasus, Penny Ice Cap, Alaska Range and Patagonia. In addition we derive speed changes for Karakoram, a region assumed to have positive mass balance and that contains many surge-type glaciers. We find that the mapped glaciers in the five regions with negative mass balance have over the last decades decreased their velocity at an average rate per decade of: 43 % in the Pamir, 8 % in the Caucasus, 25 % on Penny Ice Cap, 11 % in the Alaska Range and 20 % in Patagonia. Glaciers in Karakoram have generally increased their speeds, but surging glaciers and glaciers with flow instabilities are most prominent in this area. Therefore the calculated average speed change is not representative for this area.

  13. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Department of Radiology, University of Montreal Hospital (CHUM), Quebec H2L 2M1 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Roy, David [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada)


    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  14. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  15. A blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry with silicone vascular models (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.


    For accurate particle image velocimetry measurements in hemodynamics studies, it is important to use a fluid with a refractive index ( n) matching that of the vascular models (phantoms) and ideally a dynamic viscosity matching human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) composed of water, glycerol, and sodium iodide was formulated for a range of refractive indices to match most common silicone elastomers ( n = 1.40-1.43) and with corresponding dynamic viscosity within the average cited range of healthy human blood (4.4 ± 0.5 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at room temperature (22.2 ± 0.2°C), which eliminates the need for a temperature-control system. An optimally matched BMF, suitable for use in a vascular phantom ( n = 1.4140 ± 0.0008, Sylgard 184), was demonstrated with composition (by weight) of 47.38% water, 36.94% glycerol (44:56 glycerol-water ratio), and 15.68% sodium iodide salt, resulting in a dynamic viscosity of 4 .31 ± 0 .03 cP.

  16. Image analysis as a non-destructive method to assess regrowth of weeds after repeated flame weeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian


    Efficient non-chemical weed control like flame weeding often requires repeated treatments. In weed control experiments the effect of each treatment may be estimated by removing and weighing the remaining weed biomass after the treatment, but the method influences the weed plants ability to regrow......, and therefore it may influence the long-term effect of repeated treatments. Visual assessment of weed cover or image analysis do not affect the remaining parts of the weed plants after treatment, but the methods may have other disadvantages. In order to evaluate and compare three methods we measured changes...... in vegetation cover of perennial ryegrass after flaming by (1) a simple image analysis programme counting green pixels, (2) visual assessment of images and (3) by taking biomass samples. Plants were flame treated with eight different dosages (0, 20, 30, 35, 45, 60, 90 and 180 kg propane ha-1) and with various...

  17. Monitoring microcirculation changes in port wine stains during vascular targeted photodynamic therapy by laser speckle imaging. (United States)

    Qiu, Haixia; Zhou, Yang; Gu, Ying; Ang, Qing; Zhao, ShiYong; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Naiyan


    This study was conducted to test laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) for imaging microcirculation and monitoring microcirculatory changes of port wine stains (PWS) during vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT). Before and 5 min after V-PDT, PWS lesions and the corresponding contralateral healthy skins of 24 PWS patients were scanned, whereas seven PWS patients were scanned throughout V-PDT. V-PDT was conducted immediately after intravenous injection of photocarcinorin (4-5 mg kg(-1)). A 532 nm laser was used for irradiation (power density: 80-100 mW cm(-2), exposure time: 20-50 min). Before V-PDT, all 24 PWS patients demonstrated a significant difference in perfusion between the PWS lesion and the contralateral healthy control skin (1132 ± 724 and 619 ± 478 PU, respectively, P 0.05). During V-PDT, the perfusion of seven PWS patients increased rapidly after initiation of V-PDT, reached a maximum within 10 min, lasted for several minutes, and slowly returned to a relatively lower level at the end of V-PDT. On the basis of these results, LSPI is capable of imaging PWS microvasculature and monitoring microvascular reactivity to V-PDT.

  18. High-resolution label-free vascular imaging using a commercial, clinically approved dermatological OCT scanner (United States)

    Byers, R. A.; Tozer, G.; Brown, N. J.; Matcher, S. J.


    Background and Aim: Recently developed decorrelative techniques such as speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) have demonstrated non-invasive depth-resolved imaging of the microcirculation in-vivo. However, bulk tissue motion (BTM) originating from the subject's breathing or heartbeat remains problematic at low imaging speeds, often resulting in full frame decorrelation and a loss of vascular contrast. The aim of this study was to build upon existing svOCT techniques through utilisation of a commercially available, probe-based VivoSight OCT system running at 20 kHz Axial-scan rate. Methods and results: Custom four-dimensional scanning strategies were developed and utilised in order to maximise the interframe correlation during image acquisition. Volumes of structural OCT data were collected from various anatomical regions and processed using the aforementioned svOCT algorithm to reveal angiographic information. Following data collection, three dimensional image registration and novel filtering algorithms were applied to each volume in order to ensure that BTM artefacts were sufficiently suppressed. This enabled accurate visualisation of the microcirculation within the papillary dermis, to a depth of approximately 2mm. Applications of this technique, including quantitative capillary loop density measurement and visualisation of wound healing are demonstrated and enhanced through widefield mosaicing of the svOCT data. Conclusions: Non-invasive microcirculation imaging using an FDA 510(k) approved OCT scanner such as the VivoSight allows direct clinical utilisation of these techniques, in particular for the pathological analysis of skin diseases. This research was supported by BBSRC Doctoral Training Grant: BB/F016840/1. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the use of equipment funded by MRC grant: MR/L012669/1.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Becker, Andrew C.; Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); De Vries, Wim [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Lupton, Robert H. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 33,881 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along Stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining {approx}25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 A to 6000 A. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic timescale and an asymptotic variability amplitude that scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength for individual quasars calibrated in S82, we can fully explain the ensemble variability statistics of the non-S82 quasars such as the exponential distribution of large magnitude changes. All available data are consistent with the DRW model as a viable description of the optical continuum variability of quasars on timescales of {approx}5-2000 days in the rest frame. We use these models to predict the incidence of quasar contamination in transient surveys such as those from the Palomar Transient Factory and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  20. Development of the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) G3 for HER2 molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Robert; Livanos, Maria; Bhavsar, Gaurav; Rashid, Mohammed; Miranda, Enrique; Tolner, Berend; Meyer, Tim; Chester, Kerry [UCL Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom); Sosabowski, Jane; Leyton, Julius; Mather, Stephen [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom); Vigor, Kim [Clare Hall Laboratories, Biotherapeutics Development Unit, Cancer Research UK, South Mimms (United Kingdom); Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Plueckthun, Andreas [Universitaet Zuerich, Biochemisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland); Yeung, Jenny [UCL Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)


    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) overexpression is a predictor of response to anti-HER2 therapy in breast and gastric cancer. Currently, HER2 status is assessed by tumour biopsy, but this may not be representative of the larger tumour mass or other metastatic sites, risking misclassification and selection of suboptimal therapy. The designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) G3 binds HER2 with high affinity at an epitope that does not overlap with trastuzumab and is biologically inert. We hypothesized that radiolabelled DARPin G3 would be capable of selectively imaging HER2-positive tumours, and aimed to identify a suitable format for clinical application. G3 DARPins tagged with hexahistidine (His{sub 6}) or with histidine glutamate (HE){sub 3} and untagged G3 DARPins were manufactured using a GMP-compatible Pichia pastoris protocol and radiolabelled with {sup 125}I, or with {sup 111}In via DOTA linked to a C-terminal cysteine. BALB/c mice were injected with radiolabelled G3 and tissue biodistribution was evaluated by gamma counting. The lead construct ((HE){sub 3}-G3) was assessed in mice bearing HER2-positive human breast tumour (BT474) xenografts. For both isotopes, (HE){sub 3}-G3 had significantly lower liver uptake than His{sub 6}-G3 and untagged G3 counterparts in non-tumour-bearing mice, and there was no significantly different liver uptake between His{sub 6}-G3 and untagged G3. (HE){sub 3}-G3 was taken forward for evaluation in mice bearing HER2-positive tumour xenografts. The results demonstrated that radioactivity from {sup 111}In-(HE){sub 3}-G3 was better maintained in tumours and cleared faster from serum than radioactivity from {sup 125}I-(HE){sub 3}-G3, achieving superior tumour-to-blood ratios (343.7 ± 161.3 vs. 22.0 ± 11.3 at 24 h, respectively). On microSPECT/CT, {sup 111}In-labelled and {sup 125}I-labelled (HE){sub 3}-G3 could image HER2-positive tumours at 4 h after administration, but there was less normal tissue uptake of

  1. Multimodality Imaging of the Long-term Vascular Responses Following Implantation of Metallic and Bioresorbable Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D. Gkogkas (Vasileios)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The pattern of vascular responses following stent/scaffold implantation in conventional interventional practice has been assessed by coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography and manifests as in-stent vascular response (focal or dif

  2. Multimodal navigated skull base tumor resection using image-based vascular and cranial nerve segmentation: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Dolati


    Conclusion: Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and could increase the vigilance of neurosurgeons for preventing neurovascular injury during skull base surgeries. Additionally, the accuracy found in this study is superior to previously reported measurements. This novel preliminary study is encouraging for future validation with larger numbers of patients.

  3. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto


    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  4. Assessment of tumor vascularization with functional computed tomography perfusion imaging in patients with cirrhotic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ping Li; De-Li Zhao; Hui-Jie Jiang; Ya-Hua Huang; Da-Qing Li; Yong Wan; Xin-Ding Liu; Jin-E Wang


    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor in China, and early diagnosis is critical for patient outcome. In patients with HCC, it is mostly based on liver cirrhosis, developing from benign regenerative nodules and dysplastic nodules to HCC lesions, and a better understanding of its vascular supply and the hemodynamic changes may lead to early tumor detection. Angiogenesis is essential for the growth of primary and metastatic tumors due to changes in vascular perfusion, blood volume and permeability. These hemodynamic and physiological properties can be measured serially using functional computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging and can be used to assess the growth of HCC. This study aimed to clarify the physiological characteristics of tumor angiogenesis in cirrhoticliverdiseasebythisfastimagingmethod. METHODS: CTP was performed in 30 volunteers without liver disease (control subjects) and 49 patients with liver disease (experimental subjects: 27 with HCC and 22 with cirrhosis). All subjects were also evaluated by physical examination, laboratory screening and Doppler ultrasonography of the liver. The diagnosis of HCC was made according to the EASL criteria. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, pre- and post-contrast triple-phase CT and CTP study. A mathematical deconvolution model was applied to provide hepatic blood flow (HBF), hepatic blood volume (HBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability of capillary vessel surface (PS), hepatic arterial index (HAI), hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and hepatic portal perfusion (HPP) data. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences in perfusion parameters between the background cirrhotic liver parenchyma and HCC and between the cirrhotic liver parenchyma with HCC and that without HCC. RESULTS: In normal liver, the HAP/HVP ratio was about 1/4. HCC had significantly higher HAP and HAI and lower HPP than background liver parenchyma adjacent to the HCC. The

  5. Impact of continuing education in vascular images analysis for endovascular planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato


    Full Text Available Introduction:Manipulation of images using three-dimensional multiplanar reconstruction algorithms (3D MPR and maximum intensity projection (MIP is dependent on prior understanding of the method's true validity and its superiority over traditional semi-digital or analog methods of measurement.Objective:To assess the understanding of doctors who attended the course of the methodology they routinely employed for planning endovascular surgery before taking the course and determine their choice of method after completion of the course.Methods:A survey was conducted with the students who took the course using an intranet questionnaire.Results:One hundred and sixty-one participants responded to the questionnaire. In relation to their prior knowledge, 38.8% reported no knowledge, 45.6% reported little knowledge, 15% reported basic knowledge and just 0.6% considered their prior knowledge was advanced. With respect to the measurement method used, 12.5% relied on the measurements in the radiologist's report, 14% used printed plates and manual compasses, 36.8% used axial images to take measurements, 11.8% used axial images in OsiriX, 14% used the 3D MPR method and 11% used the 3D MPR method and 3D MPR combined with MIP. Additionally, 81.5% of the participants stated that they repeated measurements intraoperatively using a centimeter pigtail catheter, despite having taken measurements in advance using one of the methods listed above.Conclusion:The study showed that continuing education in specialized course was effective for imparting understanding of the importance of the three-dimensional multiplanar reconstruction image analysis method and of image optimization algorithms.

  6. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Early Vascular Response in Prostate Tumors Irradiated with Carbon Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Palmowski


    Full Text Available Individualized treatments with combination of radiotherapy and targeted drugs require knowledge about the behavior of molecular targets after irradiation. Angiogenic marker expression has been studied after conventional radiotherapy, but little is known about marker response to charged particles. For the very first time, we used molecular ultrasound imaging to intraindividually track changes in angiogenic marker expression after carbon ion irradiation in experimental tumors. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and of αvβ3-integrin in subcutaneous AT-1 prostate cancers in rats treated with carbon ions (16 Gy was studied using molecular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, cyanoacrylate microbubbles were synthesized and linked to specific ligands. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles in tumors was quantified before and 36 hours after irradiation. In addition, tumor vascularization was analyzed using volumetric Doppler ultrasound. In tumors, the accumulation of targeted microbubbles was significantly higher than in nonspecific ones and could be inhibited competitively. Before irradiation, no difference in binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific or ICAM-1-specific microbubbles was observed in treated and untreated animals. After irradiation, however, treated animals showed a significantly higher binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific microbubbles and an enhanced binding of ICAM-1-specific microbubbles than untreated controls. In both groups, a decrease in vascularization occurred during tumor growth, but no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. In conclusion, carbon ion irradiation upregulates ICAM-1 and αvβ3-integrin expression in tumor neovasculature. Molecular ultrasound can indicate the regulation of these markers and thus may help to identify the optimal drugs and time points in individualized therapy regimens.

  7. Assessment of vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implant by bone scintigraphy: compartive analysis of planar and SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Park, Soon Ah [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Complete fibrovascular ingrowth within the hydroxyapatite ocular implant is necessary for peg drilling which is performed to prevent infection and to provide motility to the ocular prosthesis. We compared planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT for the evaluation of the vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implants. Seventeen patients (M:F=12:5, mean age: 50.4{+-}17.5 years) who had received a coralline hydroxyapatite ocular implant after enucleation surgery were enrolled. Patients underwent Tc-99m MDP planar bone and SPECT imaging by dual head gamma camera after their implant surgery (interval: 197{+-}81 days). Uptake on planar and SPECT images was graded visually as less than (grade 1), equal to (grade 2), and greater than (grade 3) nasal bridge activity. Quantitative ratio of implanted to non-implanted intraorbital activity was also measured. Vascularization within hydroxyapatite implants was confirmed by slit lamp examination and ocular movement. All but three patients were considered to be vascularized within hydroxyapatite implants. In visual analysis of planar image and SPECT, grade 1 was noted in 9/18 (50%) and 6/18 (33%), respectively. Grade 2 pattern 7/18 (39%) and 4/18 (22%), and grade 3 pattern was 2/18 (11%) and 8/18 (44%) respectively. When grade 2 or 3 was considered to be positive for vascularization, the sensitivity of planar and SPECT imaging were 60% (9/15) and 80% (12/15), respectively. In 3 patients with incomplete vascularization, both planar and SPECT showed grade 1 uptake. The orbital activity ratios on planar imaging were not significantly different between complete and incomplete vascularization (1.96{+-}9.87 vs 1.17{+-}0.08 , p>0.05), however, it was significantly higher on SPECT in patients with complete vascularization (8.44{+-}5.45 vs 2.20{+-}0.87, p<0.05). In the assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth within ocular implants by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, SPECT image appears to be more effective than planar scintigraphy.

  8. Non-invasive parenchymal, vascular and metabolic high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic rat deep brain imaging. (United States)

    Giustetto, Pierangela; Filippi, Miriam; Castano, Mauro; Terreno, Enzo


    Photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound stands out as powerful tools for neurobiological applications enabling high-resolution imaging on the central nervous system of small animals. However, transdermal and transcranial neuroimaging is frequently affected by low sensitivity, image aberrations and loss of space resolution, requiring scalp or even skull removal before imaging. To overcome this challenge, a new protocol is presented to gain significant insights in brain hemodynamics by photoacoustic and high-frequency ultrasounds imaging with the animal skin and skull intact. The procedure relies on the passage of ultrasound (US) waves and laser directly through the fissures that are naturally present on the animal cranium. By juxtaposing the imaging transducer device exactly in correspondence to these selected areas where the skull has a reduced thickness or is totally absent, one can acquire high quality deep images and explore internal brain regions that are usually difficult to anatomically or functionally describe without an invasive approach. By applying this experimental procedure, significant data can be collected in both sonic and optoacoustic modalities, enabling to image the parenchymal and the vascular anatomy far below the head surface. Deep brain features such as parenchymal convolutions and fissures separating the lobes were clearly visible. Moreover, the configuration of large and small blood vessels was imaged at several millimeters of depth, and precise information were collected about blood fluxes, vascular stream velocities and the hemoglobin chemical state. This repertoire of data could be crucial in several research contests, ranging from brain vascular disease studies to experimental techniques involving the systemic administration of exogenous chemicals or other objects endowed with imaging contrast enhancement properties. In conclusion, thanks to the presented protocol, the US and PA techniques become an attractive noninvasive

  9. A novel in vivo vascular imaging approach for hierarchical quantification of vasculature using contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nebuloni

    Full Text Available The vasculature of body tissues is continuously subject to remodeling processes originating at the micro-vascular level. The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis is essential for a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes such as tissue regeneration, tumor development and the integration of artificial tissues. There are currently no time-lapsed in vivo imaging techniques providing information on the vascular network at the capillary level in a non-destructive, three-dimensional and high-resolution fashion. This paper presents a novel imaging framework based on contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (micro-CT for hierarchical in vivo quantification of blood vessels in mice, ranging from largest to smallest structures. The framework combines for the first time a standard morphometric approach with densitometric analysis. Validation tests showed that the method is precise and robust. Furthermore, the framework is sensitive in detecting different perfusion levels after the implementation of a murine ischemia-reperfusion model. Correlation with both histological data and micro-CT analysis of vascular corrosion casts confirmed accuracy of the method. The newly developed time-lapsed imaging approach shows high potential for in vivo monitoring of a number of different physiological and pathological conditions in angiogenesis and vascular development.

  10. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.


    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  11. Performance evaluation of an automatic anatomy segmentation algorithm on repeat or four-dimensional CT images using a deformable image registration method (United States)

    Wang, He; Garden, Adam S.; Zhang, Lifei; Wei, Xiong; Ahamad, Anesa; Kuban, Deborah A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; O’Daniel, Jennifer; Zhang, Yongbin; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei


    Purpose Auto-propagation of anatomical region-of-interests (ROIs) from the planning CT to daily CT is an essential step in image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the algorithm in typical clinical applications. Method and Materials We previously adopted an image intensity-based deformable registration algorithm to find the correspondence between two images. In this study, the ROIs delineated on the planning CT image were mapped onto daily CT or four-dimentional (4D) CT images using the same transformation. Post-processing methods, such as boundary smoothing and modification, were used to enhance the robustness of the algorithm. Auto-propagated contours for eight head-and-neck patients with a total of 100 repeat CTs, one prostate patient with 24 repeat CTs, and nine lung cancer patients with a total of 90 4D-CT images were evaluated against physician-drawn contours and physician-modified deformed contours using the volume-overlap-index (VOI) and mean absolute surface-to-surface distance (ASSD). Results The deformed contours were reasonably well matched with daily anatomy on repeat CT images. The VOI and mean ASSD were 83% and 1.3 mm when compared to the independently drawn contours. A better agreement (greater than 97% and less than 0.4 mm) was achieved if the physician was only asked to correct the deformed contours. The algorithm was robust in the presence of random noise in the image. Conclusion The deformable algorithm may be an effective method to propagate the planning ROIs to subsequent CT images of changed anatomy, although a final review by physicians is highly recommended. PMID:18722272

  12. ACCF/AHA 2007 Clinical Competence Statement on Vascular Imaging With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Ferrari, Victor A.; Goldman, Corey; Lesser, John R.; Martin, Edward T.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Reilly, John P.; Rodgers, George P.; Wechsler, Lawrence; Creager, Mark A.; Holmes, David R.; Merli, Geno; Newby, L. Kristin; Piña, Ileana; Rodgers, George P.; Weitz, Howard H.


    Preamble The granting of clinical staff privileges to physicians is a primary mechanism used by institutions to uphold the quality of care. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires that the granting of continuing medical staff privileges be based on assessments of applicants against professional criteria specified in the medical staff bylaws. Physicians themselves are thus charged with identifying the criteria that constitute professional competence and with evaluating their peers accordingly. Yet, the process of evaluating physicians' knowledge and competence is often constrained by the evaluator's own knowledge and ability to elicit the appropriate information, problems compounded by the growing number of highly specialized procedures for which privileges are requested. The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Physicians (ACP) Task Force on Clinical Competence and Training was formed in 1998 to develop recommendations for attaining and maintaining the cognitive and technical skills necessary for the competent performance of a specific cardiovascular service, procedure, or technology. These documents are evidence-based, and where evidence is not available, expert opinion is utilized to formulate recommendations. Indications and contraindications for specific services or procedures are not included in the scope of these documents. Recommendations are intended to assist those who must judge the competence of cardiovascular health care providers entering practice for the first time and/or those who are in practice and are undergoing periodic review of their practice expertise. The assessment of competence is complex and multidimensional; therefore, isolated recommendations contained herein may not necessarily be sufficient or appropriate for judging overall competence. The current document addresses competence in vascular imaging for computed tomography (CT) and

  13. Correlation of the indices of susceptibility weighted imaging and perfusion imaging with the expression of microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in astrocytic tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To detect the correlation of the expression of microvessel density(MVD)and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)with the semi-quantivative indices of susceptibility weighted imaging(SWI)and perfusion imaging(PI)in astrocytic tumor.Methods SWI and PI were performed in 98 patients with varing grades of astrocytic tumors.According to the World Health Organization(WHO)classification of central nervous system tumors and grading criteria:8 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma(gradeⅠ,1

  14. Multimodality Imaging of the Long-term Vascular Responses Following Implantation of Metallic and Bioresorbable Devices


    Gkogkas, Vasileios


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The pattern of vascular responses following stent/scaffold implantation in conventional interventional practice has been assessed by coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography and manifests as in-stent vascular response (focal or diffuse) or as edge vascular response (EVR) at the transition zones (focal). The utilization of bioresorbable scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers or biocorrodible metals for coronary revacularizati...

  15. Vascular remodeling underlies rebleeding in hemophilic arthropathy. (United States)

    Bhat, Vikas; Olmer, Merissa; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L; Cramer, Thomas J; Barnes, Richard Fw; Ball, Scott T; Hughes, Tudor H; Silva, Mauricio; Luck, James V; Moore, Randy E; Mosnier, Laurent O; von Drygalski, Annette


    Hemophilic arthropathy is a debilitating condition that can develop as a consequence of frequent joint bleeding despite adequate clotting factor replacement. The mechanisms leading to repeated spontaneous bleeding are unknown. We investigated synovial, vascular, stromal, and cartilage changes in response to a single induced hemarthrosis in the FVIII-deficient mouse. We found soft-tissue hyperproliferation with marked induction of neoangiogenesis and evolving abnormal vascular architecture. While soft-tissue changes were rapidly reversible, abnormal vascularity persisted for months and, surprisingly, was also seen in uninjured joints. Vascular changes in FVIII-deficient mice involved pronounced remodeling with expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA), Endoglin (CD105), and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as alterations of joint perfusion as determined by in vivo imaging. Vascular architecture changes and pronounced expression of α-SMA appeared unique to hemophilia, as these were not found in joint tissue obtained from mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and from patients with the same conditions. Evidence that vascular changes in hemophilia were significantly associated with bleeding and joint deterioration was obtained prospectively by dynamic in vivo imaging with musculoskeletal ultrasound and power Doppler of 156 joints (elbows, knees, and ankles) in a cohort of 26 patients with hemophilia at baseline and during painful episodes. These observations support the hypothesis that vascular remodeling contributes significantly to bleed propagation and development of hemophilic arthropathy. Based on these findings, the development of molecular targets for angiogenesis inhibition may be considered in this disease.

  16. The Effect of Image Quality, Repeated Study, and Assessment Method on Anatomy Learning (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A.; Wainman, Bruce C.


    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality…

  17. The Use of Smart Phone Thermal Imaging for Assessment of Peripheral Perfusion in Vascular Patients. (United States)

    Wallace, Gabriel A; Singh, Niten; Quiroga, Elina; Tran, Nam T


    Ankle brachial index (ABI) is a reliable method to evaluate extremity perfusion but can be prohibitive to obtain secondary to patient discomfort or extremity trauma. This study investigates smart phone based forward looking infrared imaging (FLIR) to assess peripheral perfusion using thermal ABI (tABI). ABI's were measured by a certified vascular laboratory. Thermographs of each extremity (hands/feet) were obtained and maximum surface temperature recorded. tABI was calculated by dividing the lower extremity (LE) temperature by the upper extremity (UE). ABI and tABI were compared using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman plot. Twenty three patients (45 limbs) had ABI's and thermographs recorded on the same day. Median ABI was 0.89 (range 0.33-1.46, IQR 0.4). Median LE temperature was 83.0°F (range 60.7-96.9°F, IQR 14.1). Median UE temperature was 91.2°F (range 81.9-94.6°F, IQR 3.4). Median tABI was 0.93 (range 0.33-1.4, IQR 0.2). Positive correlation was seen between ABI and tABI with Pearson analysis(r = 0.83, p Smart phone based FLIR can be utilized to determine peripheral perfusion in clinical settings where ABI is difficult to obtain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Multimodality vascular imaging phantoms: a new material for the fabrication of realistic 3D vessel geometries. (United States)

    Allard, Louise; Soulez, Gilles; Chayer, Boris; Treyve, François; Qin, Zhao; Cloutier, Guy


    Multimodality vascular flow phantoms provide a way of testing the geometric accuracy of clinical scanners and optimizing acquisition protocols with easy reproducibility of experimental conditions. This article presents a stereolithography method combined with a lost-material casting technique that eliminates metal residues of cerrolow (a low temperature melting point metallic alloy) left within irregular vessel lumens after casting. These residues potentially cause image artifacts especially in magnetic resonance angiography or flow disturbance. Geometrical accuracies of constructed lumens with isomalt, the proposed material, ranged from 3.3% to 5.7% for vessel diameters of 1.8-7.9 mm, which are comparable to those of lumens constructed with cerrolow that had better accuracies varying from 1.1% to 4.1% (pisomalt material, combined with phantom designs having fiducial markers visible in digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound [Med. Phys. 31, 1424-1433 (2004)], makes easier the fabrication of complex realistic and accurate replicas of pathological vessels with lumen irregularities.

  19. 4D magnetic resonance flow imaging for estimating pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary hypertension. (United States)

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Schafer, Michal; Podgorski, Chris A; Schroeder, Joyce D; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Buckner, J Kern; Hunter, Kendal S; Shandas, Robin; Fenster, Brett E


    To develop an estimate of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) using blood flow measurements from 3D velocity-encoded phase contract magnetic resonance imaging (here termed 4D MRI). In all, 17 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and five controls underwent right heart catheterization (RHC), 4D and 2D Cine MRI (1.5T) within 24 hours. MRI was used to compute maximum spatial peak systolic vorticity in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and right pulmonary artery (RPA), cardiac output, and relative area change in the MPA. These parameters were combined in a four-parameter multivariate linear regression model to arrive at an estimate of PVR. Agreement between model predicted and measured PVR was also evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Finally, model accuracy was tested by randomly withholding a patient from regression analysis and using them to validate the multivariate equation. A decrease in vorticity in the MPA and RPA were correlated with an increase in PVR (MPA: R(2) = 0.54, P < 0.05; RPA: R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.05). Expanding on this finding, we identified a multivariate regression equation that accurately estimates PVR (R(2) = 0.94, P < 0.05) across severe PH and normotensive populations. Bland-Altman plots showed 95% of the differences between predicted and measured PVR to lie within 1.49 Wood units. Model accuracy testing revealed a prediction error of ∼20%. A multivariate model that includes MPA relative area change and flow characteristics, measured using 4D and 2D Cine MRI, offers a promising technique for noninvasively estimating PVR in PH patients. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:914-922. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE): A new approach for high definition vascular imaging from low resolution data. (United States)

    Song, Yang; Hamtaei, Ehsan; Sethi, Sean K; Yang, Guang; Xie, Haibin; Mark Haacke, E


    To introduce a new approach to reconstruct high definition vascular images using COnstrained Data Extrapolation (CODE) and evaluate its capability in estimating vessel area and stenosis. CODE is based on the constraint that the full width half maximum of a vessel can be accurately estimated and, since it represents the best estimate for the width of the object, higher k-space data can be generated from this information. To demonstrate the potential of extracting high definition vessel edges using low resolution data, both simulated and human data were analyzed to better visualize the vessels and to quantify both area and stenosis measurements. The results from CODE using one-fourth of the fully sampled k-space data were compared with a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction approach using the same total amount of data but spread out between the center of k-space and the outer portions of the original k-space to accelerate data acquisition by a factor of four. For a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such as 16 (8), we found that objects as small as 3 voxels in the 25% under-sampled data (6 voxels when zero-filled) could be used for CODE and CS and provide an estimate of area with an error 200 (30) times faster for CODE compared to CS in the simulated (human) data. CODE was capable of producing sharp sub-voxel edges and accurately estimating stenosis to within 5% for clinically relevant studies of vessels with a width of at least 3pixels in the low resolution images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brunetti


    Full Text Available Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility. A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29 or reproducibility (p = 0.89. The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions. Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies.

  2. Optimisation of coronary vascular territorial 3D echocardiographic strain imaging using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Fuchs, A; Weeke, P;


    Current echocardiographic assessments of coronary vascular territories use the 17-segment model and are based on general assumptions of coronary vascular distribution. Fusion of 3D echocardiography (3DE) with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) derived coronary anatomy may provide a more acc...

  3. Study of diffusion tensor imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-ying GUO


    Full Text Available Objective Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to explore the microstructure changes of white matter in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI and its correlation with cognitive function.  Methods Forty-nine patients with subcortical ischemic cerebrovascular diseases were collected. By using Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR, they were classified into 10 cases of vascular dementia (VaD group, 20 cases of vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCIND group and 19 cases of normal cognitive function (control group. Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in all cases. Based on the DTI data, voxel-based analysis was used to assess the whole brain region. Correlation analysis was applied to illustrate the relationship between DTI parameters and cognitive scale in VaD patients.  Results Compared with the control group, fractional anisotropy (FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes, right temporal lobe and bilateral orbitofrontal lobes (P = 0.000, for all, and FA values of patients in VCIND group decreased in right inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus and bilateral precuneus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, FA values of patients in VaD group decreased in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes and right temporal lobe (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with the control group, mean diffusivity (MD values in VaD group increased in medial prefrontal cortex, corpus callosum, bilateral parietal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and anterior cingulate (P = 0.000, for all, while in VCIND group increased in bilateral precuneus and right hippocampus (P = 0.000, for all. Compared with VCIND group, MD values in VaD group increased in right medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus callosum stem, bilateral parietal lobes and bilateral temporal lobes (P = 0

  4. Novel Gd nanoparticles enhance vascular contrast for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tot Bui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd, with its 7 unpaired electrons in 4f orbitals that provide a very large magnetic moment, is proven to be among the best agents for contrast enhanced MRI. Unfortunately, the most potent MR contrast agent based on Gd requires relatively high doses of Gd. The Gd-chelated to diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA, or other derivatives (at 0.1 mmole/kg recommended dose, distribute broadly into tissues and clear through the kidney. These contrast agents carry the risk of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF, particularly in kidney impaired subjects. Thus, Gd contrast agents that produce higher resolution images using a much lower Gd dose could address both imaging sensitivity and Gd safety. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether a biocompatible lipid nanoparticle with surface bound Gd can improve MRI contrast sensitivity, we constructed Gd-lipid nanoparticles (Gd-LNP containing lipid bound DTPA and Gd. The Gd-LNP were intravenously administered to rats and MR images collected. We found that Gd in Gd-LNP produced a greater than 33-fold higher longitudinal (T(1 relaxivity, r(1, constant than the current FDA approved Gd-chelated contrast agents. Intravenous administration of these Gd-LNP at only 3% of the recommended clinical Gd dose produced MRI signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 300 in all vasculatures. Unlike current Gd contrast agents, these Gd-LNP stably retained Gd in normal vasculature, and are eliminated predominately through the biliary, instead of the renal system. Gd-LNP did not appear to accumulate in the liver or kidney, and was eliminated completely within 24 hrs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel Gd-nanoparticles provide high quality contrast enhanced vascular MRI at 97% reduced dose of Gd and do not rely on renal clearance. This new agent is likely to be suitable for patients exhibiting varying degrees of renal impairment. The simple and adaptive nanoparticle design could accommodate

  5. Vascular rings. (United States)

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K


    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Vascular Changes Induced by Sunitinib in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Xenograft Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda G. Hillman


    Full Text Available To investigate further the antiangiogenic potential of sunitinib for renal cell carcinoma (RCC treatment, its effects on tumor vasculature were monitored by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI using an orthotopic KCI-18 model of human RCC xenografts in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with various doses of sunitinib, and vascular changes were assessed by DCE-MRI and histologic studies. Sunitinib induced dose-dependent vascular changes, which were observed both in kidney tumors and in normal kidneys by DCE-MRI. A dosage of 10 mg/kg per day caused mild changes in Gd uptake and clearance kinetics in kidney tumors. A dosage of 40 mg/kg per day induced increased vascular tumor permeability with Gd retention, probably resulting from the destruction of tumor vasculature, and also caused vascular alterations of normal vessels. However, sunitinib at 20 mg/kg per day caused increased tumor perfusion and decreased vascular permeability associated with thinning and regularization of tumor vessels while mildly affecting normal vessels as confirmed by histologic diagnosis. Alterations in tumor vasculature resulted in a significant inhibition of KCI-18 RCC tumor growth at sunitinib dosages of 20 and 40 mg/kg per day. Sunitinib also exerted a direct cytotoxic effect in KCI-18 cells in vitro. KCI-18 cells and tumors expressed vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β molecular targets of sunitinib that were modulated by the drug treatment. These data suggest that a sunitinib dosage of 20 mg/kg per day, which inhibits RCC tumor growth and regularizes tumor vessels with milder effects on normal vessels, could be used to improve blood flow for combination with chemotherapy. These studies emphasize the clinical potential of DCE-MRI in selecting the dose and schedule of antiangiogenic compounds.

  7. Pitfalls in Suspected Acute Aortic Syndrome: Impact of Appropriate and If Required Repeated Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meier


    Full Text Available The incidence of acute aortic syndrome is low, but the spontaneous course is often life-threatening. Adequate ECG-gated imaging is fundamental within the diagnostic workup. We here report a case of a 53-year-old man presenting with atypical chest pain, slight increase of D dimers at admission, and extended diameter of the ascending aorta accompanied by mild aortic regurgitation. Interpretation of an initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography was false negative due to inadequate gating and motion artifacts, thereby judging a tiny contrast signal in the left anterior quadrant of the ascending aorta as a pseudointimal flap. By hazard, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an ulcer-like lesion superior to the aortic root, leading to aortic surgery at the last moment. As sensitivity of imaging is not 100%, this example underlines that second imaging studies might be necessary if the first imaging is negative, but the clinical suspicion still remains high.

  8. Repeatability of dose painting by numbers treatment planning in prostate cancer radiotherapy based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    van Schie, Marcel A.; Steenbergen, Peter; Viet Dinh, Cuong; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; van Houdt, Petra J.; Pos, Floris J.; Heijmink, Stijn W. T. J. P.; van der Poel, Henk G.; Renisch, Steffen; Vik, Torbjørn; van der Heide, Uulke A.


    Dose painting by numbers (DPBN) refers to a voxel-wise prescription of radiation dose modelled from functional image characteristics, in contrast to dose painting by contours which requires delineations to define the target for dose escalation. The direct relation between functional imaging characteristics and DPBN implies that random variations in images may propagate into the dose distribution. The stability of MR-only prostate cancer treatment planning based on DPBN with respect to these variations is as yet unknown. We conducted a test-retest study to investigate the stability of DPBN for prostate cancer in a semi-automated MR-only treatment planning workflow. Twelve patients received a multiparametric MRI on two separate days prior to prostatectomy. The tumor probability (TP) within the prostate was derived from image features with a logistic regression model. Dose mapping functions were applied to acquire a DPBN prescription map that served to generate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan. Dose calculations were done on a pseudo-CT derived from the MRI. The TP and DPBN map and the IMRT dose distribution were compared between both MRI sessions, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to quantify repeatability of the planning pipeline. The quality of each treatment plan was measured with a quality factor (QF). Median ICC values for the TP and DPBN map and the IMRT dose distribution were 0.82, 0.82 and 0.88, respectively, for linear dose mapping and 0.82, 0.84 and 0.94 for square root dose mapping. A median QF of 3.4% was found among all treatment plans. We demonstrated the stability of DPBN radiotherapy treatment planning in prostate cancer, with excellent overall repeatability and acceptable treatment plan quality. Using validated tumor probability modelling and simple dose mapping techniques it was shown that despite day-to-day variations in imaging data still consistent treatment plans were obtained.

  9. The effect of image quality, repeated study, and assessment method on anatomy learning. (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A; Wainman, Bruce C


    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens. On day 1, participants relearned each booklet, and on day 2 participants completed a final comprehension test using either 2D images or 3D cadaveric specimens. The effect of image quality on learning varied according to anatomical content, with high-quality images having a greater effect on improving learning of hand anatomy than eye anatomy (high-quality vs. low-quality for hand anatomy P = 0.018; high-quality vs. low-quality for eye anatomy P = 0.247). Also, the benefit of high-quality images on hand anatomy learning was restricted to performance on short-answer (SA) questions immediately after learning (high-quality vs. low-quality on SA questions P = 0.018), but did not apply to performance on multiple-choice (MC) questions (high-quality vs. low-quality on MC questions P = 0.109) or after participants had an additional learning opportunity (24 hours later) with anatomy content (high vs. low on SA questions P = 0.643). This study underscores the limited impact of image quality on anatomy learning, and questions whether investment in enhancing image quality of learning aids significantly promotes knowledge development. Anat Sci Educ 10: 249-261. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Quantitative Corneal Shape Analysis after Orthokeratology Treatment Using Image-Pro Plus Software (United States)

    Mei, Ying; Tang, Zhiping


    Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of quantitative analysis of the morphological corneal changes after orthokeratology treatment using “Image-Pro Plus 6.0” software (IPP). Methods. Three sets of measurements were obtained: two sets by examiner 1 with 5 days apart and one set by examiner 2 on the same day. Parameters of the eccentric distance, eccentric angle, area, and roundness of the corneal treatment zone were measured using IPP. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repetitive coefficient (COR) were used to calculate the repeatability and reproducibility of these three sets of measurements. Results. ICC analysis suggested “excellent” reliability of more than 0.885 for all variables, and COR values were less than 10% for all variables within the same examiner. ICC analysis suggested “excellent” reliability for all variables of more than 0.90, and COR values were less than 10% for all variables between different examiners. All extreme values of the eccentric distance and area of the treatment zone pointed to the same material number in three sets of measurements. Conclusions. IPP could be used to acquire the exact data of the characteristic morphological corneal changes after orthokeratology treatment with good repeatability and reproducibility. This trial is registered with trial registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-14005505.

  11. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Quantitative Corneal Shape Analysis after Orthokeratology Treatment Using Image-Pro Plus Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Mei


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of quantitative analysis of the morphological corneal changes after orthokeratology treatment using “Image-Pro Plus 6.0” software (IPP. Methods. Three sets of measurements were obtained: two sets by examiner 1 with 5 days apart and one set by examiner 2 on the same day. Parameters of the eccentric distance, eccentric angle, area, and roundness of the corneal treatment zone were measured using IPP. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and repetitive coefficient (COR were used to calculate the repeatability and reproducibility of these three sets of measurements. Results. ICC analysis suggested “excellent” reliability of more than 0.885 for all variables, and COR values were less than 10% for all variables within the same examiner. ICC analysis suggested “excellent” reliability for all variables of more than 0.90, and COR values were less than 10% for all variables between different examiners. All extreme values of the eccentric distance and area of the treatment zone pointed to the same material number in three sets of measurements. Conclusions. IPP could be used to acquire the exact data of the characteristic morphological corneal changes after orthokeratology treatment with good repeatability and reproducibility. This trial is registered with trial registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-14005505.

  12. The prodromal phase of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated Parkinson disease: Clinical and imaging Studies. (United States)

    Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Tolosa, Eduardo; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Coffey, Christopher; Alcalay, Roy N; Chan, Piu; Duda, John E; Facheris, Maurizio; Fernández-Santiago, Rubén; Marek, Kenneth; Lomeña, Francisco; Marras, Connie; Mondragon, Elisabet; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Waro, Bjorg


    Asymptomatic, nonmanifesting carriers of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations are at increased risk of developing PD. Clinical and neuroimaging features may be associated with gene carriage and/or may demarcate individuals at greater risk for phenoconversion to PD. To investigate clinical and dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography imaging characteristics of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 asymptomatic carriers. A total of 342 carriers' and 259 noncarriers' relatives of G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2/PD patients and 39 carriers' and 31 noncarriers' relatives of R1441G leucine-rich repeat kinase 2/PD patients were evaluated. Motor and nonmotor symptoms were assessed using specific scales and questionnaires. Neuroimaging quantitative data were obtained in 81 carriers and compared with 41 noncarriers. G2019S carriers scored higher in motor scores and had lower radioligand uptake compared to noncarriers, but no differences in nonmotor symptoms scores were observed. R1441G carriers scored higher in motor scores, had lower radioligand uptake, and had higher scores in depression, dysautonomia, and Rapid Eye Movements Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire scores, but had better cognition scores than noncarriers. Among G2019S carriers, a group with "mild motor signs" was identified, and was significantly older, with worse olfaction and lower radioligand uptake. G2019S and R1441G carriers differ from their noncarriers' relatives in higher motor scores and slightly lower radioligand uptake. Nonmotor symptoms were mild, and different nonmotor profiles were observed in G2019S carriers compared to R1441G carriers. A group of G2019S carriers with known prodromal features was identified. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether such individuals are at short-term risk of developing overt parkinsonism. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. [Decrease in N170 evoked potential component latency during repeated presentation of face images]. (United States)

    Verkhliutov, V M; Ushakov, V L; Strelets, V B


    The 15 healthy volunteers EEG from 28 channels was recorded during the presentation of visual stimuli in the form of face and building images. The stimuli were presented in two series. The first series consisted of 60 face and 60 building images presented in random order. The second series consisted of 30 face and 30 building images. The second series began 1.5-2 min after the end of the first ore. No instruction was given to the participants. P1, N170 and VPP EP components were identified for both stimuli categories. These components were located in the medial parietal area (Brodmann area 40). P1 and N170 components were recorded in the superior temporal fissure (Brodmann area 21, STS region), the first component had the latency 120 ms, the second one--155 ms. VPP was recorded with the latency 190 ms (Brodmann area 19). Dynamic mapping of EP components with the latency from 97 to 242 ms revealed the removal of positive maximums from occipital to frontal areas through temporal ones and their subsequent returning to occipital areas through the central ones. During the comparison of EP components to face and building images the amplitude differences were revealed in the following areas: P1--in frontal, central and anterior temporal areas, N170--in frontal, central, temporal and parietal areas, VPP--in all areas. It was also revealed that N170 latency was 12 ms shorter for face than for building images. It was proposed that the above mentioned N170 latency decrease for face in comparison with building images is connected with the different space location of the fusiform area responsible for face and building images recognition. Priming--the effect that is revealed during the repetitive face images presentation is interpreted as the manifestation of functional heterogeneity of the fusiform area responsible for the face images recognition. The hypothesis is put forward that the parts of extrastriate cortex which are located closer to the central retinotopical

  14. XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM1, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase required for stem growth and vascular development in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Bryan, Anthony C; Obaidi, Adam; Wierzba, Michael; Tax, Frans E


    The regulation of cell specification in plants is particularly important in vascular development. The vascular system is comprised two differentiated tissue types, the xylem and phloem, which form conductive elements for the transport of water, nutrients and signaling molecules. A meristematic layer, the procambium, is located between these two differentiated cell types and divides to initiate vascular growth. We report the identification of a receptor-like kinase (RLK) that is expressed in the vasculature. Histochemical analyses of mutants in this kinase display an aberrant accumulation of highly lignified cells, typical of xylem or fiber cells, within the phloem. In addition, phloem cells are sometimes located adjacent to xylem cells in these mutants. We, therefore, named this RLK XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM 1 (XIP1). Analyses of longitudinal profiles of xip1 mutant stems show malformed cell files, indicating defects in oriented cell divisions or cell morphology. We propose that XIP1 prevents ectopic lignification in phloem cells and is necessary to maintain the organization of cell files or cell morphology in conductive elements.

  15. Dual-Energy Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of Radiation-Induced Vascular Changes in Primary Mouse Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moding, Everett J. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ghaghada, Ketan [The Edward B. Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States); Johnson, G. Allan [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Badea, Cristian T., E-mail: [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials: Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4) with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results: Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4 (P<.05). There was a positive correlation between CT measurement of tumor FBV on day 1 and extravasated iodine on day 4 with microvascular density (MVD) on day 4 (R{sup 2}=0.53) and dextran accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.63) on day 4, respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P<.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 4.0-fold. Conclusions: DE micro-CT is an effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment.

  16. Vascular Imaging of Solid Tumors in Rats with a Radioactive Arsenic-Labeled Antibody that Binds Exposed Phosphatidylserine (United States)

    Jennewein, Marc; Lewis, Matthew A.; Zhao, Dawen; Tsyganov, Edward; Slavine, Nikolai; He, Jin; Watkins, Linda; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; O'Kelly, Sean; Kulkarni, Padmakar; Antich, Peter P.; Hermanne, Alex; Roösch, Frank; Mason, Ralph P.; Thorpe, Philip E.


    Purpose We recently reported that anionic phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, become exposed on the external surface of vascular endothelial cells in tumors, probably in response to oxidative stresses present in the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds phosphatidylserine could be labeled with radioactive arsenic isotopes and used for molecular imaging of solid tumors in rats. Experimental Design Bavituximab was labeled with 74As (β+,T1/2 17.8 days) or 77As (β−,T1/2 1.6 days) using a novel procedure. The radionuclides of arsenic were selected because their long half-lives are consistent with the long biological half lives of antibodies in vivo and because their chemistry permits stable attachment to antibodies. The radiolabeled antibodies were tested for the ability to image subcutaneous Dunning prostate R3227-AT1 tumors in rats. Results Clear images of the tumors were obtained using planar γ-scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Biodistribution studies confirmed the specific localization of bavituximab to the tumors. The tumor-to-liver ratio 72 h after injection was 22 for bavituximab compared with 1.5 for an isotype-matched control chimeric antibody of irrelevant specificity. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the bavituximab was labeling the tumor vascular endothelium. Conclusions These results show that radioarsenic-labeled bavituximab has potential as a new tool for imaging the vasculature of solid tumors. PMID:18316558

  17. Numerical Simulation of Steady and Pulsatile Flow Through Vascular Stenoses and Comparisons with Experiments Using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Behrens, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Ramesh; Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Choi, Eric T.; Amini, Amir A.


    A commercially available numerical flow solver "FLUENT" is employed in simulation of blood flow through vascular stenoses. Fluid properties are set to match those of the blood mimicking fluid used in flow phantom experiments at the Washington University School of Medicine. Computational results are compared for steady flow through axisymmetric and three-dimensional phantoms modeling mild to severe stenonses with the data collected using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) technique by colleagues in the CVIA laboratory at Washington University School of Medicine. Computations are also performed for pulsatile flow through vascular stenoses. Comparisons of PC-MRI and FLUENT output data show qualitative agreement in streamline patterns and good quantitative agreement for pressure drop across the stenoses.

  18. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Changlian [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Department of Physiology, Henan Traditional Medical University (China); Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Kuhn, Hans-Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Blomgren, Klas, E-mail: [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  19. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    CERN Document Server

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia


    Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

  20. Demonstration by radionuclide imaging of possible vascular steal from a renal transplant. [I-131, Tc-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloss, R.S.; McConnell, R.W.; McConnell, B.G.; Floyd, M.; Conner, W.T.; Henry, R.G.; Kahan, B.D.


    Radionuclide studies in a renal-transplant patient with congestive heart failure suggested vascular steal from the renal allograft by a contralateral femoral arteriovenous fistula. These reliable, noninvasive diagnostic procedures have potential use in similar settings to evaluate allograft perfusion and function. Correction by removal of the fistula was demonstrated.

  1. Repeated Structural Imaging Reveals Nonlinear Progression of Experience-Dependent Volume Changes in Human Motor Cortex. (United States)

    Wenger, Elisabeth; Kühn, Simone; Verrel, Julius; Mårtensson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin


    Evidence for experience-dependent structural brain change in adult humans is accumulating. However, its time course is not well understood, as intervention studies typically consist of only 2 imaging sessions (before vs. after training). We acquired up to 18 structural magnetic resonance images over a 7-week period while 15 right-handed participants practiced left-hand writing and drawing. After 4 weeks, we observed increases in gray matter of both left and right primary motor cortices relative to a control group; 3 weeks later, these differences were no longer reliable. Time-series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4 weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency. Similar patterns of expansion followed by partial renormalization are also found in synaptogenesis, cortical map plasticity, and maturation, and may qualify as a general principle of structural plasticity. Research on human brain plasticity needs to encompass more than 2 measurement occasions to capture expansion and potential renormalization processes over time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma vascularity before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization by using first pass perfusion weighted MR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Gong Zhao; Gan-Sheng Feng; Xiang-Quan Kong; Xin Li; Ming-Hua Li; Ying-Sheng Cheng


    AIM: To assess the vascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with the quantitative parameters obtained by first pass perfusion weighted MR imaging (FP-MRI).METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients with one to three lesions in liver underwent FP-MRI before treatment.FP-MRI was also performed one, three, six, nine months,and one year after TACE. The baseline signal intensity (SO)of pre-TACE and one month after TACE was analyzed, the vascularity of HCC assessed by steepest slope of the signal intensity versus time curves (SS) was blindly correlated with their DSA feature and clinical outcome.RESULT: No significant difference was found on baseline signal intensity (SO) between pre-TACE and one month after TACE (F=0.309, P=0.583), The SS (mean, 32% per second) of lesion one month after TACE was lower than that of pre-TACE (mean, 69% per second), but with no statistical significance (F=3.067, P=0.092). When local recurrence occurred, the time intensity curves became steeper. The vascularity of HCC before and after TACE graded by SS closely correlated with that by DSA (K=0.453, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: FP-MRI is a useful criterion for selecting effective interventional treatment for patients with HCC in their initial treatment and during follow up.

  3. SimVascular 2.0: an Integrated Open Source Pipeline for Image-Based Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation (United States)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Merkow, Jameson; Updegrove, Adam; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Shadden, Shawn; Marsden, Alison


    SimVascular ( is currently the only fully open source software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image based modeling to patient specific blood flow simulation and analysis. It was initially released in 2007 and has contributed to numerous advances in fundamental hemodynamics research, surgical planning, and medical device design. However, early versions had several major barriers preventing wider adoption by new users, large-scale application in clinical and research studies, and educational access. In the past years, SimVascular 2.0 has made significant progress by integrating open source alternatives for the expensive commercial libraries previously required for anatomic modeling, mesh generation and the linear solver. In addition, it simplified the across-platform compilation process, improved the graphical user interface and launched a comprehensive documentation website. Many enhancements and new features have been incorporated for the whole pipeline, such as 3-D segmentation, Boolean operation for discrete triangulated surfaces, and multi-scale coupling for closed loop boundary conditions. In this presentation we will briefly overview the modeling/simulation pipeline and advances of the new SimVascular 2.0.

  4. Diabetic nephropathy and endothelial dysfunction: Current and future therapies, and emerging of vascular imaging for preclinical renal-kinetic study. (United States)

    Leung, Wilson Kc; Gao, L; Siu, Parco M; Lai, Christopher Wk


    An explosion in global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus poses major rise in cases with vascular endothelial dysfunction ranging from micro- (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) to macro-vascular (atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy) conditions. Functional destruction of endothelium is regarded as an early event that lays the groundwork for the development of renal microangiopathy and subsequent clinical manifestation of nephropathic symptoms. Recent research has shed some light on the molecular mechanisms of type 2 diabetes-associated comorbidity of endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy. Stemming from currently proposed endothelium-centered therapeutic strategies for diabetic nephropathy, this review highlighted some most exploited pathways that involve the intricate coordination of vasodilators, vasoconstrictors and vaso-modulatory molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We also emphasized the emerging roles of oxidative and epigenetic modifications of microvasculature as our prospective therapeutics for diabetic renal diseases. Finally, this review in particular addressed the potential use of multispectral optoacoustic tomography in real-time, minimally-invasive vascular imaging of small experimental animals for preclinical renal-kinetic drug trials.

  5. A study of vascular response to thermal injury on hairless mice by fibre optic confocal imaging, laser doppler flowmetry and conventional histology. (United States)

    Vo, L T; Papworth, G D; Delaney, P M; Barkla, D H; King, R G


    Burn injury causes vascular thrombosis and occlusion by thermal damage to the vascular network in the dermis. In this study, fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) and laser doppler flowmetry were used to detect changes in vascular morphology and local dermal blood flux over 4 h, in three defined zones after a thermal burn (50 degrees C, 20 s duration, 3 mm in diameter) was induced on fully anaesthetised hairless mice. FITC-dextran (i.v.) was used to enable FOCI of vascular morphology including three-dimensional imaging of the burn site and its surrounding areas. Samples of the affected areas were collected for conventional histology, including Masson's trichrome. There was vascular damage in the zone of coagulation which showed no change during the 4 h period. The zone of stasis showed an initial reduction in blood flux and confocal imaging of the area indicated significant vessel leakage during the first 2 h which later improved. The zone of hyperaemia showed an initial increase in total blood flux and confocal imaging of the area showed initial blood vessel dilatation. This study demonstrates that FOCI is a useful non-invasive tool in the assessment of vascular changes in thermal burns in vivo, and compares the findings of FOCI with those from laser doppler flowmetry and histology.

  6. Microultrasound Molecular Imaging of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 in a Mouse Model of Tumor Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Rychak


    Full Text Available High-frequency microultrasound imaging of tumor progression in mice enables noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging at excellent spatial and temporal resolution, although microultrasonography alone does not offer molecular scale data. In the current study, we investigated the use of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents bearing targeting ligands specific for molecular markers of tumor angiogenesis using high-frequency microultrasound imaging. A xenograft tumor model in the mouse was used to image vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2 expression with microbubbles conjugated to an anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody or an isotype control. Microultrasound imaging was accomplished at a center frequency of 40 MHz, which provided lateral and axial resolutions of 40 and 90 μm, respectively. The B-mode (two-dimensional mode acoustic signal from microbubbles bound to the molecular target was determined by an ultrasound-based destruction-subtraction scheme. Quantification of the adherent microbubble fraction in nine tumor-bearing mice revealed significant retention of VEGFR-2-targeted microbubbles relative to control-targeted microbubbles. These data demonstrate that contrast-enhanced microultrasound imaging is a useful method for assessing molecular expression of tumor angiogenesis in mice at high resolution.

  7. Neurotology findings in patients with diagnosis of vascular loop of cranial nerves VIII in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grocoske, Francisco Luiz Busato

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vascular compression by redundant vessels under the VIII cranial nerves has been studied since the 80's, and many authors proposed correlations between the compression and the otoneurological findings (vertigo, tinnitus, hypoacusis, audiometry and electrophysiological findings. Objective: Analyze and correlate the different signs and otoneurological symptoms, the audiological findings and its incidence over individuals with Vascular Loop (VL diagnosis of VIII cranial nerves by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Method: Retrospective study through the analysis of medical records of 47 patients attended in the otoneurology clinic of Clinical Hospital of UFPR. All the patients have MRI exams with compatible pictures of VL of the VIII cranial nerves. Results: The tinnitus was the most frequent symptom, in 83% of the patients, followed by hypoacusis (60% and vertigo (36%. The audiometry presented alterations in 89%, the brainstem evoked auditory potential in 33% and the vecto-electronystagmography in 17% of the patients. Was not found statistically significant relation between the buzz or hypoacusis, and the presence of VL in MRI. Only 36% of patients had complaints of vertigo, the main symptom described in theory of vascular compression of the VIII pair of nerve. As in the audiometry and in brainstem evoked auditory potential was not found a statistically significant relation between the exam and the presence of the VL in the RMI. Conclusion: The results show independence between the findings of the RMI, clinical picture and audiological results (p>0,05 suggesting that there are no exclusive and direct relation between the diagnosis of vascular loop in the MRI and the clinical picture matching.

  8. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung lesions: repeatability of the apparent diffusion coefficient measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, L.; Douglas, N.H.M.; Collins, D.J.; Giles, S.L.; O' Flynn, E.A.M.; Orton, M.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    To establish repeatability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) acquired from free-breathing diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in malignant lung lesions and investigate effects of lesion size, location and respiratory motion. Thirty-six malignant lung lesions (eight patients) were examined twice (1- to 5-h interval) using T1-weighted, T2-weighted and axial single-shot echo-planar DW-MRI (b = 100, 500, 800 s/mm{sup 2}) during free-breathing. Regions of interest around target lesions on computed b = 800 s/mm{sup 2} images by two independent observers yielded ADC values from maps (pixel-by-pixel fitting using all b values and a mono-exponential decay model). Intra- and inter-observer repeatability was assessed per lesion, per patient and by lesion size (> or <2 cm) or location. ADCs were similar between observers (mean ± SD, 1.15 ± 0.28 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, observer 1; 1.15 ± 0.29 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, observer 2). Intra-observer coefficients of variation of the mean [median] ADC per lesion and per patient were 11 % [11.4 %], 5.7 % [5.7 %] for observer 1 and 9.2 % [9.5 %], 3.9 % [4.7 %] for observer 2 respectively; inter-observer values were 8.9 % [9.3 %] (per lesion) and 3.0 % [3.7 %] (per patient). Inter-observer coefficient of variation (CoV) was greater for lesions <2 cm (n = 20) compared with >2 cm (n = 16) (10.8 % vs 6.5 % ADC{sub mean}, 11.3 % vs 6.7 % ADC{sub median}) and for mid (n = 14) vs apical (n = 9) or lower zone (n = 13) lesions (13.9 %, 2.7 %, 3.8 % respectively ADC{sub mean}; 14.2 %, 2.8 %, 4.7 % respectively ADC{sub median}). Free-breathing DW-MRI of whole lung achieves good intra- and inter-observer repeatability of ADC measurements in malignant lung tumours. (orig.)

  9. Vascular invasion in pancreatic cancer:Imaging modalities,preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas; C; Buchs; Michael; Chilcott; Pierre-Alexandre; Poletti; Leo; H; Buhler; Philippe; Morel


    Pancreatic cancer is associated with a poor prognosis,and surgical resection remains the only chance for curative therapy.In the absence of metastatic disease,which would preclude resection,assessment of vascular invasion is an important parameter for determining resectability of pancreatic cancer.A frequent error is to misdiagnose an involved major vessel.Obviously,surgical exploration with pathological examination remains the"gold standard"in terms of evaluation of resectability,especially from the point ...

  10. Dual-phase CT for the assessment of acute vascular injuries in high-energy blunt trauma: the imaging findings and management implications. (United States)

    Iacobellis, Francesca; Ierardi, Anna M; Mazzei, Maria A; Magenta Biasina, Alberto; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Nicola, Refky; Scaglione, Mariano


    Acute vascular injuries are the second most common cause of fatalities in patients with multiple traumatic injuries; thus, prompt identification and management is essential for patient survival. Over the past few years, multidetector CT (MDCT) using dual-phase scanning protocol has become the imaging modality of choice in high-energy deceleration traumas. The objective of this article was to review the role of dual-phase MDCT in the identification and management of acute vascular injuries, particularly in the chest and abdomen following multiple traumatic injuries. In addition, this article will provide examples of MDCT features of acute vascular injuries with correlative surgical and interventional findings.

  11. Quantitative assessment of cancer vascular architecture by skeletonization of high-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images: role of liposomes and microbubbles. (United States)

    Molinari, F; Meiburger, K M; Giustetto, P; Rizzitelli, S; Boffa, C; Castano, M; Terreno, E


    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient "theranostic" (i.e. therapeutic 1 diagnostic) ultrasound probes.

  12. Retinal vascular calibre and response to light exposure and serial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Sjølie, Anne K.; Mathiesen, E. B.


    and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Outcome measures were difference in calibres after prior light versus prior dark exposure and difference in calibre during each of the two imaging sequences. Results: CRVE was wider with prior light exposure (2.7%, p = 0.0001), comparing the first image in each image......Purpose: To investigate whether retinal vessel calibre measurements on optical retinal photography are affected by light and dark exposure prior to photography and whether the vessel calibre changes during an imaging sequence of several images. Methods: Digital optical retinal photographs were...... obtained from 32 healthy adults in two separate image sequences of six images during 1 min; one sequence with 10 min of dark exposure and one with 10 min of light exposure prior to imaging. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibres were measured computer-assisted and summarized as central retinal artery...

  13. Vascular Cures (United States)

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  14. Non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Djaberi, R; Beishuizen, E D; Pereira, A M; Rabelink, T J; Smit, J W; Tamsma, J T; Huisman, M V; Jukema, J W


    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The criteria for the selection of those asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who should undergo cardiac screening and the therapeutic consequences of screening remain controversial. Non-invasive techniques as markers of atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemia may aid risk stratification and the implementation of tailored therapy for the patient with type 2 diabetes. In the present article we review the literature on the implementation of non-invasive vascular tools and cardiac imaging techniques in this patient group. The value of these techniques as endpoints in clinical trials and as risk estimators in asymptomatic diabetic patients is discussed. Carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation are abnormal long before the onset of type 2 diabetes. These vascular tools are therefore most likely to be useful for the identification of 'at risk' patients during the early stages of atherosclerotic disease. The additional value of these tools in risk stratification and tailored therapy in type 2 diabetes remains to be proven. Cardiac imaging techniques are more justified in individuals with a strong clinical suspicion of advanced coronary heart disease (CHD). Asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia can be detected by stress echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging. The more recently developed non-invasive multi-slice computed tomography angiography is recommended for exclusion of CHD, and can therefore be used to screen asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, but has the associated disadvantages of high radiation exposure and costs. Therefore, we propose an algorithm for the screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients, the first step of which consists of coronary artery calcium score assessment and exercise ECG.

  15. Ultrasound -- Vascular (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Vascular Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate ... the limitations of Vascular Ultrasound? What is Vascular Ultrasound? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Vascular (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Vascular Vascular ultrasound uses sound waves to evaluate the ... are the limitations of Vascular Ultrasound? What is Vascular Ultrasound? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  17. CEUS: A new imaging approach for postoperative vascular complications after right-lobe LDLT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Yu-Ting Fan; Qiang Lu; Bo Li; Tian-Fu Wen; Zhong-Wei Zhang


    AIM: To investigate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for early diagnosis of postoperative vascular complications after right-lobe living donor liver transplantation (RLDLT). METHODS: The ultrasonography results of 172 patients who underwent RLDLT in West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 2005 to June 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Among these 172 patients, 16 patients' hepatic artery flow and two patients' portal vein flow was not observed by Doppler ultrasound, and 10 patients' bridging vein flow was not shown by Doppler ultrasound and there was a regional inhomogeneous echo in the liver parenchyma upon 2D ultrasound. Thus, CEUS examination was performed in these 28 patients. RESULTS: Among the 16 patients without hepatic artery flow at Doppler ultrasound, CEUS showed nine cases of slender hepatic artery, six of hepatic arterial thrombosis that was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and/or surgery, and one of hepatic arterial occlusion with formation of lateral branches. Among the two patients without portal vein flow at Doppler ultrasound, CEUS showed one case of hematoma compression and one of portal vein thrombosis, and both were confirmed by surgery. Among the 10 patients without bridging vein flow and with liver parenchyma inhomogeneous echo, CEUS showed regionally poor perfusion in the inhomogeneous area, two of which were confirmed by enhanced computed tomography (CT), but no more additional information about bridging vein flow was provided by enhanced CT. CONCLUSION: CEUS may be a new approach for early diagnosis of postoperative vascular complications after RLDLT, and it can be performed at the bedside.

  18. Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Deficiency: Lessons from Imaging Studies and Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Reed-Cossairt


    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS individuals are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD and consequently provide a unique opportunity to examine the factors leading to the onset of AD. This paper focuses on the neglected vascular parallels between AD and DS that can readily be examined in DS. Several recent AD studies provide evidence that internal jugular vein (IJV reflux may result in white matter lesions and a 30% decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF clearance of amyloid-β. At the same time, studies analyzing the synthesis of amyloid-β in DS showed greater than expected amounts of Aβ than would be predicted by the increase in gene dosage, perhaps due to slower clearance. These studies are discussed along with the possibility that the venous and CSF dysfunction found in AD patients may be present early in life in persons with DS, leaving them particularly vulnerable to early onset AD. Studying IJV function in DS provides an opportunity to understand the role of vascular function in the initiation of AD.

  19. Fluorescent magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for cardiac precursor cell selection from stromal vascular fraction and optimization for magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma VK


    Full Text Available Vinod Kumar Verma,1 Suguna Ratnakar Kamaraju,1 Ravindranath Kancherla,1 Lakshmi K Kona,1 Syed Sultan Beevi,1 Tanya Debnath,1 Shalini P Usha,1 Rammohan Vadapalli,2 Ali Syed Arbab,3 Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri11Department of Transplant Biology, Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratory, Global Hospitals, 2Department of Imageology, Vijaya Radiology Centre, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: Fluorescent magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used to label cells for imaging as well as for therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this study was to modify the approach to develop a nanoprobe for cell selection and imaging with a direct therapeutic translational focus. The approach involves physical coincubation and adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-polyethylene glycol (SPION-PEG complexes with a monoclonal antibody (mAb or a set of antibodies. Flow cytometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, iron staining, and magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess cell viability, function, and labeling efficiency. This process has been validated by selecting adipose tissue-derived cardiac progenitor cells from the stromal vascular fraction using signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA/kinase domain receptor (KDR mAbs. These markers were chosen because of their sustained expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation. Sorting of cells positive for SIRPA and KDR allowed the enrichment of cardiac progenitors with 90% troponin-I positivity in differentiation cultures. SPION labeled cardiac progenitor cells (1×105 cells was mixed with gel and used for 3T magnetic resonance imaging at a concentration, as low as 12.5 µg of iron. The toxicity assays, at cellular and molecular levels, did not show any detrimental effects of SPION. Our study has the potential to achieve moderate to high specific cell selection for the dual purpose of

  20. Comprehensive vascular imaging using optical coherence tomography-based angiography and photoacoustic tomography (United States)

    Zabihian, Behrooz; Chen, Zhe; Rank, Elisabet; Sinz, Christoph; Bonesi, Marco; Sattmann, Harald; Ensher, Jason; Minneman, Michael P.; Hoover, Erich; Weingast, Jessika; Ginner, Laurin; Leitgeb, Rainer; Kittler, Harald; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul; Drexler, Wolfgang; Liu, Mengyang


    Studies have proven the relationship between cutaneous vasculature abnormalities and dermatological disorders, but to image vasculature noninvasively in vivo, advanced optical imaging techniques are required. In this study, we imaged a palm of a healthy volunteer and three subjects with cutaneous abnormalities with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography with angiography extension (OCTA). Capillaries in the papillary dermis that are too small to be discerned with PAT are visualized with OCTA. From our results, we speculate that the PA signal from the palm is mostly from hemoglobin in capillaries rather than melanin, knowing that melanin concentration in volar skin is significantly smaller than that in other areas of the skin. We present for the first time OCTA images of capillaries along with the PAT images of the deeper vessels, demonstrating the complementary effective imaging depth range and the visualization capabilities of PAT and OCTA for imaging human skin in vivo. The proposed imaging system in this study could significantly improve treatment monitoring of dermatological diseases associated with cutaneous vasculature abnormalities.

  1. Automatic detection and segmentation of vascular structures in dermoscopy images using a novel vesselness measure based on pixel redness and tubularness (United States)

    Kharazmi, Pegah; Lui, Harvey; Stoecker, William V.; Lee, Tim


    Vascular structures are one of the most important features in the diagnosis and assessment of skin disorders. The presence and clinical appearance of vascular structures in skin lesions is a discriminating factor among different skin diseases. In this paper, we address the problem of segmentation of vascular patterns in dermoscopy images. Our proposed method is composed of three parts. First, based on biological properties of human skin, we decompose the skin to melanin and hemoglobin component using independent component analysis of skin color images. The relative quantities and pure color densities of each component were then estimated. Subsequently, we obtain three reference vectors of the mean RGB values for normal skin, pigmented skin and blood vessels from the hemoglobin component by averaging over 100000 pixels of each group outlined by an expert. Based on the Euclidean distance thresholding, we generate a mask image that extracts the red regions of the skin. Finally, Frangi measure was applied to the extracted red areas to segment the tubular structures. Finally, Otsu's thresholding was applied to segment the vascular structures and get a binary vessel mask image. The algorithm was implemented on a set of 50 dermoscopy images. In order to evaluate the performance of our method, we have artificially extended some of the existing vessels in our dermoscopy data set and evaluated the performance of the algorithm to segment the newly added vessel pixels. A sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 87% were achieved.

  2. Imaging of skin birefringence for human scar assessment using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography aided by vascular masking (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Chin, Lixin; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Liew, Yih Miin; Wood, Fiona M.; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.


    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2±0.2 (mean±standard deviation), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1±0.4. This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment.

  3. Visualizing the Acute Effects of Vascular-Targeted Therapy In Vivo Using Intravital Microscopy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Endothelial Apoptosis, Cytokine Induction, and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund Seshadri


    Full Text Available The acute effects of the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA were investigated in vivo using intravital microscopy (IVM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Changes in vascular permeability and blood flow of syngeneic CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinomas were assessed at 4 and 24 hours after DMXAA treatment (30 mg/kg, i.p. and correlated with induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, endothelial damage [CD31/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT], and treatment outcome. Intravital imaging revealed a marked increase in vascular permeability 4 hours after treatment, consistent with increases in intratumoral mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α. Parallel contrast-enhanced MRI studies showed a ~ 4-fold increase in longitudinal relaxation rates (ΔR1, indicative of increased contrast agent accumulation within the tumor. Dualimmunostained tumor sections (CD31/TdT revealed evidence of endothelial apoptosis at this time point. Twenty-four hours after treatment, extensive hemorrhage and complete disruption of vascular architecture were observed with IVM, along with a significant reduction in ΔR1 and virtual absence of CD31 immunostaining. DMXAA-induced tumor vascular damage resulted in significant long-term (60-day cures compared to untreated controls. Multimodality imaging approaches are useful in visualizing the effects of antivascular therapy in vivo. Such approaches allow cross validation and correlation of findings with underlying molecular changes contributing to treatment outcome.

  4. Multifunctional in vivo vascular imaging using near-infrared II fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Guosong; Robinson, Joshua T; Raaz, Uwe; Xie, Liming; Huang, Ngan F; Cooke, John P; Dai, Hongjie


    In vivo real-time epifluorescence imaging of mouse hindlimb vasculatures in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1.1~1.4 microns) is performed using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as fluorophores. Both high spatial resolution (~30 microns) and temporal resolution (<200 ms/frame) for small vessel imaging are achieved 1-3 mm deep in the tissue owing to the beneficial NIR-II optical window that affords deep anatomical penetration and low scattering. This spatial resolution is unattainable by traditional NIR imaging (NIR-I, 0.75~0.9 microns) or microscopic computed tomography (micro-CT), while the temporal resolution far exceeds scanning microscopic imaging techniques. Arterial and venous vessels are unambiguously differentiated using a dynamic contrast-enhanced NIR-II imaging technique based on their distinct hemodynamics. Further, the deep tissue penetration, high spatial and temporal resolution of NIR-II imaging allow for precise quantifications of blood velocity in both normal and ischemic femo...

  5. TU-AB-BRA-05: Repeatability of [F-18]-NaF PET Imaging Biomarkers for Bone Lesions: A Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C; Bradshaw, T; Perk, T; Harmon, S; Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin - Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, G


    Purpose: Quantifying the repeatability of imaging biomarkers is critical for assessing therapeutic response. While therapeutic efficacy has been traditionally quantified by SUV metrics, imaging texture features have shown potential for use as quantitative biomarkers. In this study we evaluated the repeatability of quantitative {sup 18}F-NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features in bone lesions from patients in a multicenter study. Methods: Twenty-nine metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients received whole-body test-retest NaF PET/CT scans from one of three harmonized imaging centers. Bone lesions of volume greater than 1.5 cm{sup 3} were identified and automatically segmented using a SUV>15 threshold. From each lesion, 55 NaF PET-derived texture features (including first-order, co-occurrence, grey-level run-length, neighbor gray-level, and neighbor gray-tone difference matrix) were extracted. The test-retest repeatability of each SUV metric and texture feature was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A total of 315 bone lesions were evaluated. Of the traditional SUV metrics, the repeatability coefficient (RC) was 12.6 SUV for SUVmax, 2.5 SUV for SUVmean, and 4.3 cm{sup 3} for volume. Their respective intralesion coefficients of variation (COVs) were 12%, 17%, and 6%. Of the texture features, COV was lowest for entropy (0.03%) and highest for kurtosis (105%). Lesion intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was lowest for maximum correlation coefficient (ICC=0.848), and highest for entropy (ICC=0.985). Across imaging centers, repeatability of texture features and SUV varied. For example, across imaging centers, COV for SUVmax ranged between 11–23%. Conclusion: Many NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features for bone lesions demonstrated high repeatability, such as SUVmax, entropy, and volume. Several imaging texture features demonstrated poor repeatability, such as SUVtotal and SUVstd. These results can be used to establish

  6. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging (United States)

    Errico, Claudia; Pierre, Juliette; Pezet, Sophie; Desailly, Yann; Lenkei, Zsolt; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael


    Non-invasive imaging deep into organs at microscopic scales remains an open quest in biomedical imaging. Although optical microscopy is still limited to surface imaging owing to optical wave diffusion and fast decorrelation in tissue, revolutionary approaches such as fluorescence photo-activated localization microscopy led to a striking increase in resolution by more than an order of magnitude in the last decade. In contrast with optics, ultrasonic waves propagate deep into organs without losing their coherence and are much less affected by in vivo decorrelation processes. However, their resolution is impeded by the fundamental limits of diffraction, which impose a long-standing trade-off between resolution and penetration. This limits clinical and preclinical ultrasound imaging to a sub-millimetre scale. Here we demonstrate in vivo that ultrasound imaging at ultrafast frame rates (more than 500 frames per second) provides an analogue to optical localization microscopy by capturing the transient signal decorrelation of contrast agents—inert gas microbubbles. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy allowed both non-invasive sub-wavelength structural imaging and haemodynamic quantification of rodent cerebral microvessels (less than ten micrometres in diameter) more than ten millimetres below the tissue surface, leading to transcranial whole-brain imaging within short acquisition times (tens of seconds). After intravenous injection, single echoes from individual microbubbles were detected through ultrafast imaging. Their localization, not limited by diffraction, was accumulated over 75,000 images, yielding 1,000,000 events per coronal plane and statistically independent pixels of ten micrometres in size. Precise temporal tracking of microbubble positions allowed us to extract accurately in-plane velocities of the blood flow with a large dynamic range (from one millimetre per second to several centimetres per second). These results pave the way for deep non

  7. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging. (United States)

    Errico, Claudia; Pierre, Juliette; Pezet, Sophie; Desailly, Yann; Lenkei, Zsolt; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael


    Non-invasive imaging deep into organs at microscopic scales remains an open quest in biomedical imaging. Although optical microscopy is still limited to surface imaging owing to optical wave diffusion and fast decorrelation in tissue, revolutionary approaches such as fluorescence photo-activated localization microscopy led to a striking increase in resolution by more than an order of magnitude in the last decade. In contrast with optics, ultrasonic waves propagate deep into organs without losing their coherence and are much less affected by in vivo decorrelation processes. However, their resolution is impeded by the fundamental limits of diffraction, which impose a long-standing trade-off between resolution and penetration. This limits clinical and preclinical ultrasound imaging to a sub-millimetre scale. Here we demonstrate in vivo that ultrasound imaging at ultrafast frame rates (more than 500 frames per second) provides an analogue to optical localization microscopy by capturing the transient signal decorrelation of contrast agents--inert gas microbubbles. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy allowed both non-invasive sub-wavelength structural imaging and haemodynamic quantification of rodent cerebral microvessels (less than ten micrometres in diameter) more than ten millimetres below the tissue surface, leading to transcranial whole-brain imaging within short acquisition times (tens of seconds). After intravenous injection, single echoes from individual microbubbles were detected through ultrafast imaging. Their localization, not limited by diffraction, was accumulated over 75,000 images, yielding 1,000,000 events per coronal plane and statistically independent pixels of ten micrometres in size. Precise temporal tracking of microbubble positions allowed us to extract accurately in-plane velocities of the blood flow with a large dynamic range (from one millimetre per second to several centimetres per second). These results pave the way for deep non

  8. Imaging of spontaneous ventriculomegaly and vascular malformations in Wistar rats: implications for preclinical research. (United States)

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L Christine; Williams, Rashida A; Lescher, Jacob D; Dean, Dana D; Frank, Joseph A


    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not used, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70 (43.2%) of 162 Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were used to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesions, and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging showed significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurologic disease or injury in Wistar rats.

  9. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis Using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Conjugated Microbubbles (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Qin, Bin; Chen, Xucai; Wagner, William R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.


    Imaging of angiogenesis receptors could provide a sensitive and clinically useful method for detecting neovascularization such as occurs in malignant tumors, and responses to anti-angiogenic therapies for such tumors. We tested the hypothesis that microbubbles (MB) tagged with human VEGF121 (MBVEGF) bind to the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in vitro and angiogenic endothelium in vivo, and that this specific binding can be imaged on a clinical ultrasound system. In this work, targeted adhesion of MBVEGF was evaluated in vitro using a parallel plate flow system containing adsorbed recombinant human KDR. There was more adhesion of MBVEGF to KDR-coated plates when the amount of VEGF121 on each MB or KDR density on the plate was increased. MBVEGF adhesion to KDR-coated plates decreased with increasing wall shear rate. On intravital microscopic imaging of bFGF-stimulated rat cremaster muscle, there was greater microvascular adhesion of MBVEGF compared to that of isotype IgG-conjugated control MB (MBCTL). To determine if MBVEGF could be used to ultrasonically image angiogenesis, ultrasound imaging was performed in mice bearing squamous cell carcinoma after intravenous injection of MBVEGF. Ultrasound videointensity enhancement in tumor was significantly higher for MBVEGF (17.3±9.7 dB) compared to MBCTL (3.8±4.4 dB, n=6, ptumor angiogenesis and could be extended to other applications such as molecular monitoring of therapeutic angiogenesis or anti-angiogenic therapies in cardiovascular disease or cancer. PMID:28165246

  10. Analyzing Structure and Function of Vascularization in Engineered Bone Tissue by Video-Rate Intravital Microscopy and 3D Image Processing. (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Tsigkou, Olga; Spencer, Joel A; Lin, Charles P; Neville, Craig; Grottkau, Brian


    Vascularization is a key challenge in tissue engineering. Three-dimensional structure and microcirculation are two fundamental parameters for evaluating vascularization. Microscopic techniques with cellular level resolution, fast continuous observation, and robust 3D postimage processing are essential for evaluation, but have not been applied previously because of technical difficulties. In this study, we report novel video-rate confocal microscopy and 3D postimage processing techniques to accomplish this goal. In an immune-deficient mouse model, vascularized bone tissue was successfully engineered using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold. Video-rate (30 FPS) intravital confocal microscopy was applied in vitro and in vivo to visualize the vascular structure in the engineered bone and the microcirculation of the blood cells. Postimage processing was applied to perform 3D image reconstruction, by analyzing microvascular networks and calculating blood cell viscosity. The 3D volume reconstructed images show that the hMSCs served as pericytes stabilizing the microvascular network formed by HUVECs. Using orthogonal imaging reconstruction and transparency adjustment, both the vessel structure and blood cells within the vessel lumen were visualized. Network length, network intersections, and intersection densities were successfully computed using our custom-developed software. Viscosity analysis of the blood cells provided functional evaluation of the microcirculation. These results show that by 8 weeks, the blood vessels in peripheral areas function quite similarly to the host vessels. However, the viscosity drops about fourfold where it is only 0.8 mm away from the host. In summary, we developed novel techniques combining intravital microscopy and 3D image processing to analyze the vascularization in engineered bone. These techniques have broad

  11. Multi-focus Image Fusion Using Epifluorescence Microscopy for Robust Vascular Segmentation (United States)

    Pelapur, Rengarajan; Prasath, V. B. Surya; Bunyak, Filiz; Glinskii, Olga V.; Glinsky, Vladislav V.; Huxley, Virginia H.; Palaniappan, Kannappan


    Automatic segmentation of three-dimensional microvascular structures is needed for quantifying morphological changes to blood vessels during development, disease and treatment processes. Single focus two-dimensional epifluorescent imagery lead to unsatisfactory segmentations due to multiple out of focus vessel regions that have blurred edge structures and lack of detail. Additional segmentation challenges include varying contrast levels due to diffusivity of the lectin stain, leakage out of vessels and fine morphological vessel structure. We propose an approach for vessel segmentation that combines multi-focus image fusion with robust adaptive filtering. The robust adaptive filtering scheme handles noise without destroying small structures, while multi-focus image fusion considerably improves segmentation quality by deblurring out-of-focus regions through incorporating 3D structure information from multiple focus steps. Experiments using epifluorescence images of mice dura mater show an average of 30.4% improvement compared to single focus microvasculature segmentation. PMID:25571050

  12. Test-retest repeatability of myocardial blood flow and infarct size using {sup 11}C-acetate micro-PET imaging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; McDonald, Matthew; Klein, Ran; DaSilva, Jean N.; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DeKemp, Robert A. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Global and regional responses of absolute myocardial blood flow index (iMBF) are used as surrogate markers to assess response to therapies in coronary artery disease. In this study, we assessed the test-retest repeatability of iMBF imaging, and the accuracy of infarct sizing in mice using {sup 11}C-acetate PET. {sup 11}C-Acetate cardiac PET images were acquired in healthy controls, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout transgenic mice, and mice after myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate global and regional iMBF, and myocardial infarct size compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET and ex-vivo histology results. Global test-retest iMBF values had good coefficients of repeatability (CR) in healthy mice, eNOS knockout mice and normally perfused regions in MI mice (CR = 1.6, 2.0 and 1.5 mL/min/g, respectively). Infarct size measured on {sup 11}C-acetate iMBF images was also repeatable (CR = 17 %) and showed a good correlation with the infarct sizes found on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and histopathology (r{sup 2} > 0.77; p < 0.05). {sup 11}C-Acetate micro-PET assessment of iMBF and infarct size is repeatable and suitable for serial investigation of coronary artery disease progression and therapy. (orig.)

  13. Uncluttered Single-Image Visualization of Vascular Structures Using GPU and Integer Programming. (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Jeon, Yongkweon; Rosenberg, Jarrett K; Yoon, Sungroh; Rubin, Geoffrey D; Napel, Sandy


    Direct projection of 3D branching structures, such as networks of cables, blood vessels, or neurons onto a 2D image creates the illusion of intersecting structural parts and creates challenges for understanding and communication. We present a method for visualizing such structures, and demonstrate its utility in visualizing the abdominal aorta and its branches, whose tomographic images might be obtained by computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image, without overlaps among branches. The visualization method, termed uncluttered single-image visualization (USIV), involves optimization of geometry. This paper proposes a novel optimization technique that utilizes an interesting connection of the optimization problem regarding USIV to the protein structure prediction problem. Adopting the integer linear programming-based formulation for the protein structure prediction problem, we tested the proposed technique using 30 visualizations produced from five patient scans with representative anatomical variants in the abdominal aortic vessel tree. The novel technique can exploit commodity-level parallelism, enabling use of general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) technology that yields a significant speedup. Comparison of the results with the other optimization technique previously reported elsewhere suggests that, in most aspects, the quality of the visualization is comparable to that of the previous one, with a significant gain in the computation time of the algorithm.

  14. Assessing algorithms for defining vascular architecture in subharmonic images of breast lesions. (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Joshi, Neha; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming


    The ability to accurately and non-invasively characterize breast lesions and their vasculature would greatly limit the number of unneeded biopsies performed annually. Subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) allows exclusive imaging of vasculature in real time, while completely suppressing tissue signals. Previously, cumulative maximum intensity (CMI) projections of SHI data were shown to be useful for characterization, but lacked means of quantification. In this study we investigate three potential thinning algorithms for defining breast lesion architecture. Sequential thinning, parallel thinning, and distance transformation algorithms were compared using 40 in vitro test images. Sequential thinning was selected due to superior connectivity, minimal rotational variance, and sufficient data reduction. This algorithm was then applied to 16 CMI SHI images of breast lesions, out of which 13 were successfully skeletonized. Average bifurcations were 9.8 ± 8.18 and 6.9 ± 6.50 in malignant and benign lesions, respectively (p > 0.60). Average vessel-chain length was 88.9 ± 79.10 pixels versus 63.2 ± 45.65 pixels in malignant versus benign lesions (p > 0.40). While the sequential thinning algorithm was promising for quantifying breast vasculature, its ability to significantly differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in this study was limited by a high degree of variability and limited sample size.

  15. Assessing algorithms for defining vascular architecture in subharmonic images of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Joshi, Neha; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, 137 South 10th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)


    The ability to accurately and non-invasively characterize breast lesions and their vasculature would greatly limit the number of unneeded biopsies performed annually. Subharmonic ultrasound imaging (SHI) allows exclusive imaging of vasculature in real time, while completely suppressing tissue signals. Previously, cumulative maximum intensity (CMI) projections of SHI data were shown to be useful for characterization, but lacked means of quantification. In this study we investigate three potential thinning algorithms for defining breast lesion architecture. Sequential thinning, parallel thinning, and distance transformation algorithms were compared using 40 in vitro test images. Sequential thinning was selected due to superior connectivity, minimal rotational variance, and sufficient data reduction. This algorithm was then applied to 16 CMI SHI images of breast lesions, out of which 13 were successfully skeletonized. Average bifurcations were 9.8 {+-} 8.18 and 6.9 {+-} 6.50 in malignant and benign lesions, respectively (p > 0.60). Average vessel-chain length was 88.9 {+-} 79.10 pixels versus 63.2 {+-} 45.65 pixels in malignant versus benign lesions (p > 0.40). While the sequential thinning algorithm was promising for quantifying breast vasculature, its ability to significantly differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in this study was limited by a high degree of variability and limited sample size.

  16. Digital Image Analysis of Flowering in the Repeat-Blooming Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) in Relation to Climatic Factors (United States)

    Benton, L. M.; Kurc, S. A.


    Recent studies have shown that phenology (seasonal timing of life cycle events) is an effective integrator of the impacts of climate change on natural systems. Thus, understanding the climate signals that activate plant phenological responses (e.g., flowering and leaf production) will allow for improved modeling efforts and more effective ecosystem management strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change. With warmer and drier weather patterns predicted for the Desert Southwest in the coming century it can be expected that plant phenological patterns will be altered as a result. The most dominant and widespread shrub species of the warm desert ecosystems of North America is the creosotebush (Larrea tridentata). Consequently, creosotebush has a major impact on the structure, functioning, and flow of resources (i.e., carbon, water, and energy) in these regions, and when in bloom serves as an abundant and reliable food source for hundreds of pollinating insects that synchronize their emergence with flowering time. In this study, we hypothesize that frequency, duration and abundance of flowers in the repeat-blooming creosotebush are regulated by (1) temperature during the spring and (2) soil moisture below the depth of atmospheric demand in the summer. We make use of daily digital images from three stations at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. These stations are located within the footprint of an eddy covariance tower, where continuous records of precipitation, air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture at various depths, and net radiation are also being collected. Unlike more discrete methods used to observe seasonal changes in vegetation, use of daily images results in a continuous record that can be directly compared to micrometeorological data, allowing us to evaluate the bloom-up response of creosotebush alongside (1) air temperature, (2) soil temperature, and (3) soil water content fluctuations across time. We show that this

  17. Study of microvascular structure in keloid and hypertrophic scars: density of microvessels and the efficacy of three-dimensional vascular imaging. (United States)

    Kurokawa, Norifumi; Ueda, Koichi; Tsuji, Motomu


    We have investigated the blood vessels in keloids and hypertrophic scars, both morphologically and statistically. We also tried to construct three-dimensional images of blood vessels in a keloid and hypertrophic scar to clarify the vascular patterns. Keloids (n = 16) and hypertrophic scars (n = 12) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained with anti-CD31 antibody. The capillary density (number/1.0 mm(2)) and length of the major and minor axes were measured, and the major:minor axis ratio was calculated. Eighty serial sections were prepared from the preparations. Using image preparation software (Realia, INTAGE), the 80 input images were superimposed to construct a three-dimensional image of blood vessels in the tissue. We initially succeeded in constructing three-dimensional images of blood vessels in a keloid and hypertrophic scar. By statistical analysis of the vascular density and morphology, we clarified that there were fewer capillaries in keloids than in hypertrophic scars (p < 0.01), and that the vascular lumen was flattened. Capillaries in the central region of keloids tended to flat, compared with those in the marginal region. Three-dimensional images suggested that there was no microvascular communication in keloids; there was also an inadequate blood supply in keloid tissue. These findings may be a result of the growth of collagen and fibroblasts with keloid maturation.

  18. Treatment planning for image-guided neuro-vascular interventions using patient-specific 3D printed phantoms (United States)

    Russ, M.; O'Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.


    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patientspecific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays.

  19. Micro-CT imaging of tumor angiogenesis: quantitative measures describing micromorphology and vascularization. (United States)

    Ehling, Josef; Theek, Benjamin; Gremse, Felix; Baetke, Sarah; Möckel, Diana; Maynard, Juliana; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Grüll, Holger; Neeman, Michal; Knuechel, Ruth; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan


    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, and its noninvasive visualization and quantification are key factors for facilitating translational anticancer research. Using four tumor models characterized by different degrees of aggressiveness and angiogenesis, we show that the combination of functional in vivo and anatomical ex vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows highly accurate quantification of relative blood volume (rBV) and highly detailed three-dimensional analysis of the vascular network in tumors. Depending on the tumor model, rBV values determined using in vivo μCT ranged from 2.6% to 6.0%, and corresponds well with the values assessed using IHC. Using ultra-high-resolution ex vivo μCT, blood vessels as small as 3.4 μm and vessel branches up to the seventh order could be visualized, enabling a highly detailed and quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional micromorphology of tumor vessels. Microvascular parameters such as vessel size and vessel branching correlated very well with tumor aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In rapidly growing and highly angiogenic A431 tumors, the majority of vessels were small and branched only once or twice, whereas in slowly growing A549 tumors, the vessels were much larger and branched four to seven times. Thus, we consider that combining highly accurate functional with highly detailed anatomical μCT is a useful tool for facilitating high-throughput, quantitative, and translational (anti-) angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis research.

  20. 3D iterative helical targeted CT. Application to contrast-enhanced vascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, David; Goussard, Yves; Hamelin, Benoit [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada). Inst. de Genie Biomedical; Dussault, Jean-Pierre [Sherbrooke Univ., Sherbrooke, QC (Canada). Dept. d' Informatique; Beaudoin, Gilles; Cloutier, Guy; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Soulez, Gilles [Montreal Univ., Hopital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada). Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier


    We present the implementation of a iterative reconstruction algorithm for 3D helical computed tomography. The main difficulties of helical CT reconstruction are the large memory footprint of the tools and data involved, as well as the very long runtime of the iterative methods. The proposed solution hinges on the following three features: (1) a multiple-ray-driven projection operator with a parsimonious representation; (2) a targeted reconstruction framework that restricts the iterative reconstruction effort to a region of interest within the imaged volume; (3) the choice of a fast convergent solver for the nonlinear reconstruction problem. Results on clinical-size data show significant improvement in image quality over the default scanner reconstruction and an acceptable computation cost. (orig.)

  1. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells (United States)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille


    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  2. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail:; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)


    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  3. A comparison of the oblique sagittal view obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and the intraoperative findings of vascular compression in cases of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Tohru; Omata, Tomohiro; Ueno, Takehiko; Uchida, Mikito; Nukui, Hideaki (Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamaho (Japan)); Sasaki, Hideo; Tsuji, Reizou


    We show how neurosurgical planning can benefit from the better visualization of the precise vascular compression of the nerves provided by the oblique sagittal and gradient-echo method (OS-GR image) using magnetic resonance images (MRI) and by comparing these results with the findings of microvascular decompression. The scans of 5 patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and 18 with hemifacial spasm (HFS) were analysed for the presence and appearance of the vascular compression of the nerves; all these 23 patients were operated on. Imaging sequences consisted of an OS-GR image (TR/TE: 200/20, 3-mm-thick slice) cut along each nerve shown by the axial view, which was scanned at the angle of 105 degrees taken between the dorsal line of the brain stem and the line corresponding to the pontmedullary junction. The rate of correspondence between the OS-GR images and the intraoperative findings was 80% in the TN's and 89% in the HFS's. In all these OS-GR images, the vascular compressions of the REZ of the trigeminal or facial nerve were well visualized as curvilinear high-intensity lines and/or spots. Furthermore, the relationship between the vascular compressions and nerves could be foreseen preoperatively in 40% of the TN's and in 55.6% of the HFS's. It is concluded that OS-GR images obtained by means of MRI may serve as useful planning aids prior to microvascular decompression for cases of TN and HFS because of the corresponding operative view along the approach. (author).

  4. Molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in experimental atherosclerotic plaques with radiolabelled B2702-p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisat, A.; Riou, L.M.; Ardisson, V.; Fagret, D.; Ghezzi, C. [INSERM, U340, Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques, La Tronche (France); Universite de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Boturyn, D.; Dumy, P. [Universite de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); LEDSS V - Ingenierie Moleculaire, CNRS UMR 5616, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)


    VCAM-1 plays a major role in the chronic inflammatory processes present in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The residues 75-84 (B2702-p) and 84-75/75-84 (B2702-rp) of the major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-1) molecule B2702 were previously shown to bind specifically to VCAM-1. We hypothesised that radiolabelled B2702-p and B2702-rp might have potential for the molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Preliminary biodistribution studies indicated that {sup 125}I-B2702-rp was unsuitable for in vivo imaging owing to extremely high lung uptake. {sup 123}I- or {sup 99m}Tc-labelled B2702-p was injected intravenously to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits (WHHL, n = 6) and control animals (n = 6). After 180 min, aortas were harvested for ex vivo autoradiographic imaging, gamma-well counting, VCAM-1 immunohistology and Sudan IV lipid staining. Robust VCAM-1 immunostaining was observed in Sudan IV-positive and to a lesser extent in Sudan IV-negative areas of WHHL animals, whereas no expression was detected in control animals. Significant 2.9-fold and 1.9-fold increases in {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p aortic-to-blood ratios, respectively, were observed between WHHL and control animals (p < 0.05). Tracer uptake on ex vivo images co-localised with atherosclerotic plaques. Image quantification indicated a graded increase in {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p activities from control to Sudan IV-negative and to Sudan IV-positive areas, consistent with the observed pattern of VCAM-1 expression. Sudan IV-positive to control area tracer activity ratios were 17.0 {+-} 9.0 and 5.9 {+-} 1.8 for {sup 123}I-B2702-p and {sup 99m}Tc-B2702-p, respectively. Radiolabelled B2702-p is a potentially useful radiotracer for the molecular imaging of VCAM-1 in atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Imaging in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Using 89Zr-Bevacizumab Positron Emission Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golestani


    Full Text Available Intraplaque angiogenesis is associated with the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Cardiovascular molecular imaging can be used for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Imaging with radiolabeled bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, can depict VEGF levels corresponding to the angiogenic status in tumors. We determined the feasibility of 89Zr-bevacizumab imaging for the detection of VEGF in carotid endarterectomy (CEA specimens. Five CEA specimens were coincubated with 89Zr-bevacizumab and aspecific 111In-labeled IgG to determine the specificity of bevacizumab accumulation. In 11 CEA specimens, 89Zr-bevacizumab micro-positron emission tomography (PET was performed following 2 hours of incubation. Specimens were cut in 4 mm wide segments and were stained for VEGF and CD68. In each segment, the mean percent incubation dose per gram of tissue (%Inc/g and tissue to background ratio were determined. A 10-fold higher accumulation of 89Zr-bevacizumab compared to 111In-IgG uptake was demonstrated by gamma counting. The mean %Inc/ghot spot was 2.2 ± 0.9 with a hot spot to background ratio of 3.6 ± 0.8. There was a significant correlation between the segmental tissue to background uptake ratio and the VEGF score (ρ = .74, p < .001. It is feasible to detect VEGF tissue concentration within CEA specimens using 89Zr-bevacizumab PET. 89Zr-bevacizumab accumulation in plaques is specific and correlates with immunohistochemistry scores.

  6. Vascular Cures (United States)

    ... is Possible EVERY DOLLAR SAVES LIVES. Donate Now Vascular Cures innovates patient-centered research, catalyzes breakthrough collaborations and empowers people in their vascular health journey. what is vascular disease PATIENTS see ...

  7. Vascular ring (United States)

    ... subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... Vascular ring is rare. It accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition ...

  8. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging for quantitative tumour burden assessment using IV or IP administration of d-luciferin: effect on intensity, time kinetics and repeatability of photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyaerts, Marleen; Vanhove, Chris; Caveliers, Vicky; Bossuyt, Axel; Lahoutte, Tony [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging (ICMI) Laboratory, Brussels (Belgium); University Hospital Brussels (UZ-Brussel), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Verschueren, Jacob [University of Antwerp, Bio-Imaging lab, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Antwerp (Belgium); Bos, Tomas J. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Department of Haematology and Immunology, Brussels (Belgium); Tchouate-Gainkam, Lea O.; Peleman, Cindy [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging (ICMI) Laboratory, Brussels (Belgium); Breckpot, Karine [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Physiology and Immunology, Brussels (Belgium)


    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a promising technique for non-invasive tumour imaging. d-luciferin can be administrated intraperitonealy or intravenously. This will influence its availability and, therefore, the bioluminescent signal. The aim of this study is to compare the repeatability of BLI measurement after IV versus IP administration of d-luciferin and assess the correlation between photon emission and histological cell count both in vitro and in vivo. Fluc-positive R1M cells were subcutaneously inoculated in nu/nu mice. Dynamic BLI was performed after IV or IP administration of d-luciferin. Maximal photon emission (PE{sub max}) was calculated. For repeatability assessment, every acquisition was repeated after 4 h and analysed using Bland-Altman method. A second group of animals was serially imaged, alternating IV and IP administration up to 21 days. When mice were killed, PE{sub max} after IV administration was correlated with histological cell number. The coefficients of repeatability were 80.2% (IV) versus 95.0% (IP). Time-to-peak is shorter, and its variance lower for IV (p < 0.0001). PE{sub max} was 5.6 times higher for IV. A trend was observed towards lower photon emission per cell in larger tumours. IV administration offers better repeatability and better sensitivity when compared to IP. In larger tumours, multiple factors may contribute to underestimation of tumour burden. It might, therefore, be beneficial to test novel therapeutics on small tumours to enable an accurate evaluation of tumour burden. (orig.)

  9. The Antiangiogenic Effects of a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor Can Be Monitored in Vivo Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Forsberg


    Full Text Available The development of antiangiogenic therapies has stimulated interest in noninvasive imaging methods to monitor response. We investigated whether the effects of a vascular endothelial growth factor decoy receptor (VEGF Trap, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY could be monitored in vivo using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS. Twenty nude mice (in two groups were implanted with a human melanoma cell line (DB-1. The active group received VEGF Trap (4 × 25 mg/kg over 2 weeks, whereas the control group received an inactive protein. An ultrasound contrast agent was injected followed by power Doppler imaging (PDI and pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI; regular and intermittent. Specimens were sectioned in the same planes as the images and stained for endothelial cells (CD31, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, VEGF, and hypoxia (Glut1. Measures of tumor vascularity obtained with the different imaging modes were compared to immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis. Mean tumor volume was smaller in the active group than in the control group (656 ± 225 vs 1,160 ± 605 mm3. Overall, PDI and VEGF correlated (r = .34; p = .037. Vascularity decreased from control to treated mice with intermittent PIHI, as did the expression of CD31 and COX-2 (p # .02, whereas VEGF increased (p = .05. CEUS appears to allow in vivo monitoring of the antiangiogenic effects of VEGF Trap in the DB-1 human melanoma xenograft model.

  10. Quantification of stretch-induced cytoskeletal remodeling in vascular endothelial cells by image processing. (United States)

    Yoshigi, Masaaki; Clark, Edward B; Yost, H Joseph


    Reorientation of the cell axis induced by cyclic stretching is an early response to mechanical forces in vitro. However, quantitative assay for this phenomenon has been difficult due to lack of robust methods. We hypothesized that cell orientation may be redefined by the orientation of actin fibers. We developed image processing methods to quantitate the orientation and density of actin fibers. A convolution filter using Sobel kernels was adapted to determine the orientation and density of actin fibers in human endothelial cells. Unidirectional stretching (10%, 0.5 Hz) was applied to induce cytoskeletal remodeling by varying the duration of stimulation (control, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 h). Actin fibers were visualized by fluorescent phalloidin. The image processing method was compared with the manual method for reproducibility. Both confluent and subconfluent cells were tested to assess the efficacy of the methods. Cyclic stretch-induced dense and uninterrupted actin cabling formed across the cell body and, later, the actin fibers became aligned perpendicular to the stretch direction. The variance of actin fiber orientation became smaller after 2 h of stretch (F method was extremely good. Applicability of the method was not compromised by cell density. Our method is reliable for quantifying cytoskeletal remodeling induced by mechanical force. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Multimodal Navigation in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumors Using Image-Based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Validation Study. (United States)

    Dolati, Parviz; Eichberg, Daniel; Golby, Alexandra; Zamani, Amir; Laws, Edward


    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the most common approach for the treatment of pituitary tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and optic nerve injuries are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less-experienced hands. This prospective study was conducted to validate the accuracy of image-based segmentation coupled with neuronavigation in localizing neurovascular structures during TSS. Twenty-five patients with a pituitary tumor underwent preoperative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI images loaded into the navigation platform were used for segmentation and preoperative planning. After patient registration and subsequent surgical exposure, each segmented neural or vascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe or Doppler probe on or as close as possible to the target. Preoperative segmentation of the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus matched with the intraoperative endoscopic and micro-Doppler findings in all cases. Excellent correspondence between image-based segmentation and the endoscopic view was also evident at the surface of the tumor and at the tumor-normal gland interfaces. Image guidance assisted the surgeons in localizing the optic nerve and chiasm in 64% of cases. The mean accuracy of the measurements was 1.20 ± 0.21 mm. Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation, especially with 3-dimensional reconstruction, is highly informative preoperatively and potentially could assist less-experienced neurosurgeons in preventing vascular and neural injury during TSS. In addition, the accuracy found in this study is comparable to previously reported neuronavigation measurements. This preliminary study is encouraging for future prospective intraoperative validation with larger numbers of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte


    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  13. Transmural transverse stiffness estimation in vascular shear wave imaging: A simulation and phantom study (United States)

    Guo, Yuexin; Lo, Ho Yuen; Lee, Wei-Ning


    Shear wave imaging has emerged as a potential non-invasive technique for the quantitative assessment of the arterial shear modulus. Nonetheless, the arterial elasticity estimation in the transverse direction has been overlooked compared with the longitudinal direction, and the estimated transmural stiffness has rarely been evaluated. Accurate depiction of the transverse stiffness across the thin arterial wall warrants comprehensive characterization in both normal and pathological conditions. This study estimated the transmural arterial shear modulus in both the longitudinal ( μ Long) and transverse directions ( μ Trans) using group ( c T) and phase velocities ( c p h) in finite element models and hollow cylindrical tissue-mimicking phantoms with various shape factors. The results were validated against mechanical testing. Zero-order antisymmetric Lamb wave and circumferential Lamb type wave models were considered in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the thin-walled hollow cylinder, respectively. The results derived from the model with the thin plate assumption confirmed that c T underestimated μ Long and μ Trans. Unlike the c p h-based μ Long estimates that were in excellent agreement with measured values, the c p h-based μ Trans estimates were found to be comparable to c p h-based μ Long at the inner wall but increased radially outward. Transmural μ Trans estimation using c p h was demonstrated to be feasible for thin-walled hollow cylinders but necessitated careful account of the wall geometry, in particular the shape factor.

  14. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.


    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  15. A Method of Time-Intensity Curve Calculation for Vascular Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids Based on Subtraction Imaging with Motion Correction (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Wu, Ruoyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Dawei; Shan, Xin; Wang, Puling; Peng, Song; Li, Faqi; Wu, Baoming


    The time-intensity curve (TIC) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequence of uterine fibroids provides important parameter information for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of efficacy of treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery. However, respiration and other physiological movements inevitably affect the process of CEUS imaging, and this reduces the accuracy of TIC calculation. In this study, a method of TIC calculation for vascular perfusion of uterine fibroids based on subtraction imaging with motion correction is proposed. First, the fibroid CEUS recording video was decoded into frame images based on the record frame rate. Next, the Brox optical flow algorithm was used to estimate the displacement field and correct the motion between two frames based on warp technique. Then, subtraction imaging was performed to extract the positional distribution of vascular perfusion (PDOVP). Finally, the average gray of all pixels in the PDOVP from each image was determined, and this was considered the TIC of CEUS image sequence. Both the correlation coefficient and mutual information of the results with proposed method were larger than those determined using the original method. PDOVP extraction results have been improved significantly after motion correction. The variance reduction rates were all positive, indicating that the fluctuations of TIC had become less pronounced, and the calculation accuracy has been improved after motion correction. This proposed method can effectively overcome the influence of motion mainly caused by respiration and allows precise calculation of TIC.

  16. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner. (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru


    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T1-weighted images (3D-T1WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  17. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Clinic Medical Scientist Training Program, College of Medicine (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail:; McKusick, Michael A., E-mail:; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (United States)


    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA.

  18. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, P.A. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Leo, G. [ASL Lecce, U.O. Gestione Rapporti Convenzionali, U.O. Chirurgia Generale, Lecce, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Sollini, M. [Az. Osp. S.Maria Nuova - IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F. [University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Infectious Diseases, Pisa (Italy); Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)


    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI

  19. Preoperative liver functional volumetry performed by 3D-99mTc-GSA scintigraphy/vascular fusion imaging using SYNAPSE VINCENT:a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Yoshida; Hiroshi Makino; Tadashi Yokoyama; Hiroshi Maruyama; Atsushi Hirakata; Junji Ueda; Yasuhiro Mamada; Nobuhiko Taniai; Eiji Uchida


    Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of preoperative liver functional volumetry performed by 3D-technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) scintigraphy/vascular fusion imaging using SYNAPSE VINCENT and to examine the discrepancy between conventional and functional volumetry.Methods: The study group comprised 15 patients who underwent preoperative 3-dimensional (3D)-99mTc-GSA scintigraphy/vascular fusion imaging using SYNAPSE VINCENT software before hepatectomy between July 2014 and August 2015. The diagnosis was hepatocelular carcinoma (n = 4), metastatic liver tumor (n = 10), or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1). Right hepatectomy was performed in 2 patients, left hepatectomy in 3 patients, right posterior sectionectomy in 3 patients, segmentectomy in 2 patients, and partial hepatectomy in 4 patients. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy and computed tomography (CT) were performed to construct 3D-99mTc-GSA scintigraphy/vascular fused images. The conventional volume ratio of the planned resection region without tumor (% CT), and the functional volume ratio of the planned resection region without tumor (% GSA) were calculated. The discrepancy ratio was calculated as folows: discrepancy ratio = 100 - % GSA/ % CT × 100 (%).Results: The % GSA (17.9 ± 16.7%) was signiifcantly lower than the % CT (21.5 ± 17.6%) (P < 0.036). In al except 2 patients, the % GSA was lower than the % CT. The discrepancy ratio ranged from -4% to 75% (median, 20.7%).Conclusion: 3D-99mTc-GSA scintigraphy/vascular fused images constructed using SYNAPSE VINCENT were useful for noninvasively performing functional liver volumetry in patients scheduled to undergo various patterns of hepatectomy. In planned resection regions without tumor, the functional volume ratio was about 20% lower than the conventional volume ratio.

  20. Assessment of impaired vascular reactivity in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy: effect of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on intrarenal diffusion and oxygenation measured by magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Hueper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar; Gutberlet, Marcel; Gueler, Faikah; Sann, Holger; Husen, Bettina; Wacker, Frank; Reiche, Dania


    Diabetes is associated with impaired vascular reactivity and the development of diabetic nephropathy. In a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, the effects of systemic nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition on intrarenal diffusion and oxygenation were determined by noninvasive magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and blood O2 level-dependent (BOLD) imaging, respectively. Eight weeks after the induction of diabetes, 21 rats [n = 7 rats each in the untreated control group, diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and DM with uninephrectomy (DM UNX) group] were examined by MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging and BOLD sequences were acquired before and after NO synthesis inhibition with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In the same rats, mean arterial pressure and vascular conductance were determined with and without the influence of L-NAME. In control animals, NO synthesis inhibition was associated with a significant increase of mean arterial pressure of 33.8 ± 4.3 mmHg (P animals. Similarly, L-NAME challenge induced a significant reduction of renal transverse relaxation time (T2*) at MRI in control animals, indicating reduced renal oxygenation after L-NAME injection compared with baseline. DM UNX animals did not show a significant T2* reduction after NO synthesis inhibition in the renal cortex and attenuated T2* reduction in the outer medulla. MRI parameters of tissue diffusion were not affected by L-NAME in all groups. In conclusion, BOLD imaging proved valuable to noninvasively measure renal vascular reactivity upon NO synthesis inhibition in control animals and to detect impaired vascular reactivity in animals with diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Altered Functional Connectivity in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment--A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

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    Weina Ding

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI have structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites. In this study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analysis and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC techniques to investigate the alteration of rsFC in patients with sVCI. rsFC and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for 51 patients with subcortical cerebrovascular disease. All patients were subdivided based on cognitive status into 29 with sVCI and 22 controls; patient characteristics were matched. rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and VMHC were calculated separately, and rsFC of the PCC and VMHC between the two groups were compared. The regions showing abnormal rsFC of the PCC or VMHC in sVCI patients were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses. Our results are as follows: The patients with sVCI exhibited increases in rsFC in the left middle temporal lobe, right inferior temporal lobe and left superior frontal gyrus, and significant decreases in rsFC of the left thalamus with the PCC. sVCI patients showed a significant deficit in VMHC between the bilateral lingual gyrus, putamen, and precentral gyrus. Additionally, the z-memory score was significantly positively associated with connectivity between the left thalamus and the PCC (r = 0.41, p = 0.03, uncorrected in the sVCI group. Our findings suggest that the frontal lobe and subcortical brain sites play an important role in the pathogenesis of sVCI. Furthermore, rsFC between the left thalamus and the PCC might indicate the severity of sVCI.

  2. The repeatability and characteristics of right ventricular longitudinal strain imaging by speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy dogs. (United States)

    Morita, T; Nakamura, K; Osuga, T; Yokoyama, N; Khoirun, N; Morishita, K; Sasaki, N; Ohta, H; Takiguchi, M


    To assess the repeatability and characteristics of echocardiographic indices of the right ventricular (RV) function derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography. Fourteen laboratory Beagles and 103 privately owned dogs without cardiac disease were involved in this study. Right ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, and a strain-related index for assessing RV dyssynchrony derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography were obtained by two different observers using five Beagles. Within-day, between-day, and interobserver coefficients of variation and the intraclass correlation coefficient of speckle-tracking echocardiography indices were determined. Both speckle-tracking echocardiography and conventional indices of RV function, including the peak velocity of systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, fractional area change, and the Tei index, were obtained from 14 Beagles and 103 privately owned dogs. Relationships between echocardiographic indices and the body weight, heart rate, age, and sex were estimated by regression analysis. Speckle-tracking echocardiographic indices showed good within-day repeatability, between-day and interobserver repeatability were moderate to good. In large dogs, RV longitudinal strain, strain rate, and fractional area change were significantly decreased, while the index of RV dyssynchrony, systolic tricuspid annular motion, tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, and the Tei index were increased. All speckle-tracking and conventional echocardiographic indices were correlated with the body weight. The speckle-tracking echocardiography indices were highly repeatable and body weight affected speckle-tracking echocardiography indices in dogs. Further studies are needed to apply speckle-tracking echocardiography indices in dogs with cardiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeatability of hypoxia PET imaging using [{sup 18}F]HX4 in lung and head and neck cancer patients: a prospective multicenter trial

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    Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Elmpt, Wouter van; Lambin, Philippe [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Szardenings, Katrin [Threshold Pharmaceuticals, South San Francisco, CA (United States); Kolb, Hartmuth; Chien, David [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Siemens Molecular Imaging Biomarker Research, Culver City, CA (United States); Waxman, Alan [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Subramaniam, Rathan M. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiologic Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brunetti, Jacqueline C. [Holy Name Medical Center, Teaneck, NJ (United States); Srinivas, Shyam M. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Hypoxia is an important factor influencing tumor progression and treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of hypoxia PET imaging with [{sup 18}F]HX4 in patients with head and neck and lung cancer. Nine patients with lung cancer and ten with head and neck cancer were included in the analysis (NCT01075399). Two sequential pretreatment [{sup 18}F]HX4 PET/CT scans were acquired within 1 week. The maximal and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}) were defined and the tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. In addition, hypoxic volumes were determined as the volume of the tumor with a TBR >1.2 (HV{sub 1.2}). Bland Altman analysis of the uptake parameters was performed and coefficients of repeatability were calculated. To evaluate the spatial repeatability of the uptake, the PET/CT images were registered and a voxel-wise comparison of the uptake was performed, providing a correlation coefficient. All parameters of [{sup 18}F]HX4 uptake were significantly correlated between scans: SUV{sub max} (r = 0.958, p < 0.001), SUV{sub mean} (r = 0.946, p < 0.001), TBR{sub max} (r = 0.962, p < 0.001) and HV{sub 1.2} (r = 0.995, p < 0.001). The relative coefficients of repeatability were 15 % (SUV{sub mean}), 17 % (SUV{sub max}) and 17 % (TBR{sub max}). Voxel-wise analysis of the spatial uptake pattern within the tumors provided an average correlation of 0.65 ± 0.14. Repeated hypoxia PET scans with [{sup 18}F]HX4 provide reproducible and spatially stable results in patients with head and neck cancer and patients with lung cancer. [{sup 18}F]HX4 PET imaging can be used to assess the hypoxic status of tumors and has the potential to aid hypoxia-targeted treatments. (orig.)

  4. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated Administration and Clearance of Targeted Contrast Agents on Molecular Imaging Signal Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Streeter, Paul A. Dayton


    Full Text Available Competitive inhibition diminishes ligand adhesion as receptor sites become occupied with competing ligands. It is unknown if this effect occurs in ultrasound molecular imaging studies where endothelial binding sites become occupied with adherent bubbles or bubble fragments. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the effect that repeated administration and clearance of targeted agents has on successive adhesion. Two groups of animals were imaged with 3-D ultrasonic molecular imaging. Injections and imaging were performed on Group 1 at time 0 and 60 minutes. Group 2 received injections of microbubbles at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes with imaging at 0 and 60 minutes. At 60 minutes, Group 1 targeting relative to baseline was not significantly different from Group 2 (1.06±0.27 vs. 1.08±0.34, p=0.93. Data suggest that multiple injections of targeted microbubbles do not block sufficient binding sites to bias molecular imaging data in serial studies.

  5. Uncooled infrared camera for the noninvasive visualization of the vascular flow in an anastomotic vessel during neurological surgery: technical note. (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Ishihara, Miya; Nakai, Kanji; Fujita, Masanori; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro


    We herein present our experience to assess intraoperative confirmation of vascular patency with an uncooled infrared camera in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. This camera had distinguishing characteristics, including its small size, light weight, and adequate temperature resolution (camera to assess the vascular flow of the end-to-side anastomosis model in rats. In addition, we evaluated the vascular flow in continuous clinical series using this infrared camera during EC-IC bypass in 14 patients (17 sides). This infrared camera offers real-time information on the vascular patency of end-to-side anastomosis vessels of all relevant diameters. The spatial resolution and image quality are satisfactory, and the procedure can be safely repeatable. We have shown that the infrared camera could be a new and feasible technology for intraoperative imaging of the vascular flow and is considered to be clinically useful during cerebrovascular surgery.

  6. In Vivo FRET Imaging of Tumor Endothelial Cells Highlights a Role of Low PKA Activity in Vascular Hyperpermeability. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Fumio; Kamioka, Yuji; Yano, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Michiyuki


    Vascular hyperpermeability is a pathological hallmark of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have elucidated roles of various signaling molecules in vascular hyperpermeability; however, the activities of such signaling molecules have not been examined in live tumor tissues for technical reasons. Here, by in vivo two-photon excitation microscopy with transgenic mice expressing biosensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer, we examined the activity of protein kinase A (PKA), which maintains endothelial barrier function. The level of PKA activity was significantly lower in the intratumoral endothelial cells than the subcutaneous endothelial cells. PKA activation with a cAMP analogue alleviated the tumor vascular hyperpermeability, suggesting that the low PKA activity in the endothelial cells may be responsible for the tumor-tissue hyperpermeability. Because the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a canonical inducer of vascular hyperpermeability and a molecular target of anticancer drugs, we examined the causality between VEGF receptor activity and the PKA activity. Motesanib, a kinase inhibitor for VEGF receptor, activated tumor endothelial PKA and reduced the vascular permeability in the tumor. Conversely, subcutaneous injection of VEGF decreased endothelial PKA activity and induced hyperpermeability of subcutaneous blood vessels. Notably, in cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, VEGF activated PKA rather than decreasing its activity, highlighting the remarkable difference between its actions in vitro and in vivo These data suggested that the VEGF receptor signaling pathway increases vascular permeability, at least in part, by reducing endothelial PKA activity in the live tumor tissue. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5266-76. ©2016 AACR.

  7. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

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    Marina eGarriga


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD, and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyse the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. 105 patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS. Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p<0.01. Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on DaTScan.

  8. Vascular Diseases (United States)

    The vascular system is the body's network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry ... to and from the heart. Problems of the vascular system are common and can be serious. Arteries ...

  9. Inter- and Intra-Observer Repeatability of Quantitative Whole-Body, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (WBDWI in Metastatic Bone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Blackledge

    Full Text Available Quantitative whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI is now possible using semi-automatic segmentation techniques. The method enables whole-body estimates of global Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (gADC and total Diffusion Volume (tDV, both of which have demonstrated considerable utility for assessing treatment response in patients with bone metastases from primary prostate and breast cancers. Here we investigate the agreement (inter-observer repeatability between two radiologists in their definition of Volumes Of Interest (VOIs and subsequent assessment of tDV and gADC on an exploratory patient cohort of nine. Furthermore, each radiologist was asked to repeat his or her measurements on the same patient data sets one month later to identify the intra-observer repeatability of the technique. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC estimation method provided full posterior probabilities of repeatability measures along with maximum a-posteriori values and 95% confidence intervals. Our estimates of the inter-observer Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICCinter for log-tDV and median gADC were 1.00 (0.97-1.00 and 0.99 (0.89-0.99 respectively, indicating excellent observer agreement for these metrics. Mean gADC values were found to have ICCinter = 0.97 (0.81-0.99 indicating a slight sensitivity to outliers in the derived distributions of gADC. Of the higher order gADC statistics, skewness was demonstrated to have good inter-user agreement with ICCinter = 0.99 (0.86-1.00, whereas gADC variance and kurtosis performed relatively poorly: 0.89 (0.39-0.97 and 0.96 (0.69-0.99 respectively. Estimates of intra-observer repeatability (ICCintra demonstrated similar results: 0.99 (0.95-1.00 for log-tDV, 0.98 (0.89-0.99 and 0.97 (0.83-0.99 for median and mean gADC respectively, 0.64 (0.25-0.88 for gADC variance, 0.85 (0.57-0.95 for gADC skewness and 0.85 (0.57-0.95 for gADC kurtosis. Further investigation of two anomalous patient cases revealed that a very small

  10. Vascular Vertigo


    Mazyar Hashemilar; Masoud Nikanfar; Dariush Savadi Oskoui


    Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vert...


    Dolati, Parviz; Raber, Michael; Golby, Alexandra; Laws, Edward


    Trans-Sphenoidal surgery (TSS) is a well-known approach for treatment of pituitary tumors. However, in inexperienced hands, the risk of lateral misdirection and vascular damage, intraoperative CSF leakage, and optic nerve injury are all well-known complications of this procedure. This prospective study was conducted to validate the accuracy of image-based segmentation in localization of neurovascular structures during TSS. METHODS: Eight patients with pituitary tumor underwent preoperative 3TMRI, which included thin sectioned 3D space T2, 3D Time of Flight and MPRAGE sequences. Images were reviewed by an expert independent neuroradiologist. Imaging sequences were loaded in BrainLab iPlanNet (6/8) and Stryker (2/8) for segmentation and pre-op planning. After patient registration to the intra-op neuronavigation system and surgical exposure, each segmented neural or vascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe. The pulses of the bilateral ICA were confirmed using micro-Doppler. RESULTS: Pre-operative segmentation of the ICA and cavernous sinus matched with the intra-operative endoscopic and micro-Doppler findings in all cases (Dice-coefficient =1). This information reassured surgeons regarding the lateral extent of bone removal at the sellar floor and the limits of lateral explorations. Perfect correspondence between image-based segmentation and endoscopic view was also found at the surface of the tumor and tumor-normal gland interfaces. This helped in preventing unnecessary removal of the normal pituitary gland. Image-guidance helped surgeon to localize the optic nerve and chiasm in 63% of case and Diaphragma sella in 50% of cases, which helped to determine the limits of upward exploration and decrease the risk of CSF leakage. CONCLUSION: Image-based pre-operative vascular and neural element segmentation especially with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and helps young and inexperienced neurosurgeons to prevent

  12. Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome: protocol design and diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography and equilibrium phase imaging on 1.5- and 3-T MRI scanners. (United States)

    Ersoy, Hale; Steigner, Michael L; Coyner, Karl B; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Rybicki, Frank J; Bueno, Raphael; Nguyen, Louis L


    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (MRA) protocol, using the provocative arm position on 1.5- and 3-T MRI scanners, and to determine the frequency and distribution of vascular compression and vascular complications in the thoracic outlet. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with clinically suspected thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) were included in the study. Two radiologists independently analyzed all eligible vessel segments, and interobserver agreement was determined using kappa statistics. The distribution of vascular compression with regard to the clinical presentation at referral was also analyzed. A venous component, which presented with mainly venous symptoms and findings, was confirmed in 85% of the subjects. An arterial component, which presented with clinical symptoms and findings of vascular TOS syndrome, was seen in 82% of the subjects. The vascular component of TOS, which presented with mainly neurogenic or indeterminate symptoms or findings, was excluded in 61% of the subjects. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA using provocative arm positioning allows excellent imaging of the arteries and veins on both sides and thus provides a noninvasive imaging alternative to digital subtraction angiography in patients with suspected vascular TOS. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA is also an ideal imaging modality for postsurgical follow-up for identifying restenosis or residual vascular compression. However, all imaging studies, including the contrast-enhanced 3D MRA protocol described here, should be treated as complementary tests for the diagnosis of TOS.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Synovial Vascularity Using Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Ultrasonography: Correlation with Histologic Findings and MR Imaging Findings in Arthritic Rabbit Knee Model

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    Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Seong Moon; Kim, Namkug; Suh, Sang Hyun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To validate contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (PD US) for the evaluation of synovial vascularity in an arthritic rabbit knee model in correlation with MR and histological findings. Power Doppler ultrasonography was performed for carrageenin-induced arthritic left knee and control right knee of 13 rabbits, first without and then with sonic contrast agent enhancement (Levovist, Schering, Berlin Germany), followed by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Synovial vascularity was quantitatively assessed by calculating the color pixel area in power Doppler sonography using a computer-aided image analysis program and by grading the enhancement on MR images: grade 1, enhancement of knee joint is less than one-third of the area; grade 2, one-third to two-thirds enhancement; and grade 3, more than two-thirds enhancement. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured on slides stained immunohistochemically for CD31 antigen for histological assessment. The mean area of color pixels in PD US changed from 4.37 to 16.42 mm{sup 2} in the arthritic knee after enhancement (p < 0.05), whereas it changed from 0.77 to 2.31 mm{sup 2} in the control knee (p < 0.05). Arthritic knees had greater power Doppler signal than control knees both before and after contrast administration (p < 0.05). The average MVD was 88 in arthritic knees and 46 in control knees. MVDs correlated with color pixel areas of contrast-enhanced power Doppler imaging in arthritic knees. In MR grading of arthritic knees, five were grade 2 and eight were grade 3. MVD and PD US revealed no significant difference between grade 2 and 3 arthritic knees (p > 0.05). Sonic contrast-enhanced PD US improves the visualization of synovial vascularity and allows quantitative measurement in experimentally induced rabbit arthritic knees.

  14. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents – A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Jüttner, Alena, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kröger, Jan Robert, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Burg, Matthias C., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kugel, Harald, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Niederstadt, Thomas, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Tiemann, Klaus, E-mail: [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard, E-mail: [Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbH, Röntgenstraße 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Crelier, Gerard R., E-mail: [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH and University of Zurich, ETZ F 95, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); and others


    Purpose: 4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. Materials and methods: 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. Results: In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 10). Conclusions: 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type.

  15. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

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    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  16. Dynamic FDG PET/CT imaging with diuresis demonstrates an enterovesical fistula in a lymphoma patient with repeated colon diverticulitis. (United States)

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Ting, Wen-Chien; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Kao, Yu-Lin; Chang, Pai-Jung; Lee, Jong-Kang


    A 43-year-old male patient with follicular B-cell lymphoma was referred for a FDG PET/CT scan due to severe left lower abdominal pain to rule out recurrent cancer. These FDG PET/CT images and previous FDG PET/CT images 5 months ago both revealed an air bubble in the urinary bladder on the CT images. He had a recurrent urinary tract infection history for 6 months. A list-mode dynamic data acquisition with diuresis intravenous injection revealed linear FDG activity extending from the upper-left portion of the bladder to a soft tissue mass in the lower-left pelvic region. An enterovesical fistula was confirmed by surgery.

  17. Measurement of Surface Displacement and Deformation of Mass Movements Using Least Squares Matching of Repeat High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganu Debella-Gilo


    Full Text Available Displacement and deformation are fundamental measures of Earth surface mass movements such as glacier flow, rockglacier creep and rockslides. Ground-based methods of monitoring such mass movements can be costly, time consuming and limited in spatial and temporal coverage. Remote sensing techniques, here matching of repeat optical images, are increasingly used to obtain displacement and deformation fields. Strain rates are usually computed in a post-processing step based on the gradients of the measured velocity field. This study explores the potential of automatically and directly computing velocity, rotation and strain rates on Earth surface mass movements simultaneously from the matching positions and the parameters of the geometric transformation models using the least squares matching (LSM approach. The procedures are exemplified using bi-temporal high resolution satellite and aerial images of glacier flow, rockglacier creep and land sliding. The results show that LSM matches the images and computes longitudinal strain rates, transverse strain rates and shear strain rates reliably with mean absolute deviations in the order of 10−4 (one level of significance below the measured values as evaluated on stable grounds. The LSM also improves the accuracy of displacement estimation of the pixel-precision normalized cross-correlation by over 90% under ideal (simulated circumstances and by about 25% for real multi-temporal images of mass movements.

  18. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedics, 513, Thermal Colony, Sector-22, Faridabad 121005, Haryana (India); Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew [Department of Orthopedics, St Stephen' s Hospital, Tis hazari, Delhi, New Delhi 110054 (India)


    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  19. The necessity of repeated assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records in medico-legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko


    Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.

  20. Deployment Repeatability (United States)


    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  1. Feedback from an image of finger and an actual finger produce similar prismatic after-effect: a repeated measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Assentoft, Emilie


    by seeing their fingertip. In the second condition subjects saw an image of a fingertip. The results indicate that the two conditions are significantly different. The study is an important step in understanding what actually makes a difference in training when trying to convert paper-and-pencil training...... if it is the format rather than the indirectness of the feedback creating this difference. 27 healthy subjects were subjected to a single session of Prism Adaptation Training under two different feedback conditions. In the first feedback condition, subjects were exposed to visual feedback on pointing precision...

  2. An Algorithm for Repeated Trajectory Bistatic Spotlight SAR Widefield Imaging%同航线双基聚束式SAR宽场景成像算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 井伟; 邢孟道; 保铮


    该文在现有双基SAR成像研究的基础上,提出了同航线双基聚束式SAR成像的算法.该算法首先对回波信号进行方位预处理实现信号支撑区的不模糊,然后利用传统波数域的成像算法聚焦.该算法较双基极坐标算法有更高的聚焦精度并且没有几何形变.它不仅适用于平行航线的双基成像,其思路也完全适用于其它聚束模式的成像处理.最后通过仿真验证了算法的正确性.%Based on the current research on bistatic SAR image, a new algorithm to process data of repeated trajectory bistatic spotlight SAR system is proposed. The algorithm first suppress azimuth aliasing with an azimuth preprocess step, and focus image with traditional wavenumber domain algorithm. It is with high focusing accuracy without distortion involved, by which well focused image over large scene can be obtained. The principal of the azimuth preprocess is also suited to deal with other spotlight SAR mode. And a numeric simulation confirms the validity of the algorithm.

  3. Avoiding a Systematic Error in Assessing Fat Graft Survival in the Breast with Repeated Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Müller, Felix C


    Several techniques for measuring breast volume (BV) are based on examining the breast on magnetic resonance imaging. However, when techniques designed to measure total BV are used to quantify BV changes, for example, after fat grafting, a systematic error is introduced because BV changes lead to ...... for assessing BV changes to determine fat graft retention and may be useful for evaluating and comparing available surgical techniques for breast augmentation and reconstruction using fat grafting.......Several techniques for measuring breast volume (BV) are based on examining the breast on magnetic resonance imaging. However, when techniques designed to measure total BV are used to quantify BV changes, for example, after fat grafting, a systematic error is introduced because BV changes lead...... to contour alterations of the breast. The volume of the altered breast includes not only the injected volume but also tissue previously surrounding the breast. Therefore, the quantitative difference in BV before and after augmentation will differ from the injected volume. Here, we present a new technique...

  4. What Is Vascular Disease? (United States)

    ... Donors Corporate Sponsors Donor Privacy Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of ... steps to prevent vascular disease here. Understanding the Vascular System Your vascular system – the highways of the ...

  5. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and histology of vascular function in xenografts using macromolecular contrast agent hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-GdF). (United States)

    Baker, Jennifer H E; McPhee, Kelly C; Moosvi, Firas; Saatchi, Katayoun; Häfeli, Urs O; Minchinton, Andrew I; Reinsberg, Stefan A


    Macromolecular gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents are in development as blood pool markers for MRI. HPG-GdF is a 583 kDa hyperbranched polyglycerol doubly tagged with Gd and Alexa 647 nm dye, making it both MR and histologically visible. In this study we examined the location of HPG-GdF in whole-tumor xenograft sections matched to in vivo DCE-MR images of both HPG-GdF and Gadovist. Despite its large size, we have shown that HPG-GdF extravasates from some tumor vessels and accumulates over time, but does not distribute beyond a few cell diameters from vessels. Fractional plasma volume (fPV) and apparent permeability-surface area product (aPS) parameters were derived from the MR concentration-time curves of HPG-GdF. Non-viable necrotic tumor tissue was excluded from the analysis by applying a novel bolus arrival time (BAT) algorithm to all voxels. aPS derived from HPG-GdF was the only MR parameter to identify a difference in vascular function between HCT116 and HT29 colorectal tumors. This study is the first to relate low and high molecular weight contrast agents with matched whole-tumor histological sections. These detailed comparisons identified tumor regions that appear distinct from each other using the HPG-GdF biomarkers related to perfusion and vessel leakiness, while Gadovist-imaged parameter measures in the same regions were unable to detect variation in vascular function. We have established HPG-GdF as a biocompatible multi-modal high molecular weight contrast agent with application for examining vascular function in both MR and histological modalities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Hindlimb heating increases vascular access of large molecules to murine tibial growth plates measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging. (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Efaw, Morgan L; Williams, Rebecca M


    Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of longitudinal growth have led to development of novel drug therapies for growth plate disorders. Despite progress, a major unmet challenge is delivering therapeutic agents to avascular-cartilage plates. Dense extracellular matrix and lack of penetrating blood vessels create a semipermeable "barrier," which hinders molecular transport at the vascular-cartilage interface. To overcome this obstacle, we used a hindlimb heating model to manipulate bone circulation in 5-wk-old female mice (n = 22). Temperatures represented a physiological range of normal human knee joints. We used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to quantify temperature-enhanced delivery of large molecules into tibial growth plates. We tested the hypothesis that increasing hindlimb temperature from 22°C to 34°C increases vascular access of large systemic molecules, modeled using 10, 40, and 70 kDa dextrans that approximate sizes of physiological regulators. Vascular access was quantified by vessel diameter, velocity, and dextran leakage from subperichondrial plexus vessels and accumulation in growth plate cartilage. Growth plate entry of 10 kDa dextrans increased >150% at 34°C. Entry of 40 and 70 kDa dextrans increased plates, suggesting that temperature could be a noninvasive strategy for modulating delivery of therapeutics to impaired growth plates of children.

  7. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van


    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  8. MR diffusion-weighted imaging-based subcutaneous tumour volumetry in a xenografted nude mouse model using 3D Slicer: an accurate and repeatable method (United States)

    Ma, Zelan; Chen, Xin; Huang, Yanqi; He, Lan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi


    Accurate and repeatable measurement of the gross tumour volume(GTV) of subcutaneous xenografts is crucial in the evaluation of anti-tumour therapy. Formula and image-based manual segmentation methods are commonly used for GTV measurement but are hindered by low accuracy and reproducibility. 3D Slicer is open-source software that provides semiautomatic segmentation for GTV measurements. In our study, subcutaneous GTVs from nude mouse xenografts were measured by semiautomatic segmentation with 3D Slicer based on morphological magnetic resonance imaging(mMRI) or diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)(b = 0,20,800 s/mm2) . These GTVs were then compared with those obtained via the formula and image-based manual segmentation methods with ITK software using the true tumour volume as the standard reference. The effects of tumour size and shape on GTVs measurements were also investigated. Our results showed that, when compared with the true tumour volume, segmentation for DWI(P = 0.060–0.671) resulted in better accuracy than that mMRI(P < 0.001) and the formula method(P < 0.001). Furthermore, semiautomatic segmentation for DWI(intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.9999) resulted in higher reliability than manual segmentation(ICC = 0.9996–0.9998). Tumour size and shape had no effects on GTV measurement across all methods. Therefore, DWI-based semiautomatic segmentation, which is accurate and reproducible and also provides biological information, is the optimal GTV measurement method in the assessment of anti-tumour treatments. PMID:26489359

  9. Vascular compression syndromes. (United States)

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas


    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view.

  10. Prognostic value of repeated {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure before and after optimized treatments. Comparison with neurohumoral factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Toshiki; Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Maeda, Keiko; Kusukawa, Junya; Kinoshita, Masahiko [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)


    The present study was undertaken to assess whether repeated measurement of cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging parameters before and after optimized treatments is useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) resulting from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The subjects were 85 consecutive patients with DCM who had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 45%. The MIBG and the concentrations of neurohumoral factors were measured at baseline and after 6 months of optimized treatments. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to assess the various parameters before and after treatment. Twenty-three patients had a cardiac event (12 died; 11 hospitalized) during a mean follow-up period of 2 years. Although there was no difference between the baseline heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio measured by MIBG between survivors and nonsurvivors, the H/M ratio was significantly decreased in nonsurvivors after 6 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that a high plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide level after 6 months (p=0.0049) and absolute changes in the H/M ratio (p=0.0046) were independent predictors of mortality. Comparison of the H/M ratio on MIBG imaging before and after optimized additional treatment provided useful information for predicting mortality and was independent of clinical and neurohumoral factors previously shown to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with DCM. (author)

  11. Progressive melorheostosis in the peripheral and axial skeleton with associated vascular malformations: imaging findings over three decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbermatten, N.T.; Vock, P.; Anderson, S.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)


    A 28-year old woman presented with Leri's disease (melorheostosis) and the rare combination of complex vascular malformations and lymphatic anomalies. Multifocal melorheostosis was segmental and unilateral, located in the left axial and peripheral skeleton, fifth thoracic vertebral body, fifth rib, left upper limb and lumbosacral spine (third lumbar body to first sacral segment). Sacral involvement was associated with spinal canal stenosis. Additionally the patient had multiple nevi and had suffered from left hemiplegia since birth. Lymphangiectasia of the mesentery and thorax led to chylothorax resistant to therapy for which the patient underwent a pleuropericardiectomy. Death ensued due to respiratory failure. (orig.)

  12. Non-invasive assessment of intratumoral vascularity using arterial spin labeling: A comparison to susceptibility-weighted imaging for the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphoma and glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Schöpf, V., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Preusser, M., E-mail: [Department of Medicine I, Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Asenbaum, U., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Woitek, R., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wöhrer, A., E-mail: [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hainfellner, J.A., E-mail: [Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S., E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging und Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Comprehensive Cancer Center-Central Nervous System Tumors Unit (CCC-CNS), Medical University of Vienna (Austria)


    Using conventional MRI methods, the differentiation of primary cerebral lymphomas (PCNSL) and other primary brain tumors, such as glioblastomas, is difficult due to overlapping imaging characteristics. This study was designed to discriminate tumor entities using normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values (nVITS) obtained from pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL), combined with intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS) from susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Thirty consecutive patients with glioblastoma (n = 22) and PCNSL (n = 8), histologically classified according to the WHO brain tumor classification, were included. MRIs were acquired on a 3 T scanner, and included PASL and SWI sequences. nVITS was defined by the signal intensity ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue, as obtained by PASL images. ITSS was determined as intratumoral low signal intensity structures detected on SWI sequences and were divided into four different grades. Potential differences in the nVITS and ITSS between glioblastomas and PCNSLs were revealed using statistical testing. To determine sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, as well as an optimum cut-off value for the differentiation of PCNSL and glioblastoma, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used. We found that nVITS (p = 0.011) and ITSS (p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in glioblastoma than in PCNSL. The optimal cut-off value for nVITS was 1.41 and 1.5 for ITSS, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of more than 95%. These findings indicate that nVITS values have a comparable diagnostic accuracy to ITSS values in differentiating glioblastoma and PCNSL, offering a completely non-invasive and fast assessment of tumoral vascularity in a clinical setting.

  13. In vitro and in vivo imaging of prostate cancer angiogenesis using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody-conjugated quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Haejin; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Rita; Lee, Jung Han [Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute Pasteur Korea (IP-K), Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Clinical Research Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwa [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Authors aimed to determine the targeting ability of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) in vitro, and apply it for a xenograft prostate cancer mouse model. Conjugation reaction of QDs was performed by using the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and sulfo-(N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide) (Sulfo-NHS). The human umbilical vein cord endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with QDs, conjugated with antiVGFR2, to see a specific binding in vitro. Fluorescent cell images were taken by a confocal microscope. The human prostate cancer cells (PC3) were injected to five nude mice on hind limbs to make the xenograft tumor model. QD-antiVEGFR2 antibody complex was injected into the tumor model and fluorescence measurements were performed at 1, 4, 9, 12, 15, and 24 hours after the injection. The specific interaction between HUVECs and QD-antiVEGFR2 antibody was clearly shown in vitro. The in vivo fluorescence image disclosed that there was an increased signal of tumor, 12 hours after the injection of QDs. By showing endothelial cells binding with QDs-antiVEGFR2 antibodyand an experimental application of the antibody for VEGFR2 imaging in the prostate cancer xenograft mouse model, we suggests that the antibody-conjugated QDs can be a potential imaging tool for angiogenesis of the cancer.

  14. A fast method for the detection of vascular structure in images, based on the continuous wavelet transform with the Morlet wavelet having a low central frequency (United States)

    Postnikov, Eugene B.; Tsoy, Maria O.; Kurochkin, Maxim A.; Postnov, Dmitry E.


    A manual measurement of blood vessels diameter is a conventional component of routine visual assessment of microcirculation, say, during optical capillaroscopy. However, many modern optical methods for blood flow measurements demand the reliable procedure for a fully automated detection of vessels and estimation of their diameter that is a challenging task. Specifically, if one measure the velocity of red blood cells by means of laser speckle imaging, then visual measurements become impossible, while the velocity-based estimation has their own limitations. One of promising approaches is based on fast switching of illumination type, but it drastically reduces the observation time, and hence, the achievable quality of images. In the present work we address this problem proposing an alternative method for the processing of noisy images of vascular structure, which extracts the mask denoting locations of vessels, based on the application of the continuous wavelet transform with the Morlet wavelet having small central frequencies. Such a method combines a reasonable accuracy with the possibility of fast direct implementation to images. Discussing the latter, we describe in details a new MATLAB program code realization for the CWT with the Morlet wavelet, which does not use loops completely replaced with element-by-element operations that drastically reduces the computation time.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thromboses can result from venous stasis, vascular injury or hypercoagulability, and those involving the deep veins proximal to the knee are linked to an increased risk of PE.2 .... tool for DVT in hospitalised patients, where higher scores.

  16. Vascular Dementia (United States)

    ... that includes enjoyable activities well within the comfort zone of the person with vascular dementia. New situations, ... your cholesterol in check. A healthy, low-fat diet and cholesterol-lowering medications if you need them ...

  17. vascular hemiplegia


    Voto Bernales, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    The vascular hemiplegia is the functional disorder of a lateral half of the body produced by alterations of cerebral vessels. Should review the concepts of this common condition, with the dual aim of expanding its nosographic value and considering the hemiplegic patient as worthy of the highest professional care La hemiplejia vascular, es el trastorno funcional de una mitad lateral del cuerpo producido por alteraciones de los vasos cerebrales. Conviene revisar los conceptos sobre esta frec...

  18. vascular hemiplegia


    Voto Bernales, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    The vascular hemiplegia is the functional disorder of a lateral half of the body produced by alterations of cerebral vessels. Should review the concepts of this common condition, with the dual aim of expanding its nosographic value and considering the hemiplegic patient as worthy of the highest professional care La hemiplejia vascular, es el trastorno funcional de una mitad lateral del cuerpo producido por alteraciones de los vasos cerebrales. Conviene revisar los conceptos sobre esta frec...

  19. The fetal cardiovascular response to increased placental vascular impedance to flow determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (United States)

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami


    Objective To determine if increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL). Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed in fetuses with an umbilical artery pulsatility index > 95th percentile (ABN). Ventricular volume (end-systole, end-diastole), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), adjusted CO, and ejection fraction (EF) were compared to those of 184 normal fetuses (NL). Results 1) 34 fetuses were evaluated at a median gestational age of 28.3 (range 20.6 – 36.9) weeks; 2) mean ventricular volumes were lower for ABN than NL (end-systole, end-diastole) with a proportionally greater decrease for left ventricular volume (vs. right); 3) mean left and right SV, CO, and adjusted CO were lower for ABN (vs. NL); 4) right ventricular volume, SV, CO, and adjusted CO exceeded the left in ABN fetuses; 5) mean EF was greater for ABN than NL; and 6) median left EF was greater (vs. right) in ABN fetuses. Conclusion Increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function. PMID:23220270

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris [University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Department of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}, iAUC and V{sub e} were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K{sub trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e} within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  1. Semiautomatic High-Content Analysis of Complex Images from Cocultures of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages: A CellProfiler Showcase. (United States)

    Roeper, Matthias; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C; Weinert, Sönke


    Automatization in microscopy, cell culture, and the ease of digital imagery allow obtainment of more information from single samples and upscaling of image-based analysis to high-content approaches. Simple segmentation algorithms of biological imagery are nowadays widely spread in biomedical research, but processing of complex sample structures, for example, variable sample compositions, cell shapes, and sizes, and rare events remains a difficult task. As there is no perfect method for image segmentation and fully automatic image analysis of complex content, we aimed to succeed by identification of unique and reliable features within the sample. Through exemplary use of a coculture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages (MPs), we demonstrate how rare interactions within this highly variable sample type can be analyzed. Because of limitations in immunocytochemistry in our specific setup, we developed a semiautomatic approach to examine the interaction of lipid-laden MPs with VSMCs under hypoxic conditions based on nuclei morphology by high-content analysis using the open-source software CellProfiler ( ). We provide evidence that, in comparison with fully automatic analysis, a low threshold within the analysis workflow and subsequent manual control save time, while providing more objective and reliable results.

  2. Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion). (United States)

    Reid, Christopher M; Storey, Elsdon; Wong, Tien Y; Woods, Robyn; Tonkin, Andrew; Wang, Jie Jin; Kam, Anthony; Janke, Andrew; Essex, Rowan; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Budge, Marc M


    This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH) lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI). Additional aims include determining whether a) changes in retinal vascular imaging (RVI) parameters parallel changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); b) changes in RVI parameters are observed with aspirin therapy; c) baseline cognitive function correlates with MRI and RVI parameters; d) changes in cognitive function correlate with changes in brain MRI and RVI and e) whether factors such as age, gender or blood pressure influence the above associations. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of three years duration set in two Australian academic medical centre outpatient clinics. This study will enrol 600 adults aged 70 years and over with normal cognitive function and without overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects will undergo cognitive testing, brain MRI and RVI at baseline and after 3 years of study treatment. All subjects will be recruited from a 19,000-patient clinical outcome trial conducted in Australia and the United States that will evaluate the effects of aspirin in maintaining disability-free longevity over 5 years. The intervention will be aspirin 100 mg daily versus matching placebo, randomized on a 1:1 basis. This study will improve understanding of the mechanisms at the level of brain and vascular structure that underlie the effects of aspirin on cognitive function. Given the limited access and high cost of MRI, RVI may prove useful as a tool for the identification of individuals at high risk for the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. Identifier: NCT01038583.

  3. Percutaneous Management of Accidentally Retained Foreign Bodies During Image-Guided Non-vascular Procedures: Novel Technique Using a Large-Bore Biopsy System. (United States)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Caudrelier, Jean; Thénint, Marie-Aude; Rao, Pramod; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin


    To describe a novel percutaneous image-guided technique using a large-bore biopsy system to retrieve foreign bodies (FBs) accidentally retained during non-vascular interventional procedures. Between May 2013 and October 2015, five patients underwent percutaneous retrieval of five iatrogenic FBs, including a biopsy needle tip in the femoral head following osteoblastoma biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); a co-axial needle shaft within a giant desmoid tumour following cryoablation; and three post-vertebroplasty cement tails within paraspinal muscles. All FBs were retrieved immediately following original procedures under local or general anaesthesia, using combined computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. The basic technique involved positioning a 6G trocar sleeve around the FB long axis and co-axially advancing an 8G biopsy needle to retrieve the FB within the biopsy core. Retrospective chart review facilitated analysis of procedures, FBs, technical success, and complications. Mean FB size was 23 mm (range 8-74 mm). Four FBs were located within 10 mm of non-vascular significant anatomic structures. The basic technique was successful in 3 cases; 2 cases required technical modifications including using a stiff guide-wire to facilitate retrieval in the case of the post-cryoablation FB; and using the central mandrin of the 6G trocar to push a cement tract back into an augmented vertebra when initial retrieval failed. Overall technical success (FB retrieval or removal to non-hazardous location) was 100 %, with no complications. Percutaneous image-guided retrieval of iatrogenic FBs using a large-bore biopsy system is a feasible, safe, effective, and versatile technique, with potential advantages over existing methods.

  4. Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Christopher M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI. Additional aims include determining whether a changes in retinal vascular imaging (RVI parameters parallel changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; b changes in RVI parameters are observed with aspirin therapy; c baseline cognitive function correlates with MRI and RVI parameters; d changes in cognitive function correlate with changes in brain MRI and RVI and e whether factors such as age, gender or blood pressure influence the above associations. Methods/Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of three years duration set in two Australian academic medical centre outpatient clinics. This study will enrol 600 adults aged 70 years and over with normal cognitive function and without overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects will undergo cognitive testing, brain MRI and RVI at baseline and after 3 years of study treatment. All subjects will be recruited from a 19,000-patient clinical outcome trial conducted in Australia and the United States that will evaluate the effects of aspirin in maintaining disability-free longevity over 5 years. The intervention will be aspirin 100 mg daily versus matching placebo, randomized on a 1:1 basis. Discussion This study will improve understanding of the mechanisms at the level of brain and vascular structure that underlie the effects of aspirin on cognitive function. Given the limited access and high cost of MRI, RVI may prove useful as a tool for the identification of individuals at high risk for the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT01038583

  5. Repeatability of derived parameters from histograms following non-Gaussian diffusion modelling of diffusion-weighted imaging in a paediatric oncological cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, Neil P.; Miyazaki, Keiko; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Hospital Nino Jesus, Madrid (Spain); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Division of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    To examine repeatability of parameters derived from non-Gaussian diffusion models in data acquired in children with solid tumours. Paediatric patients (<16 years, n = 17) were scanned twice, 24 h apart, using DWI (6 b-values, 0-1000 mm{sup -2} s) at 1.5 T in a prospective study. Tumour ROIs were drawn (3 slices) and all data fitted using IVIM, stretched exponential, and kurtosis models; percentage coefficients of variation (CV) calculated for each parameter at all ROI histogram centiles, including the medians. The values for ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, α, and DDC{sub K} gave CV < 10 % down to the 5th centile, with sharp CV increases below 5th and above 95th centile. K, f, and D* showed increased CV (>30 %) over the histogram. ADC, D, DDC{sub α}, and DDC{sub K} were strongly correlated (ρ > 0.9), DDC{sub α} and α were not correlated (ρ = 0.083). Perfusion- and kurtosis-related parameters displayed larger, more variable CV across the histogram, indicating observed clinical changes outside of D/DDC in these models should be interpreted with caution. Centiles below 5th for all parameters show high CV and are unreliable as diffusion metrics. The stretched exponential model behaved well for both DDC{sub α} and α, making it a strong candidate for modelling multiple-b-value diffusion imaging data. (orig.)

  6. SPECT and PET imaging of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in pre-clinical models of myocardial ischemia and peripheral vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrikx, Geert [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bauwens, Matthias [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Post, Mark J. [Maastricht University, Department of Physiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre MUMC+, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postbox 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)


    The extent of neovascularization determines the clinical outcome of coronary artery disease and other occlusive cardiovascular disorders. Monitoring of neovascularization is therefore highly important. This review article will elaborately discuss preclinical studies aimed at validating new nuclear angiogenesis and arteriogenesis tracers. Additionally, we will briefly address possible obstacles that should be considered when designing an arteriogenesis radiotracer. A structured medline search was the base of this review, which gives an overview on different radiopharmaceuticals that have been evaluated in preclinical models. Neovascularization is a collective term used to indicate different processes such as angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. However, while it is assumed that sensitive detection through nuclear imaging will facilitate translation of successful therapeutic interventions in preclinical models to the bedside, we still lack specific tracers for neovascularization imaging. Most nuclear imaging research to date has focused on angiogenesis, leaving nuclear arteriogenesis imaging largely overlooked. Although angiogenesis is the process which is best understood, there is no scarcity in theoretical targets for arteriogenesis imaging. (orig.)

  7. Metabolic syndrome predicts vascular changes in whole body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with long standing diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findeisen Hannes M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diabetic patients have an increased rate of cardio-vascular events, there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to cardiovascular risk, requiring new approaches to individual cardiovascular risk factor assessment. In this study we used whole body-MR-angiography (WB-MRA to assess the degree of atherosclerosis in patients with long-standing diabetes and to determine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and atherosclerotic burden. Methods Long standing (≥10 years type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 59; 31 males; 63.3 ± 1.7 years were examined by WB-MRA. Based on the findings in each vessel, we developed an overall score representing the patient's vascular atherosclerotic burden (MRI-score. The score's association with components of the MetS was assessed. Results The median MRI-score was 1.18 [range: 1.00-2.41] and MetS was present in 58% of the cohort (type 2 diabetics: 73%; type 1 diabetics: 26%. Age (p = 0.0002, HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.016, hypertension (p = 0.0008, nephropathy (p = 0.0093, CHD (p = 0.001 and MetS (p = 0.0011 were significantly associated with the score. Adjusted for age and sex, the score was significantly (p = 0.02 higher in diabetics with MetS (1.450 [1.328-1.572] compared to those without MetS (1.108 [0.966-1.50]. The number of MetS components was associated with a linear increase in the MRI-score (increase in score: 0.09/MetS component; r2 = 0.24, p = 0.038. Finally, using an established risk algorithm, we found a significant association between MRI-score and 10-year risk for CHD, fatal CHD and stroke. Conclusion In this high-risk diabetic population, WB-MRA revealed large heterogeneity in the degree of systemic atherosclerosis. Presence and number of traits of the MetS are associated with the extent of atherosclerotic burden. These results support the perspective that diabetic patients are a heterogeneous population with increased but varying prevalence of atherosclerosis

  8. Fast Blood Vector Velocity Imaging using ultrasound: In-vivo examples of complex blood flow in the vascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik;


    speckle tracking between segments in consecutive speckle images. The flow patterns of six bifurcations and two veins were investigated in-vivo. It was shown: 1) that a stable vortex in the carotid bulb was present opposed to other examined bifurcations, 2) that retrograde flow was present......Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color flow images of the blood motion are restricted by a relatively low frame rate and angle dependent velocity estimates. The Plane Wave Excitation (PWE) method has been proposed to solve these limitations. The frame rate can be increased, and the 2-D...... vector velocity of the blood motion can be estimated. The transmitted pulse is not focused, and a full speckle image of the blood can be acquired for each emission. A 13 bit Barker code is transmitted simultaneously from each transducer element. The 2-D vector velocity of the blood is found using 2-D...

  9. Pediatric Brain: Repeated Exposure to Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Material Is Associated with Increased Signal Intensity at Unenhanced T1-weighted MR Imaging. (United States)

    Flood, Thomas F; Stence, Nicholas V; Maloney, John A; Mirsky, David M


    Purpose To determine whether repeated exposure of the pediatric brain to a linear gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) is associated with an increase in signal intensity (SI) relative to that in GBCA-naive control subjects at unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This single-center, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors evaluated 46 pediatric patients who had undergone at least three GBCA-enhanced MR examinations (30 patients for two-group analysis and 16 for pre- and post-GBCA exposure comparisons) and 57 age-matched GBCA-naive control subjects. The SI in the globus pallidus, thalamus, dentate nucleus, and pons was measured at unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Globus pallidus-thalamus and dentate nucleus-pons SI ratios were calculated and compared between groups and relative to total cumulative gadolinium dose, age, sex, and number of and mean time between GBCA-enhanced examinations. Analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Patients who underwent multiple GBCA-enhanced examinations had increased SI ratios within the dentate nucleus (mean SI ratio ± standard error of the mean for two-group comparison: 1.007 ± 0.0058 for GBCA-naive group and 1.046 ± 0.0060 for GBCA-exposed group [P mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 0.995 ± 0.0062 for pre-GBCA group and 1.035 ± 0.0063 for post-GBCA group [P mean SI ratio for two-group comparison: 1.131 ± 0.0070 for GBCA-naive group and 1.014 ± 0.0091 for GBCA-exposed group [P = .21]; mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 1.068 ± 0.0094 for pre-GBCA group and 1.093 ± 0.0134 for post-GBCA group [P = .12]). There was a significant correlation between dentate nucleus SI and total cumulative gadolinium dose (r = 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.67; P = .03), but not between dentate nucleus SI and patient age

  10. Preoperative imaging study of the spinal cord vascularization: Interest and limits in spine resection for primary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubeyrand, Marc, E-mail: [Hopital Universitaire de Bicetre, AP-HP, Bicetre F-94270, Univ Paris-Sud, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 78 rue du General Leclerc 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Court, Charles, E-mail: [Hopital Universitaire de Bicetre, AP-HP, Bicetre F-94270, Univ Paris-Sud, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 78 rue du General Leclerc 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Fadel, Elie, E-mail: [Hopital Marie Lannelongue, 133 avenue de la Resistance, F-92350 Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Vincent-Mansour, Cesar, E-mail: [Hopital Universitaire de Bicetre, AP-HP, Bicetre F-94270, Univ Paris-Sud, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 78 rue du General Leclerc 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Mascard, Eric, E-mail: [Clinique Arago, 95 boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Vanel, Daniel, E-mail: [Rizzoli Institute, Research, via del Barbiano 1/10, 40124 Bologna (Italy); Missenard, Gilles, E-mail: [Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94, Villejuif (France)


    The necessicity to localize the anterior spinal arteries before anterior approach of the spine stays controversial by orthopaedic surgeons. On the other hand the surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aneurisms routinely sacrifices many segmental arteries pairs without spinal arteries localization. This, associated with spinal cord protection, results to few neurological complication. However, during vertebrectomies, the roots ligation completely interrupts the spinal cord blood supply at this level. In our experience the spinal arteries localization was systematically done before ninety-eight spine resections. In five cases an anterior radiculomedullary artery was ligated (four anterior radiculomedullary and one great anterior radiculomedullary arteries) without neurological complication, in two cases of extended resection (more than four levels) a neurological complication occurred. No spinal artery was identified at the resection level and the neurological complications were resolutive and did not seem related to definitive vascular problem. These accomplishments lead to discuss the importance of spinal arteries localization and preservation in this surgery. The discovery of an anterior radiculomedullary artery is not a contraindication to en-bloc vertebrectomy at this level, nevertheless in the case of great anterior radiculomedullary artery (Adamkiewicz) the surgical indication must be seriously debated. In fact, this case and those where multilevel resections (more than three levels) are indicated seem the most dangerous situations and the use of the different means of spinal cord protection could be indicated to decrease neurological risk. So before spine resection the spinal arteries localization could improve patient information and give more deciding factors for planning treatment.

  11. A phospholipid-PEG2000 conjugate of a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-targeting heterodimer peptide for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of angiogenesis. (United States)

    Pillai, R; Marinelli, E R; Fan, H; Nanjappan, P; Song, B; von Wronski, M A; Cherkaoui, S; Tardy, I; Pochon, S; Schneider, M; Nunn, A D; Swenson, R E


    The transition of a targeted ultrasound contrast agent from animal imaging to testing in clinical studies requires considerable chemical development. The nature of the construct changes from an agent that is chemically attached to microbubbles to one where the targeting group is coupled to a phospholipid, for direct incorporation to the bubble surface. We provide an efficient method to attach a heterodimeric peptide to a pegylated phospholipid and show that the resulting construct retains nanomolar affinity for its target, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), for both the human (kinase insert domain-containing receptor - KDR) and the mouse (fetal liver kinase 1 - Flk-1) receptors. The purified phospholipid-PEG-peptide isolated from TFA-based eluents is not stable with respect to hydrolysis of the fatty ester moieties. This leads to the time-dependent formation of the lysophospholipid and the phosphoglycerylamide derived from the degradation of the product. Purification of the product using neutral eluent systems provides a stable product. Methods to prepare the lysophospholipid (hydrolysis product) are also included. Biacore binding data demonstrated the retention of binding of the lipopeptide to the KDR receptor. The phospholipid-PEG2000-peptide is smoothly incorporated into gas-filled microbubbles and provides imaging of angiogenesis in a rat tumor model.

  12. Vascular emergencies. (United States)

    Semashko, D C


    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  13. Vascular Disease Foundation (United States)

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  14. What Is Vascular Disease? (United States)

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  15. Frequency and topography of small cerebrovascular lesions in vascular and in mixed dementia: a post-mortem 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates. (United States)

    De Reuck, Jacques; Auger, Florent; Durieux, Nicolas; Deramecourt, Vincent; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Pasquier, Florence; Leys, Didier; Bordet, Regis


    Introduction: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. Material and methods: Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs), lacunar infarcts (LIs), cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) were determined and compared between the different groups. Results: Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. Conclusions: The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases. .

  16. Perfusion parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with rectal cancer: Correlation with microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Choi, Jun Jeong [Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hong [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Sung Min [Dept. of Medical Information, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether quantitative perfusion parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) correlate with immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis in rectal cancer. Preoperative DCE-MRI was performed in 63 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. Transendothelial volume transfer (K{sup trans}) and fractional volume of the extravascular-extracellular space (Ve) were measured by Interactive Data Language software in rectal cancer. After surgery, microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression scores were determined using immunohistochemical staining of rectal cancer specimens. Perfusion parameters (K{sup trans}, Ve) of DCE-MRI in rectal cancer were found to be correlated with MVD and VEGF expression scores by Spearman's rank coefficient analysis. T stage and N stage (negative or positive) were correlated with perfusion parameters and MVD. Significant correlation was not found between any DCE-MRI perfusion parameters and MVD (rs = -0.056 and p 0.662 for K{sup trans}; rs = -0.103 and p = 0.416 for Ve), or between any DCE-MRI perfusion parameters and the VEGF expression score (rs = -0.042, p 0.741 for K{sup trans}; r = 0.086, p = 0.497 for Ve) in rectal cancer. TN stage showed no significant correlation with perfusion parameters or MVD (p > 0.05 for all). DCE-MRI perfusion parameters, K{sup trans} and Ve, correlated poorly with MVD and VEGF expression scores in rectal cancer, suggesting that these parameters do not simply denote static histological vascular properties.

  17. Wholemount imaging reveals abnormalities of the aqueous outflow pathway and corneal vascularity in Foxc1 and Bmp4 heterozygous mice. (United States)

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H


    Mutations in the FOXC1/Foxc1 gene in humans and mice and Bmp4 in mice are associated with congenital anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and the development of the aqueous outflow structures throughout the limbus. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of anterior segment abnormalities in mouse models of ASD using a 3-D imaging approach. Holistic imaging information combined with quantitative measurements were carried out on PECAM-1 stained individual components of the aqueous outflow vessels and corneal vasculature of Foxc1(+/-) on the C57BL/6Jx129 and ICR backgrounds, Bmp4(+/-) ICR mice, and wildtype mice from each background. In both wildtype and heterozygotes, singular, bifurcated and plexus forms of Schlemm's canal were noted. Of note, missing portions of the canal were seen in the heterozygous groups but not in wildtype animals. In general, we found the number of collector channels to be reduced in both heterozygotes. Lastly, we found a significant increase in the complexity of the corneal arcades and their penetration into the cornea in heterozygotes as compared with wild types. In conclusion, our 3-D imaging studies have revealed a more complex arrangement of both the aqueous vessels and corneal arcades in Foxc1(+/-) and Bmp4(+/-) heterozygotes, and further advance our understanding of how such abnormalities could impact on IOP and the aetiology of glaucoma.

  18. Synthesis, {sup 68}Ga labeling and preliminary evaluation of DOTA peptide binding vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential PET imaging agent for diagnosing osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujula, Tiina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Salomaeki, Satu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Virsu, Pauliina [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Lankinen, Petteri; Maekinen, Tatu J. [Orthopedic Research Unit, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Autio, Anu [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Yegutkin, Gennady G. [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jalkanen, Sirpa [MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); National Public Health Institute, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku (Finland)], E-mail:


    Introduction: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an infection/inflammation-inducible endothelial glycoprotein. Based on our previous studies, the most VAP-1-selective peptide (VAP-P1) was 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N'',N''',N,,,,-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated, {sup 68}gallium ({sup 68}Ga)-labeled (named [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1) and evaluated preliminarily. Methods: Targeting was evaluated by using VAP-1-transfected cells. Biodistribution of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 was studied by positron emission tomography imaging of healthy rats and rats with bone inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Uptake of [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 in osteomyelitis was compared with negative control peptide and competition with an excess of unlabeled DOTAVAP-P1. Results: [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 bound more efficiently to VAP-1-transfected cells than to controls. In rats, [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 cleared rapidly from blood circulation, excreted quickly in urine and showed an in vivo half-life of 26{+-}2.3 min. Imaging of osteomyelitis demonstrated modest target-to-background ratio. Studies with the negative control peptide and competitors revealed a significantly lower uptake at the infection site compared to [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1. Conclusions: The results represent a proof-of-concept that infection-induced VAP-1 can be targeted by [{sup 68}Ga]DOTA peptide. [{sup 68}Ga]DOTAVAP-P1 is just the first candidate peptide and an essential opening for developing VAP-1-specific imaging agents.

  19. Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Two-View Registration for 3D/2D Registration of Vascular Images


    Pathak, Chetna; Van Horn, Mark; Weeks, Susan; Bullitt, Elizabeth


    Accurate 3D/2D vessel registration is complicated by issues of image quality, occlusion, and other problems. This study performs a quantitative comparison of 3D/2D vessel registration in which vessels segmented from preoperative CT or MR are registered with biplane x-ray angiograms by either a) simultaneous two-view registration with advance calculation of the relative pose of the two views, or b) sequential registration with each view. We conclude on the basis of phantom studies that, even i...

  20. Optimisation of vascular input and output functions in CT-perfusion imaging using 256(or more)-slice multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, Joris M.; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Riordan, Alan J.; Jong, Hugo W.A.M. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of CT-perfusion (CTP) by finding the optimal artery for the arterial input function (AIF) and re-evaluating the necessity of the venous output function (VOF). Forty-four acute ischaemic stroke patients who underwent non-enhanced CT, CTP and CT-angiography using 256-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) were evaluated. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid artery (ICA) and basilar artery were selected as the AIF. Subsequently the resulting area under the time-enhancement curve of the AIF (AUC{sub AIF}) and quantitative perfusion measurements were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and subsequently the paired t test. To evaluate reproducibility we examined if the VOF could be deleted by comparing the perfusion measurements using versus not using the VOF (paired t test). The AUC{sub AIF} and perfusion measurements resulting from the different AIFs showed significant group differences (all P < 0.0001). The ICA had the largest AUC{sub AIF} and resulted in the highest mean transient time (MTT) and lowest cerebral blood flow (CBF), whereas the basilar artery showed the lowest cerebral blood volume (CBV). Not using the VOF showed significantly higher CBV and CBF in 66 % of patients on the ipsilateral (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.007, respectively) and contralateral hemisphere (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.019, respectively). Selecting the ICA as the AIF and continuing the use of the VOF would improve the accuracy of CTP. (orig.)

  1. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.


    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  2. Perfusion imaging of brain gliomas using arterial spin labeling: correlation with histopathological vascular density in MRI-guided biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Ningning; Pang, Haopeng; Ren, Yan; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan [Huashan Hospital Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Dang, Xuefei [Shang Hai Gamma Knife Hospital, Shanghai (China); Cheng, Wenna [Binzhou Medical University Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Binzhou (China); Wu, Jingsong; Yao, Chengjun [Huashan Hospital Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)


    This study was designed to determine if cerebral blood flow (CBF) derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging could be used to quantitatively evaluate the microvascular density (MVD) of brain gliomas on a ''point-to-point'' basis by matching CBF areas and surgical biopsy sites as accurate as possible. The study enrolled 47 patients with treatment-naive brain gliomas who underwent preoperative ASL, 3D T1-weighted imaging with gadolinium contrast enhancement (3D T1C+), and T2 fluid acquisition of inversion recovery (T2FLAIR) sequences before stereotactic surgery. We histologically quantified MVD from CD34-stained sections of stereotactic biopsies and co-registered biopsy locations with localized CBF measurements. The correlation between CBF and MVD was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. P ≤.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 47 patients enrolled in the study, 6 were excluded from the analysis because of brain shift or poor co-registration and localization of the biopsy site during surgery. Finally, 84 biopsies from 41 subjects were included in the analysis. CBF showed a statistically significant positive correlation with MVD (ρ = 0.567; P =.029). ASL can be a useful noninvasive perfusion MR method for quantitative evaluation of the MVD of brain gliomas. (orig.)

  3. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  4. AngioMap is a novel image analysis algorithm for assessment of plasma cell distribution within bone marrow vascular niche. (United States)

    Salama, Mohamed E; Lange, Holger; Tripp, Sheryl R; Kohan, Jessica; Landis, Nicholas D; Krueger, Joseph S; Potts, Steven J


    The ability to characterize distribution of neoplastic hematopoietic cells and their progenitors in their native microenvironment is emerging as an important challenge and potential therapeutic target in many disease areas, including multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, bone marrow (BM) angiogenesis is typically increased and microvessel density is a known indicator of poor prognosis. However, the difficulty of consistently measuring 3D vessels from 2D cut sections has previously limited the study of spatial distribution of plasma cells (PC) and their interaction with BM microenvironment. The aim of the study is to report a novel method to study myeloma cells spatial distribution within their hematopoietic niche context using readily available tissue sections and standard histology approaches. We utilized a novel whole-tissue image analysis approach to identify vessels, and then applied computational grown regions extended out from each vessel at 15, 35, 55, 75, and 100 μm to identify the spatial distribution of PC on CD34/CD138 double-stained core biopsy slides. Percent PC to total cells (TC) was significantly higher at <15 μm distance compared with those at 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 75, and 76 to 100 μm distance (P=0.0001). Similarly, PC/TC at <35 μm region was significantly higher compared with 36 to 55 (P=0.0001), 56 to 75 (P≤0.0001), and 76 to 100 (P=0.0002) μm distances. The mean PC/TC differences in the spatial gradient of 36 to 55, 56 to 75, and 76 to 100 μm distance regions were not significant. Our findings suggest possible preferential advantage to neoplastic PC in the proximity of blood vessels compared with other hematopoietic marrow cells. We demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing the spatial distribution of PC, and possibly other hematopoietic/stem cells in their microenvironment, as characterized by the distance to vessels in BM using a novel image analysis approach.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of vascular imaging features to predict outcome following intravenous rtPA for acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Nogueira


    Full Text Available Background: The present review investigated which findings in vascular imaging techniques can be used to predict clinical outcome and risk of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH in patients who underwent intravenous thrombolytic treatment. Methods: Publications were searched and inclusion criteria were as follows: 1 published manuscripts, 2 patients with acute ischemic stroke managed with intravenous rtPA, and 3 availability of imaging assessment to determine vessel patency or regulation of cerebral blood flow prior to, during and/or after thrombolytic treatment. Clinical outcomes were divided into neurological outcome (NIHSS within 7 days and functional outcome (modified Rankin score in 2 – 3 months. sICH was defined as rtPA-related intracerebral bleeding associated with any worsening of NIHSS. Results: Thirty-nine articles were selected. Recanalization was associated with improved neurological and functional outcome (OR=7.83; 95% CI, 3.71 – 16.53 and OR=11.12; 95% CI, 5.85 – 21.14; p<0.001 respectively. Both tandem internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery (ICA/MCA occlusions and isolated ICA occlusion had worse functional outcome than isolated MCA occlusion (OR=0.26, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.52; p<0.001 and OR=0.24, 95% CI, 0.07 – 0.77; p=0.016, respectively. Re-occlusion was associated with neurological deterioration (OR=6.48, 95% CI, 3.64 – 11.56; p<0.001 and early recanalization was associated with lower odds of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (OR=0.36, 95% CI, 0.18 – 0.70; p=0.003 Conclusion: Brain circulation data before, during and after thrombolysis may be useful for predicting clinical outcome. Cerebral arterial recanalization, presence and site of occlusion, and re-occlusion are all important in predicting clinical outcome.

  6. Differences in granular materials for analogue modelling: Insights from repeated compression tests analyzed with X-ray Computed Tomography and image analysis software (United States)

    Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.


    Six different granular materials for analogue modelling have been investigated using a sandbox with a compressional set-up and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). The evolving structures were evaluated with image analysis software. The sandbox has one movable sidewall that is driven by a computer-controlled servomotor at 20 cm/h. A 12 cm wide and 20 cm long sheet of hard cardboard was placed on the base of the sandbox and attached to the moving sidewall creating a velocity discontinuity. The whole sandbox was covered on the inside with Alkor foil to reduce sidewall friction. Computed Tomography was used to scan the whole volume in 3 mm increments of shortening until 15 mm maximum deformation was reached. The second approach was a scanning procedure to a maximum deformation of 80 mm in 2 mm increments of shortening for the first 10 mm and in 5 mm increments for the last 70 mm. The short deformation scans were repeated three times to investigate reproducibility. The long deformation scans were performed twice. The physical properties of the materials (table 1) have been described in a previous material benchmark. Four natural quartz sands and two artificial granular materials, corundum brown sand and glass beads, have been used. The two artificial materials were used for this experimental series as examples for very angular and very rounded sands in contrast to the sub-rounded to angular natural quartz sands. The short deformation experiments show partly large differences in thrust angles of both front and back-thrust, in timing of thrust initiation, and in the degree of undulation of thrusts. The coarse-grained sands show smooth and low undulating thrusts that are only affected by the sidewall friction whereas the thrusts in fine-grained sands undulate significantly and partly divide and merge in an anastomosing fashion. The coarse-grained sand thrusts are clearer visualized by XRCT, which indicates a wider shear zone where the material dilates. Furthermore, the

  7. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound assessment of the vascular effects of novel therapeutics in early stage trials. (United States)

    Leen, Edward; Averkiou, Michalakis; Arditi, Marcel; Burns, Peter; Bokor, Daniela; Gauthier, Thomas; Kono, Yuko; Lucidarme, Olivier


    Imaging is key in the accurate monitoring of response to cancer therapies targeting tumour vascularity to inhibit its growth and dissemination. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE ultrasound) is a quantitative method with the advantage of being non-invasive, widely available, portable, cost effective, highly sensitive and reproducible using agents that are truly intravascular. Under the auspices of the initiative of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre Imaging Network, bringing together experts from the UK, Europe and North America for a 2-day workshop in May 2010, this consensus paper aims to provide guidance on the use of DCE ultrasound in the measurement of tumour vascular support in clinical trials. Key Points • DCE ultrasound can quantify and extract specific blood flow parameters, such as flow velocity, relative vascular volume and relative blood flow rate. • DCE ultrasound can be performed repeatedly and is therefore ideally suited for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies evaluating vascular-targeted drugs. • DCE ultrasound provides a reproducible method of assessing the vascular effects of therapy in pre-clinical and early clinical trials, which is easily translatable into routine clinical practice.

  8. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Clausen, P


    in Type 1 diabetic patients may disturb vascular function, possibly mediated through smooth muscle cell dysfunction as well as endothelial dysfunction. We suggest that prolonged and repeated episodes of hyperglycaemia could possibly lead to permanent vascular dysfunction and thereby development...

  9. Clinical comparison between Tanzhuo Mengqiao type of vascular dementia and Yuzu Naoluo type of vascular dementia in imaging%影像学支持下痰浊蒙窍型与瘀阻脑络型血管性痴呆的临床对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永华; 田亚振; 宁静


    目的:研究影像学支持下的痰浊蒙窍型与瘀阻脑络型血管性痴呆的临床对比。方法:运用中医辨证分型出痰浊蒙窍型和瘀阻脑络型血管性痴呆,各20例,对以上患者进行MRI检查以及MMSE和SDSD量表分析。结果:两证型患者半数以上存在多发性梗死,验证患者均为脑卒中后发生的认知功能障碍,对两组患者进行MMSE量表及SDSD量表结果进行统计学分析。结论:痰浊蒙窍型血管性痴呆MMSE得分高于瘀阻脑络型,而SDSD得分低于瘀阻脑络型与临床症状相符。%Objective:To study clinical comparison between Tanzhuo Mengqiao type of vascular dementia and Yuzu Naoluo type of vascular dementia in imaging. Methods:40 cases were divided into 20 cases of Tanzhuo Mengqiao type and 20 cases of Yuzu Naoluo type based on TCM syndrome differentiation, and all were checked and analyzed by MMSE and SDSD. Results:Most of patients in two groups existed multi-infarct, and were confirmed with cognitive impairment after stroke. Results in MMSE and SDSD were analyzed statistically in both. Conclusion: Results in MMSE in Tanzhuo Mengqiao type of vascular dementia were better than those in Yuzu Naoluo type of vascular dementia, and results in SDSD in Tanzhuo Mengqiao type of vascular dementia were lower than those in Yuzu Naoluo type of vascular dementia. All results conformed to clinical symptoms.

  10. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ang


    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA to image corneal vascularization. Methods. In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8 μm and lateral resolution of 20 μm. This was performed with manual “XYZ” focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image. En face scans were evaluated based on image quality score and repeatability. Results. We analyzed scans from 10 eyes (10 patients with corneal vascularization secondary to contact lens use in 4 quadrants, with substantial repeatability of scans in all quadrants (mean image quality score 2.7 ± 0.7; κ=0.75. There was no significant difference in image quality scores comparing quadrants (superior temporal: 2.9 ± 0.6, superior nasal: 2.8 ± 0.4, inferior temporal: 2.5 ± 0.9, and inferior nasal: 2.4 ± 1.0; P=0.276 and able to differentiate deep and superficial corneal vascularization. Conclusion. This early clinical study suggests that the swept-source OCTA used may be useful for examining corneal vascularization, which may have potential for clinical applications such as detecting early limbal stem cell damage.

  11. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model. (United States)

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S


    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut


    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  13. The group study of diagnostic efficacy of cerebro-vascular disease by I-123 IMP SPECT images obtained with ring type SPECT scanner; The ROC analysis on the diagnosis of perfusion defect and redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center); Matsumoto, Toru (and others)


    We performed two image reading experiments in order to investigate the diagnostic capability of I-123 IMP SPECT obtained by the ring type SPECT scanner in cerebro-vascular disease. Fourteen physicians diagnosed SPECT images of 55 cases with reference to clinical neurological information, first without brain XCT images and second with XCT images. Each physician detected perfusion defects and redistributions of I-123 IMP and assigned a confidence level of abnormality for these SPECT findings by means of five rating method. From results obtained by ROC analysis, we concluded as follows. (1) Generally, I-123 IMP SPECT is a stable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of cerebro-vascular disease and the image reading of XCT had no effects on the diagnosis of SPECT on the whole of physician. (2) However, there were unnegligible differences among individuals in the detectability of findings and the effect of XCT image reading. (3) Detectability of redistribution of I-123 IMP was lower than that of perfusion defect and inter-observer variation in the diagnostic performance for redistribution was larger than that of perfusion defect. The results suggest that it is necessary to standardize diagnostic criteria among physicians for redistribution of I-123 IMP. (author).

  14. In vivo tumor targeting and imaging with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody-conjugated dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh WJ


    sections of tumor tissues stained for the iron constituent of the NPs with Prussian blue revealed a strong blue reaction in the tumors of anti-VEGF-NP-treated mice, but only a weak reaction in mice injected with NPs. In both groups, at all time points, Prussian blue-stained liver and spleen sections showed only light staining, while stained cells were rarely detected in kidney and lung sections. Transmission electron microscopy showed that many more electron-dense particles were present in endothelial cells, tumor cells, and extracellular matrix in tumor tissues in mice injected with anti-VEGF-NPs than in NP-injected mice.Conclusion: These results demonstrated in vivo tumor targeting and efficient accumulation of anti-VEGF-NPs in tumor tissues after systemic delivery in a colon cancer model, showing that anti-VEGF-NPs have potential for use as a molecular-targeted tumor imaging agent in vivo.Keywords: nanoparticles, vascular endothelial growth factor, colon tumor, magnetic resonance imaging, transmission electron microscopy

  15. Differences of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT imaging in the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia compared with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Won; Kang, Do Young; Park, Min Jeong; Cheon, Sang Myung; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study is to assess the specific patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with the early stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT, and to compare the differences between the two conditions. Sixteen SVaD, 46 AD and 12 control subjects participated in this study. We included the patients with SVaD and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. They were all matched for age, education and clinical dementia rating scores. Three groups were evaluated by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for measuring rCBF. The SPECT data of patients with SVaD and AD were compared with those of normal control subjects and then compared with each other. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits on the right temporal region and thalamus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus, both cingulate gyri and frontal subgyri in patients with SVaD and on the left supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, right fugiform gyrus and both cingulate gyri in AD compared with control subjects (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). SVaD patients revealed significant hypoperfusion in the right parahippocampal gyrus with cingulated gyrus, left insula and both frontal subgyral regions compared with AD (uncorrected {rho} < 0.01). Our study shows characteristic and different pattern of perfusion deficits in patients with SVaD and AD, and these results may be helpful to discriminate the two conditions in the early stage of illness.

  16. Prospective comparison of T2w-MRI and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI, 3D-MR spectroscopic imaging or diffusion-weighted MRI in repeat TRUS-guided biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portalez, Daniel [Clinique Pasteur, 45, Department of Radiology, Toulouse (France); Rollin, Gautier; Mouly, Patrick; Jonca, Frederic; Malavaud, Bernard [Hopital de Rangueil, Department of Urology, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Leandri, Pierre [Clinique Saint Jean, 20, Department of Urology, Toulouse (France); Elman, Benjamin [Clinique Pasteur, 45, Department of Urology, Toulouse (France)


    To compare T2-weighted MRI and functional MRI techniques in guiding repeat prostate biopsies. Sixty-eight patients with a history of negative biopsies, negative digital rectal examination and elevated PSA were imaged before repeat biopsies. Dichotomous criteria were used with visual validation of T2-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and literature-derived cut-offs for 3D-spectroscopy MRI (choline-creatine-to-citrate ratio >0.86) and diffusion-weighted imaging (ADC x 10{sup 3} mm{sup 2}/s < 1.24). For each segment and MRI technique, results were rendered as being suspicious/non-suspicious for malignancy. Sextant biopsies, transition zone biopsies and at least two additional biopsies of suspicious areas were taken. In the peripheral zones, 105/408 segments and in the transition zones 19/136 segments were suspicious according to at least one MRI technique. A total of 28/68 (41.2%) patients were found to have cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging exhibited the highest positive predictive value (0.52) compared with T2-weighted MRI (0.29), dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (0.33) and 3D-spectroscopy MRI (0.25). Logistic regression showed the probability of cancer in a segment increasing 12-fold when T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI were both suspicious (63.4%) compared with both being non-suspicious (5.2%). The proposed system of analysis and reporting could prove clinically relevant in the decision whether to repeat targeted biopsies. (orig.)

  17. The value of diffusion tensor imaging in the differential diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Ting (Dept. of Neurology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)); Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Wen-Bin (Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)), Email:


    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a form of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows examination of the microstructural integrity of white matter in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease, and DTI can provide indirect insights of the microstructural characteristics of brains in individuals with different forms of dementia. Purpose: To evaluate the value of DTI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Material and Methods: The study included 40 patients (20 AD patients and 20 SIVD patients) and 20 normal controls (NC). After routine MRI and DTI, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured and compared in regions of interest (ROI). Results: Compared to NC and AD patients, SIVD patients had lower FA values and higher ADC values in the inferior-fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF), genu of the corpus callosum (GCC), splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Compared to controls and SIVD patients, AD patients had lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, IFOF, GCC, and CF; and higher ADC values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Conclusion: DTI can be used to estimate the white matter impairment in dementia patients. There were significant regional reductions of FA values and heightened ADC values in multiple regions in SIVD patients compared to AD patients. When compared with conventional MRI, DTI may provide a more objective method for the differential diagnosis of SIVD and AD disease patients who have only mild white matter alterations on T2-weighted imaging

  18. A Prospective Comparison of Selective Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fusion-Targeted and Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Biopsies for Detecting Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Repeated Biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Nørgaard, Nis; Løgager, Vibeke


    + 3) cancers (14/64 vs. 41/74) and more patients with intermediate/high-grade cancers (GS ≥3 + 4) (50/64 vs. 33/74) using fewer biopsy cores compared with TRUS-bx (p targeted-only" approach in men with PI-RADS ≥3 lesions reduced the number of men requiring repeated biopsies......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to compare the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate of systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) and multiparametric-MRI targeted biopsies (mp-MRI-bx) in a repeat biopsy setting and evaluate the clinical significance following an "MRI-targeted...... by 50%, decreased low-grade cancer diagnoses by 66%, and increased intermediate/high-grade cancer diagnoses by 52%. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-targeted biopsies have a high detection rate for significant PCa in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies and preferentially detect...

  19. Early experience with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies under visual transrectal ultrasound guidance in patients suspicious for prostate cancer undergoing repeated biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Noergaard, Nis; Chabanova, Elizaveta


    -RADS) and Likert classification. All underwent repeated TRUS-bx (10 cores) and mp-MRI-bx under visual TRUS guidance of any mp-MRI-suspicious lesion not targeted by systematic TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 39 out of 83 patients (47%) and mp-MRI identified at least one lesion with some degree of suspicion...... in all 39 patients. Both PI-RADS and Likert scoring showed a high correlation between suspicion of malignancy and biopsy results (p

  20. Vascular anomalies: differential diagnosis and mimickers. (United States)

    Garzon, Maria C; Weitz, Nicole; Powell, Julie


    Vascular anomalies are very common in children and encompass a wide spectrum of diseases. Many vascular anomalies can be mistaken for infantile hemangioma (IH). In addition, there is a variety of rare disorders including benign and malignant tumors that may mimic IH and other types of vascular anomalies. Understanding the clinical features, natural history, and typical clinical course of different types of vascular anomalies is essential in order to make the correct diagnosis and guide management. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis; and when the diagnosis remains in doubt, a biopsy performed by a surgical specialist with expertise may prove to be lifesaving.

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of optic nerve head perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Bojikian, Karine D.; Xin, Chen; Wen, Joanne C.; Gupta, Divakar; Zhang, Qinqin; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Chen, Philip P.; Wang, Ruikang K.


    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has increasingly become a clinically useful technique in ophthalmic imaging. We evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of blood perfusion in the optic nerve head (ONH) measured using optical microangiography (OMAG)-based OCTA. Ten eyes from 10 healthy volunteers are recruited and scanned three times with a 68-kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5000-based OMAG prototype system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California) centered at the ONH involving two separate visits within six weeks. Vascular images are generated with OMAG processing by detecting the differences in OCT signals between consecutive B-scans acquired at the same retina location. ONH perfusion is quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux within the ONH for the prelaminar, lamina cribrosa, and the full ONH. Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are used to evaluate intravisit and intervisit repeatability, and interobserver reproducibility. ONH perfusion measurements show high repeatability [CV≤3.7% (intravisit) and ≤5.2% (intervisit)] and interobserver reproducibility (ICC≤0.966) in all three layers by three metrics. OCTA provides a noninvasive method to visualize and quantify ONH perfusion in human eyes with excellent repeatability and reproducibility, which may add additional insight into ONH perfusion in clinical practice.

  2. Repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens das características de carcaça obtidas por ultrassonografia em fêmeas Nelore Repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens de ultrassom da área do músculo longissimus dorsi (AOL e das espessuras de gordura subcutânea do lombo (EGL e da garupa (EGG. Imagens de ultrassom tomadas no lombo (entre a 12ª e a 13ª costela e na garupa (entre os músculos gluteus medium e biceps femoris de novilhas Nelore de 14 a 22 meses de idade foram classificadas em aceitáveis, marginais e rejeitáveis. As imagens aceitáveis e marginais foram mensuradas duas vezes por três técnicos em diferentes níveis de treinamento. Foram estimadas as repetibilidades entre e dentro de técnicos por classe de qualidade da imagem, para determinação do efeito da qualidade da imagem e do técnico no valor absoluto da diferença entre a primeira e a segunda mensuração dessas características. A repetibilidade para as imagens aceitáveis foi maior que para imagens marginais, tanto entre como dentro de técnicos. Na análise da diferença absoluta entre a primeira e a segunda interpretação, foram significativos os efeitos de técnico para AOL e EGL e de classe de qualidade da imagem para AOL. Em geral, o técnico com maior experiência apresentou maiores valores de repetibilidade. É recomendável que a mensuração de imagens de animais de mesmo grupo contemporâneo seja feita por um único técnico.The repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of the longissimus dorsi muscle (AOL and of the rumpfat (EGG and backfat (EGL subcutaneous thickness was evaluated. Ultrasound images taken from the back (between 12th and 13th ribs and from the rump (between gluteus medium and biceps femoris muscles of Nelore heifers at 14 and 22 months of age were classified as acceptable, marginal and rejected. The acceptable and marginal images were measured twice by three technicians at different levels of training. It was estimated repeatabilities among and within technicians by class of image quality in order to determine effect of image quality and of

  3. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili


    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  4. The repeatability and reproducibility of fetal cardiac ventricular volume calculations utilizing Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) (United States)

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Carletti, Angela; Goncalves, Luis F.; Yeo, Lami


    Objective To quantify the repeatability and reproducibility of fetal cardiac ventricular volumes obtained utilizing STIC and VOCAL™. Methods A technique was developed to compute ventricular volumes using the sub-feature: Contour Finder: Trace. Twenty-five normal pregnancies were evaluated for the following: (1) to compare the coefficient of variation (CV) in ventricular volumes between 15° and 30° rotation; (2) to compare the CV between three methods of quantifying ventricular volumes: (a) Manual Trace (b) Inversion Mode and (c) Contour Finder: Trace; and (3) to determine repeatability by calculating agreement and reliability of ventricular volumes when each STIC was measured twice by 3 observers. Reproducibility was assessed by obtaining two STICs from each of 44 normal pregnancies. For each STIC, 2 ventricular volume calculations were performed, and agreement and reliability were evaluated. Additionally, measurement error was examined. Results (1) Agreement was better with 15° rotation than 30° (15°: 3.6%, 95% CI: 3.0 – 4.2 versus 30°: 7.1%, 95% CI: 5.8 – 8.6; p<0.001); (2) ventricular volumes obtained with Contour Finder: Trace had better agreement than those obtained using either Inversion Mode (Contour Finder: Trace: 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 – 4.2 versus Inversion Mode: 6.0%, 95% CI 4.9 – 7.2; p < 0.001) or Manual Trace (10.5%, 95% CI 8.7 – 12.5; p < 0.001); (3) ventricular volumes were repeatable with good agreement and excellent reliability for both intra-observer and inter-observer measurements; and 4) ventricular volumes were reproducible with negligible difference in agreement and good reliability. In addition, bias between STIC acquisitions was minimal (<1%; mean percent difference −0.4%, 95% limits of agreement: −5.4 – 5.9). Conclusions Fetal echocardiography utilizing STIC and VOCAL allows repeatable and reproducible calculation of ventricular volumes with the sub-feature Contour Finder: Trace. PMID:19778875

  5. Quantitative Assessment of a Novel Super-Resolution Restoration Technique Using HiRISE with Navcam Images: how much Resolution Enhancement is Possible from Repeat-Pass Observations (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Muller, J.-P.


    Higher spatial resolution imaging data is always desirable to the international community of planetary scientists interested in improving understanding of surface formation processes. We have previously developed a novel Super-resolution restoration (SRR) technique (Tao & Muller, 2016) using Gotcha sub-pixel matching, orthorectification, and segmented 4th order PDE-TV, called GPT SRR, which is able to restore 5 cm-12.5 cm near rover scale images (equivalent to Navcam projected FoV at a range of ≥ 5 m) from multiple 25 cm resolution NASA MRO HiRISE images. The SRR technique has been successfully applied to the rover traverses for the MER and MSL missions within the EU FP-7 PRoViDE project. These SRR results have revealed new surface information including the imaging of individual rocks (diameter ≥ 25 cm) by comparison of the original HiRISE image and rover Navcam orthorectified image mosaics. In this work, we seek evidence from processing a very large number of stereo reconstruction results from all Navcam stereo images within PRoViDE, registration and comparison with the corresponding SRR image, in order to derive a quantitative assessment on key features including rocks (diameter < 150 cm) and rover track wheel spacing. We summarise statistics from SRR-Navcam measurements and demonstrate that our unique SRR datasets will greatly support the geological and morphological analysis and monitoring of Martian surface and can also be applied to landing site selection, in order to avoid unsuitable terrain, for any future lander/rover as well as help to define future rover paths.

  6. No evidence of misdiagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis and repeated positive anticardiolipin antibody testing based on magnetic resonance imaging and long term follow‐up (United States)

    Liedorp, M; Sanchez, E; van Hoogstraten, I M W; von Blomberg, B M E; Barkhof, F; Polman, C H


    Objective To determine whether patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and repeated positive anticardiolipin antibody (aCL Ab) testing fulfil the recently updated criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Also, to determine if these patients form a separate subgroup in terms of long term follow‐up and MRI characteristics. Design A blinded case control study comparing MRI patterns between aCL Ab positive and negative MS patients with a clinical follow‐up of 7 years. Participants 8 (5.6%; male:female ratio 2:6; 6 relapsing–remitting subtype, 1 primary progressive subtype and 1 neuromyelitis optica (NMO)) of 143 consecutive patients with definite MS or NMO (71% relapsing–remitting, 18% secondary progressive and 6% primary progressive disease course; 4% NMO) showed repeated positive aCL Ab testing. Setting Outpatient clinic of a tertiary MS centre in the Netherlands. Results All eight aCL Ab positive patients had levels below 40 MPL/GPL units, with the majority of intervals between tests of at least 12 weeks. After follow‐up, none of the patients fulfilled the criteria for APS. No specific MRI features were present compared with 24 matched aCL Ab negative patients. Conclusions No aCL Ab positive MS patient fulfilled the criteria for APS, arguing against a possible misdiagnosis or coexistence. PMID:17878195

  7. Vascular development in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Freshour, Glenn; Hahn, Michael G; Burk, David H; Zhong, Ruiqin


    Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, form a continuous network throughout the plant body for transport of water, minerals, and food. Characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in various aspects of vascular formation has demonstrated that Arabidopsis is an ideal system for investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular development. The processes affected in these mutants include initiation or division of procambium or vascular cambium, formation of continuous vascular cell files, differentiation of procambium or vascular cambium into vascular tissues, cell elongation, patterned secondary wall thickening, and biosynthesis of secondary walls. Identification of the genes affected by some of these mutations has revealed essential roles in vascular development for a cytokinin receptor and several factors mediating auxin transport or signaling. Mutational studies have also identified a number of Arabidopsis mutants defective in leaf venation pattern or vascular tissue organization in stems. Genetic evidence suggests that the vascular tissue organization is regulated by the same positional information that determines organ polarity.

  8. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback. (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X; Tsao, Tsu-Chin


    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system.

  9. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation. (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J


    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  10. Intravital Imaging of Vascular Transmigration by the Lyme Spirochete: Requirement for the Integrin Binding Residues of the B. burgdorferi P66 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Kumar


    Full Text Available Vascular extravasation, a key step in systemic infection by hematogenous microbial pathogens, is poorly understood, but has been postulated to encompass features similar to vascular transmigration by leukocytes. The Lyme disease spirochete can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including arthritis, upon hematogenous dissemination. This pathogen encodes numerous surface adhesive proteins (adhesins that may promote extravasation, but none have yet been implicated in this process. In this work we report the novel use of intravital microscopy of the peripheral knee vasculature to study transmigration of the Lyme spirochete in living Cd1d-/-mice. In the absence of iNKT cells, major immune modulators in the mouse joint, spirochetes that have extravasated into joint-proximal tissue remain in the local milieu and can be enumerated accurately. We show that BBK32, a fibronectin and glycosaminoglycan adhesin of B. burgdorferi involved in early steps of endothelial adhesion, is not required for extravasation from the peripheral knee vasculature. In contrast, almost no transmigration occurs in the absence of P66, an outer membrane protein that has porin and integrin adhesin functions. Importantly, P66 mutants specifically defective in integrin binding were incapable of promoting extravasation. P66 itself does not promote detectable microvascular interactions, suggesting that vascular adhesion of B. burgdorferi mediated by other adhesins, sets the stage for P66-integrin interactions leading to transmigration. Although integrin-binding proteins with diverse functions are encoded by a variety of bacterial pathogens, P66 is the first to have a documented and direct role in vascular transmigration. The emerging picture of vascular escape by the Lyme spirochete shows similarities, but distinct differences from leukocyte transmigration.

  11. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging. (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H


    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols.

  12. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)


    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  13. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr


    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  14. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Assessment of Vascular Changes and Radiation Response in Androgen-Sensitive Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts under Androgen-Exposed and Androgen-Deprived Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Røe


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa patients receive androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT to reduce tumor burden. However, complete eradication of PCa is unusual, and recurrent disease is evident within approximately 2 years in high-risk patients. Clinical evidence suggests that combining ADT with radiotherapy improves local control and disease-free survival in these patients compared with radiotherapy alone. We investigated whether vascularization of androgen-sensitive PCa xenografts changed after ADT and whether such therapy affected radiation response. CWR22 xenografts received combinations of ADT by castration (CWR22-cas and 15 Gy of single-dose irradiation. At a shortest tumor diameter of 8 mm, vascularization was visualized by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging before radiation and 1 and 9 days after radiation. Voxel-wise quantitative modeling of contrast enhancement curves extracted the hemodynamic parameter Ktrans, reflecting a combination of permeability, density, and blood flow. Tumor volumes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA were monitored during the experiment. The results showed that Ktrans of CWR22-cas tumors 36±4 days after ADT was 47.1% higher than Ktrans of CWR22 tumors (P = .01. CWR22-cas tumors showed no significant changes in Ktrans after radiation, whereas Ktrans of CWR22 tumors at day 1 decreased compared with pretreatment values (P = .04 before a continuous increase from day 1 to day 9 followed (P = .01. Total PSA in blood correlated positively to tumor volume (r = 0.59, P < .01. In conclusion, androgen-exposed xenografts demonstrated radiation-induced reductions in vascularization and tumor volumes, whereas androgen-deprived xenografts showed increased vascularization and growth inhibition, but no significant additive effect of radiation.

  15. Branding of vascular surgery. (United States)

    Perler, Bruce A


    The Society for Vascular Surgery surveyed primary care physicians (PCPs) to understand how PCPs make referral decisions for their patients with peripheral vascular disease. Responses were received from 250 PCPs in 44 states. More than 80% of the respondents characterized their experiences with vascular surgeons as positive or very positive. PCPs perceive that vascular surgeons perform "invasive" procedures and refer patients with the most severe vascular disease to vascular surgeons but were more than twice as likely to refer patients to cardiologists, believing they are better able to perform minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, PCPs are receptive to the notion of increasing referrals to vascular surgeons. A successful branding campaign will require considerable education of referring physicians about the totality of traditional vascular and endovascular care increasingly provided by the contemporary vascular surgical practice and will be most effective at the local grassroots level.

  16. tion of vascular malformations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    classification of vascular anomalies outside of the central ... The current classification of CNS vascular ... tural proteins within the wall of caver- .... ing (or established) loss of function or a threat to ..... natural history of the strawberry nevus. Arch.

  17. Society for Vascular Medicine (United States)

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Collagen vascular disease (United States)

    ... page: // Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific ...

  19. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma. (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N


    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.].

  20. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio


    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  1. Revisiting the TALE repeat. (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng


    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  2. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;


    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  3. New polymeric materials for vascular surgery



    The dramatic impact that vascular diseases have on human life quality and expectancy nowadays is the reason why both medical and scientific communities put great effort in discovering new and effective ways to fight vascular pathologies. Among the many different treatments, endovascular surgery is a minimally-invasive technique that makes use of X-ray fluoroscopy to obtain real-time images of the patient during interventions. In this context radiopaque biomaterials, i.e. materials able to abs...

  4. Vascular Distribution of Glioblastoma Multiforme at Diagnosis (United States)

    Yohay, K.; Wolf, D.S.; Aronson, L.J.; Duus, M.; Melhem, E.R.; Cohen, K.J.


    Summary Treatment of high-grade gliomas with selective intra-arterial (IA) administration of chemotherapies has been proposed, and utilized as a therapeutic modality. This approach offers the conceptual benefit of providing maximal delivery of the agent to the tumor bed, while potentially reducing systemic exposure to the agent. This retrospective study was designed to determine the vascular distribution of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the time of diagnosis in an effort to determine what proportion of patients would likely be candidates for this approach. The preoperative MRI scans of 50 patients with GBM were analyzed and compared to published normative data of intracranial vascular distribution. Vascular distribution was determined by analyzing post-gadolinium axial and coronal T1 images, axial T2 images, and axial T2 images with an additional 1 cm margin (T2 + 1 cm) added in all dimensions. T1 analysis demonstrated 60% of tumors in a single vascular distribution. T2 analysis of these tumors reduced that number to 34%. When the T2 + 1 cm margin was utilized, only 6% of tumors were in a single vascular distribution. 66% of tumors were limited to the anterior circulation on T1 imaging but only 34% on T2 + 1 cm imaging. 30% of tumors were also within the distribution of the anterior choroidal artery. These findings suggest that the use of selective IA administration of agents is necessarily limited to a fraction of presenting patients or will require administration via multiple cerebral arteries. PMID:23472735

  5. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare


    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  6. Comparison of initial and tertiary centre second opinion reads of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate prior to repeat biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nienke L. [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Koo, Brendan C.; Gallagher, Ferdia A. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, Anne Y. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Barrett, Tristan [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Box 218, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    To investigate the value of second-opinion evaluation of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by subspecialised uroradiologists at a tertiary centre for the detection of significant cancer in transperineal fusion prostate biopsy. Evaluation of prospectively acquired initial and second-opinion radiology reports of 158 patients who underwent MRI at regional hospitals prior to transperineal MR/untrasound fusion biopsy at a tertiary referral centre over a 3-year period. Gleason score (GS) 7-10 cancer, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value (±95 % confidence intervals) were calculated and compared by Fisher's exact test. Disagreement between initial and tertiary centre second-opinion reports was observed in 54 % of cases (86/158). MRIs had a higher NPV for GS 7-10 in tertiary centre reads compared to initial reports (0.89 ± 0.08 vs 0.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.04), and a higher PPV in the target area for all cancer (0.61 ± 0.12 vs 0.28 ± 0.10; p = 0.01) and GS 7-10 cancer (0.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.2 3 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). For equivocal suspicion, the PPV for GS 7-10 was 0.12 ± 0.11 for tertiary centre and 0.11 ± 0.09 for initial reads; p = 1.00. Second readings of prostate MRI by subspecialised uroradiologists at a tertiary centre significantly improved both NPV and PPV. Reporter experience may help to reduce overcalling and avoid overtargeting of lesions. (orig.)

  7. Safety Validation of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Using Focused Ultrasound. (United States)

    Kobus, Thiele; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Pilatou, Magdalini; Zhang, Yongzhi; McDannold, Nathan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on the brain of multiple sessions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption using focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with micro-bubbles over a range of acoustic exposure levels. Six weekly sessions of FUS, using acoustical pressures between 0.66 and 0.80 MPa, were performed under magnetic resonance guidance. The success and degree of BBB disruption was estimated by signal enhancement of post-contrast T1-weighted imaging of the treated area. Histopathological analysis was performed after the last treatment. The consequences of repeated BBB disruption varied from no indications of vascular damage to signs of micro-hemorrhages, macrophage infiltration, micro-scar formations and cystic cavities. The signal enhancement on the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging had limited value for predicting small-vessel damage. T2-weighted imaging corresponded well with the effects on histopathology and could be used to study treatment effects over time. This study demonstrates that repeated BBB disruption by FUS can be performed with no or limited damage to the brain tissue.

  8. 高频超声组织谐波技术及多普勒血流成像技术在四肢深度电烧伤诊断中的应用%The Application of High-frequency Ultrasound Tissue Harmonic Imaging and Doppler Vascular Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis of Severe Electrical Burns in Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑜峰; 陈浩杰; 于新国; 朱维平; 陈国华; 王意达; 王怡


      目的:探讨高频超声组织谐波技术及多普勒血流成像技术在四肢深度电烧伤诊疗中的应用价值。方法:2008年12月-2010年8月笔者对本科收治的15例四肢深度电烧伤患者手术前后使用超声组织谐波成像技术及多普勒血流成像技术进行全面检查,观察软组织损伤情况及范围,测量血流相关参数,判断血管损伤程度。结果:共检测患肢28条,上肢19条,下肢 9条。组织谐波技术所得到的声像图能准确显示软组织受损程度及范围,判断肌组织坏死情况。彩色多普勒及频谱多普勒技术能对血管受损情况做出准确判断,检测出7例血栓形成病例。术前超声检查结果与手术中所见一致。术后超声检查可以动态追踪软组织恢复情况并检测血管内血流动力学参数,并据此评估疗效。结论:高频超声组织谐波技术及多普勒血流成像技术应用于重度电烧伤患肢可在手术前后实时、形象、直观地显示组织、血管损伤的形态学及功能学变化,具有很高的临床应用价值。%Objective:To evaluate the diagnosis value of high-frequency ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging and Doppler vascular imaging techniques in the treatment of severe electrical burns in limbs.Method:From December 2008 to August 2010,fifteen patients with severe electrical burns in limbs were admitted to author’s hospital. Ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging and Doppler vascular imaging techniques were applied in the thorough ultrasonogarphy examination of their limbs pre- and post-operatively,with the special attention to the extension and damage level of suffered soft tissue and vasculars.Result:Altogether,twenty-eight limbs,nineteen upper extremities and nine lower extremities,were examined.Sonograms acquired by tissue harmonic imaging technique could precisely show the extension and damage level of suffered soft and muscular tissues. Doppler vascular imaging

  9. Images (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  10. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.


    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  11. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen. (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M


    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  12. Laser speckle analysis of retinal vascular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y.; Postnov, Dmitry D.; Jacobsen, Jens Christian B.;


    Studies of vascular responses are usually performed on isolated vessels or on single vessels in vivo. This allows for precise measurements of diameter or blood flow. However, dynamical responses of the whole microvascular network are difficult to access experimentally. We suggest to use full......-field laser speckle imaging to evaluate vascular responses of the retinal network. Image segmentation and vessel recognition algorithms together with response mapping allow us to analyze diameter changes and blood flow responses in the intact retinal network upon systemic administration of the vasoconstrictor...

  13. Quality Estimation for Vascular Pattern Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Martin, Sophie; Busch, Christoph


    The quality of captured samples is a critical aspect in biometric systems. In this paper we present a quality estimation algorithm for vascular images, which uses global and local features based on a Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and optionally available metadata. An evaluation of the al......The quality of captured samples is a critical aspect in biometric systems. In this paper we present a quality estimation algorithm for vascular images, which uses global and local features based on a Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and optionally available metadata. An evaluation...

  14. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.


    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  15. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability


    Uematsu, Hidemasa; Maeda, Masayuki


    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel...

  16. Aldosterone and vascular damage. (United States)

    Duprez, D; De Buyzere, M; Rietzschel, E R; Clement, D L


    Although the aldosterone escape mechanism is well known, aldosterone has often been neglected in the pathophysiologic consequences of the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure. There is now evidence for vascular synthesis of aldosterone aside from its secretion by the adrenal cortex. Moreover, aldosterone is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as in vascular matrix impairment and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms of action of aldosterone may be either delayed (genomic) or rapid (nongenomic). Deleterious effects of aldosterone leading to vascular target-organ damage include (besides salt and water retention) decreased arterial and venous compliance, increased peripheral vascular resistance, and impaired autonomic vascular control due to baroreflex dysfunction.

  17. Repeating the Past (United States)

    Moore, John W.


    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  18. Vascular Cognitive Impairment. (United States)

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier


    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  19. Complementary tumor vascularity imaging in a single PET-CT routine using FDG early dynamic blood flow and contrast-enhanced CT texture analysis (United States)

    Carmi, Raz; Yefremov, Nikolay; Bernstine, Hanna; Groshar, David


    A feasibility study of improved PET-CT tumor imaging approach is presented. A single PET-CT routine includes three different techniques: 18F-FDG early dynamic blood flow intended for perfusion assessment; standard late 18F-FDG uptake; and high-resolution contrast-enhanced CT enabling tissue texture analysis. Both PET protocols utilize the same single standard radiotracer dose administration. Quantitative volumetric arterial perfusion maps are derived from the reconstructed dynamic PET images corresponding to successive acquisition time intervals of 3 seconds only. For achieving high accuracy, the analysis algorithm differentiates the first-pass arterial flow from other interfering dynamic effects, and a noise reduction scheme based on adaptive total-variation minimization aims to provide appreciable quantitative map in physical conditions of high noise and low spatial resolution. The CT texture analysis comprises a practical and robust method for generating volumetric tissue irregularity maps. A local map value is represented by the entropy function which is derived from a weighted co-occurrence matrix histogram of the corresponding image voxel three-dimensional vicinity. Unique entropy scaling scheme and parameter optimization process, as well as appropriate scaling for varying image noise levels and contrast agent concentrations, improve the results toward quantitative absolute measure with respect to diverse scanning conditions and key analysis parameters. Representative imaging results are demonstrated on several clinical cases involving different organs and cancer types. In these cases, significant tumor characterization relative to the normal surrounding tissues is seen on the quantitative maps of all three imaging techniques. This proof of concept can lead the way to a new practical diagnostic imaging application.

  20. Functional ultrasound imaging reveals different odor-evoked patterns of vascular activity in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex. (United States)

    Osmanski, B F; Martin, C; Montaldo, G; Lanièce, P; Pain, F; Tanter, M; Gurden, H


    Topographic representation of the outside world is a key feature of sensory systems, but so far it has been difficult to define how the activity pattern of the olfactory information is distributed at successive stages in the olfactory system. We studied odor-evoked activation patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex of rats using functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging. fUS imaging is based on the use of ultrafast ultrasound scanners and detects variations in the local blood volume during brain activation. It makes deep brain imaging of ventral structures, such as the piriform cortex, possible. Stimulation with two different odors (hexanal and pentylacetate) induced the activation of odor-specific zones that were spatially segregated in the main olfactory bulb. Interestingly, the same odorants triggered the activation of the entire anterior piriform cortex, in all layers, with no distinguishable odor-specific areas detected in the power Doppler images. These fUS imaging results confirm the spatial distribution of odor-evoked activity in the main olfactory bulb, and furthermore, they reveal the absence of such a distribution in the anterior piriform cortex at the macroscopic scale in vivo.

  1. All-optical repeater. (United States)

    Silberberg, Y


    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  2. Bidirectional Manchester repeater (United States)

    Ferguson, J.


    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  3. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)


    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  4. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)


    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic performance of state-of-the-art imaging techniques for morphological assessment of vascular abnormalities in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Pitton, Michael B.; Schneider, Jens; Wirth, Gesine M.; Dueber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Universitaetsmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Mayer, Eckhard [Kerckhoff-Hospital Bad Nauheim, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Bad Nauheim (Germany)


    To determine the most comprehensive imaging technique for the assessment of pulmonary arteries in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). 24 patients with CTEPH were examined by ECG-gated multi-detector CT angiography (MD-CTA), contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA) and selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within 3 days. Two readers in consensus separately evaluated each imaging technique (48 main, 144 lobar and 449 segmental arteries) for typical changes like complete obstructions, vessel cut-offs, intimal irregularities, incorporated thrombus formations, and bands and webs. A joint interpretation of all three techniques served as a reference standard. Based on image quality, there was no non-diagnostic examination by either imaging technique. DSA did not sufficiently display 1 main, 3 lobar and 4 segmental arteries. The pulmonary trunk was not assessable by DSA. One patient showed thrombotic material at this level only by MD-CTA and MRA. Sensitivity and specificity of MD-CTA regarding CTEPH-related changes at the main/lobar and at the segmental levels were 100%/100% and 100%/99%, of ce-MRA 83.1%/98.6% and 87.7%/98.1%, and of DSA 65.7%/100% and 75.8%/100%, respectively. ECG-gated MD-CTA proved the most adequate technique for assessment of the pulmonary arteries in the diagnostic work-up of CTEPH patients. (orig.)

  6. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L


    Full Text Available A 65 year old lady presented with generalised pruritus and discolouration of skin and mucous membranes of 5 years duration. The histopathology from the cutaneous lesions revealed features suggestive of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA. Investigations did not reveal any underlying connective tissue disease,lymphoma or systemic disease. A diagnosis of idiopathic poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans was made.

  7. Evaluation and management of acute vascular trauma. (United States)

    Salazar, Gloria M M; Walker, T Gregory


    With the technical advances and the increasing availability of sophisticated imaging equipment, techniques, and protocols, and with continually evolving transcatheter endovascular therapies, minimally invasive imaging and treatment options are being routinely used for the clinical management of trauma patients. Thus, the primary treatment algorithm for managing acute vascular trauma now increasingly involves the interventional radiologist or other endovascular specialist. Endovascular techniques represent an attractive option for both stabilizing and definitively treating patients who have sustained significant trauma, with resultant vascular injury. Endovascular treatment frequently offers the benefit of a focused definitive therapy, even in the presence of massive hemorrhage that allows for preservation of major vessels or injured solid organs and serves as an alternative to an open surgical intervention. This article presents an overview of various endovascular techniques that can be used for trauma patients presenting with vascular injuries.

  8. 脑卒中MRA表现与血管性痴呆的相关性研究%The relationship between MRA imaging and vascular dementia of patients with cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩培海; 李成君; 高思山


    Objective To study the relationship between MRA imaging and vascular dementia (VD) of patients with cerebral stroke (CS).Methods Patients who had CS more than 6 months were divided into vascular dementia group and no vascular dementia group according to results of Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).MRA data of two groups were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively.Results The rates of MRA blocking,stricture and sclerosis of back circulation system,anterior cerebral artery,deep perforators of middle cerebral artery,brain artery terminal branch in VD group were more than those in no vascular dementia group (P < 0.05).Blocking,stricture and sclerosis of vertebral artery and basilar artery was evidence (P < 0.05).The rates of blocking,stricture and sclerosis of back circulation system,anterior cerebral artery in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy were significantly higher than those in no vascular dementia group (P < 0.05).Conclusions MRA blocking,stricture and sclerosis of back circulation system,anterior cerebral artery,brain artery terminal branch can be used as predictive indexes of VD,blocking,stricture and sclerosis of vertebral artery and basilar artery is important to VD.%目的 探讨脑梗死患者头颅MRA表现与血管性痴呆(VD)的相关性.方法 对卒中半年以上的患者,根据简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)、临床痴呆评定量表(CDR)评分分为VD组及脑卒中后无痴呆(SWD)组,并回顾性分析两组在卒中的MRA资料.结果 VD组中后循环系统、大脑前动脉、大脑中动脉的深穿支及大脑动脉终未分支MRA闭塞、狭窄及硬化率明显高于SWD组(P<0.05).其中后循环中椎动脉及基底动脉闭塞、狭窄及硬化最为明显(P<0.05),脑血管淀粉样变患者后循环系统、大脑前动脉发生闭塞、狭窄及硬化的机率明显增高(P<0.05).结论 后循环系统、大脑前动脉及大脑动脉终未分支MRA闭塞、狭窄及

  9. [Vascular factors in glaucoma]. (United States)

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C


    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)


    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  12. Retinal vascular tree reconstruction with anatomical realism. (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Shun; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Chih-Hsiangng; Sofka, Michal; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yang


    Motivated by the goals of automatically extracting vessel segments and constructing retinal vascular trees with anatomical realism, this paper presents and analyses an algorithm that combines vessel segmentation and grouping of the extracted vessel segments. The proposed method aims to restore the topology of the vascular trees with anatomical realism for clinical studies and diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases, which manifest abnormalities in either venous and/or arterial vascular systems. Vessel segments are grouped using extended Kalman filter which takes into account continuities in curvature, width, and intensity changes at the bifurcation or crossover point. At a junction, the proposed method applies the minimum-cost matching algorithm to resolve the conflict in grouping due to error in tracing. The system was trained with 20 images from the DRIVE dataset, and tested using the remaining 20 images. The dataset contained a mixture of normal and pathological images. In addition, six pathological fluorescein angiogram sequences were also included in this study. The results were compared against the groundtruth images provided by a physician, achieving average success rates of 88.79% and 90.09%, respectively.

  13. Final 2 year results of the vascular imaging of acute stroke for identifying predictors of clinical outcome and recurrent ischemic eveNts (VISION study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasziw Misha


    Full Text Available Abstract Among patients with ischemic stroke, little attention has been paid to differentiation between stroke progression and recurrence. We assessed the role of MR imaging in predicting stroke progression, recurrent stroke, and death within 2 years of symptom onset. Methods Ischemic stroke or TIA patients were prospectively enrolled. They were examined within 12 hours and had a stroke MR completed within 24 hours of symptom onset. Patients were closely followed neurologically and examined if there was any deterioration in neurological status. Relationships between baseline clinical and imaging factors and outcomes were assessed. We also examined whether baseline stroke/TIA severity (NIHSS 0-5 versus NIHSS > 5 modified these relationships. Results A total of 334 patients were enrolled. The overall rates of progression, 2-year recurrence, and 2-year death were 8.7%, 8.0%, and 6.6%, respectively. Event rates were similar among patients with mild compared to more severe strokes: 8.3% versus 9.5% (p = 0.73 for progression, and 7.3% versus 9.9% (p = 0.59 for recurrence. The effect of baseline glucose > 8 mmol/l was consistent in predicting stroke progression, recurrent stroke and death, regardless of baseline stroke severity. In multivariable analyses, DWI lesion and intracranial occlusion predicted stroke progression only in the minor stroke/TIA group; symptomatic Internal Carotid Artery (ICA stenosis predicted stroke recurrence only in the minor stroke/TIA group. Conclusions In a prospective study with early assessment and imaging we have found that stroke progression is different than stroke recurrence. Different imaging factors predict stroke progression versus stroke recurrence. Baseline hyperglycemia, a potentially modifiable factor, consistently predicted all three outcomes (stroke progression, recurrent stroke or death regardless of baseline stroke severity.

  14. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: correlates with cognitive and motor deficits. (United States)

    Kim, Sook Hui; Park, Jun Sung; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Sang Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Han, Seol-Heui; Na, Duk L


    Patients with small vessel disease show high-signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images that represent ischemic cell damage. However, despite a similar degree of ischemic change, the amount and the severity of clinical presentations may vary. We investigated the clinical correlations of ischemic changes using voxel-based morphometric analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-seven MCI and 34 dementia patients were included who all had significant small vessel disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In all patients, neuropsychological tests, a rating on the Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal scale (PEPS) for motor deficits, and 3-Tesla MRI including DTI scans were performed. Voxel-based analysis of the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were computed. Cognitive scores correlated with the DTI abnormalities in supratentorial areas with regional specificity according to each cognitive test. Unexpectedly, cognitive deficits in most neuropsychological tests, even in some frontal tasks, were associated with disruption of posterior white matter integrities. Motor deficits correlated with both supra- and infratentorial lesions. Our findings suggest that in patients with small vessel disease who show cognitive and motor impairments, a specific distribution of fiber tract damage is more related with clinical deficits than is the severity of the total ischemia. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. A novel approach for a 2D/3D image registration routine for medical tool navigation in minimally invasive vascular interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwerter, Michael [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4) - Medical Imaging Physics; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine


    Minimally invasive interventions are frequently aided by 2D projective image guidance. To facilitate the navigation of medical tools within the patient, information from preoperative 3D images can supplement interventional data. This work describes a novel approach to perform a 3D CT data registration to a single interventional native fluoroscopic frame. The goal of this procedure is to recover and visualize a current 2D interventional tool position in its corresponding 3D dataset. A dedicated routine was developed and tested on a phantom. The 3D position of a guidewire inserted into the phantom could successfully be reconstructed for varying 2D image acquisition geometries. The scope of the routine includes projecting the CT data into the plane of the fluoroscopy. A subsequent registration of the real and virtual projections is performed with an accuracy within the range of 1.16 ± 0.17 mm for fixed landmarks. The interventional tool is extracted from the fluoroscopy and matched to the corresponding part of the projected and transformed arterial vasculature. A root mean square error of up to 0.56 mm for matched point pairs is reached. The desired 3D view is provided by backprojecting the matched guidewire through the CT array. Due to its potential to reduce patient dose and treatment times, the proposed routine has the capability of reducing patient stress at lower overall treatment costs.

  16. Long-term vascular access ports as a means of sedative administration in a rodent fMRI survival model. (United States)

    Hettinger, Patrick C; Li, Rupeng; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S; Cho, Younghoon R; Pawela, Christopher P; Rowe, Daniel B; Hyde, James S


    The purpose of this study is to develop a rodent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) survival model with the use of heparin-coated vascular access devices. Such a model would ease the administration of sedative agents, reduce the number of animals required in survival experiments and eliminate animal-to-animal variability seen in previous designs. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical placement of an MRI-compatible vascular access port, followed by implantable electrode placement on the right median nerve. Functional MRI during nerve stimulation and resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed at times 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively using a 9.4T scanner. Anesthesia was maintained using intravenous dexmedetomidine and reversed using atipamezole. There were no fatalities or infectious complications during this study. All vascular access ports remained patent. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation by electrical stimulation of the median nerve using implanted electrodes was seen within the forelimb sensory region (S1FL) for all animals at all time points. The number of activated voxels decreased at time points 4 and 8 weeks, returning to a normal level at 12 weeks, which is attributed to scar tissue formation and resolution around the embedded electrode. The applications of this experiment extend far beyond the scope of peripheral nerve experimentation. These vascular access ports can be applied to any survival MRI study requiring repeated medication administration, intravenous contrast, or blood sampling.

  17. A combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering for noise reduction when using region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy for patient dose reduction in image guided vascular interventions with significant anatomical motion (United States)

    Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Khobragade, P.; Ionita, C.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.


    Because x-ray based image-guided vascular interventions are minimally invasive they are currently the most preferred method of treating disorders such as stroke, arterial stenosis, and aneurysms; however, the x-ray exposure to the patient during long image-guided interventional procedures could cause harmful effects such as cancer in the long run and even tissue damage in the short term. ROI fluoroscopy reduces patient dose by differentially attenuating the incident x-rays outside the region-of-interest. To reduce the noise in the dose-reduced regions previously recursive temporal filtering was successfully demonstrated for neurovascular interventions. However, in cardiac interventions, anatomical motion is significant and excessive recursive filtering could cause blur. In this work the effects of three noise-reduction schemes, including recursive temporal filtering, spatial mean filtering, and a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering, were investigated in a simulated ROI dose-reduced cardiac intervention. First a model to simulate the aortic arch and its movement was built. A coronary stent was used to simulate a bioprosthetic valve used in TAVR procedures and was deployed under dose-reduced ROI fluoroscopy during the simulated heart motion. The images were then retrospectively processed for noise reduction in the periphery, using recursive temporal filtering, spatial filtering and a combination of both. Quantitative metrics for all three noise reduction schemes are calculated and are presented as results. From these it can be concluded that with significant anatomical motion, a combination of spatial and recursive temporal filtering scheme is best suited for reducing the excess quantum noise in the periphery. This new noise-reduction technique in combination with ROI fluoroscopy has the potential for substantial patient-dose savings in cardiac interventions.

  18. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: [U.O.C. Radiologia, A.O. San Carlo Borromeo, via Pio II 3, 20153 Milan (Italy); Pieri, Stefano, E-mail: [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Agresti, Paolo, E-mail: [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Cariati, Massimiliano, E-mail: [Department of Academic Oncology, King' s College London, 3rd Floor Bermondsey Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Candito, Davide Fabio, E-mail: [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Damiani, Giovanni, E-mail: [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Marzano, Domenico, E-mail: [U.O.C. Urologia, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy)


    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate.

  19. Advances in the Management of Cerebral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadir


    Full Text Available A cerebral vascular disease occurred with the arteries of brain due to the less supply of blood.  Stroke is mostly caused by cerebral vascular disease and it is also a common cause of vascular dementia due to reduced oxygen supply and blood flow to the brain. In industrialized countries, neurologic disability is most frequently caused by cerebeovascular disease. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure etc are at higher possibility for cerebral vascular disease. After malignancy and heart disease, cerebral vascular disease is the third leading of death and estimated that an average 500,000 new stroke occurred in each year. Advance techniques such as Carotid Endarterectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Angiography and Single photon emission computed tomography etc are used for management of cerebral vascular disease.

  20. Office-based vascular lab: is it worth the effort? (United States)

    Mansour, M Ashraf; Zwolak, Robert M


    The vascular laboratory is an essential part of any contemporary clinical vascular practice. The prototype of the vascular laboratory consisted mainly of instruments designed to understand the hemodynamics of the vascular tree. Earlier versions also played important roles in clinical research. Currently, sophisticated imaging equipments enable clinicians to evaluate the whole range of arterial and venous diseases in the outpatient setting. Both patients and physicians have found this to be very practical and convenient. Furthermore, income generated from performing diagnostic tests in the vascular laboratory helps support a variety of clinical activities and research. However, recent cost-cutting measures by medical insurance carriers are threatening the viability of office-based vascular laboratories

  1. Congenital Vascular Malformation (United States)

    ... also be effective for small, localized birthmarks (port wine stains). Patients with a rare venous malformation (Kleppel– ... 3) non-profit organization focused on providing public education and improving awareness about vascular diseases. For more ...

  2. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype ... Keywords: Histamine, Vascular smooth muscle, Endothelium .... responses to histamine, but not those to acetylcholine, were.

  3. Intracranial Vascular Treatments (United States)

    ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media Gamma Knife Linear Accelerator Catheter Embolization Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Proton Therapy Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Stereotactic ...

  4. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.


    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  5. Ageing and vascular ageing



    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, di...

  6. [Complex vascular access]. (United States)

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P


    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  7. Imaging in pulsatile tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, G. [Radiology Department, St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    Tinnitus may be continuous or pulsatile. Vascular lesions are the most frequent radiologically demonstrable cause of pulsatile tinnitus. These include congenital vascular anomalies (which may be arterial or venous), vascular tumours, and a variety of acquired vasculopathies. The choice of imaging depends on the clinical findings. If a mass is present at otoscopy, thin-section computed tomography (CT) is indicated. In the otoscopically normal patient, there is a range of possible imaging approaches. However, combined CT angiography and venography is particularly useful.

  8. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing venous vascular abnormalities in the head and neck: a demonstration of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in a subset of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mark Haacke


    Full Text Available The study of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its impact on the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS remains controversial. Although the initial thrust in evaluating CCSVI was with ultrasound, other modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to study venous vascular abnormalities. This review focuses on the findings of a number of past MRI studies including a look at a combined study of four previous works with a cohort of 559 MS patients regarding structure and function of the extra-cranial vasculature. Strengths and limitations of each paper are discussed which give insight into conflicting reports of venous abnormalities in MS patients and healthy controls. Guidelines for data acquisition and analysis for future studies related to extra-cranial structure and flow, both arterial and venous, are discussed. This includes the grading of stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJVs as well as normalized flows through major veins of the neck. The lack of agreement between most studies is likely due to inconsistent data acquisition and incomplete data analysis. Our own work over four independent sites shows good agreement, indicating that there is a high incidence of stenosis and structural venous abnormalities in the MS population and that this change results in reduced outflow of the IJVs and increased collateralization of venous return to the heart compared to healthy controls.

  9. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail


    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  10. Quantification of Hepatic Vascular and Parenchymal Regeneration in Mice (United States)

    Xie, Chichi; Schwen, Lars Ole; Wei, Weiwei; Schenk, Andrea; Zafarnia, Sara; Gremse, Felix; Dahmen, Uta


    Background Liver regeneration consists of cellular proliferation leading to parenchymal and vascular growth. This study complements previous studies on cellular proliferation and weight recovery by (1) quantitatively describing parenchymal and vascular regeneration, and (2) determining their relationship. Both together are needed to (3) characterize the underlying growth pattern. Methods Specimens were created by injecting a polymerizing contrast agent in either portal or hepatic vein in normal or regenerating livers after 70% partial hepatectomy. 3D image data were obtained through micro-CT scanning. Parenchymal growth was assessed by determining weight and volume of the regenerating liver. Vascular growth was described by manually determined circumscribed parameters (maximal vessel length and radius of right inferior portal/hepatic vein), automatically determined cumulative parameters (total edge length and total vascular volume), and parameters describing vascular density (total edge length/volume, vascular volume fraction). The growth pattern was explored by comparing the relative increase of these parameters to the increase expected in case of isotropic expansion. Results Liver volume recovery paralleled weight recovery and reached 90% of the original liver volume within 7 days. Comparing radius-related vascular parameters immediately after surgical resection and after virtual resection in-silico revealed a slight increase, possibly reflecting the effect of resection-induced portal hyperperfusion. Comparing length-related parameters between post-operative day 7 and after virtual resection showed similar vascular growth in both vascular systems investigated. In contrast, radius-related parameters increased slightly more in the portal vein. Despite the seemingly homogeneous 3D growth, the observed vascular parameters were not compatible with the hypothesis of isotropic expansion of liver parenchyma and vascular structures. Conclusion We present an approach for

  11. Antioxidants and vascular health. (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto


    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  12. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography: does a higher relaxivity MR contrast agent permit a reduction of the dose administered for routine vascular imaging applications? (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiangzhu; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Qiang; Kirchin, Miles A; Pirovano, Gianpaolo; Wang, Xiaoying; Li, Yuan; Iezzi, Roberto; De Cobelli, Francesco


    The authors prospectively compared single dose (0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight) gadobenate dimeglumine with double dose (0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight) gadopentetate dimeglumine for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in patients with suspected or known steno-occlusive disease of the carotid, renal or peripheral vasculature using an intra-individual crossover study design. Twenty-eight patients with suspected or known steno-occlusive disease of the carotid (n = 16), renal (n = 5) or peripheral arteries (n = 7) were randomised to receive either 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine or 0.2 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine for a first CE-MRA procedure. After 3-5 days all patients underwent a second identical CE-MRA procedure with the other contrast agent. Three blinded readers assessed images for vessel anatomical delineation, disease detection/exclusion, and global preference. Diagnostic performance for detection of ≥51 % stenosis was determined for 20/28 patients who also underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Non-inferiority was assessed using the Wilcoxon signed rank, McNemar and Wald tests. Quantitative (signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio) enhancement based on 3D maximum intensity projection reconstructions was compared. No differences were noted for any qualitative parameter. Equivalence was reported for all diagnostic preference end-points. Superiority for gadobenate dimeglumine was reported by all readers for sensitivity for disease detection (80.8-86.5 vs. 75.0-82.7 %). Quantitative enhancement was similar for single dose gadobenate dimeglumine and double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine. Under identical examination conditions a single 0.1 mmol/kg body weight dose of gadobenate dimeglumine can fully replace a double 0.2 mmol/kg body weight dose of gadopentetate dimeglumine for routine CE-MRA procedures.

  13. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  14. Evaluation of emergency revascularisation in vascular trauma. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Iqbal; Khan, Najam; Abbasi, Shafquat Ali; Baqai, Mohammad Tariq; ur Rehman, Bashir; Wayne, Abdul


    Vascular trauma is a common life threatening injury leading to serious consequences if not timely and efficiently managed. We evaluated early surgical interventions aimed at revascularization and thus salvaging limb/organ in life threatening vascular injuries. Aims of our study were to evaluate the outcome of available diagnostic modalities, earliest possible surgical intervention and rate of related complications with particular reference to our existing situation. Emergency diagnostic workup based mainly on clinical evaluations and required laboratory and imaging parameters leading to revascularisation was performed in 48 patients in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Muzaffarabad and Islamic Medical College Hospitals between June 1997 and December 2001. Data was collected on pre-designed computerized proforma's which were completed by the treating surgeon and data was entered and analyzed accordingly. Out of the total 48 patients who sustained major vascular injuries during this period, 14 (29.2%) were having injury to upper limb vessels, 26 (54.2%) patients had injury to the lower limb vessels, 6 (12.5%) patients reported with injury to abdominal vessels. One (2%) patient had injury to common carotid artery, while an other patient to thoracic aorta respectively (2%). Penetrating trauma caused 38 (79%) and blunt trauma caused 10 (21%) major vascular injuries. Out of 48 patients, 41 (85.4%) patients were successful managed by vascular reconstruction without any residual disability. Speedy diagnostic work up and early revascularization yields favourable outcome in vast majority of patients requiring vascular repair. Selections of surgical technique including use of autologous vein graft or artificial vascular graft can save many limbs. In order to achieve good results the time lapse between injury and revascularisation should be less than 6 hours.

  15. Ageing and vascular ageing (United States)

    Jani, B; Rajkumar, C


    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, and end stage renal failure. Changes in arterial compliance can be present before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological and non‐pharmacological measures have been shown to improve arterial compliance. Arterial compliance may constitute an early cardiovascular risk marker and may be useful in assessing the effects of drugs on the cardiovascular system. Pharmacogenetics and genetics of arterial compliance in the future will improve our knowledge and understanding about vascular ageing. PMID:16754702

  16. Fractal parameters and vascular networks: facts & artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniero Fabrizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several fractal and non-fractal parameters have been considered for the quantitative assessment of the vascular architecture, using a variety of test specimens and of computational tools. The fractal parameters have the advantage of being scale invariant, i.e. to be independent of the magnification and resolution of the images to be investigated, making easier the comparison among different setups and experiments. Results The success of several commercial and/or free codes in computing the fractal parameters has been tested on well known exact models. Based on such a preliminary study, we selected the code Frac-lac in order to analyze images obtained by visualizing the angiogenetic process occurring in chick Chorio Allontoic Membranes (CAM, assumed to be paradigmatic of a realistic 2D vascular network. Among the parameters investigated, the fractal dimension Df proved to be the most robust estimator for CAM vascular networks. Moreover, only Df was able to discriminate between effective and elusive increases in vascularization after drug-induced angiogenic stimulations on CAMs. Conclusion The fractal dimension Df is likely to be the most promising tool for monitoring the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic therapies in various clinical contexts.

  17. The vascular hybrid room--operating room of the future. (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Rogan, Suncica Andreja; Lovricević, Ivo; Zovak, Mario; Schmidt, Sasa


    The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the treatment of vascular related diseases from once traditional open surgical repairs to the entire vascular tree being amenable to percutaneous interventions. Neither the classic operating room nor the conventional angiography suite is optimal for both open surgery and endovascular procedures. Important issues for the vascular hybrid operating room include quality of the imaging equipment, radiation burden, ease of use of the equipment, need for specially trained personnel, ergonomics, ability to perform both open and percutaneous procedures, sterile environments, as well as quality and efficiency of patient care. The most important feature of working in a dedicated hybrid vascular suite should be the ability to attain best treatment of vascular patients. Whether the interventional radiologist or the vascular surgeon uses the facilities is of less importance. Establishment of an endovascular operating room suite has the benefit of a sterile environment, and the possibility of performing hybrid procedures and conversions when necessary. Moreover, angiography immediately before treatment gives contemporary anatomical information, and after treatment provides quality control. Consequently, better quality and service can be provided to the individual patient. These changes in the treatment of vascular disease require that a new type of vascular specialist, named 'vascular hybrid surgeon', trained to perform both endovascular and open surgical procedures in this highly complex patient group.

  18. Image Analysis in CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.


    In this thesis we develop and validate novel image processing techniques for the analysis of vascular structures in medical images. First a new type of filter is proposed which is capable of enhancing vascular structures while suppressing noise in the remainder of the image. This filter is based on

  19. 不同碘浓度对比剂在MSCT腹部血管成像的临床应用研究%Different iodine concentration of contrast agent in the clinical application of MSCT abdominal vascular imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹捍波; 张铁英


    目的 探讨不同碘浓度对比剂对MSCT腹部血管成像质量的影响.方法 150例腹部CT血管成像受检者随机分成3组(每组50例),采用不同碘浓度的对比剂:300mgI/ml、320mgI/ml和370mgI/ml行MSCT扫描,根据原始图像和后处理重建图像,主要观察三组病例腹主动脉及其分支血管的显示程度,从而对图像质量进行评判.分别测量腹腔干水平、肾动脉水平、髂动脉分叉水平处腹主动脉CT值.结果 3组不同平面腹主动脉内对比剂浓度均维持在较高的水平,差异无统计学意义.3组不同碘浓度对比剂显示腹主动脉、腹腔干、肝总动脉、肾动脉及分支能力的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 在相同注射速率条件下多层螺旋CT腹部血管成像使用低浓度对比剂可以获得满意的CTA图像,同时减轻了对比剂不良反应.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of multi-sliced CT(MSCT) abdominal angiography with different iodine concentration of contrast media. Methods 150 cases of abdominal CT angiography subjects were randomly divided into three groups (n=50), different iodine concentrations of contrast agents were adopted as fouows: 300 mgI/ml, 320 mgI/ml and 370 mgI/ml, both MSCT scan. According to the original image and reconstructed image, we mainly observed three groups of cases of the abdominal aorta and its branching vessels in order to judge the image quality. We measured the level of the celiac axis, the level of the renal artery, iliac artery bifurcation at the abdominal aortic CT value. Results The concentration of contrast agent in three different planes within the abdominal aorta were maintained at a high level , no significant difference was obserred. Three different iodine concentration contrast agent showed the abdominal aorta, celiac trunk, hepatic artery, renal artery and branch. The difference was not statistically significant ( P >0. 05). Conclusion The multi-slice CT abdominal vascular imaging using

  20. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund


    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  1. 以血管内皮生长因子及其受体为靶向的肺癌放射性核素显像%Lung cancer radionuclide imaging targeting at vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏俊勇; 王火强


    The lung cancer must establish an angiogenesis to grow,to invade,and to metastasize,in which vascular endothelial factor(VEGF)is the most functional and special adjusting factor and play an important role.So anticancer by inhibiting the expression,activity and signal conduction of VEGF become one of the new and effective methods.Meanwhile,radionuclide imaging targeting at VEGF and its receptor not only can display the angiogenesis of lung cancer,but also has profound meaning in the early diagnosis,the correct staging,and the prognosis of lung cancer.%肺癌的持续生长、侵袭转移与新生血管生成密切相关,在新生血管生成过程中,血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)是作用最强、特异性最高的调控因子.因此,通过对其表达、活性及效应等方面进行有效抑制而达到治疗肺癌的目的 ,是近年来抗肺癌治疗的新方法和手段之一.同时,以VEGF及其受体为靶向的放射性核素显像,不仅可以显示肺癌的血管生成,而且在肺癌的早期诊断、正确分期及预后等方面均具有重要意义.

  2. Comparative Study of the Specificities of Needling Acupoints DU20, DU26 and HT7 in Intervening Vascular Dementia in Different Areas in the Brain on the Basis of Scale Assessment and Cerebral Functional Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; LAI Xin-sheng; TANG An-wu


    Objective: Using methods of clinical scale assessment and cerebral functional imaging to compare the relative specificity of needling acupoints Baihui (DU20), Shuigou (DU26) and Shenmen (HT7) in intervening vascular dementia (VD) in different areas in the brain. Methods: Fifty patients with VD were randomized into 5 groups. Needling on conventionally used acupoints of hand and foot three Yang-meridians aiming at hemiplegia was applied to the patients in Group A, and needling on DU20 to Group B, on DU26 to Group C, on HT7 to Group D and on all the three to Group E was applied additionally. Assessments of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Family Attitude Questionnaire (FAQ) were made. And the positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examinations were conducted in 5 selected patients from each group before and after treatment. Results: Needling on conventional acupoints plus DU20 could effect the inner temporal system, thalamencephalon system and prefrontal cortical system to improve memory and executive capacity of VD patients; conventional acupoints plus DU26 could effect more to the prefrontal cortical system to obviously elevate the executive capacity;that plus HT7 would reveal an effect similar to but rather weaker than plus DU20, and effect more to memory; and that plus all the three simultaneously could effect rather roundly multiple aspects of the nervous system related to intellectual activities, to elevate the recognition and enhance the executive capacity. Conclusion: Needling on various acupoints like DU20, DU26 and HT7 have effects on different brain areas.

  3. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia


    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  4. Plant vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybel, De Bert; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Helariutta, Yrjö; Weijers, Dolf


    Vascular tissues in plants are crucial to provide physical support and to transport water, sugars and hormones and other small signalling molecules throughout the plant. Recent genetic and molecular studies have identified interconnections among some of the major signalling networks that regulate

  5. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia. (United States)

    Appleton, Jason P; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M


    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors-diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking-are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet not fully understood. Similarly, the effects of lipids and lipid-lowering therapy on preventing or treating dementia remain unclear; the few trials that have assessed lipid-lowering therapy for preventing (two trials) or treating (four trials) dementia found no evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy for these indications. It is appropriate to treat those patients with vascular risk factors that meet criteria for lipid-lowering therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and in line with current guidelines. Managing the individual patient in a holistic manner according to his or her own vascular risk profile is recommended. Although the paucity of randomized controlled evidence makes for challenging clinical decision making, it provides multiple opportunities for on-going and future research, as discussed here. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui


    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  7. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ling Cui; Long-hai Qiu; Jia-yan Lian; Jia-chun Li; Jun Hu; Xiao-lin Liu


    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  8. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison. (United States)

    Weeber, Stan


    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  9. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.


    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  10. Solitary vascular malformation of the clitoris. (United States)

    Haritharan, T; Islah, M; Zulfiqar, A; Thambi Dorai, C R


    Isolated involvement of the clitoris by vascular malformation (VM) is very rare. Clinically, the lesion simulates female pseudohermaphroditism. A five-year-old girl presented with clitoromegaly and a clinical diagnosis of solitary VM of the clitoris was made. Magnetic resonance imaging showed characteristic features and confirmed the diagnosis and the extent of the VM. This is the first reported case of isolated involvement of the clitoris by VM to be diagnosed preoperatively.

  11. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  12. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction. (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge


    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  13. Adult presentation with vascular ring due to double aortic arch. (United States)

    Kafka, Henryk; Uebing, Anselm; Mohiaddin, Raad


    This is a case report on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose vascular ring due to double aortic arch in an adult presenting with an abnormal chest X-ray. The experience in this case and the literature review identify the benefits of using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to clarify complex aortic arch anatomy.

  14. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Macdonald, Mara; Garfein, Evan S.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Darland, Diane C.; Marini, Robert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mulligan, Richard C.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Langer, Robert


    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.


    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.


    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of tumor oxygenation and metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishna, Murali C.; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita


    The tumor microenvironment is distinct from normal tissue as a result of abnormal vascular network characterized by hypoxia, low pH, high interstitial fluid pressure and elevated glycolytic activity. This poses a barrier to treatments including radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Imaging methods...... which can characterize such features non-invasively and repeatedly will be of significant value in planning treatment as well as monitoring response to treatment. The three techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed here. Tumor pO2 can be measured by two MRI methods requiring...... an exogenous contrast agent: electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI). Tumor metabolic profile can be assessed by a third method, hyperpolarized metabolic MR, based on injection of hyperpolarized biological molecules labeled with 13C or 15N and MR...

  18. All-photonic quantum repeaters (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong


    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  19. Solitary mesenteric vascular anomaly presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thambidorai C


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old girl with a solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery presented with acute lower abdominal pain. Despite the use of ultrasound, computed tomography scan and image-guided core biopsies, the lesion was initially mistaken for an inflammatory intra-abdominal mass. The correct diagnosis was made at laparotomy. Solitary vascular anomaly of the mesentery is rare and its presentation as an acute abdomen has not been reported before.

  20. High-Resolution Longitudinal Screening with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Brain Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Bock


    Full Text Available One of the main limitations of intracranial models of diseases is our present inability to monitor and evaluate the intracranial compartment noninvasively over time. Therefore, there is a growing need for imaging modalities that provide thorough neuropathological evaluations of xenograft and transgenic models of intracranial pathology. In this study, we have established protocols for multiple-mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to follow the growth and behavior of intracranial xenografts of gliomas longitudinally. We successfully obtained weekly images on 16 mice for a total of 5 weeks on a 7-T multiple-mouse MRI. T2- and Ti-weighted imaging with gadolinium enhancement of vascularity was used to detect tumor margins, tumor size, and growth. These experiments, using 3D whole brain images obtained in four mice at once, demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining repeat radiological images in intracranial tumor models and suggest that MRI should be incorporated as a research modality for the investigation of intracranial pathobiology.

  1. Repeat remote ischaemic pre-conditioning for improved cardiovascular function in humans: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epps


    Conclusion: Repeated RIPC exposure has produced evidence of improvements in endothelial dependent vasodilation, ulcer healing and blood pressure but no benefit in non-endothelial dependent vasodilation, cutaneous vascular conductance or cardiorespiratory fitness. The optimal delivery of RIPC remains unclear, but at least 3 or preferably 4, 5 min exposures appears to be most beneficial, at least for reducing blood pressure. Aside from those undertaking cardiac surgery, other study populations with endothelial dysfunction may benefit from repeat exposure to RIPC.

  2. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A


    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  3. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao


    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  4. Neurobiology of Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Enciu


    Full Text Available Vascular dementia is, in its current conceptual form, a distinct type of dementia with a spectrum of specific clinical and pathophysiological features. However, in a very large majority of cases, these alterations occur in an already aged brain, characterized by a milieu of cellular and molecular events common for different neurodegenerative diseases. The cell signaling defects and molecular dyshomeostasis might lead to neuronal malfunction prior to the death of neurons and the alteration of neuronal networks. In the present paper, we explore some of the molecular mechanisms underlying brain malfunction triggered by cerebrovascular disease and risk factors. We suggest that, in the age of genetic investigation and molecular diagnosis, the concept of vascular dementia needs a new approach.

  5. [Imaging]. (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A


    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  6. Comprovação anatomopatológica da presença de tecido vascular e nervoso evidenciado à ecografia como eco tangencial ao descolamento de coróide: relato de dois casos Histopathologic confirmation of vascular and nervous tissue identified on ultrasound as an tangential image to choroidal detachment: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Marback


    Full Text Available São apresentados dois casos de descolamento de coróide em olhos com endoftalmite submetidos a enucleação. O estudo anatomopatológico permitiu identificar a presença de tecido vascular e nervoso interpondo-se entre a esclera e coróide deslocada, como havia sido evidenciado pela ecografia.Two cases of endophthalmitis with choroidal detachment submitted to enucleation are presented. The histopathologic study allowed the identification of vascular and nervous tissue between the choroid and sclera, as it was seen on ultrasound examination.

  7. Adhesion in vascular biology



    The vasculature delivers vital support for all other tissues by supplying oxygen and nutrients for growth and by transporting the immune cells that protect and cure them. Therefore, the microvasculature developed a special barrier that is permissive for gasses like oxygen and carbon dioxide, while fluids are kept inside and pathogens are kept out. While maintaining this tight barrier, the vascular wall also allows immune cells to exit at sites of inflammation or damage, a process that is call...

  8. Application of Diffusion Tensor Image in Diagnosis of Vascular Parkinsonism%弥散张量成像在血管性帕金森综合征诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓琳; 任艳; 李松柏; 张志强; 张洧蓝; 李晓红; 刘娜; 娄凡


    Objective To study the pathogenesis of lower limb motor disorder in vascular parkinsonism(VP)using diffusion tensor image(DTI). Methods A case⁃control study was performed in a cohort of 16 VP patients and 32 PD patients. Patients were all recruited from the first affiliated hospital of China Medical University from Dec. 2011 to Dec. 2012. The lower limb motor function of those patients was assessed using measurement scales. All patients received magnetic resonance image(MRI)and diffusion tensor image(DTI). Results Patients in VP group showed more seri⁃ous movement disorders such as freezing of gait(gait ignition failure)than these in PD group,and the movement disorders of their lower limbs prog⁃ress more rapidly in VP group than the PD group. Movement disorders of their lower limbs in VP group were related to fibers in bilateral frontal lobes (P=0.008). Movement disorder of their lower limbs in PD group were related to fibers in substantia nigra(P=0.030). There are statistically signifi⁃cant differences in both the FA values of substantia nigra,bilateral frontal lobes and the ADC values of frontal lobes,and the pars compacta and pars reticulata of substantia nigra between these two groups(all P<0.05). Conclusion Movement disorders of bilateral lower limbs are more seriously manifested in VP patients than in PD patients. The onset movement dysfunction of bilateral lower limbs is closely related to fibers in the frontal lobe.%目的:探讨弥散张量成像(DTI)在血管性帕金森综合征(VP)诊断中的应用及VP患者下肢运动障碍的致病机制。方法选取2011年12月至2012年12月就诊于中国医科大学附属第一医院神经内科16例VP患者(VP组)及32例帕金森病患者(PD组),应用量表及DTI检查评价患者的双下肢运动功能。结果 VP组与PD组比较存在严重的双下肢运动障碍(冻结步态、起步困难等)。VP组患者双下肢运动障碍与双侧额叶纤维束相关(P=0.008

  9. Physiological consequences of repeated exposures to conditioned fear. (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Strong, Paul V; Fleshner, Monika


    Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT). Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing) and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction). Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  10. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson


    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  11. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul


    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  12. Micro computed tomography for vascular exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zhen W


    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular exploration of small animals requires imaging hardware with a very high spatial resolution, capable of differentiating large as well as small vessels, in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Micro Computed Tomography (micro-CT has emerged in recent years as the preferred modality for this purpose, providing high resolution 3D volumetric data suitable for analysis, quantification, validation, and visualization of results. The usefulness of micro-CT, however, can be adversely affected by a range of factors including physical animal preparation, numerical quantification, visualization of results, and quantification software with limited possibilities. Exacerbating these inherent difficulties is the lack of a unified standard for micro-CT imaging. Most micro-CT today is aimed at particular applications and the software tools needed for quantification, developed mainly by imaging hardware manufacturers, lack the level of detail needed to address more specific aims. This review highlights the capabilities of micro-CT for vascular exploration, describes the current state of imaging protocols, and offers guidelines and suggestions aimed at making micro-CT more accurate, replicable, and robust.

  13. Malformaciones vasculares: claves diagnósticas para el radiólogo Vascular malformations: diagnostic clues for the radiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García Mónaco


    Full Text Available Las malformaciones vasculares son enfermedades raras ocasionadas por errores en el desarrollo embriológico de los vasos sanguíneos. Estas lesiones, junto con los tumores vasculares, constituyen las anomalías vasculares. En el caso de las malformaciones vasculares, éstas se denominan de acuerdo al vaso que conforma la lesión y se clasifican según las características del flujo en malformaciones de bajo o alto flujo. Si bien la mayor parte son diagnosticadas según criterios clínicos, algunas lesiones requieren de estudios complementarios tanto para el establecimiento de un correcto diagnóstico como para la evaluación de su extensión. La ecografía Doppler suele ser el estudio inicial para conocer las características hemodinámicas y contribuir al diagnóstico diferencial entre un tumor y una malformación vascular. La resonancia magnética (RM es el mejor método para evaluar la extensión de las lesiones y su relación con estructuras adyacentes. El diagnóstico preciso del tipo de malformación vascular es importante por su pronóstico y tratamiento diferentes. La Radiología Intervencionista constituye uno de los pilares fundamentales en el manejo terapéutico. Es altamente recomendable un abordaje multidisciplinario dada la complejidad de estas lesiones, particularmente en la elección de las opciones terapéuticas y en el seguimiento clínico de los pacientes.Vascular malformations are rare conditions resulting from the abnormal development of blood vessels. These lesions, together with vascular tumors, represent the vascular anomalies. Vascular malformations are named according to which type of vessel is affected and are classified into high- or low-flow malformations on the basis of flow characteristics. Most vascular malformations are diagnosed according to clinical criteria. However, some require imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis or assess its extension. Doppler ultrasound is the usual initial study for hemodynamic

  14. The concept of vascular cognitive impairment. (United States)

    Bowler, J V


    Vascular dementia (VaD) is increasingly recognised to reflect an outmoded concept in that it identifies cases too late for preventive therapy to have an opportunity to prevent the development of dementia and uses a cognitive paradigm inappropriately based on Alzheimer's disease. A replacement is urgently required and a new concept, that of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), has been proposed to meet this need. It is imperative that criteria for VCI are developed on the basis of knowledge and data rather than supposition and assumption, as was the case for VaD. This review details the state of knowledge that we have now reached concerning the fundamental points of severity and cognitive paradigm and also covers a number of other imaging-related essential points embracing atrophy, leukoaraiosis, infarct volume and infarct location. Finally, the increasingly important concept of mixed dementia (co-existent Alzheimer's disease and VCI) is discussed.

  15. The Danish Vascular Registry, Karbase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Nikolaj; Cerqueira, Charlotte; de la Motte, Louise


    AIM: The Danish Vascular Registry (DVR), Karbase, is monitoring arterial and advanced vein interventions conducted at all vascular departments in Denmark. The main aim of the DVR is to improve the quality of treatment for patients undergoing vascular surgery in Denmark by using the registry...... for quality assessment and research. STUDY POPULATION: All patients undergoing vascular interventions (surgical and endovascular) at any vascular department in Denmark are registered in the DVR. The DVR was initiated in 1989, and each year, ∼9,000 procedures are added. By January 2016, >180,000 procedures...... are submitted. Variables for medical treatment (antithrombotic and statin treatment), amputation, and survival are extracted from nationwide, administrative registers. CONCLUSION: The DVR reports outcome on key indicators for monitoring the quality at all vascular departments in Denmark for the purpose...

  16. MRI evaluation of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng Liu; Hongxing Zhang; Wei Huang; Wenjun Wan; Hongfen Peng


    OBJECTTVE: To explain the association between vascular dementia and the cranial MRI manifestations, and recognize the value of cranial MRI in the early diagnosis of vascular dementia and the assessment of disease conditions.DATA SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched to identify articles about the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia published in English from January 1992 to June 2006 by using the key words of "MRI, vascular dementia". Others were collected by searching the name of journals and title of articles in the Chinese full-text journal database.STUDY SELECTTON: The collected articles were primarily checked, those correlated with the cranial MRI manifestations of patients with vascular dementia were selected, while the obviously irrelative ones were excluded, and the rest were retrieved manually, the full-texts were searched.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 255 articles were collected, 41 of them were involved, and the other 214 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: MRI can be taken as one of the effective methods for the early diagnosis and disease evaluation of vascular dementia. White matter lesions are the important risk factors of vascular dementia.Vascular dementia is accompanied by the atrophy of related brain sites, but further confirmation is needed to investigate whether there is significant difference. MRI can be used to quantitatively investigate the infarcted sites and sizes of patients with vascular dementia after infarction, but there is still lack of systematic investigation on the association of the infarcted sites and sizes with the cognitive function of patients with vascular dementia.CONCLUSTON: Cranial MRI can detect the symptoms of vascular dementia at early period, so that corresponding measures can be adopted to prevent and treat vascular dementia in time.

  17. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia. (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T


    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review.

  18. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler


    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... blood flow (such as clots) narrowing of vessels tumors and congenital vascular malformations reduced or absent blood ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting ...

  1. 息肉样脉络膜血管病变中分支血管网的影像特征%Imaging features of branching vascular network in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雄泽; 文峰


    Objective To observe the imaging features of branching vascular network (BVN) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).Methods Eighty PCV patients (90 eyes) were enrolled in this study.The patients included 58 males and 22 females.The age was ranged from 49 to 85 years,with a mean age of 61.4 years.All the patients were examined for fundus photography,fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA),indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).The fibrovascular retinal pigment epithelium detachment (PED) was defined as a well-demarcated subretinal heterogeneous plaque with increasing fluorescence on FFA.The late lichenoid hyperfluorescent plaque was defined as a well-demarcated lichenoid hyperfluorescent plaque on late phase ICGA.The double-layer sign on OCT was defined as a wide range of shallow PED from Bruch membrane.Results BVN were found on early ICGA in 76 eyes among the 90 eyes (84.4%).Among these 76 eyes,18 eyes (23.7%) demonstrated the subretinal reddish-orange branches corresponding to BVN.Fifty-six eyes (73.7%) demonstrated all or part of the BVN on early FFA.Three eyes (3.9%) demonstrated branching transmitted fluorescence corresponding to BVN throughout the FFA.Seventy-three eyes (96.1%) were manifested by occult choroidal vascularization on FFA,and 21 eyes (27.6%) of them were fibrovascular PED.Among the 76 eyes with BVN,all BVN appeared earlier than polypoidal lesions on ICGA.Polypoidal lesions located on the terminal of BVN in 62 eyes (81.6%).Sixty-nine eyes (90.8%) on ICGA demonstrated the late lichenoid hyperfluorescent plaque,whose area was equal to or greater than the area of BVN shown on early ICGA.Seventy-two eyes (94.7%) had the double layer sign.Among these 72 eyes,15 eyes (20.8%) had lumen like structure within the double-layer sign.Sixty-five eyes (90.3%) had punctate and linear hyperreflectance within the double-layer sign.Two eyes (2.8%) demonstrated a hyporeflective short segment and a gap of

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs. (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter


    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  3. Limitations on quantum key repeaters. (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas


    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  4. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)


    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  5. Fibronectin Deposition Participates in Extracellular Matrix Assembly and Vascular Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Hielscher

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM has been demonstrated to facilitate angiogenesis. In particular, fibronectin has been documented to activate endothelial cells, resulting in their transition from a quiescent state to an active state in which the cells exhibit enhanced migration and proliferation. The goal of this study is to examine the role of polymerized fibronectin during vascular tubulogenesis using a 3 dimensional (3D cell-derived de-cellularized matrix. A fibronectin-rich 3D de-cellularized ECM was used as a scaffold to study vascular morphogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs. Confocal analyses of several matrix proteins reveal high intra- and extra-cellular deposition of fibronectin in formed vascular structures. Using a small peptide inhibitor of fibronectin polymerization, we demonstrate that inhibition of fibronectin fibrillogenesis in ECs cultured atop de-cellularized ECM resulted in decreased vascular morphogenesis. Further, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analyses reveal decreased expression of stromal matrix proteins in the absence of polymerized fibronectin with high co-localization of matrix proteins found in association with polymerized fibronectin. Evaluating vascular kinetics, live cell imaging showed that migration, migration velocity, and mean square displacement, are disrupted in structures grown in the absence of polymerized fibronectin. Additionally, vascular organization failed to occur in the absence of a polymerized fibronectin matrix. Consistent with these observations, we tested vascular morphogenesis following the disruption of EC adhesion to polymerized fibronectin, demonstrating that block of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, abrogated vascular morphogenesis. Overall, fibronectin deposition in a 3D cell-derived de-cellularized ECM appears to be imperative for matrix assembly and vascular morphogenesis.

  6. Cerebrovascular reactivity by using arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging in subcortical ischemic vascular disease%皮质下缺血性血管病脑血管反应性磁共振研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒敏; 章军建; 高永哲; 张洪; 吴光耀


    目的:通过观察皮质下缺血性血管病(SIVD)患者不同脑区局部脑血管反应性(CVR)的变化及认知功能的损害,探讨 SIVD 局部 CVR 的改变在认知功能损害中的作用。方法:采用动脉自旋标记(ASL)磁共振灌注技术定量测定 SIVD 患者与对照组吸入5% CO2前后额叶、颞叶、顶叶、枕叶皮质和白质局部血流量(rCBF),CVR 采用前后2次各兴趣区 rCBF 的增加率表示。结果:(1) SIVD 组额叶皮质及白质、颞叶白质、枕叶白质的 CVR 比对照组显著降低(P <0.05)。(2) SIVD 组有认知功能损害患者和无认知功能损害患者相比额叶皮质、额叶白质 CVR 下降明显(P <0.01)。结论:SIVD 患者存在广泛的脑血管自动调节功能受损,并且额叶皮质、白质的 CVR 下降与认知功能损害有关。%Objective To assess regional cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and cognition impairment of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). To show whether CVR affects cognitive impairment of SIVD patients. Methods Arterial spin-labeling (ASL) by MR image was applied in measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobes after 5% CO2 inhalation, and the CVR was demonstrated by increase rate of rCBF in all the subject areas. Results (1)The patients with SIVD had reduced CVR in cortex of frontal lobes, white matter of frontal lobes, temporal lobes and occipital lobes(P < 0.05). (2) CVR in the SIVD patients with cognitive impairment decreased in frontal cortex and white matter when compared with the patients without cognitive impairment(P < 0.01). Conclusion These results showed that CVR decreased significantly in cortical gray matter and white matter in elderly patients with SIVD. Also the reduction of CVR in the frontal cortex and white matter was associated with cognitive impairment.

  7. Widespread atypical vascular lesions of the skin after whole-body electron beam therapy: expanding the clinical spectrum. (United States)

    Sinclair, Werner


    Atypical vascular lesion of the skin is an uncommon usually benign condition, thus far reported almost exclusively from mammary skin after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Some clinical and histological overlap exists with early angiosarcoma, which can also occur on irradiated skin. The lesions are divided into vascular and lymphatic types, the first representing a higher risk for development of angiosarcoma and the latter being more common. This article reports a rare case of widespread, progressive, vascular-type atypical vascular lesion after repeated whole-body electron beam irradiation administered as treatment for mycosis fungoides.

  8. Isolated Vascular Vertigo (United States)


    Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

  9. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F., E-mail: [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)


    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  10. In vivo quantitative evaluation of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on sparse principal component analysis and aggregated boosted trees (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjun; Liu, Junting; Qu, Xiaochao; Xu, Xianhui; Chen, Xueli; Yang, Xiang; Cao, Feng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie


    To solve the multicollinearity issue and unequal contribution of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis, we developed a quantification evaluation method of vascular parameters for angiogenesis based on in vivo micro-CT imaging of hindlimb ischemic model mice. Taking vascular volume as the ground truth parameter, nine vascular parameters were first assembled into sparse principal components (PCs) to reduce the multicolinearity issue. Aggregated boosted trees (ABTs) were then employed to analyze the importance of vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis via the loadings of sparse PCs. The results demonstrated that vascular volume was mainly characterized by vascular area, vascular junction, connectivity density, segment number and vascular length, which indicated they were the key vascular parameters for the quantification of angiogenesis. The proposed quantitative evaluation method was compared with both the ABTs directly using the nine vascular parameters and Pearson correlation, which were consistent. In contrast to the ABTs directly using the vascular parameters, the proposed method can select all the key vascular parameters simultaneously, because all the key vascular parameters were assembled into the sparse PCs with the highest relative importance.

  11. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings


    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  12. Vascularity in the reptilian spectacle. (United States)

    Mead, A W


    Vascularization of the spectacle or brille of the reptile was demonstrated by biomicroscopy, histology, fluorescein (in vivo), and Microfil silicone rubber (in situ) injections. This unusual vascularity provides new evidence for reassessment of the origin and development of this structure, and a useful tool with which to do so.

  13. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus


    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  14. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings


    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here we...

  15. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations. (United States)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A


    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.

  16. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders. (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David


    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  17. Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting (United States)

    ... flow in the graft or fistula making it inadequate for dialysis, angioplasty is generally the first line ... inform your doctor about recent illnesses or other medical conditions. Women ... does the equipment look like? In these procedures, x-ray imaging ...

  18. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri


    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial.

  19. Social media in vascular surgery. (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E


    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging). (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian


    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  1. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  2. Osteonecrosis of the trapezium treated with a vascularized distal radius bone graft. (United States)

    Zafra, Manuel; Carpintero, Pedro; Cansino, Daniel


    A 20-year-old man presented with early stage osteonecrosis of the trapezium, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. A vascularized distal radius bone graft was performed, with good clinical and radiologic results over a 1-year follow-up period. The authors believe that a vascularized distal radius bone graft is an ideal treatment for early stage carpal bone necrosis.

  3. Vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-Indication for live kidney donation and transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey); M.V. Bruggen (Mark Van); F.F.P. Kimenai; T.C.K. Tran (Thi C. K.); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); J.N.M.I. Jzermans (Jan N. M.I.); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)


    textabstractBackground: Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Methods: Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n=951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or othe

  4. Citicoline in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia after stroke. (United States)

    Alvarez-Sabín, Jose; Román, Gustavo C


    Cognitive decline after stroke is more common than stroke recurrence. Stroke doubles the risk of dementia and is a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Neuropathological studies in most cases of dementia in the elderly reveal a large load of vascular ischemic brain lesions mixed with a lesser contribution of neurodegenerative lesions of Alzheimer disease. Nonetheless, few pharmacological studies have addressed vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia after stroke. Citicoline has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in acute stroke and has been shown to improve cognition in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and in some patients with Alzheimer disease. A recent trial lasting 6 months in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke showed that citicoline prevented cognitive decline after stroke with significant improvement of temporal orientation, attention, and executive function. Experimentally, citicoline exhibits neuroprotective effects and enhances neural repair. Citicoline appears to be a safe and promising alternative to improve stroke recovery and could be indicated in patients with vascular cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease with significant cerebrovascular disease.

  5. Orchidectomy Ameliorates the Vascular Hypertrophic Effect of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    both in humans (Corruziet al., 2005; Weinberger et al., ... diet induced structural changes such as increased ... housed in steel cages and maintained under standard .... installed camera in the light microscope (Olympus BX ... areas of the image at magnification of 50X. ..... regulates DNA synthesis in human vascular cells. It.

  6. Mechanisms of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Z; Gokce, N; Loscalzo, J


    The endothelium regulates vascular homoeostasis through local elaboration of mediators that modulate vascular tone, platelet adhesion, inflammation, fibrinolysis, and vascular growth. Impaired vascular function contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. There is growing pathophysiological evidence that increased generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress participates in proatherogenic mechanisms of vascular dysfunction and atherothrombosis. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in mechanisms of vascular dysfunction is discussed, and potential antioxidant strategies are reviewed. PMID:12743334

  7. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.


    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  8. [The future of vascular medicine]. (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B


    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to dea