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Sample records for repeated transcutaneous electrical

  1. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimer, C; Carlsson, C A; Vedin, A; Wilhelmsson, C

    1986-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the treatment of chronic stable severe angina pectoris. In a short-term study the effect of TENS was studied in 10 male patients with angina pectoris (functional class III and IV). All patients had previously been stabilized on long-term maximal oral treatment. The effects of the treatment were measured by means of repeated bicycle ergometer tests. All patients had an increased working capacity (16-85%), decreased ST segment depression and reduced recovery time during TENS. No adverse effects were observed. A long-term study of TENS on similarly selected patients showed beneficial effects in terms of pain reduction, reduced frequency of anginal attacks, increased physical activity and increased working capacity during bicycle ergometer tests. An invasive study was carried out with respect to systemic and coronary hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism during pacing provoked myocardial ischemia in 13 patients. The results showed that TENS led to an increased tolerance to pacing, improved lactate metabolism, less pronounced ST segment depression. A drop in systolic blood pressure during TENS treatment at identical pacing rates indicated a decreased afterload. An increased coronary flow to ischemic areas in the myocardium was supported by the fact that the rate pressure product during anginal pain increased during TENS.

  2. Modulation of auditory percepts by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberfuhr, Margarete Anna; Braun, Amalia; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Drexl, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18th century, but despite the long-known and well-documented effects on the vestibular system, reports of the effect of electrical stimulation on the adjacent cochlea or the ascending auditory pathway are surprisingly sparse. The present study examines the effect of transcutaneous, electrical stimulation of the human auditory periphery employing evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and several psychoacoustic measures. In particular, level growth functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded during electrical stimulation with alternating currents (2 Hz, 1-4 mA in 1 mA-steps). In addition, the level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were followed before, during, and after electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1-4 mA). To explore the effect of electrical stimulation on the retrocochlear level (i.e. on the ascending auditory pathway beyond the cochlea), psychoacoustic experiments were carried out. Specifically, participants indicated whether electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 2 and 3 mA) induced amplitude modulations of the perception of a pure tone, and of auditory illusions after presentation of either an intense, low-frequency sound (Bounce tinnitus) or a faint band-stop noise (Zwicker tone). These three psychoacoustic measures revealed significant perceived amplitude modulations during electrical stimulation in the majority of participants. However, no significant changes of evoked and

  3. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current...

  4. A Study on Duration of Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Therapy on Whole Saliva Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Neha; Reddy, Sreedevi; Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Kakkad, Ankur

    2015-06-01

    Saliva is a complex fluid, whose important role is to maintain the well being of oral cavity. Salivary gland hypofunction or hyposalivation is the condition of having reduced saliva production which leads to the subjective complaint of oral dryness termed xerostomia.(7) Management of xerostomia includes palliative therapy using topical agents or systemic therapy. Electrostimulation to produce saliva was studied in the past and showed moderate promise but never became part of mainstream therapy. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rate in healthy adults and to evaluate how long this effect of TENS lasts on salivary flow. One hundred healthy adult subjects were divided into five age groups with each group containing 20 subjects equally divided into males and females in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected using a graduated test tube fitted with funnel and quantity was measured. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation unit was activated and stimulated saliva was collected. Saliva was again collected 30 minutes and 24 hours post stimulation. The mean unstimulated whole saliva flow rate for all subjects (n = 100) was 2.60 ml/5 min. During stimulation, it increased to 3.60 ± 0.39 ml/5 min. There was 38.46% increase in salivary flow. Ninety six out of 100 responded positively to TENS therapy. Salivary flow remained increased 30 minutes and 24 hours post stimulation with the values being 3.23 ± 0.41 ml/5 min and 2.69 ± 0.39 ml/5 min respectively. Repeated measures One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed that the difference between these values were statistically significant. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy was effective for stimulation of whole saliva in normal, healthy subjects and its effect retained till 30 minutes and a little up to 24 hours. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation may work best synergistically with other

  5. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  6. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.

  7. Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on auricular points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.

  8. The influence of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) on human cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.; Fidler, Vaclav; Staal, Michiel J.

    It has been shown that transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) reduces sympathetic tone. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven qualities to improve coronary, peripheral, and cerebral blood circulation. Therefore, we postulate that TENS and SCS affect the autonomic nervous system in

  9. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION (TENS) IN RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, P; DOMPELING, EC; VANSLOCHTERENVANDERBOOR, JC; KUIPERS, WD; SMIT, AJ

    1991-01-01

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been described as resulting in vasodilatation. The effect of 2 Hz TENS of the right hand during forty-five minutes on skin temperature and plethysmography of the third digit of both hands and feet and on transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) of the right h

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy in reduction of orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with craniomandibular disorders suffer from hypertonic, fatigued and painful masticatory muscles. This condition can lead to limitation of mandibular jaw movements. All of these symptoms and signs are included in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been used for treatment of these patients. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TENS therapy on chronic pain reduction in patients with the muscular dysfunction symptom. Methods. In order to evaluate the effect of TENS therapy before and after the treatment, Craniomandibular Index (Helkimo was used. Pain intensity was measured by VAS. Patients had TENS treatment over two-week period. BURST TENS modality was used. Current intensity was individually adjusted. Results. Two patients did not respond to TENS therapy. Complete pain reduction was recorded in 8 patients, while pain reduction was not significantly different after TENS therapy in 10 patients. Conclusion. TENS therapy was confirmed as therapeutic procedure in orofacial muscle relaxation and pain reduction.

  11. Successful Treatment of Dercum's Disease by Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinenghi, Sabina; Caretto, Amelia; Losio, Claudio; Scavini, Marina; Bosi, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dercum's disease is a rare condition of painful subcutaneous growth of adipose tissue. Etiology is unknown and pain is difficult to control. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with generalized diffuse Dercum's disease, who improved after the treatment with transcutaneous frequency rhythmic electrical modulation system (FREMS). Treatment consisted in 4 cycles of 30 minutes FREMS sessions over a 6-month period. Measures of efficacy included pain assessment (visual analogue scale, VAS), adipose tissue thickness by magnetic resonance imaging, total body composition and regional fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, physical disability (Barthel index), and health status (Short Form-36 questionnaire). After FREMS treatment the patient's clinical conditions significantly improved, with reduction of pain on the VAS scale from 64 to 17 points, improvement of daily life abilities (the Barthel index increased from 12 to 18) and amelioration of health status (higher scores than baseline in all Short Form-36 domains). Furthermore, we documented a 12 mm reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the abdominal wall and a 7040 g decrease in total body fat mass. FREMS therapy proved to be effective and safe in the treatment of this rare and disabling condition. PMID:26091459

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for spasticity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tenorio, E; Serrano-Muñoz, D; Avendaño-Coy, J; Gómez-Soriano, J

    2016-07-26

    Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has traditionally been used to treat pain, some studies have observed decreased spasticity after use of this technique. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited. Our purpose was twofold: to determine whether TENS is effective for treating spasticity or associated symptoms in patients with neurological involvement, and to determine which stimulation parameters exert the greatest effect on variables associated with spasticity. Two independent reviewers used PubMed, PEDro, and Cochrane databases to search for randomised clinical trials addressing TENS and spasticity published before 12 May 2015, and selected the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Of the initial 96 articles, 86 were excluded. The remaining 10 articles present results from 207 patients with a cerebrovascular accident, 84 with multiple sclerosis, and 39 with spinal cord lesions. In light of our results, we recommend TENS as a treatment for spasticity due to its low cost, ease of use, and absence of adverse reactions. However, the great variability in the types of stimulation used in the studies, and the differences in parameters and variables, make it difficult to assess and compare any results that might objectively determine the effectiveness of this technique and show how to optimise parameters. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C; Choi, J B; Lee, Y-S; Chang, H-S; Shin, C S; Kim, S; Han, D W

    2015-04-01

    Posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy is common because full neck extension is required during the procedure. We evaluated the effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative neck pain in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups; 50 patients received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle and 50 patients acted as controls. Postoperative posterior neck pain and anterior wound pain were evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale at 30 min, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h following surgery. The numerical rating scale for posterior neck pain was significantly lower in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group compared with the control group at all time points (p pain at any time point. No adverse effects related to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were observed. We conclude that intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle reduced posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

  14. Transcutaneous electrical spinal-cord stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Yury; Gorodnichev, Ruslan; Moshonkina, Tatiana; Sayenko, Dimitry; Gad, Parag; Reggie Edgerton, V

    2015-09-01

    Locomotor behavior is controlled by specific neural circuits called central pattern generators primarily located at the lumbosacral spinal cord. These locomotor-related neuronal circuits have a high level of automaticity; that is, they can produce a "stepping" movement pattern also seen on electromyography (EMG) in the absence of supraspinal and/or peripheral afferent inputs. These circuits can be modulated by epidural spinal-cord stimulation and/or pharmacological intervention. Such interventions have been used to neuromodulate the neuronal circuits in patients with motor-complete spinal-cord injury (SCI) to facilitate postural and locomotor adjustments and to regain voluntary motor control. Here, we describe a novel non-invasive stimulation strategy of painless transcutaneous electrical enabling motor control (pcEmc) to neuromodulate the physiological state of the spinal cord. The technique can facilitate a stepping performance in non-injured subjects with legs placed in a gravity-neutral position. The stepping movements were induced more effectively with multi-site than single-site spinal-cord stimulation. From these results, a multielectrode surface array technology was developed. Our preliminary data indicate that use of the multielectrode surface array can fine-tune the control of the locomotor behavior. As well, the pcEmc strategy combined with exoskeleton technology is effective for improving motor function in paralyzed patients with SCI. The potential impact of using pcEmc to neuromodulate the spinal circuitry has significant implications for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms controlling locomotion and for rehabilitating sensorimotor function even after severe SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour in aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J A; van Someren, E.W J; Bouma, J.M.; van der Berg, M

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improved cognition and behaviour in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rationale underlying these studies was that TENS could activate, e.g. the septo-hippocampal region and the hypothalamus through direct and indirect

  16. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on memory in elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijpen, M.W.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.; Dijk, K.R.A.; Scherder, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was shown to have a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, the reported effects appeared to be more beneficial in early stages of Alzheimer's disease compared to later stage intervention. Based

  17. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition and behaviour in aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J A; van Someren, E.W J; Bouma, J.M.; van der Berg, M

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improved cognition and behaviour in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rationale underlying these studies was that TENS could activate, e.g. the septo-hippocampal region and the hypothalamus through direct and indirect

  18. 42 CFR 414.232 - Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nerve stimulators (TENS). 414.232 Section 414.232 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Special payment rules for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS). (a) General payment rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment for TENS is made on a purchase basis...

  19. The influence of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) on human cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.; Fidler, Vaclav; Staal, Michiel J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) reduces sympathetic tone. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven qualities to improve coronary, peripheral, and cerebral blood circulation. Therefore, we postulate that TENS and SCS affect the autonomic nervous system in anal

  20. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on memory in elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijpen, MW; Swaab, DF; Sergeant, JA; van Dijk, KRA; Scherder, EJA

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was shown to have a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, the reported effects appeared to be more beneficial in early stages of Alzheimer's disease compared to later stage intervention. Based

  1. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on memory in elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijpen, M.W.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.; Dijk, K.R.A.; Scherder, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was shown to have a positive effect on memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, the reported effects appeared to be more beneficial in early stages of Alzheimer's disease compared to later stage intervention. Based

  2. Effectiveness of daily eccentric contractions induced via kilohertz frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Nakanishi, Ryosuke; Murakami, Shinichiro; Fujita, Naoto; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of daily repeated bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric contractions induced by high frequency (kilohertz) transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ameliorating atrophy of the soleus muscle in hindlimb unloaded rats were determined. Five groups of male rats were studied: control, hindlimb unloaded for 2 weeks (HU), or HU plus two daily bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric high-frequency electrical stimulation-induced contractions of the calf musculature. Soleus mass and fiber size were smaller, the levels of phosphorylated Akt1 and FoxO3a lower, and atrogin-1 and ubiquitinated proteins higher in the HU, and the HU plus concentric or isometric contraction groups than in the control group. In contrast, daily bouts of eccentric contractions maintained these values at near control levels and all measures were significantly different from all other HU groups. These results indicate that daily bouts of eccentric contractions induced by high-frequency stimulation inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome catabolic pathway and enhanced the Akt1/FoxO3a anabolic pathway that resulted in a prevention of the atrophic response of the soleus muscle to chronic unloading.

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Claydon, Leica S; Herbison, G Peter; Jones, Gareth; Paley, Carole A

    2017-10-09

    Fibromyalgia is characterised by persistent, widespread pain; sleep problems; and fatigue. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the delivery of pulsed electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin to stimulate peripheral nerves and is used extensively to manage painful conditions. TENS is inexpensive, safe, and can be self-administered. TENS reduces pain during movement in some people so it may be a useful adjunct to assist participation in exercise and activities of daily living. To date, there has been only one systematic review in 2012 which included TENS, amongst other treatments, for fibromyalgia, and the authors concluded that TENS was not effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS alone or added to usual care (including exercise) compared with placebo (sham) TENS; no treatment; exercise alone; or other treatment including medication, electroacupuncture, warmth therapy, or hydrotherapy for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 18 January 2017: CENTRAL (CRSO); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS; PEDRO; Web of Science (ISI); AMED (Ovid); and SPORTDiscus (EBSCO). We also searched three trial registries. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised trials of TENS treatment for pain associated with fibromyalgia in adults. We included cross-over and parallel-group trial designs. We included studies that evaluated TENS administered using non-invasive techniques at intensities that produced perceptible TENS sensations during stimulation at either the site of pain or over nerve bundles proximal (or near) to the site of pain. We included TENS administered as a sole treatment or TENS in combination with other treatments, and TENS given as a single treatment or as a course of treatments. Two review authors independently determined study eligibility by assessing each record and

  4. Method to Reduce Muscle Fatigue During Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Major Knee and Ankle Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Nguyen, Robert; Hirabayashi, Tomoyo; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-09-01

    A critical limitation with transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a rehabilitative approach is the rapid onset of muscle fatigue during repeated contractions. We have developed a method called spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) to reduce muscle fatigue by distributing the center of electrical field over a wide area within a single stimulation site, using an array of surface electrodes. To extend the previous findings and to prove feasibility of the method by exploring the fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS for lower limb muscle groups in the able-bodied population, as well as in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). SDSS was delivered through 4 active electrodes applied to the knee extensors and flexors, plantarflexors, and dorsiflexors, sending a stimulation pulse to each electrode one after another with 90° phase shift between successive electrodes. Isometric ankle torque was measured during fatiguing stimulations using SDSS and conventional single active electrode stimulation lasting 2 minutes. We demonstrated greater fatigue-reducing ability of SDSS compared with the conventional protocol, as revealed by larger values of fatigue index and/or torque peak mean in all muscles except knee flexors of able-bodied individuals, and in all muscles tested in individuals with SCI. Our study has revealed improvements in fatigue tolerance during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation using SDSS, a stimulation strategy that alternates activation of subcompartments of muscles. The SDSS protocol can provide greater stimulation times with less decrement in mechanical output compared with the conventional protocol. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Treatment of Early-stage Adhesive Shoulder Periarthritis with Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation on Acupoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓; 方剑乔; 张奕; 刘侃卓; 韩丑萍

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩关节周围炎的治疗作用.方法:采用大样本、多中心、随机化等循证医学研究方法,对163例粘连前期肩关节周围炎患者分别进行经皮穴位电刺激治疗和电针治疗,观察经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩周炎的治疗作用及与电针治疗的效应比较.结果与结论:经皮穴位电刺激对粘连前期肩周炎的总有效率达到96.59%,与电针比较无明显差异;该疗法不仅具有明显的止痛效应,对肩关节活动障碍也有明显的改善作用.经皮穴位电刺激为治疗肩周炎有效、简便的疗法.%To observe the therapeutic effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation on early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis. Methods:by using the research approach of evidence-based medicine such as multi-center,large sample and randomization,the 163 cases of early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis were treated with transcutaneous electric point stimulation and electric acupuncture respectively to observe the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation and compare its effect with electric acupuncture.Results and Conclusion:The total effective rate of transcutaneous electric point stimulation on early-stage adhesive shoulder periarthritis reached 96.5%,showing no significant difference with the electric acupuncture group;the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation could not only relieve pain,but also improve the shoulder joint movement. As a result,the transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation is an easy and more effective therapy for shoulder periarthritis.

  6. [Exploration Research of Treatment Effect Improvement of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Using Parameter-changing Chaotic Signal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jincun; Zhang, Hui; Qin, Binyi; Wang, Hai; Nie, Guochao; Chen, Tiejun

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a transcutaneous electric stimulator that is based on chaotic signal. Firstly, we in the study used the MATLAB platform in the PC to generate chaotic signal through the chaos equation, and then we transferred the signal out by data acquisition equipment of USB-6251 manufactured by NI Company. In order to obtain high-power signal for transcutaneous electric stimulator, we used the chip of LM3886 to amplify the signal. Finally, we used the power-amplified chaotic signal to stimulate the internal nerve of human through the electrodes fixed on the skin. We obtained different stimulation effects of transcutaneous electric stimulator by changing the parameters of chaotic model. The preliminary test showed that the randomness of chaotic signals improved the applicability of electrical stimulation and the rules of chaos ensured that the stimulation was comfort. The method reported in this paper provides a new way for the design of transcutaneous electric stimulator.

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of spinal cord injury neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbrink, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effects of high- and low-frequency (HF and LF, respectively) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 24 patients participated in the study. According to the protocol, half of the patients were assigned to HF (80 Hz) and half to LF (burst of 2 Hz) TENS. Patients were instructed to treat themselves three times daily for 2 weeks. After a 2-week wash-out period, patients switched stimulation frequencies and repeated the procedure. Results were calculated on an intent-to-treat basis. No differences between the two modes of stimulation were found. On a group level, no effects on pain intensity ratings or ratings of mood, coping with pain, life satisfaction, sleep quality, or psychosocial consequences of pain were seen. However, 29% of the patients reported a favorable effect from HF and 38% from LF stimulation on a 5-point global pain-relief scale. Six of the patients (25%) were, at their request, prescribed TENS stimulators for further treatment at the end of the study. In conclusion, TENS merits consideration as a com plementary treatment in patients with SCI and neuropathic pain.

  8. A systematic review investigating the relationship between efficacy and stimulation parameters when using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beckwée

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of postoperative knee arthroplasty pain and to relate these results to the stimulation parameters used. Data Sources: PubMed, Pedro and Web of Knowledge were systematically screened for studies investigating effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on postoperative knee arthroplasty pain. Review Methods: Studies were screened for their methodological and therapeutical quality. We appraised the influence of the stimulation settings used and indicated whether or not a neurophysiological and/or mechanistic rationale was given for these stimulation settings. Results: A total of 5 articles met the inclusion criteria. In total, 347 patients were investigated. The number of patients who received some form of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation was 117, and 54 patients received sham transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. Pain was the primary outcome in all studies. The stimulation settings used in the studies (n = 2 that reported significant effects differed from the others as they implemented a submaximal stimulation intensity. Stimulation parameters were heterogeneous, and only one study provided a rationale for them. Conclusion: This review reveals that an effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation might have been missed due to low methodological and therapeutical quality. Justifying the choice of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation parameters may improve therapeutical quality.

  9. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on muscle volume in patients with septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Møller, Kirsten; Jensen, Claus V

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intensive care unit admission is associated with muscle wasting and impaired physical function. We investigated the effect of early transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on quadriceps muscle volume in patients with septic shock. Design: Randomized interventional study using...... randomization of the quadriceps muscles, transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation was applied on the intervention side for 7 consecutive days and for 60 mins per day. All patients underwent computed tomographic scans of both thighs immediately before and after the 7-day treatment period. The quadriceps...... (interquartile range, 20–29), respectively. During the 7-day study period, the volume of the quadriceps muscle on the control thigh decreased by 16% (4–21%, p = .03) corresponding to a rate of 2.3% per day. The volume of the stimulated muscle decreased by 20% (3–25%, p = .04) corresponding to a rate of 2.9% per...

  10. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS):A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO). Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Me...

  11. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces exercise-induced perceived pain and improves endurance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astokorki, Ali H Y; Mauger, Alexis R

    2017-03-01

    Muscle pain is a natural consequence of intense and prolonged exercise and has been suggested to be a limiter of performance. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) have been shown to reduce both chronic and acute pain in a variety of conditions. This study sought to ascertain whether TENS and IFC could reduce exercise-induced pain (EIP) and whether this would affect exercise performance. It was hypothesised that TENS and IFC would reduce EIP and result in an improved exercise performance. In two parts, 18 (Part I) and 22 (Part II) healthy male and female participants completed an isometric contraction of the dominant bicep until exhaustion (Part I) and a 16.1 km cycling time trial as quickly as they could (Part II) whilst receiving TENS, IFC, and a SHAM placebo in a repeated measures, randomised cross-over, and placebo-controlled design. Perceived EIP was recorded in both tasks using a validated subjective scale. In Part I, TENS significantly reduced perceived EIP (mean reduction of 12%) during the isometric contraction (P = 0.006) and significantly improved participants' time to exhaustion by a mean of 38% (P = 0.02). In Part II, TENS significantly improved (P = 0.003) participants' time trial completion time (~2% improvement) through an increased mean power output. These findings demonstrate that TENS can attenuate perceived EIP in a healthy population and that doing so significantly improves endurance performance in both submaximal isometric single limb exercise and whole-body dynamic exercise.

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces pain, fatigue and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol G T; Liebano, Richard E; Amrit, Anand S; Bush, Heather M; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2013-11-01

    Because transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design to test the effects of a single treatment of TENS with people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random order: active TENS, placebo TENS and no TENS. The following measures were assessed before and after each TENS treatment: pain and fatigue at rest and in movement; pressure pain thresholds, 6-m walk test, range of motion; 5-time sit-to-stand test, and single-leg stance. Conditioned pain modulation was completed at the end of testing. There was a significant decrease in pain and fatigue with movement for active TENS compared to placebo and no TENS. Pressure pain thresholds increased at the site of TENS (spine) and outside the site of TENS (leg) when compared to placebo TENS or no TENS. During active TENS, conditioned pain modulation was significantly stronger compared to placebo TENS and no TENS. No changes in functional tasks were observed with TENS. Thus, the current study suggests TENS has short-term efficacy in relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia while the stimulator is active. Future clinical trials should examine the effects of repeated daily delivery of TENS, similar to the way in which TENS is used clinically on pain, fatigue, function, and quality of life in individuals with fibromyalgia.

  13. Effect of transcutaneous electric stimulation on the cardiac electrical activity in New Zealand white rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of transcutaneous electric stimulation on the cardiac electrical activity in New Zealand white rabbits, in order to search a safety threshold for clinical electrical stimulation therapy, as to provide the theoretical basis for the design of in vitro pacemaker. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into 17 groups (6 each. Rabbits in 16 experimental groups were given 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80V electrical stimulation, respectively, with the stimulating site designated at epigastric region. BL -420F biological function experimental system was employed to supply the power and acquire the ECG, with the output pulse electrical stimulation frequency set at 270 times/minute, and the stimulating wave as square wave. A control group was set, in which the stimulating voltage was set to 35V, the stimulant anode was located in the anterior chest area, and the cathode was on the skin surface of back corresponding to the site of the heart, and the rest was the same as in experimental groups. Results No stimulation rhythm was observed in rabbits of those experimental groups with voltage ≤35V, but all stimulation rhythm was observed in rabbits of control group. No arrhythmia occurred in rabbits of those experimental groups with voltage ≤30V, while the heart rate was slowed down after stimulation in rabbits of the experimental groups with voltage ≥45V stimulation. In rabbits receiving stimulation with voltage ≤35V there was no dystropy or light dystropy, but with no visible injury to the local tissues. No visible injury was observed in the rabbits undergoing stimulation with voltage ≤40V. Conclusion Pulse electric stimulation with voltage ≤35V in the epigastric region would not affect the cardiac electrical activity in rabbits, while stimulation with 35V will lead to all pacing rhythm of the heart without affecting the cardiac electrical activity in rabbits

  14. Comparison of skin sensory thresholds using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensory thresholds of healthy subjects using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects] Ninety healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to pre-programmed or single-frequency stimulation groups, each consisting of 45 participants. [Methods] Sensory thresholds were measured in the participants' forearms using von Frey filaments before and after pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and the result in values were analyzed. [Results] Significant increases in sensory threshold after stimulation were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in sensory thresholds after stimulation or in the magnitude of threshold increases following stimulation. [Conclusion] Our results show that there are no differences between sensory threshold increases induced by pre-programmed and single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  15. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting....... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  16. Neuralgia associated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy in a patient initially diagnosed with temporomandibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolehinwa, Temitope T; Musbah, Thamer; Desai, Bhavik; O'Malley, Bert W; Stoopler, Eric T

    2015-03-01

    Head and neck neoplasms may be difficult to detect because of wide-ranging symptoms and the presence of overlapping anatomic structures in the region. This case report describes a patient with chronic otalgia and temporomandibular disorder, who developed sudden-onset neuralgia while receiving transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy. Further diagnostic evaluation revealed a skull base tumor consistent with adenoid cystic carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of TENS-associated neuralgia leading to a diagnosis of primary intracranial adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  17. Cameo surface recording in complete denture fabrication using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Dheeraj; Nanda, Aditi; Kaur, Harsimran; Verma, Mahesh; Jain, Chandan

    2017-08-01

    Severe bone loss in patients with complete edentulism poses a treatment challenge. In fabricating a denture, the stability of the prosthesis must be enhanced by recording the cameo surface within the confines of the physiological position of the cheek and tongue muscles (the neutral zone) and by shaping it accordingly. The treatment of a patient with a completely edentulous maxillary arch and severe maxillary anterior bone loss is described. The cameo surface was recorded within the physiological limits during the fabrication of a complete denture by using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in the Management of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) constitutes of a group of diseases that functionally affect the masticatory system, including the muscles of mastication and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A number of etiologies with specific treatment have been identified, including the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The current paper presents a literature review on the use of TENS in the management of TMD patients. Temporomandibular joint disorder is very common disorder with approximately 75% of people showing some signs, while more than quarter (33%) having at least one symptom. An attempt to treat the pain should be made whenever possible. However, in cases with no defined etiology, starting with less intrusive and reversible techniques is prescribed. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is one such treatment modality, i.e. useful in the management of TMD. It comprises of controlled exposure of electrical current to the surface of skin, causing hyperactive muscles relaxation and decrease pain. Although the value of TENS to manage chronic pain in TMD patients is still controversial, its role in utilization for masticatory muscle pain is significant. However, an accurate diagnosis is essential to minimize its insufficient use. Well-controlled randomized trials are needed to determine the utilization of TENS in the management of TMD patients.

  19. The combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and stretching on muscle hardness and pressure pain threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hisayoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Yokoi, Yuka; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ogoma, Yoshiro; Abe, Koji

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the immediate effects of a combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching protocol. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy young males volunteered to participate in this study. The inclusion criterion was a straight leg raising range of motion of less than 70 degrees. [Methods] Subjects performed two protocols: 1) stretching (S group) of the medial hamstrings, and 2) tanscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (100 Hz) with stretching (TS group). The TS group included a 20-minute electrical stimulation period followed by 10 minutes of stretching. The S group performed 10 minutes of stretching. Muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion were analyzed to evaluate the effects. The data were collected before transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (T1), before stretching (T2), immediately after stretching (T3), and 10 minutes after stretching (T4). [Results] Combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching had significantly beneficial effects on muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion at T2, T3, and T4 compared with T1. [Conclusion] These results support the belief that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with stretching is effective in reducing pain and decreasing muscle hardness, thus increasing range of motion.

  20. [Effect of transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation on perioperative intravenous anesthesia in patients of transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Bao-Guo; Li, Jin; An, Li-Xin

    2013-08-01

    To observe the impacts of transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation on hemodynamics, anesthetic and relevant complications in patients of transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection (TPTR). Ninety cases of the selective TPTR were randomized into a transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation group (group T), a sham-acupoint group (group S) and a control group (group C); 30 cases in each one. In group T, the transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation at Hegu (LI 4), Waiguan (TE 5), Jinmen (BL 63), Taichong (LR 3), Zusanli (ST 36) and Qiuxu (GB 40). In group S, the transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation was applied to the sham-acupoints. In group C, the acupoints selected were same as those in group T, but the electrode pads were just attached on the related points with no-electric stimulation. The electric stimulation lasted from analgesic induction till the end of the operation. The endotracheal intubation was done under the induction by propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium bromide. Propofol and remifentanil were maintained till the end of operation. Blood pressure, heart rate, bispectral index (BIS) value, anesthetic and postoperative recovery situation were recorded. The hemodynamics maintained stably in each group. In group T, the mean arterial pressure 1 min after intubation, after extubation and during directional force recovery was all lower than the other two groups respectively (all Pelectric stimulation improves the stability of hemodynamics in perioperative stage, reduces the intraoperative opi oids dosages and improves the quality of anesthetic recovery.

  1. Use of electroacupuncture and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation in reproductive medicine: a group consensus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fan; Li, Rong; Sun, Wei; Lin, Ge; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Jing; Tian, Li; Xing, Guo-gang; Jiang, Hui; Gong, Fei; Liang, Xiao-yan; Meng, Yan; Liu, Jia-yin; Zhou, Li-ying; Wang, Shu-yu; Wu, Yan; He, Yi-jing; Ye, Jia-yu; Han, Song-ping; Han, Ji-sheng

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of assisted reproductive technology, various reproductive disorders have been effectively addressed. Acupuncture-like therapies, including electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), become more popular world-wide. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that EA and TEAS are effective in treating gynecological disorders, especially infertility. This present paper describes how to select acupoints for the treatment of infertility from the view of theories of traditional Chinese medicine and how to determine critical parameters of electric pulses of EA/TEAS based on results from animal and clinical studies. It summarizes the principles of clinical application of EA/TEAS in treating various kinds of reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pain induced by oocyte retrieval, diminished ovarian reserve, embryo transfer, and oligospermia/asthenospermia. The possible underlying mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of EA/TEAS in reproductive medicine are also examined. PMID:28271655

  2. Modulation of cerebral blood flow with transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Stewart, Roy; Staal, Michiel J; Elting, Jan-Willem J

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesTranscutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) and spinal cord stimulation have been shown to increase peripheral and cerebral blood flow. We postulate that certain pathological conditions attenuate cerebral autoregulation, which may result in a relative increase of the importance of ne

  3. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Sensation Thresholds in Patients with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharic, Metka

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the therapies for painful neuropathy. Its analgesic mechanisms probably involve the gate control theory, the physiological block and the endogenous pain inhibitory system. The aim of the study was to determine whether TENS improves small fibre function diminished because of painful…

  4. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain control after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Feng, Yuxing; Peng, Lihua

    2017-09-21

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is a possible adjunctive therapy to pharmacological treatment for controlling pain after total knee arthroplasty. However, the results are controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on patients with total knee arthroplasty. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on patients with total knee arthroplasty were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. Primary outcome was visual analogue scale (VAS) score over a period of 24 h. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model. Six randomized controlled trials involving 529 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce VAS scores and total postoperative morphine dose over a period of 24 h, and to improve active range of knee motion (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.37; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.06-0.68; p = 0.02), but had no effect on VAS scores at 2 weeks (SMD = 0.20; 95% CI = -0.07 to 0.48; p = 0.15). Compared with control intervention, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce pain and morphine requirement over a period of 24 h and to promote functional recovery in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty.

  5. Submental sensitive transcutaneous electrical stimulation (SSTES) at home in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, E; Maltete, D; Ouahchi, Y; Marie, J-P; Hannequin, D; Massardier, E Guegan; Leroi, A-M

    2011-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is frequent in chronic neurological disorders and increases mortality, mainly due to pulmonary complications. Our aim was to show that submental sensitive transcutaneous electrical stimulation (SSTES) applied during swallowing at home can improve swallowing function in patients with chronic neurological disorders. Thirteen patients were recruited for the study (4 f, 68 ± 12 years). They all suffered from neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. We first compared the swallowing of paste and liquid with and without SSTES. Thereafter, the patients were asked to perform SSTES at home with each meal. Swallowing was evaluated before and after six weeks of SSTES using the SWAL-QoL questionnaire. With the stimulator switch turned on, swallowing coordination improved, with a decrease in swallow reaction time for the liquid (Pdysphagia quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the treatment of patients with poststroke urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo ZF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhui-feng Guo,1,* Yi Liu,2,* Guang-hui Hu,1 Huan Liu,1 Yun-fei Xu11Department of Urology, 2Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on poststroke urinary incontinence (UI.Patients and methods: Sixty-one patients with poststroke UI were enrolled at the Neurology Department in the Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University between January 2010–January 2011 and were divided into treatment and control groups (n=32 and n=29, respectively. TENS was applied to the treatment group, while the control group received basic therapy. The therapeutic group completed the whole set of TENS therapy with a treatment frequency of 30 minutes once a day for 60 days. The positive electrode was placed on the second lumbar spinous process, and the negative electrodes were inside the middle and lower third of the junction between the posterior superior iliac spine and ischia node. The overactive bladder symptom score, Barthel Index, and urodynamics examination were estimated before and after therapy in both groups.Results: The daily micturition, nocturia, urgent urination, and urge UI in the treatment group significantly improved compared to the control group (P<0.05. The patients in the treatment group were superior in the self-care ability of daily living and also had an advantage over the indexes on maximum cystometry volume, flow rate, and the pressure of detrusor in the end of the filling phase.Conclusion: TENS improved incontinence symptoms, enhanced the quality of life, and decreased adverse effects; hence, it is recommended in treating poststroke UI.Keywords: stroke, urinary incontinence, OABSS, Barthel Index, urodynamics, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  7. Electrical characteristic of the titanium mesh electrode for transcutaneous intrabody communication to monitor implantable artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a tissue-inducing electrode using titanium mesh to obtain mechanically and electrically stable contact with the tissue for a new transcutaneous communication system using the human body as a conductive medium. In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the titanium mesh electrode by measuring electrode-tissue interface resistance in vivo. The titanium mesh electrode (Hi-Lex Co., Zellez, Hyogo, Japan) consisted of titanium fibers (diameter of 50 μm), and it has an average pore size of 200 μm and 87 % porosity. The titanium mesh electrode has a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm. Three titanium mesh electrodes were implanted separately into the dorsal region of the rat. We measured the electrode-electrode impedance using an LCR meter for 12 weeks, and we calculated the tissue resistivity and electrode-tissue interface resistance. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode decreased slightly until the third POD and then continuously increased to 75 Ω. The electrode-tissue interface resistance of the titanium mesh electrode is stable and it has lower electrode-tissue interface resistance than that of a titanium disk electrode. The extracted titanium mesh electrode after 12 weeks implantation was fixed in 10 % buffered formalin solution and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Light microscopic observation showed that the titanium mesh electrode was filled with connective tissue, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts with some capillaries in the pores of the titanium mesh. The results indicate that the titanium mesh electrode is a promising electrode for the new transcutaneous communication system.

  8. Electrophysiological and clinical evaluation of the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the spasticity in the hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoyun, Ahmet; Boyraz, İsmail; Gunduz, Ramazan; Karamercan, Ayşe; Ozgirgin, Nese

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) mitigates the spasticity of hemiplegic stroke patients, as assessed by electrophysiological variables, and the effects, if any, on the clinical appearance of spasticity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven subjects who had acute hemiplegia and 24 healthy people as the control group, were enrolled in this study. Some of the acute cerebrovascular disease patients could walk. Subjects who did not have spasticity, who were taking antispasticity medicine, or had a previous episode of cerebrovascular disease were excluded. The walking speed of the patients was recorded before and after TENS. EMG examinations were performed on the healthy controls and in the affected side of the patients. A 30-minute single session of TENS was applied to lower extremity. At 10 minutes after TENS, the EMG examinations were repeated. [Results] A statistically significant decrease in the spasticity variables, and increased walking speed were found post-TENS. The lower M amplitude and higher H reflex amplitude, H/M maximum amplitude ratio, H slope, and H slope/M slope ratio on the spastic side were found to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] TENS application for hemiplegic patients with spastic lower extremities due to cerebrovascular disease resulted in marked improvement in clinical scales of spasticity and significant changes in the electrophysiological variables.

  9. Dynamic impedance model of the skin-electrode interface for transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vargas Luna

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical stimulation can depolarize nerve or muscle cells applying impulses through electrodes attached on the skin. For these applications, the electrode-skin impedance is an important factor which influences effectiveness. Various models describe the interface using constant or current-depending resistive-capacitive equivalent circuit. Here, we develop a dynamic impedance model valid for a wide range stimulation intensities. The model considers electroporation and charge-dependent effects to describe the impedance variation, which allows to describe high-charge pulses. The parameters were adjusted based on rectangular, biphasic stimulation pulses generated by a stimulator, providing optionally current or voltage-controlled impulses, and applied through electrodes of different sizes. Both control methods deliver a different electrical field to the tissue, which is constant throughout the impulse duration for current-controlled mode or have a very current peak for voltage-controlled. The results show a predominant dependence in the current intensity in the case of both stimulation techniques that allows to keep a simple model. A verification simulation using the proposed dynamic model shows coefficient of determination of around 0.99 in both stimulation types. The presented method for fitting electrode-skin impedance can be simple extended to other stimulation waveforms and electrode configuration. Therefore, it can be embedded in optimization algorithms for designing electrical stimulation applications even for pulses with high charges and high current spikes.

  10. Acupuncture and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. A randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Christophersen, S J; Dawids, Steen

    1985-01-01

    In 23 patients with pancreatitis, daily pain for at least 3 months, and no abuse of alcohol, the pain-relieving effect of electroacupuncture (13 patients) or transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) (16 patients) was studied. In two prospective studies with a cross-over design, active acu...... acupuncture was compared with sham acupuncture, and TENS of the segmental points of the pancreas with sham treatment. Neither electroacupuncture nor TENS brought about pain relief that could substitute for or supplement medical treatment....

  11. Analgesic effectiveness of the association of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and cryotherapy for chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Eliziete Almeida de; Santos, Jean Douglas Moura dos; Ventura,Patrícia Lima

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are physical therapy resources individually used, since there is the possibility of interaction between TENS and cryotherapy if they are associated. This study aimed at evaluating the analgesic effectiveness of the association or not of TENS and cryotherapy to relieve chronic low back pain. METHOD: Clinical trial involving six chronic low back pain patients distributed in three groups: cryotherapy, T...

  12. Skin impedance is not a factor in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance CG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carol GT Vance,1 Barbara A Rakel,1,2 Dana L Dailey,1 Kathleen A Sluka1,2 1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2University of Iowa, College Nursing Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a nonpharmacological intervention used to manage pain using skin surface electrodes. Optimal electrode placement is unclear. We hypothesized that better analgesia would occur if electrodes were placed over sites with lower skin impedance. Optimal site selection (OSS and sham site selection (SSS electrode sites on the forearm were identified using a standard clinical technique. Methods: Experiment 1 measured skin impedance in the forearm at OSS and SSS. Experiment 2 was a crossover design double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing OSS-TENS, SSS-TENS, and placebo TENS (P-TENS to confirm differences in skin impedance between OSS and SSS, and measure change in pressure pain threshold (PPT following a 30-minute TENS treatment. Healthy volunteers were recruited (ten for Experiment 1 [five male, five female] and 24 for Experiment 2 [12 male, 12 female]. TENS was applied for 30 minutes at 100 Hz frequency, 100 µs pulse duration, and “strong but nonpainful” amplitude. Results: Experiment 1 results demonstrate significantly higher impedance at SSS (17.69±1.24 Ω compared to OSS (13.53±0.57 Ω (P=0.007. For Experiment 2, electrode site impedance was significantly higher over SSS, with both the impedance meter (P=0.001 and the TENS unit (P=0.012 compared to OSS. PPT change was significantly greater for both OSS-TENS (P=0.024 and SSS-TENS (P=0.025 when compared to P-TENS. PPT did not differ between the two active TENS treatments (P=0.81. Conclusion: Skin impedance is lower at sites characterized as optimal using the described technique of electrode site selection. When TENS is applied at adequate intensities, skin impedance is not a factor in

  13. Effect of early treatment with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS on pulmonary inflammation induced by bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisa A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bleomycin (B is an antineoplastic drug that has pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect. There are few experimental studies about the effects of physical therapy treatment in this case. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study rat lungs treated with B and precocious intervention by transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS. METHOD : Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=5: a control group (C; a stimulated group (TEDS; a group treated with a single dose of B (intratracheally, 2.5 mg/kg (B; and a group treated with B and electric stimulation (B + TEDS. After the B instillation, the electrical stimulation was applied for 7 days, for a duration of 20 minutes. Lung fragments were histologically processed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and 8-isoprostane-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2α. The density of the alveolar area was determined by planimetry, the inflammatory profile was defined by the number of cells, and the level of oxidative stress in the pulmonary tissue was evaluated by 8-iso-PGF2α. For statistical analysis of the data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used, followed by a one-way ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni test (p≤0.05. RESULTS : The B group exhibited a significant reduction in the area density, and the acute treatment with B + TEDS prevented this reduction. There were increased numbers of fibroblasts, leukocytes, and macrophages in the B group, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, which was observed only in this group. CONCLUSION : B promoted a reduction in the alveolar density area, thereby inducing the inflammatory process and increasing the production of free radicals. These effects were minimized by the application of TEDS at the initial treatment stage.

  14. Role of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in post-operative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyanti Kerai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS as non-pharmacological therapeutic modality is increasing. The types of TENS used clinically are conventional TENS, acupuncture TENS and intense TENS. Their working is believed to be based on gate control theory of pain and activation of endogenous opioids. TENS has been used in anaesthesia for treatment of post-operative analgesia, post-operative nausea vomiting and labour analgesia. Evidence to support analgesic efficacy of TENS is ambiguous. A systematic search of literature on PubMed and Cochrane Library from July 2012 to January 2014 identified a total of eight clinical trials investigating post-operative analgesic effects of TENS including a total of 442 patients. Most of the studies have demonstrated clinically significant reduction in pain intensity and supplemental analgesic requirement. However, these trials vary in TENS parameters used that is, duration, intensity, frequency of stimulation and location of electrodes. Further studies with adequate sample size and good methodological design are warranted to establish general recommendation for use of TENS for post-operative pain.

  15. Value of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in facial region originating from both temporomandibular joint (TMJ and jaw muscles is a common clinical problem and is a diagnostic dilemma till today. There are many synonyms for this condition including myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome, mandibular dysfunction syndrome, and the TMJ dysfunction syndrome. With change in time, advances and new diagnostic criteria have been made in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, its epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and etiopathogenesis, but many unknowns remain. An integrated hypothesis has provided a greater understanding of the physiopathology of trigger points, which may allow the development of new diagnostic criteria and treatment of this chronic disease and combined pharmacological as well as physical therapy for the management of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multidisciplinary approach highlighting the effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS for the treatment of a 60-year-old female who suffered from myofascial pain and 5-day TENS therapy for management of pain.

  16. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Parasternal Block for Postoperative Pain Management after Cardiac Surgery

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    Nilgun Kavrut Ozturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parasternal block and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have been demonstrated to produce effective analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of TENS and parasternal block on early postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Methods. One hundred twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in the present randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were assigned to three treatment groups: parasternal block, intermittent TENS application, or a control group. Results. Pain scores recorded 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, and 8 h postoperatively were lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. Total morphine consumption was also lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. It was also significantly lower in the TENS group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences among the groups regarding the extubation time, rescue analgesic medication, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions. Parasternal block was more effective than TENS in the management of early postoperative pain and the reduction of opioid requirements in patients who underwent cardiac surgery through median sternotomy. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02725229.

  17. Successful Treatment of Dercum's Disease by Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinenghi, Sabina; Caretto, Amelia; Losio, Claudio; Scavini, Marina; Bosi, Emanuele

    2015-06-01

    Dercum's disease is a rare condition of painful subcutaneous growth of adipose tissue. Etiology is unknown and pain is difficult to control. We report the case of a 57-year-old man with generalized diffuse Dercum's disease, who improved after the treatment with transcutaneous frequency rhythmic electrical modulation system (FREMS). Treatment consisted in 4 cycles of 30 minutes FREMS sessions over a 6-month period. Measures of efficacy included pain assessment (visual analogue scale, VAS), adipose tissue thickness by magnetic resonance imaging, total body composition and regional fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, physical disability (Barthel index), and health status (Short Form-36 questionnaire). After FREMS treatment the patient's clinical conditions significantly improved, with reduction of pain on the VAS scale from 64 to 17 points, improvement of daily life abilities (the Barthel index increased from 12 to 18) and amelioration of health status (higher scores than baseline in all Short Form-36 domains). Furthermore, we documented a 12 mm reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the abdominal wall and a 7040 g decrease in total body fat mass. FREMS therapy proved to be effective and safe in the treatment of this rare and disabling condition.

  18. Antihypertensive effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in comparison with drug treatment.

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    Silverdal, Jonas; Mourtzinis, Georgios; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Mannheimer, Clas; Manhem, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for vascular disease, yet blood pressure (BP) control is unsatisfactory low, partly due to side-effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is well tolerated and studies have demonstrated BP reduction. In this study, we compared the BP lowering effect of 2.5 mg felodipin once daily with 30 min of bidaily low-frequency TENS in 32 adult hypertensive subjects (mean office BP 152.7/90.0 mmHg) in a randomized, crossover design. Office BP and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were performed at baseline and at the end of each 4-week treatment and washout period. Felodipin reduced office BP by 10/6 mmHg (p TENS reduced office BP by 5/1.5 mmHg (p TENS washout, BP was further reduced and significantly lower than at baseline, but at levels similar to BP after felodipin washout and therefore reasonably caused by factors other than the treatment per se. ABPM revealed a significant systolic reduction of 3 mmHg by felodipin, but no significant changes were noted after TENS. We conclude that our study does not present any solid evidence of BP reduction of TENS.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.

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    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ayşe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P TENS group, the decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 immunoreaction in the skin was significant compared to the other forms of treatment (P TENS group suggest that TENS shortened the healing process by inhibating the inflammation phase.

  20. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

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    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  1. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Reduces Post-Thoractomy Ipsilateral Shoulder Pain. A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban González, Pedro; Novoa, Nuria M; Varela, Gonzalo

    2015-12-01

    The patient's position during an axillary thoracotomy can cause postoperative pain and decrease mobility of the ipsilateral shoulder. In this study, we assessed whether the implementation of a standardized analgesia program using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) decreases local pain and improves ipsilateral shoulder mobility. Randomized, single-blind, single-center clinical trial of 50 patients who had undergone anatomical lung resection via axillary muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Patients were treated with TENS devices for 30 minutes every 8 hours, beginning on postoperative day 1. Pain and mobility of the affected limb were recorded at the same time on postoperative days 1 through 3. A visual analogue scale was used for pain assessment and shoulder mobility was assessed with a goniometer. Results were compared using a non-parametric test. Twenty-five patients were randomized to each group. Mean age of the control group was 62.7±9.3 years and 63.4±10.2 years in the experimental group. Shoulder mobility parameters were similar in both groups on all postoperative days. However, pain during flexion significantly decreased on day 2 (P=.03) and day 3 (P=.04) in the experimental group. The use of TENS decreases pain from shoulder flexion in patients undergoing axillary thoracotomy for pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Management of Limb Spasticity: A Systematic Review.

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    Mills, Patricia Branco; Dossa, Farhana

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for management of limb spasticity. Randomized controlled trials were searched using electronic databases through July 2015. Fourteen randomized controlled trials were included, involving 544 participants. Intervention protocols fit within three categories: 1) TENS vs. no TENS or placebo TENS (n = 7), 2) TENS vs. another TENS protocol or another intervention for spasticity management (n = 7), and 3) TENS as an adjunct to another intervention for spasticity management (n = 4). There was level 1 and 2 evidence for TENS improving spasticity-related outcome measures within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health domains of body structure and function (e.g., Modified Ashworth Scale) as well as activity (e.g., gait). Better responses in outcome measures in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health activity domain were seen when TENS was used in combination with active therapy (e.g., exercise and task-related training) vs. as a single therapeutic modality.

  3. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

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    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, Kaja; Srinivasan, Krishnamurthy Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overactive Bladder (OAB) accounts for 40-70% cases of incontinence. The etiology is unknown though detrusor instability is found in urodynamic evaluation of almost all cases. Detrusor instability or hyperreflexia can be inhibited by direct inhibition of impulses in the pre-ganglionic afferent neuron or by inhibition of bladder pre-ganglionic neurons of the efferent limb of micturition reflex. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is based on the gate control theory of abolishing the local micturition reflex arc. Aim To assess the effectiveness and safety of TENS in idiopathic OAB. Materials and Methods It is a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS v/s placebo in reducing OAB symptoms. (n1=20, n2 =20). Ten treatment sessions (5 sessions/week) of 30 minutes, were conducted. Results There was a significant improvement in Overactive Bladder Symptom Scores (OABSS) in TENS group and 2 patients were completely dry following TENS therapy. Conclusion In elderly women, patients with OAB where other co-medications have their own anticholinergic side effects and impairment of cognition is a concern, TENS can be a useful intervention. TENS units are safe, economical and easily commercially available. PMID:27891403

  5. High-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as treatment of pain after surgical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, B; Andréll, P; Raner, C; Rudolph, M; Dvoretsky, A; Mannheimer, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the pain-relieving effect and the time spent in the recovery ward after treatment with high-frequency, high-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or intravenous (IV) conventional pharmacological treatment after surgical abortion. Two-hundred women who underwent surgical abortion and postoperatively reported a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score3 were included. The patients were randomised to TENS or conventional pharmacological treatment for their postoperative pain. The TENS treatment was given with a stimulus intensity between 20 and 60 mA during 1 min and repeated once if insufficient pain relief (VAS3). In the conventional pharmacological treatment group, a maximum dose of 100 microg fentanyl was given IV. There was no difference between the groups with regard to pain relief according to the VAS pain score (TENS=VAS 1.3 vs. IV opioids=VAS 1.6; p=0.09) upon discharge from the recovery ward. However, the patients in the TENS group spent shorter time (44 min) in the recovery ward than the conventional pharmacological treatment group (62 min; p<0.0001). The number of patients who needed additional analgesics in the recovery ward was comparable in both groups, as was the reported VAS pain score upon leaving the hospital (TENS=2.0 vs. conventional pharmacological treatment=1.8, NS). These results suggest that the pain-relieving effect of TENS seems to be comparable to conventional pharmacological treatment with IV opioids. Hence, TENS may be a suitable alternative to conventional pain management with IV opioids after surgical abortion. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immediate effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Ho Chung, Bryan; Kam Kwan Cheng, Benson

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Randomized controlled trial. Extended rehabilitation centre. Eighteen subjects with spinal cord injury and symptoms of spasticity over lower limbs were randomly assigned to receive either 60 minutes of active TENS (0.25 ms, 100 Hz, 15 mA) or 60 minutes of placebo non-electrically stimulated TENS over the common peroneal nerve. Composite Spasticity Score was used to assess the spasticity level of ankle plantar flexors immediately before and after TENS application. Composite Spasticity Score consisted of Achilles tendon jerks, resistance to full-range passive ankle dorsiflexion and ankle clonus. Between-group statistical differences of reduction of Composite Spasticity Score, Achilles tendon jerks, resistance to full-range passive ankle dorsiflexion and ankle clonus were calculated using the Mann-Whitney test. Within-group statistical differences of Composite Spasticity Score, Achilles tendon jerks, resistance to full-range passive ankle dorsiflexion and ankle clonus were calculated using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Significant reductions were shown in Composite Spasticity Score by 29.5% (p = 0.017), resistance to full-range passive ankle dorsiflexion by 31.0% (p = 0.024) and ankle clonus by 29.6% (p = 0.023) in the TENS group but these reductions were not found in the placebo TENS group. The between-group differences of both Composite Spasticity Score and resistance to full-range passive ankle dorsiflexion were significant (p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively). This study showed that a single session of TENS could immediately reduce spasticity.

  7. A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION WITH RETRO - WALKING VERSUS ULTRASOUND THERAPY WITH RETRO - WALKING IN CHRONIC OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE

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    Somashekar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a painful and degenerative joint diseases, the pain, joint stiffness associated with this condition have a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. This study was done to assess the effectiveness of TENS and retro walking versus ultrasound therapy with retro walking in patients suffering from chronic knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: All the subjects were clinically diagnosed by orthopaedician with chronic knee osteoarthritis were screen ed after finding their suitability as per the inclusion criteria and were requested to participate in the study. Participants in the study were briefed about the nature of the study and their intervention. After briefing them about the study, their informe d written consent was taken. 60 chronic knee osteoarthritis patient were randomly divided into two groups with n=30 in each group, Group A - received TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and retro walking, where group B - received ultrasound therap y with retro walking. The treatment was given 5 days a week. The total duration of treatment was 3 weeks. OUTCOMES MEASURES: The patie n ts were evaluated at the beginning of the intervention program, Day 1st, end of 1st week, end of 2nd week and end of 3rd week. All the Patients were requested to come for a follow up measurement after 3rd week of treatment program. All the patients were assessed for pain, functional outcome and range of motion by taking their VAS scale, WOMAC scale and universal goniometer. RESULTS: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvement in all three parameters (VAS, WOMAC and Range of motion by repeated test ANOVA. Independent t - test analysis of outcome measures when compared between the two groups showed that Group B outcome measures were significantly far better than the outcome measures of Group A. CONCLUSION: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS with retro walking and therapeutic

  8. Characterization of evoked tactile sensation in forearm amputees with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guohong; Sui, Xiaohong; Li, Si; He, Longwen; Lan, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The goal of this study is to characterize the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) on the stump skin of forearm amputees using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Approach. We identified the projected finger map (PFM) of ETS on the stump skin in 11 forearm amputees, and compared perceptual attributes of the ETS in nine forearm amputees and eight able-bodied subjects using TENS. The profile of perceptual thresholds at the most sensitive points (MSPs) in each finger-projected area was obtained by modulating current amplitude, pulse width, and frequency of the biphasic, rectangular current stimulus. The long-term stability of the PFM and the perceptual threshold of the ETS were monitored in five forearm amputees for a period of 11 months. Main results. Five finger-specific projection areas can be independently identified on the stump skin of forearm amputees with a relatively long residual stump length. The shape of the PFM was progressively similar to that of the hand with more distal amputation. Similar sensory modalities of touch, pressure, buzz, vibration, and numb below pain sensation could be evoked both in the PFM of the stump skin of amputees and in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects. Sensory thresholds in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects were generally lower than those in the stump skin of forearm amputees, however, both were linearly modulated by current amplitude and pulse width. The variation of the MSPs in the PFM was confined to a small elliptical area with 95% confidence. The perceptual thresholds of thumb-projected areas were found to vary less than 0.99 × 10-2 mA cm-2. Significance. The stable PFM and sensory thresholds of ETS are desirable for a non-invasive neural interface that can feed back finger-specific tactile information from the prosthetic hand to forearm amputees.

  9. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

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    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  10. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, O.S.; Paulitsch, F.S.; Pereira, A.P.C.; Teixeira, A.O. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Silva, A.M.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Plentz, R.D.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto do Coração, Unidade de Hipertensão, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Signori, L.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  11. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

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    O.S. Franco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10, low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9 and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10. TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist at low (10 Hz/200 μs and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01 using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz, a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01. The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine and independent (sodium nitroprusside responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  12. Do the Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Knee Osteoarthritis Pain and Function Last?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Harrison, Paige E; Benjamin, Samantha A; Bhave, Anil; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to decrease pain associated with knee osteoarthritis, which potentially leads to better function, improved quality of life, and postpones the need for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to perform a 1-year follow-up of a previous prospective group of patients with knee osteoarthritis, randomized to TENS or standard of care, who were asked to rate their changes in: (1) patient pain perception; (2) subjective medication use; (3) subjective functional abilities; (4) quality of life; (5) device use; and (6) conversion to TKA. A population of 70 patients were randomized to receive either a TENS device or a standard conservative therapy regimen. Patients were evaluated based on various subjective outcomes at minimum 1-year (mean, 19 months) follow-up. The TENS cohort had lower visual analog pain scores compared with the matching cohort. Subjective functional outcomes, as well as functional and activity scores, were also greater in the TENS cohort. Patients in TENS cohort showed significant improvements in their subjective and functional outcomes as compared with their initial status, while the control group did not show significant change. A majority of the TENS patients were able to reduce the amount of pain medications. Additionally, a large portion of the patients assigned to the TENS group continue to use the device, after completion of the trial. This study demonstrated the benefit of TENS for improving subjective outcomes in patients with pain due to knee osteoarthritis, compared with standard conservative treatments. The results of the study suggest that TENS is a safe and effective adjunct as part of the spectrum of current nonoperative treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis.

  13. A Standardized Transcutaneous Electric Acupoint Stimulation for Relieving Tobacco Urges in Dependent Smokers

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    Caroline Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of acupuncture in smoking cessation, and its effect on the urge to smoke are unclear. We evaluated the effect of a standardized protocol of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS on alleviating the urge to smoke. Ninety-eight smokers were recruited in two double-blind studies. Participants abstained from smoking for 26 h, and were randomized to receive TEAS alternating between 2 and 100 Hz at four acupoints (LI4 and PC8, PC6 and TE5 at four different intensities (10, 5, Intermittent 5 or 0 mA. The urge to smoke was assessed by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief. In Experiment 1, the 10 mA group (n = 20 was compared with the 5 mA group (n = 20; the increase in smoking urges did not differ significantly. Considering the possibility that 5 mA may be an active intervention, in Experiment 2, a true placebo (0 mA, and a proxy of placebo [Intermittent 5 mA (i5 mA] were compared with 10 mA TEAS. In this experiment, 10 mA (n = 20 TEAS showed a tendency to alleviate smoking urges compared with 0 mA (n = 16, and i5 mA (n = 19 TEAS. Only when the data of smokers with Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥5 were analyzed that the difference between the 10 mA group and the control group (0 and i5 mA became significant. Based on these preliminary findings, we conclude that TEAS applied on the skin may antagonize the increase in urge to smoke in abstinent-dependent smokers. It seems warranted to assess the efficacy of TEAS in smoking cessation clinical trials involving a larger population of dependent smokers.

  14. [Impacts of transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation on the postoperative nausea and vomiting and plasma 5-HT concentration after cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Wang, Mingshan; Li, Qiujie; Wang, Ling; Li, Jingzhu

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation on the postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and explore its mechanism. Ninety cases of elective cesarean section of I to II grade in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) were collected and randomized into a transcutaneous acupoint electric stimulation group (group A), a sham-acupoint group (group B) and a blank control group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In the group A, 30 min before operation, the transcutaneous electric stimulation was applied to bilateral Neiguan (PC 6) and Zusanli (ST 36). The stimulation lasted during operation and 1 h after operation. In the group B, the same electric stimulation was given at the sites 3 cm lateral to the medial sides of Neiguan (PC 6) and Zusanli (ST 36). In the group C, the electric plaster was attached to bilateral Neiguan (PC 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), without any electric stimulation. The lumbar epidural combined anesthesia and the postoperative analgesia were same in each group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) , oxygen saturation of blood (SpO2) and the VAS (visual analogue scale) score of nausea and vomiting were recorded before acupoint stimulation (T0), at skin incision (T1), fetal delivery (T2), abdominal exploration (T3) and 1 h after operation (T4) as well as bleeding and application of oxytocin, ephedrine and atropine during operation separately. The changes of plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration were observed at T0 and 30 min after electric stimulation. The differences were not significant in MAP, HP and SpO2 at each time point of the three groups (all P> 0.05). The differences were not significant in bleeding and application of oxytocin, ephedrine and atropine during operation (all P > 0.05). The scores of nausea and vomiting in the group A during T1 to T4 were lower than those in the group B and group C (all P electric stimulation, plasma 5-HT concentration was lower than those in the group B and

  15. [Analgesic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined with target-controlled infusion in general anesthesia and effects on cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi-mei; Yang, Bo

    2008-03-01

    To observe analgesic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined with target-controlled infusion (TCI) in general anesthesia and effects on cardiovascular system. Sixty selective breast operation patients were randomly divided into a combined group and a TCI group, 30 cases in each group. The combined group received anesthesic induction for 30 min with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation and then TCI into vein for general anesthesia, and the transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation was continued till the end of the operation. The TCI group only received TCI irito vein for general anesthesia. The target-controlled concentration of the general anesthesia drugs in plasma was monitored to evaluate the analgesic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation. Meanwhile, the effects of the transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on cardiovascular system were investigated. The mean Propofol and Fentany dosages needed were 226.67 mg and 0.11 mg in the combined group, and 272.22 mg and 0.14 mg in the TCI group during the operation, respectively, with significant differences (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The changes of heart rate and blood pressure in the combined group during skin-cutting were significantly less than those in the TCI group (P < 0.05). The awaking time in the combined group was significantly shortened. The transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation has a certain analgesic effect in the operation and can reduce 17% Propofol dosage and 14% Fentany dosage, and it can decrease the skin-cutting-induced stress reaction of the cardiovascular system and accelerate waking.

  16. Influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on spasticity, balance, and walking speed in stroke patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuqin; Sun, Qi; Wang, Haifeng; Xie, Guomin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with stroke through a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs placebo transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on stroke were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome was modified Ashworth scale (MAS). Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Seven randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation supplementation significantly reduced MAS (standard mean difference (SMD) = -0.71; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = -1.11 to -0.30; p = 0.0006), improved static balance with open eyes (SMD = -1.26; 95% CI = -1.83 to -0.69; p<0.0001) and closed eyes (SMD = -1.74; 95% CI = -2.36 to -1.12; p < 0.00001), and increased walking speed (SMD = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.84; p = 0.03), but did not improve results on the Timed Up and Go Test (SMD = -0.60; 95% CI=-1.22 to 0.03; p = 0.06). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is associated with significantly reduced spasticity, increased static balance and walking speed, but has no influence on dynamic balance.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IONTOPHORESIS BY DEXAMETHASONE AND TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION IN THE TREATMENT OF PAINFUL HEMIPLEGIC SHOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna Ganvir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the short & long term effect of iontophoresis by dexamethasone & transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the relief of pain & improvement of functional capacity in patients with painful hemiplegic shoulder. In this double blinded, randomised, trial of 63 (2 patients discontinued the study patients with painful hemiplegic shoulder were recruited from rehabilitation unit. They were randomly divided into two groups. One of the group received maximum twelve treatments of iontophoresis to the site of maximum tenderness on the anterior & lateral aspect of shoulder joint. Other group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS to the region of shoulder joint. Stiffness and pain were recorded at the initial session; follow up at two, four & eight weeks. Data from 59 subjects were used in the study. After the treatment phase, all groups showed significant improvements in average pain, and functional ability. However, iontophoresis group showed a significantly greater improvement than the TENS intervention (p = 0.031. At the follow up, similar improvement was noted. Twelve treatments of dexamethasone iontophoresis combined with taping gave greater relief from morning pain than TENS group. For the best clinical results at four weeks, taping combined with dexamethasone is the preferred treatment option compared with taping & TENS.

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Interferential Therapy on the Upper Trapezius in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Thusharika Dilrukshi; Pallegama, Ranjith Wasantha; Suraweera, Hilari Justus; Johnson, Mark I; Kariyawasam, Anula Padma

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential therapy (IFT) both in combination with hot pack, myofascial release, active range of motion exercise, and a home exercise program on myofascial pain syndrome patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. A total of 105 patients with an upper trapezius myofascial trigger point were recruited to this single-blind randomized controlled trial. Following random allocation of patients to three groups, three therapeutic regimens-control-standard care (hot pack, active range of motion exercises, myofascial release, and a home exercise program with postural advice), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation-standard care and IFT-standard care-were administered eight times during 4 wks at regular intervals. Pain intensity and cervical range of motions (cervical extension, lateral flexion to the contralateral side, and rotation to the ipsilateral side) were measured at baseline, immediately after the first treatment, before the eighth treatment, and 1 wk after the eighth treatment. Immediate and short-term improvements were marked in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group (n = 35) compared with the IFT group (n = 35) and the control group (n = 35) with respect to pain intensity and cervical range of motions (P < 0.05). The IFT group showed significant improvement on these outcome measurements than the control group did (P < 0.05). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with standard care facilitates recovery better than IFT does in the same combination.

  19. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA; Bouma, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with ADHD-

  20. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, J.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal resea

  1. Outcome of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in chronic pain: short-term results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, J.; Boo, T.M. de; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of shortterm transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment in chronic pain with respect to pain intensity and patients' satisfaction with treatment results. We therefore performed a randomised controlled trial comparing TENS and sham TENS

  2. Coronary blood flow dynamics during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for stable angina pectoris associated with severe narrowing of one major coronary artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, GAJ; Tio, RA; De Jongste, MJL; Hautvast, RWM; Den Heijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    1998-01-01

    To study the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on coronary vasomotion, patients with New York Heart Association class III angina pectoris and significant single-vessel left coronary artery disease and who were also scheduled for elective percutaneous transluminal coronary

  3. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in Children with Autism and Its Impact on Plasma Levels of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin: A Prospective Single-Blinded Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was…

  4. Coronary blood flow dynamics during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for stable angina pectoris associated with severe narrowing of one major coronary artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, GAJ; Tio, RA; De Jongste, MJL; Hautvast, RWM; Den Heijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    1998-01-01

    To study the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on coronary vasomotion, patients with New York Heart Association class III angina pectoris and significant single-vessel left coronary artery disease and who were also scheduled for elective percutaneous transluminal coronary

  5. Transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation vs oxybutynin for the treatment of overactive bladder in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliano, Fábio; Veiga, Maria Luiza; Moraes, Marília; Cunha, Carolina; de Oliveira, Liliana Fajardo; Lordelo, Patrícia; Bastos Netto, José Murillo; Barroso Júnior, Ubirajara

    2015-05-01

    We determined the effectiveness of 2 methods to treat overactive bladder in children using intragroup and intergroup comparisons in a randomized clinical trial. Nine boys and 19 girls with a mean ± SD age of 6.4 ± 2.18 years were randomly divided into group 1-parasacral transcutaneous electrical stimulation with placebo drug and group 2-oxybutynin with sham scapular electrical therapy. Success was assessed by 1) the rate of complete symptom resolution, 2) a visual analog scale of 0 to 10, 3) the dysfunctional voiding score system, 4) voiding diary records, 5) Rome III criteria and 6) side effect frequency in each group. A total of 13 and 15 patients were randomized to groups 1 and 2, respectively. Symptoms completely resolved in 6 patients in group 1 (46%) and 3 in group 2 (20%) (p = 0.204). A statistically significant improvement was found in the 2 groups in the dysfunctional voiding score system and voiding diary records. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the visual analog scale score, voiding frequency, and maximum and mean voided volume (p = 0.295, 0.098, 0.538 and 0.650, respectively). Constipation improved in 100% of group 1 patients but in only 55% in group 2 (p = 0.031 vs 0.073). Group 1 showed no side effects while dry mouth, hyperthermia and hyperemia developed in 58%, 25% and 50% of group 2 patients (p = 0.002, 0.096 and 0.005, respectively). Treatment was discontinued by 13.3% of patients in group 2. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical stimulation was as effective as oxybutynin to treat overactive bladder in children. However, transcutaneous parasacral electrical stimulation was more effective against constipation and showed no detectable side effects. Oxybutynin was more effective for decreasing voiding frequency. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  7. [Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord: non-invasive tool for activation of locomotor circuitry in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichev, R M; Pivovarova, E A; Pukhov, A; Moiseev, S A; Savokhin, A A; Moshonkina, T R; Shcherbakova, N A; Kilimnik, V A; Selionov, V A; Kozlovskaia, I B; Edgerton, V R; Gerasimenko, Iu P

    2012-01-01

    A new tool for locomotor circuitry activation in the non-injured human by transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) has been described. We show that continuous tSCS over T11-T12 vertebrae at 5-40 Hz induced involuntary locomotor-like stepping movements in subjects with their legs in a gravity-independent position. The increase of frequency of tSCS from 5 to 30 Hz augmented the amplitude of evoked stepping movements. The duration of cycle period did not depend on frequency of tSCS. During tSCS the hip, knee and ankle joints were involved in the stepping performance. It has been suggested that tSCS activates the locomotor circuitry through the dorsal roots. It appears that tSCS can be used as a non-invasive method in rehabilitation of spinal pathology.

  8. High and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation inhibits nociceptive responses induced by CO2 laser stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Fiore, Pietro; Camporeale, Alfonso; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Losito, Luciana; Megna, Marisa; Puca, Francomichele; Megna, Gianfranco

    2003-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) on CO(2) laser evoked potentials (LEPs) in 16 normal subjects. The volar side of the forearm was stimulated by 10 Hz TENS in eight subjects and by 100 Hz TENS in the remainder; the skin of the forearm was stimulated by CO(2) laser and the LEPs were recorded in basal conditions and soon after and 15 min after TENS. Both low and high frequency TENS significantly reduced the subjective rating of heat stimuli and the LEPs amplitude, although high frequency TENS appeared more efficacious. TENS seemed to exert a mild inhibition of the perception and processing of pain induced by laser Adelta fibres activation; the implications of these effects in the clinical employment of TENS remain to be clarified.

  9. Evaluation of Tensile Strength of the Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon in Horses Subjected to Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation Therapeutic Regimen

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    Davood Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to sincerely express our gratitude to the university of Tehran and faculty of veterinary medicine research council for approval and financial support for this extensive evaluation of tensile strength of the superficial digital flexor tendon in horses subjected to Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation (TENS therapeutic regimen Problems statement: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TENS on the tensile strength of experimentally traumatized SDFT in horses. Approach: Eight adult castrated horses between 4-9 years -old and 310- 395 Kg body - weight were considered. The left fore -limb superficial digital flexor tendon of each horse was splitted longitudinally in the middle portion in full thickness of 10 cm in length using B.P. blade (15 Times strike, then the connective tissue and skin were approximated using No 2 Nylon. Horses were divided into two groups of control and treated with 4 horses each. No treatment was given to control one, whereas treated group was subjected to the transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (Newtens 900c therapeutic regimens10 min daily with intensity of 80 µs, 100 Hz frequency for 14 days. After 60 days, the full length of SDFT (20 cm was removed from the right normal countralaleral and left traumatized tendon of control and treated limbs of all horses to be subjected to test of tensile strength using Zwick/Roell MDTL Machine with speed of 0.07 mM sec-1 having Proportional Integral Deferential (PID controller. In assessing the variation obtained data was analyzed using paired-t-test. Results: Data of the tensile strength was revealed an average 0.6625 KN for normal SDFT, 0.6375 KN for treated tendon and 0.6175 KN for control tendon .There was significant improvement in regaining tensile strength in treated tendons comparison to control ones in Conclusion: TENS significantly accelerated healing and remodeling of traumatized tendon to regain its tensile strength.

  10. Initiation and modulation of locomotor circuitry output with multisite transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord in noninjured humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Yury; Gorodnichev, Ruslan; Puhov, Aleksandr; Moshonkina, Tatiana; Savochin, Aleksandr; Selionov, Victor; Roy, Roland R; Lu, Daniel C; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian lumbar spinal cord has the capability to generate locomotor activity in the absence of input from the brain. Previously, we reported that transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the spinal cord at vertebral level T11 can activate the locomotor circuitry in noninjured subjects when their legs are placed in a gravity-neutral position (Gorodnichev RM, Pivovarova EA, Pukhov A, Moiseev SA, Savokhin AA, Moshonkina TR, Shcherbakova NA, Kilimnik VA, Selionov VA, Kozlovskaia IB, Edgerton VR, Gerasimenko IU. Fiziol Cheloveka 38: 46-56, 2012). In the present study we hypothesized that stimulating multiple spinal sites and therefore unique combinations of networks converging on postural and locomotor lumbosacral networks would be more effective in inducing more robust locomotor behavior and more selective control than stimulation of more restricted networks. We demonstrate that simultaneous stimulation at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels induced coordinated stepping movements with a greater range of motion at multiple joints in five of six noninjured subjects. We show that the addition of stimulation at L1 and/or at C5 to stimulation at T11 immediately resulted in enhancing the kinematics and interlimb coordination as well as the EMG patterns in proximal and distal leg muscles. Sequential cessation of stimulation at C5 and then at L1 resulted in a progressive degradation of the stepping pattern. The synergistic and interactive effects of transcutaneous stimulation suggest a multisegmental convergence of descending and ascending, and most likely propriospinal, influences on the spinal neuronal circuitries associated with locomotor activity. The potential impact of using multisite spinal cord stimulation as a strategy to neuromodulate the spinal circuitry has significant implications in furthering our understanding of the mechanisms controlling posture and locomotion and for regaining significant sensorimotor function even after a severe spinal cord

  11. Psychological, neurophysiological and therapeutic aspects of chronic pain: preliminary results with transcutaneous electrical stimulation [proceeedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachen, H J

    1978-02-01

    Psychological, neurophysiological and therapeutic aspects of chronic pain are reviewed in the light of recent progress achieved in the respective fields (alpha-feedback training; gate-control theory; transcutaneous electrostimulation; percutaneous stereoactic radio-frequency cordotomy). The efficacy of selective large fibre stimulation has been evaluated in 39 spinal cord injury patients suffering from chronic intractable pain of 6 to 35 months's duration. Stimulation was applied daily for 6 consecutive hours. Pain reflief was assessed by verbal and visual analogue scales and McGill's pain questionaire. After 1 week, total or almost total relief of pain was reported by 49 per cent, moderate relief by 41 per cent and no improvement by 10 per cent of the cases; at a 3-months follow-up the figures were 28 per cent, 49 per cent and 23 per cent respectively.

  12. A single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves spasticity and balance in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-young; In, Tae Sung; Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Spasticity management is pivotal for achieving functional recovery of stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated into the TENS (n = 22) or the placebo-TENS (n = 20) group. TENS stimulation was applied to the gastrocnemius for 60 min at 100 Hz, 200 µs with 2 to 3 times the sensory threshold (the minimal threshold in detecting electrical stimulation for subjects) after received physical therapy for 30 min. In the placebo-TENS group, electrodes were placed but no electrical stimulation was administered. For measuring spasticity, the resistance encountered during passive muscle stretching of ankle joint was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Hand held dynamometer was used to assess the resistive force caused by spasticity. Balance ability was measured using a force platform that measures postural sway generated by postural imbalance. The TENS group showed a significantly greater reduction in spasticity of the gastrocnemius, compared to the placebo-TENS group (p TENS resulted in greater balance ability improvements, especially during the eyes closed condition (p TENS provides an immediately effective means of reducing spasticity and of improving balance in chronic stroke patients. The present data may be useful to establish the standard parameters for TENS application in the clinical setting of stroke.

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extr...

  14. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS reduces pain and postpones the need for pharmacological analgesia during labour: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Santos Santana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In the active phase of the first stage of labour, does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS relieve pain or change its location? Does TENS delay the request for neuraxial analgesia during labour? Does TENS produce any harmful effects in the mother or the foetus? Are women in labour satisfied with the care provided? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Forty-six low-risk, primigravida parturients with a gestational age > 37 weeks, cervical dilation of 4 cm, and without the use of any medications from hospital admission until randomisation. Intervention: The principal investigator applied TENS to the experimental group for 30 minutes starting at the beginning of the active phase of labour. A second investigator assessed the outcomes in both the control and experimental groups. Both groups received routine perinatal care. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was pain severity after the intervention period, which was assessed using the 100-mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included: pain location, duration of the active phase of labour, time to pharmacological labour analgesia, mode of birth, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the care provided. Results: After the intervention, a significant mean difference in change in pain of 15 mm was observed favouring the experimental group (95% CI 2 to 27. The application of TENS did not alter the location or distribution of the pain. The mean time to pharmacological analgesia after the intervention was 5.0 hours (95% CI 4.1 to 5.9 longer in the experimental group. The intervention did not significantly impact the other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Participants in both groups were satisfied with the care provided during labour. Conclusion: TENS produces a significant decrease in pain during labour and postpones the need for pharmacological

  15. Early transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces hyperalgesia and decreases activation of spinal glial cells in mice with neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hideaki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Watanabe, Shuji; Takeura, Naoto; Sugita, Daisuke; Shimada, Seiichiro; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2014-09-01

    Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, its effectiveness and mechanism of action in reducing neuropathic pain remain uncertain. We investigated the effects of early TENS (starting from the day after surgery) in mice with neuropathic pain, on hyperalgesia, glial cell activation, pain transmission neuron sensitization, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and opioid receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Following nerve injury, TENS and behavioral tests were performed every day. Immunohistochemical, immunoblot, and flow cytometric analysis of the lumbar spinal cord were performed after 8 days. Early TENS reduced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and decreased the activation of microglia and astrocytes (PEarly TENS decreased p-p38 within microglia (Pearly TENS relieved hyperalgesia in our mouse model of neuropathic pain by inhibiting glial activation, MAP kinase activation, PKC-γ, and p-CREB expression, and proinflammatory cytokines expression, as well as maintenance of spinal opioid receptors. The findings indicate that TENS treatment is more effective when applied as early after nerve injury as possible. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the H-reflex of muscles of different fibre type composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C G; Arsenault, A B; Bourbonnais, D; Levin, M F

    1997-09-01

    Differential effects of repetitive stimulation of low threshold afferents on both the recruitment threshold and motoneuronal excitability of type I and type II motor units have been demonstrated. The present study was aimed at further investigating the differential effects of 30 minutes of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the H-reflex amplitude (Hmax/2) of the Soleus (SO), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) muscles. Eleven healthy subjects were tested in order to evaluate the effects of TENS on either the common peroneal (CPN), saphenous or sural nerve. The experimental session consisted of three consecutive 45 min periods. Within each of these periods, H-reflexes were recorded before, during and after the TENS was applied. It was hypothesized that repetitive low threshold afferent stimulation would either have inhibitory or facilitatory effects on the H-reflex amplitude of the SO or gastrocnemii muscles respectively. Non-parametric Friedman ANOVAs revealed a significant tendency (p sural nerve, as well as that of the GM during repetitive stimulation of the saphenous nerve. Although the present study failed to reveal any differential effects of TENS on the H-reflex amplitude of muscle on different fibre type content, the significant decrease in H-reflex observed on the triceps surae muscles during TENS applied over the CPN might have promising clinical outcomes for hyperreflexive subjects.

  17. The characteristics of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (acupuncture-like TENS): a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard P; Johnson, Mark I

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is used for pain relief. This study aimed to review the descriptions of the characteristics of acupuncture-like TENS reported within the published literature up to June 2011. A total of 88 items of published literature were retrieved.. 35 authors or groups provided 1 publication (Single Contributions - SC) and 10 authors or groups provided more than 1 publication (Multiple Contributions - MC). In order to gain the acupuncture-like effects of TENS, authors often characterised acupuncture-like TENS using: an intensity that caused muscle contractions (6MC, 17SC), or a sensation to tolerance threshold (3MC, 4SC); a 1-4 pulses per second (pps) pulse rate (5MC, 16SC); a 100-200 micros pulse duration (2MC, 8SC); stimulation to acupuncture points (5MC, 4SC), or myotomes (3MC, 3SC), or over the painful area (3MC, 1SC). Critically, unlike many authors included in the present review, the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum does not mention the triggering of muscle contractions when acupuncture-like TENS is defined. This may be an area that that they should reconsider.

  18. Comparison of effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Kinesio Taping added to exercises in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatcam, Gokmen; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Akkaya, Nuray; Sahin, Fusun; Aksoy, Sibel; Zincir, Ozge; Topuz, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Although there are several studies of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and exercise in myofascial pain syndrome, there are no studies comparing the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping (KT) and TENS in myofascial pain syndrome patients. To compare the early and late effects of TENS and KT on pain, disability and range of motion in myofascial pain syndrome patients. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three groups randomly as TENS+Exercise, KT+Exercise and exercise groups. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), pain threshold, Neck Disability Index and cervical contralateral lateral flexion were employed in the evaluation of the patients performed before treatment, after treatment and 3rd month after treatment. The VAS, pain threshold, Neck Disability Index and contralateral lateral flexion values were improved in all groups both in after treatment and 3rd month after treatment (pmyofascial pain syndrome patients. Addition of TENS or KT to the exercise therapy resulted in more significant improvement compared to exercise therapy alone with a more pronounced improvement in KT group compared to the TENS group in the early period. Because KT was found to be more effective in decreasing the pain and had the advantage of being used in every 3 days, it seems to be beneficial in acute painful periods in myofascial pain syndrome patients.

  19. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  20. The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Inflammatory Response in Patients Undergoing Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion

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    Yunchang Mo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion after tourniquet use can induce inflammation and cause remote organ injury. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS on inflammatory mediators and lung function in patients receiving lower limb tourniquets. Forty patients undergoing unilateral lower extremity surgery with tourniquet were randomly assigned to two groups: the TEAS group and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group. The C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-10 (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and arterial blood gas analysis were measured preoperatively and 6 h after tourniquet removal. The levels of CXCL8, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and CCL2 were significantly increased compared to baseline values in both groups, but the increase was significantly smaller in the TEAS group. In the TEAS group, the partial pressure of oxygen and arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio were significantly decreased, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference and respiratory index were significantly increased, compared to those in the I/R group at 6 h after reperfusion. In conclusion, TEAS diminished the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in response to lower limb ischemia-reperfusion and improved pulmonary gas exchange.

  1. Visceral chest pain in unstable angina pectoris and effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. (TENS). A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, M

    1999-04-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chest pain referred to hospital, show signs of coronary artery disease. Anginal pain could be conceptualized as a warning signal for coronary artery disease and impending death. But, for many reasons this theory is partly disputed. Firstly, not all ischemic episodes are accompanied by anginal pain (silent ischemia). Secondly, chest pain indistinguishable from true angina pectoris may be the result of other abnormalities of thoracic viscera. Nevertheless acute severe cardiac ischemia often gives rise to anginal chest pain. Unstable angina pectoris is carrying a higher risk for future events in spite of intensive medical treatment. A special problem are patients awaiting coronary intervention because of severe ischemia and maximum medical treatment, who experience ischemic pain. New treatment regimens are needed for these patients. This review discusses the symptom of visceral pain from the heart, angina pectoris, its relation to ischemia and unstable angina pectoris. It also addresses the role of afferent nerve stimulation (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, TENS) in the treatment of severe angina pectoris as well as recent findings of TENS applicability in unstable angina.

  2. Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study

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    M Varadharaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam. Materials and Methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA. The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS and heart rate. Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78% was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%. In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA. Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

  3. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have a clinically relevant analgesic effect on different pain conditions? A literature review

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    Asami Naka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS is a standard therapy used in different painful conditions such as low back pain, diabetic polyneuropathy or arthrosis. However, literature reviews focusing on the effects and the clinical implication of this method in various painful conditions are yet scarce. The purpose of this literature research was to determine, whether TENS provides an analgesic effect on common painful conditions in clinical practice. Literature research was performed using three data bases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database, focusing on papers published in the space of time from 2007 to 2012. Papers were evaluated from two reviewers independently concerning the clinical outcome, taking account for the level of external evidence according to the German Cochrane levels of evidence (Ia – IV. 133 papers of varying methodological quality dealing with different painful conditions were selected in total. A clinically relevant analgesic effect was described in 90 painful conditions (67%. In 30 painful states (22%, the outcome was inconclusive due to the study design. No significant analgesic effect of TENS was observed in 15 painful conditions (11%. The vast majority of the papers were classified as Cochrane evidence level Ib (n = 64; 48%, followed by level Ia (n = 23; 17%, level III (n = 18; 14%, level IV (n = 15; 11%, level IIb (n = 10; 8% and level IIa (n = 3; 2%. Most of the studies revealed an analgesic effect in various painful conditions, confirming the usefulness of TENS in clinical practice.

  4. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain in patients with spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xia; Lv, Hong; Chen, Bin-Lin; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain in patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-two spinal cord injury patients with central pain were randomly allocated into two groups TENS and control with 26 subjects per group. The patients in TENS and control groups were treated with TENS and sham TENS for 20 min (three times a week) for 12 consecutive weeks, respectively. The two group's pain was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (including pain rating index-total, pain rating index-affective, pain rating index-sensory, present pain intensity, and number of words chosen) before and after the treatment. [Results] After the intervention, we found significant differences in VAS, pain rating index-total, pain rating index-affective, pain rating index-sensory, present pain intensity, and number of words chosen between the TENS group and the control group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that TENS effectively decreases pain in patients with spinal cord injury.

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucheng Ding

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM/TENS group (n=15, DM group (n=15 and control group (n=15. The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  6. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Patient Controlled Intravenous Analgesia with Tramadol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Li-hong; SUN Hong; WANG Guo-nian; LIANG Jie; WU Hua-xing

    2008-01-01

    Objective" To observe the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on nausea and vomiting (N&V) induced by patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with Tramadol. Methods= Sixty patients who were ready to receive scheduled operation for tumor in the head-neck region and post-operation PCIA, aged 39-65 years, with the physique grades Ⅰ-Ⅱ of ASA, were randomized into two groups, A and B, 30 in each group. The pre-operation medication, induction of analgesia and continuous anesthesia used in the two groups were the same. TEAS on bilateral Hegu (LI4) and Neiguan (PC6) points was intermittently applied to the patients in group A starting from 30 min before analgesia induction to 24 h after operation, and the incidence and score of nausea and vomiting, antiemetic used, visual analogue scores (VAS), and PCIA pressing times in 4 time segments (0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 12-24 h after the operation was finished) were determined. The same management was applied to patients in Group B, with sham TEAS for control. Results: The incidence and degree of N&V, as well as the number of patients who needed remedial antiemetic in Group A were less than those in Group B. The VAS score and PCIA pressing time were lower in Group A than those in Group B in the corresponding time segments respectively. Conclusion: TEAS could prevent N&V induced by PCIA with Tramadol.

  7. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  8. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Cold, and a Combination Treatment on Pain, Decreased Range of Motion, and Strength Loss Associated with Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Perrin, David H.

    1992-01-01

    Athletic trainers have a variety of therapeutic agents at their disposal to treat musculoskeletal pain, but little objective evidence exists of the efficacy of the modalities they use. In this study, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) served as a model for musculoskeletal injury in order to: (1) compare the changes in perceived pain, elbow extension range of motion, and strength loss in subjects experiencing DOMS in the elbow flexor muscle group following a single treatment with either transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), cold, a combination of TENS and cold, sham TENS, or 20 minutes of rest; (2) compare the effects of combining static stretching with these treatments; and (3) determine if decreased pain is accompanied by a restoration of strength. DOMS was induced in the non-dominant elbow flexor muscle group in 40 females (age = 22.0 ± 4.3 yr) with repeated eccentric contractions. Forty-eight hours following exercise, all subjects presented with pain, decreased elbow extension range of motion, and decreased strength consistent with DOMS. Subjects were randomly assigned to 20-minute treatments followed by static stretching. Cold, TENS, and the combined treatment resulted in significant decreases in perceived pain. Treatments with cold resulted in a significant increase in elbow extension range of motion. Static stretching also significantly reduced perceived pain. Only small, nonsignificant changes in muscle strength were observed following treatment or stretching, regardless of the treatment group. These results suggest that the muscle weakness associated with DOMS is not the result of inhibition caused by pain. The results suggest that these modalities are effective in treating the pain and muscle spasm associated with DOMS, and that decreased pain may not be an accurate indicator of the recovery of muscle strength. PMID:16558162

  9. Effects of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation on drug use and responses to cue-induced craving: a pilot study

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    Penetar David M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS avoids the use of needles, and instead delivers a mild electric current at traditional acupoints. This technique has been used for treating heroin addiction, but has not been systematically tested for other drugs of abuse. This study aims to investigate the effects of TEAS on drug addiction. Methods Volunteers who were either cocaine-dependent (n = 9 or cannabis-dependent (n = 11 but were not seeking treatment for their dependence participated in a within-subject, single-blind study. Treatment consisted of twice daily 30-minute sessions of TEAS or sham stimulation for 3.5 days. The active TEAS levels were individually adjusted to produce a distinct twitching response in the fingers, while the sham stimulation involved 2 minutes of stimulation at threshold levels followed by 28 minutes of stimulation below the detection levels. The participants recorded their drug use and drug cravings daily. At 1 hour after the last morning session of TEAS or sham stimulation, a cue-induced craving EEG evaluation was conducted. Event-related P300 potentials (ERPs were recorded, sorted, and analyzed for specific image types (neutral objects, non-drug-related arousing images, or drug-related images. Results TEAS treatment did not significantly reduce the drug use or drug cravings, or significantly alter the ERP peak voltage or latency to peak response. However, the TEAS treatment did significantly modulate several self-reported measures of mood and anxiety. Conclusion The results of this pilot study with a limited sample size suggest that the acupoint stimulation techniques and protocol used in this trial alone do not significantly reduce cravings for or use of cocaine or cannabis. The findings that TEAS modulates mood and anxiety suggest that TEAS could be used as an adjunct in a multimodal therapy program to treat cocaine and cannabis dependence if confirmed in a full randomized

  10. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruvalcaba, Irma; Sánchez-Hernández, Viridiana; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years) with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027) by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. PMID:26719723

  11. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Plantar Flexor Muscle Spasticity and Walking Speed in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddha, Darshan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Pattnaik, Monalisa; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Mishra, Chittaranjan

    2016-12-01

    Spasticity is a major disabling symptom in patients post stroke. Although studies have demonstrated that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can reduce spasticity, the duration of single session TENS is a subject of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the sustainability of the effects of TENS applied over common peroneal nerve in the reduction of ankle plantar-flexor spasticity and improving gait speed in patients post stroke. Thirty patients (11 women and 19 men) (mean age of 46.46 years) were randomly assigned to group 1 (task oriented exercises), group 2 (TENS for 30 min and task oriented exercises) and group 3 (TENS for 60 min and task oriented exercises) for a period of five sessions per week for 6 weeks. All patients were assessed for ankle plantar-flexor spasticity, passive ankle dorsi-flexion range of motion, clonus and timed up and go test at the time of recruitment to study, at 3 and 6 weeks of therapeutic intervention. The overall results of the study suggest that there was a decrease in ankle plantar flexor spasticity, ankle clonus and timed up and go score in all the groups. A greater reduction of spasticity was seen in TENS groups (groups 2 and 3) when compared to control. No significant improvement was found in timed up and go test (TUG) scores between groups. Both 30 min and 60 min of application of TENS are effective in reducing spasticity of ankle plantar flexors, improving walking ability and increase the effectiveness of task related training. Based on the effect size, we would recommend a longer duration application for the reduction of spasticity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Topographical effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the H-reflex of the triceps surae muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C; Arsenault, A B; Bourbonnais, D; Levin, M F

    1994-01-01

    The present study was conducted on eight normal subjects in order to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); 99 Hz, 250 μs pulse duration, applied over either the common peroneal (CPN) or sural nerve, on the H-reflex of the soleus (SO), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscles. Within each session, SO, GL and GM H-reflexes were recorded before (for 5 min), during (for 30 min) and after (for 10 min) TENS was applied at twice the sensory threshold for perception. It was found that, on average, while the stimulation was administered on the CPN: (a) the GL H-reflex amplitude increased by 40% (Friedman test: χ(2) = 11.71, P sural nerve were found on any of the investigated muscles. The finding of increased H-reflex amplitudes in GL during TENS made it less likely that CPN stimulation had reciprocal inhibitory effects. However, such an increase could be attributed to a selective effect (such as a decrease in the recruitment threshold) on type II motoneurons of the GL. Furthermore, the topographical effects observed on the GL during TENS may reflect selective local effects due to stimulation of a sensory branch of the CPN, the lateral sural nerve, which mainly innervates the skin overlying the GL. The absence of effects noted on the GM during TENS further supports this hypothesis as the cutaneous afferents overlying that muscle were not stimulated. The repetitive cutaneous stimulation over the sural nerve, at the lateral malleolus, may have been too distal to stimulate the cutaneous receptors overlying the SO.

  13. High-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alleviates spasticity after spinal contusion by inhibiting activated microglia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Suk-Chan; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

    2015-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used as a physical therapy for spasticity, but the effects of TENS on spasticity and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of TENS on spasticity and the role of activated microglia as underlying mechanisms of TENS treatment for spasticity in rats with a 50-mm contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). A spinal contusion was made at the T12 spinal segment in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using the NYU impactor. Behavioral tests for motor function were conducted before and after SCI and before and after TENS application. To assess spasticity, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) was used before and after SCI, high-frequency (HF)/low-frequency (LF) TENS application at 3 different intensities (motor threshold [MT], 50% and 90% MT) or minocycline administration. Immunohistochemistry for microglia was performed at the lumbar spinal segments. Motor recovery reached a plateau approximately 28 days after SCI. Spasticity was well developed and was sustained above the MAS grade of 3, beginning at 28 days after SCI. HF-TENS at 90% MT significantly alleviated spasticity. Motor function did not show any significant changes with LF- or HF-TENS treatment. HF-TENS significantly reduced the proportion of activated microglia observed after SCI. Minocycline, the microglia inhibitor, also significantly alleviated spasticity with the reduction of activated microglia expression. These results suggest that HF-TENS at 90% MT alleviates spasticity in rats with SCI by inhibiting activated microglia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on fetal and placental development in an experimental model of placental insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Camila S O; Gomes, Bruno B F; Oliveira, Rafael A; Yamamoto, Leandro R; Rocha, Laura P; Glória, Maria A; Machado, Juliana R; Câmara, Niels O S; Reis, Marlene A; Corrêa, Rosana R M

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in pregnancies with placental insufficiency. Pregnant rats were subjected to uterine artery ligation and to TENS according to the following groups: ligated stimulated (LS); ligated non-stimulated (LN), control stimulated (CS); and control non-stimulated (CN). Fetal external measurements, such as crown-rump length (CRL), fronto-occipital distance (FOD), thoracic ventral-dorsal (TVDD) and abdominal ventral-dorsal (AVDD) distances were analyzed together with the area occupied by fetal internal organs. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in fetal organs. Thickness of junctional, labyrinth and intermediate placental zones was analyzed by morphometric evaluation in HE-stained slides, and placental hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alfa expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In LN and CS groups compared to the CN group, CRL was reduced (27.51/28.95 versus 30.16 mm), as well as FOD (6.63/6.63 versus 7.36 mm), AVDD (7.38/8.00 versus 8.61 mm) and TVDD (6.46/6.87 versus 7.23 mm). Brain GLUT-1 expression was higher in LS (1.3%) and CS (1.8%). The area occupied by placental vessels in the labyrinth zone (29.67 ± 3.51 versus 20.83 ± 7.63) and intermediate zone (26.46 ± 10.21 versus 10.86 ± 8.94) was larger in the LS group than in the LN group. Our results suggest a negative effect of TENS on placental development, thus compromising the maintenance of adequate blood flow to the fetus.

  15. Acute effects of transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation on respiratory pattern in COPD patients: cross-sectional and comparative clinical trial

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    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS has been used to improve respiratory muscle strength in patients with respiratory muscle weakness. However, this physical therapy resource has not been studied in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory pattern during one session of TEDS in COPD patients. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients participated in one TEDS session for plethysmographic analysis and assessment of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR. After the session, patients were divided into two groups: Responder (R; n=9 and Non-Responder (NR; n=6 to TEDS. Statistic analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and two-way ANOVA. For the parameters that showed interaction, the Student t test was used (P<0.05. RESULTS: R group consisted mainly of men, with lower SpO2 and higher HR than NR group. When time (before and during and groups (R and NR were compared (interaction, there were differences in the parameters minute ventilation (Vent, inspiratory tidal volume (ViVol, expiratory tidal volume (VeVol, and respiratory rate (Br/M. In the intergroup comparison, differences were observed in the parameters Vent, ViVol, and VeVol. A significant effect was also observed for time in change in end-expiratory lung volume level (qDEEL, phase relation during inspiration (PhRIB; phase relation during expiration (PhREB; phase relation of entire breath (PhRTB, and phase angle (PhAng. During TEDS, there was an increase in SpO2 and a reduction in HR in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The most hypoxemic group with greater HR responded to TEDS and there was interaction between group and time of analysis for the pulmonary volumes. The time factor had an influence on the two groups with an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony.

  16. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation in bruxism associated with masticatory muscle pain - A comparative study

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    Rajpurohit Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS on masticatory muscles pain bruxism patient. Materials and Methods : A total of 60 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of bruxism were randomly allocated to two study groups. Group A received TENS (50 Hz, pulse width 0.5 mSec, intensity 0-60 mA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days and Group B received MENS (0.5 Hz, intensity 1,000 μA for 20 minutes for a period of seven days. The outcome measures were assessed in term of Visual Analog Scale (VAS and digital pressometer of 2 Kgf. Results : The study showed significant change in intensity of pain as per VAS score ( P ≤ 0.0001 and tenderness as per digital pressometer ( P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion : MENS could be used as an effective pain-relieving adjunct to TENS in the treatment of masticatory muscle pain due to bruxism.

  17. Effect of progressive muscular relaxation exercises versus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on tension headache: A comparative study

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    Sanjiv Kumar, MPT, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension-type headache (TTH is most frequent among all types of headaches. According to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (2004, TTH occurs in 30–78% of the population. Progressive muscular relaxation exercises have been shown to reduce TTH, and home-based relaxation programmes can result in significant improvement in headaches. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a method of electrical stimulation that primarily aims to provide a degree of symptomatic pain relief by exciting sensory nerves and stimulating either the pain gate mechanisms or the opioid systems. The objective of this study was to compare between the effects of progressive muscular relaxation exercises and TENS on pain intensity and stress in people with TTH. Thirty patients with TTH were allocated to either Group A or Group B. Group A practised progressive muscular relaxation exercise, whereas Group B received TENS. In the latter group, TENS electrodes were placed bilaterally either on the head at the site of pain or on the occiput. The treatment was carried out for 15 minutes a day, for 7 days. Patients were assessed for pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale and level of stress (Lakaev Academic Stress Response Scale before and after the intervention period. The results showed that progressive muscular relaxation exercises were effective in reducing pain as well as stress (p < 0.001. TENS, by contrast, reduced stress significantly (p < 0.001, but not pain (p = 0.233. Between-group analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in reduction of pain between the two groups (p = 0.595, but the amount of stress reduction in Group A (p = 0.002 was significantly more than that in Group B. In conclusion, progressive muscular relaxation exercises were more effective in reducing stress level than TENS in patients with TTH. The effect on pain reduction was similar between the two

  18. No Influence of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Exercise-Induced Pain and 5-Km Cycling Time-Trial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Andrew W.; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C.; Polman, Remco C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Afferent information from exercising muscle contributes to the sensation of exercise-induced muscle pain. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivers low–voltage electrical currents to the skin, inhibiting nociceptive afferent information. The use of TENS in reducing perceptions of exercise-induced pain has not yet been fully explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TENS on exercise-induced muscle pain, pacing strategy, and performance during a 5-km cycling time trial (TT). Methods: On three separate occasions, in a single-blind, randomized, and cross-over design, 13 recreationally active participants underwent a 30-min TENS protocol, before performing a 5-km cycling TT. TENS was applied to the quadriceps prior to exercise under the following conditions; control (CONT), placebo with sham TENS application (PLAC), and an experimental condition with TENS application (TENS). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed with magnetic femoral nerve stimulation assessing changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force at baseline, pre and post exercise. Subjective scores of exertion, affect and pain were taken every 1-km. Results: During TTs, application of TENS did not influence pain perceptions (P = 0.68, ηp2 = 0.03). There was no significant change in mean power (P = 0.16, ηp2 = 0.16) or TT duration (P = 0.17, ηp2 = 0.14), although effect sizes were large for these two variables. Changes in power output were not significant but showed moderate effect sizes at 500-m (ηp2 = 0.10) and 750-m (ηp2 = 0.10). Muscle recruitment as inferred by electromyography data was not significant, but showed large effect sizes at 250-m (ηp2 = 0.16), 500-m (ηp2 = 0.15), and 750-m (ηp2 = 0.14). This indicates a possible effect for TENS influencing performance up to 1-km. Discussion: These findings do not support the use of TENS to improve 5-km TT performance. PMID:28223939

  19. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as an adjunctive to epidural analgesia in the management of acute thoracotomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized study was conducted in our institute of pulmonary medicine and tuberculosis over a period of 1 year. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS as an adjunctive to thoracic epidural analgesia for the treatment of postoperative pain in patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy for decortication of lung. Sixty patients in the age group 15-40 years scheduled to undergo elective posterolateral thoracotomy were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients were alternatively assigned to one of the groups. In group I, only thoracic epidural analgesia with local anaesthetics was given at regular intervals; however, an identical apparatus which did not deliver an electric current was applied to the control (i.e. group I patients. While in group II, TENS was started immediately in the recovery period in addition to the epidural analgesia. A 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS was used to assess pain at regular intervals. The haemodynamics were also studied at regular intervals of 2 h for the first 10 h after the surgery. When the VAS score was more than three, intramuscular analgesia with diclofenac sodium was given. The VAS score and the systolic blood pressure were comparable in the immediate postoperative period (P = NS but the VAS score was significantly less in group II at 2, 4, 6, 8 h (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively, and at 10 h the P value was not significant. Similarly, the systolic blood pressure was significantly less in group II at 2, 4, 6 h after surgery, that is P < 0.02, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively, but at 8 and 10 h the pressures were comparable in both the groups. Adding TENS to epidural analgesia led to a significant reduction in pain with no sequelae. The haemodynamics were significantly stable in group II compared to group I. TENS is a valuable strategy to alleviate postoperative pain following thoracic surgery with no side

  20. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens in the treatment of the spasticity - a review

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    Dahyan Wagner da Silva Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study it has as objective to argue the job of TENS in the spasticity, observing the main parameters, form of application and the mechanism for which TENS it acts in the spasticity. One is about a bibliographical revision based in the literature specialized selected scientific articles through search in the data base of scielo and of bireme, from the sources Medline and Lilacs. The studies found on the job of TENS in the spasticity, had pointed mainly that this chain reduces the spasticity significantly, in lower degrees. The stimulation electrical parameters had disclosed that TENS it (about 100Hz of raised frequency provides one better effect in the reduction of the spasticity. The types of TENS more used had been the conventional and the soon-intense one, however some studies had not presented the used duration of pulse, limit the determination of one better modality of TENS. Few studies had explained the mechanism of performance of the current related one. The ones that had made it, had pointed the release of opioid endogenous (Dynorphins for the central nervous system as main mechanism of performance, however this contrasts with the neurophysiologic bases of the high-frequency stimulation, that demonstrated better resulted in the joined studies. Still it is necessary more studies on the job of this modality of stimulation electrical in the spasticity, since important parameters as duration of pulse, time of application, numbers of attendance and performance mechanism remains without scientific evidence.

  1. THE USE OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS IN THE TREATMENT OF THE SPASTICITY - A REVIEW

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    Dahyan Wagner da Silva Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study it has as objective to argue the job of TENS in the spasticity, observing the main parameters, form of application and the mechanism for which TENS it acts in the spasticity. One is about a bibliographical revision based in the literature specialized selected scientific articles through search in the data base of scielo and of bireme, from the sources Medline and Lilacs. The studies found on the job of TENS in the spasticity, had pointed mainly that this chain reduces the spasticity significantly, in lower degrees. The stimulation electrical parameters had disclosed that TENS it (about A utilização da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (tens... 100Hz of raised frequency provides one better effect in the reduction of the spasticity. The types of TENS more used had been the conventional and the soon-intense one, however some studies had not presented the used duration of pulse, limit the determination of one better modality of TENS. Few studies had explained the mechanism of performance of the current related one. The ones that had made it, had pointed the release of opioid endogenous (Dynorphins for the central nervous system as main mechanism of performance, however this contrasts with the neurophysiologic bases of the high-frequency stimulation, that demonstrated better resulted in the joined studies. Still it is necessary more studies on the job of this modality of stimulation electrical in the spasticity, since important parameters as duration of pulse, time of application, numbers of attendance and performance mechanism remains without scientific evidence.

  2. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity in patients with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potisk, K P; Gregoric, M; Vodovnik, L

    1995-09-01

    The effect of afferent cutaneous electrical stimulation on the spasticity of leg muscles was studied in 20 patients with chronic hemiplegia after stroke. Stimulation electrodes were placed over the sural nerve of the affected limb. The standard method of cutaneous stimulation, TENS with impulse frequency of 100 Hz, was applied. The tonus of the leg muscles was measured by means of an electrohydraulic measuring brace. The EMG stretch reflex activity of the tibialis anterior and triceps surae muscles was detected by surface electrodes and recorded simultaneously with the measured biomechanical parameters. In 18 out of 20 patients, a mild but statistically significant decrease in resistive torques at all frequencies of passive ankle movements was recorded following 20 min of TENS application. The decrease in resistive torque was often (but not always) accompanied by a decrease in reflex EMG activity. This effect of TENS persisted up to 45 min after the end of TENS. The results of the study support the hypothesis that TENS applied to the sural nerve may induce short-term post-stimulation inhibitory effects on the abnormally enhanced stretch reflex activity in spasticity of cerebral origin.

  3. Comparison of Twitch Responses During Current- or Voltage-Controlled Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

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    Vargas Luna, José Luis; Krenn, Matthias; Löfler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Cortés R, Jorge A; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is an established method for functional restoration of muscle function, rehabilitation, and diagnostics. In this work, NMES was applied with surface electrodes placed on the anterior thigh to identify the main differences between current-controlled (CC) and voltage-controlled (VC) modes. Measurements of the evoked knee extension force and the myoelectric signal of quadriceps and hamstrings were taken during stimulation with different amplitudes, pulse widths, and stimulation techniques. The stimulation pulses were rectangular and symmetric biphasic for both stimulation modes. The electrode-tissue impedance influences the differences between CC and VC stimulation. The main difference is that for CC stimulation, variation of pulse width and amplitude influences the amount of nerve depolarization, whereas VC stimulation is only dependent on amplitude variations for pulse widths longer than 150 μs. An important remark is that these findings are strongly dependent on the characteristics of the electrode-skin interface. In our case, we used large stimulation electrodes placed on the anterior thigh, which cause higher capacitive effects. The controllability, voltage compliance, and charge characteristics of each stimulation technique should be considered during the stimulators design. For applications that require the activation of a large amount of nerve fibers, VC is a more suitable option. In contrast, if the application requires a high controllability, then CC should be chosen prior to VC.

  4. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of tennis elbow: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial: the TATE trial (ISRCTN 87141084

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    Warlow Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tennis elbow is a common and often extremely painful musculoskeletal condition, which has considerable impact on individuals as well as economic implications for healthcare utilization and absence from work. Many management strategies have been studied in clinical trials. Whilst corticosteroid injections offer short term pain relief, this treatment is unpleasant and is used with caution due to an associated high risk of pain recurrence in the long term. Systematic reviews conclude that there is no clear and effective treatment for symptoms of pain in the first 6 weeks of the condition. There is a clear need for an intervention that is acceptable to patients and provides them with effective short-term pain relief without increasing the risk of recurrence. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is an inexpensive, non-invasive, non-pharmacological form of analgesia that is commonly used in the treatment of pain. TENS has very few contraindications and is simple to apply. It also benefits from being patient controlled, thereby promoting self-management. This study aims to assess the effectiveness, in terms of pain relief, and cost-effectiveness of a self-management package of treatment that includes TENS. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a two-group pragmatic randomized clinical trial. 240 participants aged 18 years and over with tennis elbow will be recruited from 20-30 GP practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants are to be randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive either primary care management (standard GP consultation, medication, advice and education or primary care management with the addition of TENS, over 6 weeks. Our primary outcome measure is average intensity of elbow pain in the past 24 hours (0-10 point numerical rating scale at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes include pain and limitation of function, global assessment of change, days of sick leave, illness perceptions, and overall health status. A

  5. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation on Parotid Saliva Flow Rate in Relation to Age and Gender

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    Manu Dhillon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Treatment with salivary substitutes and stimulation of salivary flow by either mechanical or pharmacologic methods has side effects and only provides symptomatic relief but no long-lasting results. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of extraoral transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS as a mean of stimulating salivary function in healthy adult subjects; as well as to determine the gender and age-dependent changes in salivary flow rates of unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva. Materials and Method: Hundred patients were divided into two groups; Group I aged 20-40 and Group II aged ≥ 60 years. The TENS electrode pads were externally placed on the skin overlying the parotid glands. Unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva was collected for 5 minutes each by using standardized collection techniques. Results: Eighty seven of 100 subjects demonstrated increased salivary flow when stimulated via the TENS unit. Ten experienced no increase and 3 experienced a decrease. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.01872 ml/min in Group I and 0.0088 ml/min in Group II. The mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 0.03084 ml/min (SD= 0.01248 in Group I, and 0.01556 ml/min (SD 0.0101 in Group II. After stimulation, the amount of salivary flow increased significantly in both groups (p< 0.001. Statistical comparison of the two groups revealed them to be significantly different (p< 0.001, with Group I producing more saliva. Gender-wise, no statistically significant difference was seen among the subjects in Group I (p = 0.148, and those in Group II (p= 0.448. Out of 12 subjects with 0 baseline flows, 7 continued to have no flow. Five subjects observed side effects, although minimal and transient. Conclusion: The TENS unit was effective in increasing parotid gland salivary flow in healthy subjects. There was age-related but no gender-related variability in parotid salivary flow rate.

  6. Efficacy of addition of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to standardized physical therapy in subacute spinal spasticity: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Oo, Win Min

    2014-11-01

    To study the immediate and short-term efficacy of adding transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to standardized physical therapy on subacute spasticity within 6 months of spinal cord injury. Randomized controlled trial for 3 weeks. A university hospital. Subjects (N=16) with clinically determined spasticity were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=8) or the control group (n=8). Sixty-minute sessions of TENS over the bilateral common peroneal nerves before 30 minutes of physical therapy for the experimental group and 30 minutes of physical therapy alone for the control group. All patients in both groups had access to standardized rehabilitation care. The composite spasticity score, which included 3 subscores (ankle jerk, muscle tone, and ankle clonus scores), was used as the primary end point to assess plantar flexor spasticity. These subscores were designated as secondary end points. Serial evaluations were made at baseline before study entry and immediately after the first and last sessions in both groups. On analysis for immediate effects, there was a significant reduction only in the composite spasticity score (mean difference, 1.75; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-3.03; P=.002) in the experimental group, but no significant reduction was observed in all outcome variables in the control group. A significant difference in the composite spasticity score (1.63; 99% CI, 0.14-3.11; P=.006) was observed between the 2 groups. After 15 sessions of treatment, a significant reduction was determined in the composite spasticity score (2.75; 99% CI, 1.31-4.19; P<.001), the muscle tone score (1.75; 99% CI, 0.16-3.34; P=.006), and the ankle clonus score (0.75; 99% CI, 0.18-1.32; P=.003) in the experimental group, whereas none of the outcome variables revealed a significant reduction in the control group. The between-group difference was significant only for the composite spasticity score (2.13; 99% CI, 0.59-3.66; P=.001) and the muscle tone

  7. Efficacy of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation on Parotid Saliva Flow Rate in Relation to Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Manu; M Raju, Srinivasa; S Mohan, Raviprakash; Tomar, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Treatment with salivary substitutes and stimulation of salivary flow by either mechanical or pharmacologic methods has side effects and only provides symptomatic relief but no long-lasting results. Purpose To assess the effectiveness of extraoral transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) as a mean of stimulating salivary function in healthy adult subjects; as well as to determine the gender and age-dependent changes in salivary flow rates of unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva. Materials and Method Hundred patients were divided into two groups; Group I aged 20-40 and Group II aged ≥ 60 years. The TENS electrode pads were externally placed on the skin overlying the parotid glands. Unstimulated and stimulated parotid saliva was collected for 5 minutes each by using standardized collection techniques. Results Eighty seven of 100 subjects demonstrated increased salivary flow when stimulated via the TENS unit. Ten experienced no increase and 3 experienced a decrease. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.01872 ml/min in Group I and 0.0088 ml/min in Group II. The mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 0.03084 ml/min (SD= 0.01248) in Group I, and 0.01556 ml/min (SD 0.0101) in Group II. After stimulation, the amount of salivary flow increased significantly in both groups (p< 0.001). Statistical comparison of the two groups revealed them to be significantly different (p< 0.001), with Group I producing more saliva. Gender-wise, no statistically significant difference was seen among the subjects in Group I (p = 0.148), and those in Group II (p= 0.448). Out of 12 subjects with 0 baseline flows, 7 continued to have no flow. Five subjects observed side effects, although minimal and transient. Conclusion The TENS unit was effective in increasing parotid gland salivary flow in healthy subjects. There was age-related but no gender-related variability in parotid salivary flow rate. PMID:27602390

  8. Effect of a combined continuous and intermittent transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception of burn patients evaluated by visual analog scale: a pilot study

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    Pérez-Ruvalcaba I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irma Pérez-Ruvalcaba,1 Viridiana Sánchez-Hernández,1 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma2,3 1Burn Unit, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 2Health Sciences Department, Centro Universitario de Tonalá, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico; 3Diabetes sin Complicaciones, Zapopan, Mexico Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the perception of pain in patients with burns of different types. Materials and methods: A pilot study was conducted in 14 patients (age 30.9±7.5 years with second- and third-degree burns of different types. The burn types included electrical, fire/flame, and chemical. All patients received continuous and intermittent electrical transcutaneous nerve stimulation sessions three times per week for 4 weeks. Each session had a duration of 30 minutes. A pair of electrodes were placed around the burn. The primary efficacy endpoint was the perception of pain assessed by a visual analog scale at baseline and at the 30th day. Results: A significant reduction of pain perception was reported (8.0±1.7 vs 1.0±0.5; P=0.027 by all patients after electrical stimulation therapy. There were no reports of adverse events during the intervention period. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation could be a potential nonpharmacological therapeutic option for pain management in burn patients. Keywords: TENS, burn pain, pain management, electrotherapy

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Exercise Therapy with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Improvement of Pain and Function in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

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    A Akbari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: One of the most common disorders of the knee joint in adult is patellofemoral pain syndrome. Sometimes it becomes chronic and causes activity limitation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of exercise therapy with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on improvement of pain intensity, knee function, muscle atrophy and range of knee flexion. Materials & Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in Zahedan Razmejo-Moghadam Physiotherapy Clinic, in 2007. Thirty-two patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were recruited through simple non-probability sampling. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the equal groups, exercise therapy (including hip, knee, and leg muscles strengthening and stretching exercises or electrical stimulation group. Before and after intervention, we assessed pain through Visual Analog Scale (VAS (ordinal, function (ordinal with Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, thigh circumference with tape measure (centimeter and range of knee flexion with goniometer (degree. A 10 session treatment program, three sessions per week and one hour per session was performed for both groups. Independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U and paired t-test or Wilcoxon were used for comparison between the pretreatment and post treatment results between groups and within groups, in SPSS software, respectively. Results: The mean total score of knee function increased from 100.53±19.25 to 130.87±18.25 in the electrical stimulation group and from 107.67±22.69 to 131.47±15.11 in the exercise therapy group (p=0.001. The mean score of knee function subscales including symptoms, pain, functional limitation, recreational activity, and life style improved in both groups (p<0.05. The pain score and range of knee flexion improved in both groups (p<0.05. After treatment, range of knee flexion significantly increased in the exercise group compared with the electrical

  10. The Effects of High-Frequency Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Dental Professionals with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Single-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

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    Suh, Hye Rim; Kim, Tae Hoon; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal symptom disorders (WMSDs) have a significant issue for dental professionals. This study investigated the effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on work-related pain, fatigue, and the active range of motion in dental professionals. Among recruited 47 dental professionals with WMSDs, 24 subjects received high-frequency TENS (the TENS group), while 23 subjects received placebo stimulation (the placebo group). TENS was applied to the muscle trigger points of the levator scapulae and upper trapezius, while placebo-TENS was administered without electrical stimulation during 60 min. Pain and fatigue at rest and during movement were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), pain pressure threshold (PPT), and active range of motion (AROM) of horizontal head rotation at six time points: prelabor, postlabor, post-TENS, and at 1 h, 3 h, and 1 day after TENS application. Both groups showed significantly increased pain and fatigue and decreased PPT and AROM after completing a work task. The TENS group showed significantly greater improvements in VAS score, fatigue, PPT, and AROM at post-TENS and at 1 h and 3 h after application (all P high-frequency TENS may immediately reduce symptoms related to WMSDs in dental professionals.

  11. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

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    Oosterhof, Jan; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; Oostendorp, Rob A; Crul, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal research TENS has been found to decrease hyperalgesia, which contradicts this assumption. The aim of this study is to use quantitative sensory testing to explore changes in pain processing during sham versus real TENS in patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain (N = 20) were randomly allocated to real TENS or sham TENS application. Electrical pain thresholds (EPTs) were determined inside and outside the segment stimulated, before and after the first 20 minutes of the intervention, and after a period of 10 days of daily real/sham TENS application. Pain relief did not differ significantly for real versus sham TENS. However, by comparing time courses of EPTs, it was found that EPT values outside the segment of stimulation increased for sham TENS, whereas for real TENS these values decreased. There were, however, no differences for EPT measurements inside the segment stimulated. These results illustrate the importance of including mechanism-reflecting parameters in addition to symptoms when conducting pain research.

  12. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

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    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  13. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

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    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant.

  14. Long-lasting modulation of human motor cortex following prolonged transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of forearm muscles: evidence of reciprocal inhibition and facilitation.

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    Tinazzi, Michele; Zarattini, Stefano; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Romito, Silvia; Farina, Simona; Moretto, Giuseppe; Smania, Nicola; Fiaschi, Antonio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2005-03-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that motor cortex excitability can be modulated by manipulation of afferent inputs, like peripheral electrical stimulation. Most studies in humans mainly dealt with the effects of prolonged low-frequency peripheral nerve stimulation on motor cortical excitability, despite its being known from animal studies that high-frequency stimulation can also result in changes of the cortical excitability. To investigate the possible effects of high-frequency peripheral stimulation on motor cortical excitability we recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the left motor cortex from the right flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in normal subjects, before and after transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of 30 min duration applied over the FCR. The amplitude of MEPs from the FRC was significantly reduced from 10 to 35 min after TENS while the amplitude of MEPs from ECR was increased. No effects were observed in the FDI muscle. Indices of peripheral nerve (M-wave) and spinal cord excitability (H waves) did not change throughout the experiment. Electrical stimulation of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve has no significant effect on motor cortex excitability. These findings suggest that TENS of forearm muscles can induce transient reciprocal inhibitory and facilitatory changes in corticomotoneuronal excitability of forearm flexor and extensor muscles lasting several minutes. These changes probably may occur at cortical site and seem to be mainly dependent on stimulation of muscle afferents. These findings might eventually lead to practical applications in rehabilitation, especially in those syndromes in which the excitatory and inhibitory balance between agonist and antagonist is severely impaired, such as spasticity and dystonia.

  15. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

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    Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  16. Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the Unit of Pain Management of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital

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    Andrea Isabel Martínez Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a non-pharmacological therapy (TNF used to alleviate pain and is among the current available treatments offered by the Units of Pain Management (Unidades del Dolor in Spanish Hospitals. The goal of this study was to identify the characteristics of portable electro-stimulator use, and its costs in the Unit of Pain Management of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital (Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out between January, 1999, and October, 2010, in the Unit of Pain Management of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital. The information on TENS delivery forms and its supplies was collected, and the characteristics of use and the associated costs were calculated. It was observed that the longest period of time used was less than a year. The cost of delivery for the portable equipment was 148 050 euros and the average annual cost for the use of TENS by a patient was 854 euros. From the information gathered, it can be concluded that the use of electro-analgesia is a valid option in terms of expenses for long periods of use, thereby allowing a reduction in costs and decreasing the use of other healthcare treatments.

  17. APPLICATION OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON LOWER LIMB ACUPOINTS AS AN IMPORTANT ADJUNCTIVE TOOL IN STROKE REHABILITATION PROGRAM & ITS EFFECTS ON SPASTICITY AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY

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    Chandan Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence of neural plastic changes associated with specific training that isgoal-directed and requires special attention with practice. Sensory input by Transcutaneous electrical stimulation(TENS on acupoints and task related training (TRT induces recovery of lower limb function in patients afterstroke. There are very few studies which show the effectiveness and importance of sensory stimulation throughacupoints, therefore the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS on acupointswhen applied with other rehabilitation program on reducing spasticity and improving lower limb function insubjects after sub-acute stroke. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with sub-acute stroke of either sideincluding both male and female participated in randomised clinical trial. Both group received TRT along withconventional physiotherapy program. TENS on acupoints was given in subjects of experimental group alongwith TRT and conventional program to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS. Measurement of spasticity was doneby Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, functional ability was measured by Dynamic Gait index (DGI and Timed up& Go (TUG test. All the measurements were done before and after 5 weeks intervention. Result: A significantreduction in spasticity measured by MAS (p=0.03 and relevant improvement in functional ability measured byDGI (p=0.03 and TUG (p=0.04 were observed in experimental group after five weeks intervention.Conclusion: Present study provides an evidence to support the use of TENS on acupoints as an adjunctive toolwith task related training and other rehabilitation program.

  18. Adjunct High Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation (TENS) for Postoperative Pain Management during Weaning from Epidural Analgesia Following Colon Surgery: Results from a Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Jildenstaal, Pether; Jakobsson, Jan; Egardt, Madelene; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The potential benefit of nonpharmacological adjunctive therapy is not well-studied following major abdominal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a complementary nonpharmacological analgesia intervention during weaning from epidural analgesia (EDA) after open lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized to TENS and sham TENS during weaning from EDA. The effects on pain at rest, following short walk, and after deep breath were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) grading. Number of patients assessed was lower than calculated because of change in clinical routine. Pain scores overall were low. A trend of lower pain scores was observed in the active TENS group of patients; a statistical significance between the groups was found for the pain lying prone in bed (p TENS use in postoperative pain management during weaning from EDA after open colon surgery. Further studies are warranted in order to verify the potential beneficial effects from TENS during weaning from EDA after open, lower abdominal surgery.

  19. Pain relief by applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) during unsedated colonoscopy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer-Cuenca, J J; Goicoechea, C; Girona-López, A; Andreu-Plaza, J L; Palao-Román, R; Martínez-Santa, G; Lisón, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive alternative to traditional pain treatments. TENS has been studied in the past as a pain reduction modality in colonoscopy with limited success. Reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the inconclusive results of TENS may be due to the lack of randomized controlled trials and the difficulty in defining precise output parameters. The objective of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the pain-relieving effect of a new application of TENS in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Ninety patients undergoing unsedated screening colonoscopy were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a control group (n=30), a group to receive active TENS (n=30), or a group to receive placebo TENS (n=30). A visual analogue scale (VAS) and a five-point Likert scale were used to assess pain 5 min into the procedure and at the end of the procedure. The patient's bloating sensation during colonoscopy and the effect on the duration of the procedure were also evaluated. Throughout the procedure, the active TENS group experienced a VAS pain score reduction ≥50% compared to the placebo TENS group (PTENS group compared to the placebo TENS and control groups (P=0.009). No significant differences were found between the study groups as to the bloating sensation and the duration of the procedure. We conclude that TENS can be used as a pain relief therapy in unsedated screening colonoscopy.

  20. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice

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    Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz, and High-TENS (100 Hz. The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity.

  1. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a placebo-control randomized trial

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    Sikiru Lamina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. DESIGN: A pretest, posttest randomized double blind design was used in data collection. PARTICIPANT: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis- category IIIA and IIIB of the National Institute of Health Chronic Pain (NIH-CP were referred for physiotherapy from the Urology department. Intervention: Pre treatment pain level was assessed using the NIH-CP (pain domain index. The TENS group received TENS treatment, 5 times per week for a period of 4 weeks (mean treatment frequency, intensity, pulse width and duration of 60Hz, 100µS, 25mA and 20 minutes respectively. The Analgesic group received no TENS treatment but continued analgesics; the Control group received no TENS and Analgesic but placebo. All subjects were placed on antibiotics throughout the treatment period. Outcome measures: Post-treatment pain level was also assessed using NIH-CP pain index. RESULT: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of TENS on chronic prostatitis pain at p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: TENS is an effective means of non-invasive symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain.

  2. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on Yongquan acupoint reduces CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats via down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression.

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    Yang, Lin; Yang, Lianxue; Gao, Xiulai

    2010-07-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and its involvement in regulating gene expression in spinal dorsal horn, cortical and subcortical neurons by peripheral noxious stimulation contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment used in physiotherapy practice to promote analgesia in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, a total number of 114 rats were used for three experiments. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and TENS analgesia on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos protein expression were examined by using behavioral test, Western blot, and immunostaining methods. We found that CFA injection caused an area of localized swelling, erythema, hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, the decreased response time of hind paw licking (HPL), as well as upregulation of c-Fos protein expression and ERK2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn and the contralateral primary somatosensory area of cortex and the amygdala of rats. TENS on Yongquan acupoint for 20 min produced obvious analgesic effects as demonstrated with increased HPL to thermal stimuli of CFA-treated rats. In addition, TENS application suppressed the CFA-induced ERK2 activation and c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were involved in TENS inhibition on CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats.

  3. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ON CHANGES OF HEPATIC HEMODYNAMICS AFTER TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC PULSE STIMULATION OF LOCAL POINTS BY USING COLOR DOPPLER ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTIC APPARATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-chang; WANG Ling; LI Hong; LI Jun; ZHANG Yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electric pulse stimulation (TEPS) on hepatic blood flow and parenchymal microcirculation in patients with fatty liver. Methods: A total of 31 fatty liver volunteer patients were observed in this study. Changes of color Doppler energy (CDE) images before and after TEPS of local points nearby the liver were recorded by using color Doppler ultrasound diagnostic apparatus (ACUSON 128XP/10C). Sum of color pixel area (SCPA), average of color value (ACV) and SCPA×ACV (integral) of the hepatic flow images were analyzed by an image processing system, single blind method and paired t-test. Programmed TEPS (0.5- 150 Hz/2 000 Hz, 10-25 V) was applied to the right Qimen (期门LR 14)-Jingmen (京门GB 25), Fuai (腹哀 SP 16)-Ganshu (肝俞 BL 18) respectively for 15 min. Results:Compared with basic values of pretreatment, SCPA, ACV and SCPA×ACV increased significantly ( t = 2.71,P<0.02; t=3.42, P<0.01; and t=8.15, P<0.001 ) after TEPS, meaning improvement of hepatic blood flow supply. Conclusion: TEPS of acupoints near the liver can improve hepatic blood flow and hepatic parenchyrnal microcirculation in patients with fatty liver.

  4. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Galli Thiago Tafarel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a negative factor in the recovery process of postoperative patients, causing pulmonary alterations and complications and affecting functional capacity. Thus, it is plausible to introduce transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS for pain relief to subsequently reduce complications caused by this pain in the postoperative period. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of TENS on pain, walking function, respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity in kidney donors. Methods/design Seventy-four patients will be randomly allocated into 2 groups: active TENS or placebo TENS. All patients will be assessed for pain intensity, walk function (Iowa Gait Test, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure and vital capacity before and after the TENS application. The data will be collected by an assessor who is blinded to the group allocation. Discussion This study is the first to examine the effects of TENS in this population. TENS during the postoperative period may result in pain relief and improvements in pulmonary tests and mobility, thus leading to an improved quality of life and further promoting organ donation. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos (ReBEC, number RBR-8xtkjp.

  5. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee: CAT

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    Raúl Alberto Aguilera Eguía

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this CAT (Critically Appraised Topic was to check the validity of the results and effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation in subjects with knee osteoarthritis and answer the question: In subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee, does low frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation reduce pain? Method. We conducted an analysis of the article "Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee, Cochrane Systematic Review" of Rutjes et al (2009. We analyzed validity of results, applicability and effectiveness of this intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Results. Low frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation may reduce pain in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. SMD -0.85 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.34. Conclusion. The intervention is neither endorsed nor discouraged in knee pain reduction.

  6. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

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    Mi-Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical applicationof antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunizationtargeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received muchattention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigendelivery. The skin has important immunological functions withunique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermalLangerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years,novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually beendeveloped; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yetbeen fully exploited due to the penetration barrier representedby the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport ofantigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievementsin transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the variousstrategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery andvaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 17-24

  7. Transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation for the treatment of urinary urgency or urge-incontinence in children and adolescents: a Phase II clinica.

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    Alcantara, Amanda Carolina Almeida de; Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves de; Costa e Silva, Eduardo Just da; Silva, Bárbara Bernardo Rinaldo da; Ribeiro Neto, José Pacheco Martins

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of 20 twice-weekly sessions of parasacral transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS) for treatment of urinary urgency and urge-incontinence in children and adolescents. A Phase II clinical trial was carried out with patients with urinary urgency or urge-incontinence aged between 5 and 14 years. Twenty TENS sessions were conducted, twice weekly, using a Quark® Dualpex 961 apparatus. The variables analyzed were daily micturition, dynamics ultrasonography of the lower urinary tract pre-and post-treatment and responses to a questionnaire on urinary leakage applied during each session. The mean age of the 25 children participating in the study was 7.80 ± 2.22 years, most were female (92%) and had urge-incontinence (92%). The difference in urinary leakage pre- and post-treatment was statistically significant ( p = 0.04); a decline in the symptom of urinary leakage was reported by all caregivers in children who completed the 20th session; the ultrasound parameters, although not statistically significant, showed a reduction in the percentage of children with detrusor contractions (from 62.5% to 43.5%); and a more adequate pre-micturition bladder volume of 4.2% post-treatment compared with 19.0% prior to treatment. The electro-stimulation carried out during the twice weekly sessions appeared to be effective and urinary incontinence declined in half of the patients from the 12th session onwards. However, there is a need for a study involving a larger number of patients to confirm the results obtained.

  8. High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with diphenidol administration results in an additive antiallodynic effect in rats following chronic constriction injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng-Teng; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2015-03-04

    The impact of coadministration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and diphenidol is not well established. Here we estimated the effects of diphenidol in combination with TENS on mechanical allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Using an animal chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, the rat was estimated for evidence of mechanical sensitivity via von Frey hair stimulation and TNF-α expression in the sciatic nerve using the ELISA assay. High frequency (100Hz) TENS or intraperitoneal injection of diphenidol (2.0μmol/kg) was applied daily, starting on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and lasting for the next 13 days. We demonstrated that both high frequency TENS and diphenidol groups had an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds of 60%. Coadministration of high frequency TENS and diphenidol gives better results of paw withdrawal thresholds in comparison with high frequency TENS alone or diphenidol alone. Both diphenidol and coadministration of high frequency TENS with diphenidol groups showed a significant reduction of the TNF-α level compared with the CCI or HFS group (Phigh frequency TENS group exhibited a higher TNF-α level than the sham group (Phigh frequency TENS alone, and the combination produced a reduction of neuropathic allodynia. Both diphenidol and the combination of diphenidol with high frequency TENS inhibited TNF-α expression. A moderately effective dose of diphenidol appeared to have an additive effect with high frequency TENS. Therefore, multidisciplinary treatments could be considered for this kind of mechanical allodynia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Post-operative management for 86 cases of heart valve replacement surgery patients undergoing transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined with general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Xu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Yao-Yao; Chi, Hao; Chen, Tong-Yu; Ge, Wen; Zhou, Jia

    2014-02-01

    To summarize post-operative management strategy for heart valve replacement surgery under transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) combined with general anesthesia. From July 2006 to June 2012, a total of 86 cases of open-heart surgery patients experiencing TEAS plus general anesthesia with cardiopulmonary bypass (heart valve replacement surgery without intubation) were recruited in the present summary. Post-operative managements in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were administrated with strict hemodynamic monitoring for volume infusion, routine administration of vasoactive drugs (including dopamine and nitroglycerin), oxygen inhalation, and analgesics and monitoring of central nervous system and renal function. All the 86 patients under TEAS + general anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass and without intubation experienced successful heart valve replacement surgery. The post-operative pulmonary infection was found in 8 cases (9.30%), the average stay duration in ICU was (28.6 +/- 6.2) hours, and the average draining volume of the interpleural space was (291 +/- 73)mL. The cardia insufficiency was found in 5 cases (5.81%), hypoxia occurred in 8 cases (9.30%), nausea in 8 cases (9.30%), vomiting 5 cases (5.81%) and post-operative gastrointestinal distension 13 cases (15.12%), mild renal insufficiency 3 cases (3.49%), fever (> 38.5 degrees C) 1 case(1. 16%) and severe post-operative pain 7 cases (8.14%). TEAS combined with general anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. The key points of treatment in ICU are volume infusion, body temperature maintenance, and pain control.

  10. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and interferential currents (IFC in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: randomized clinical trial

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    Ligia Maria Facci

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS and interferential current are the most used electrotherapy methods, although there is little scientific evidence to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of TENS and interferential current among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-blind randomized controlled trial in the Department of Physiotherapy, Centro Universitário de Maringá. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into three groups: TENS (group 1, interferential current (group 2 and controls (group 3. The patients designated for electrotherapy received ten 30-minute sessions, while the control group remained untreated. All patients and controls were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale and the McGill Pain and Roland Morris questionnaires, and regarding their use of additional medications. RESULTS: There was a mean reduction on the visual analog scale of 39.18 mm with TENS, 44.86 mm with interferential current and 8.53 mm among the controls. In the Roland Morris questionnaire, group 1 had a mean reduction of 6.59; group 2, 7.20; and group 3, 0.70 points. In group 1, 84% of the patients stopped using medications after the treatment; in group 2, 75%; and in group 3, 34%. There was no statistically significant difference between the TENS and interferential current groups (P > 0.05; a difference was only found between these groups and the controls (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: There was no difference between TENS and interferential current for chronic low back pain treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01017913.

  11. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Mesin, Luca; Ortu, Eleonora; Giannoni, Mario; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation) and long after (recovery period) sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired modulation of the

  12. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alleviate the pain experienced during bone marrow sampling in addition to standard techniques? A randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David L; Rockett, Mark; Hasan, Mehedi; Poplar, Sarah; Rule, Simon A

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and trephine (BMAT) biopsies remain important tests in haematology. However, the procedures can be moderately to severely painful despite standard methods of pain relief. To test the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in alleviating the pain from BMAT in addition to standard analgesia using a numerical pain rating scale (NRS). 70 patients requiring BMAT were randomised (1:1) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. -35 patients received TENS impulses at a strong but comfortable amplitude (intervention group) and 35 patients received TENS impulses just above the sensory threshold (control group) (median pulse amplitude 20 and 7 mA, respectively). Patients and operators were blinded to group allocation. Pain assessments were made using a numerical pain scale completed after the procedure. No significant difference in NRS pain recalled after the procedure was detected (median pain score 5.7 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.6) in control vs 5.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.4) in the intervention group). However, 100% of patients who had previous experience of BMAT and >94% of participants overall felt they benefited from using TENS and would recommend it to others for this procedure. There were no side effects from the TENS device, and it was well tolerated. TENS is a safe, non-invasive adjunct to analgesia for reducing pain during bone marrow biopsy and provides a subjective benefit to most users; however, no objective difference in pain scores was detected when using TENS in this randomised controlled study. NCT02005354. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on the PC-5 and PC-6 Points Alleviated Hypotension after Epidural Anaesthesia, Depending on the Stimulus Frequency

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    Young-Chang P. Arai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuraxial blockade causes arterial hypotension. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS at the Neiguan (PC-6 and Jianshi (PC-5 reduces the severity of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia, but did not clarify the optimal stimulus frequency. We hypothesized that the stimulus frequency of TENS at the PC-6 and PC-5 points would influence the severity of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia. 65 ASA I or II male patients presenting for inguinal hernia repair were randomized to five groups: the control group received no treatment; the 2 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and 40 Hz groups received TENS at a frequency of 2 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and 40 Hz, respectively. The lowest SBP was significantly higher in the 40 Hz group [the control, 84 (74–110 mmHg; the 2 Hz, 96 (62–116 mmHg; the 10 Hz, 100 (68–110 mmHg; the 20 Hz, 96 (64–115 mmHg; the 40 Hz, 104 (75–140 mmHg: P=0.004]. Significantly less patients experienced hypotension in the 40 Hz group [the control, 78%; the 2 Hz, 43%; the 10 Hz, 38%; the 20 Hz, 38%; the 40 Hz, 8%: P=0.008]. TENS on the PC-6 and PC-5 points reduced the severity and incidence of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia, depending on the stimulus frequency.

  14. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation and long after (recovery period sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired

  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator of 5000 Hz frequency provides better analgesia than that of 100 Hz frequency in mice muscle pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hung-Tsung; Chien, Hsiao-Jung; Lin, Ya-Chi; Liu, Yen-Chin

    2017-04-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENSs) have been proved to be effective in muscle pain management for several decades. However, there is no consensus for the optimal TENS program. Previous research demonstrated that a 100 Hz TENS (L-TENS) provided better analgesia than a conventional TENS ( 100 Hz) TENS with a 100 Hz TENS. We used a 5000 Hz (5 kHz) frequency TENS (M-TENS) and an L-TENS to compare analgesic effect on a mice skin/muscle incision retraction model. Three groups of mice were used (sham, L-TENS, and M-TENS) and applied with different TENS programs on Day 4 after the mice skin/muscle incision retraction model; TENS therapy was continued as 20 min/d for 3 days. Mice analgesic effects were measured via Von Frey microfilaments with the up-down method. After therapy, mice spinal cord dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were harvested for cytokine evaluation (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) with the Western blotting method. Our data demonstrated that the M-TENS produced better analgesia than the L-TENS. Cytokine in the spinal cord or DRG all expressed lower than that of the sham group. However, there is no difference in both cytokine levels between TENSs of different frequencies in the spinal cord and DRG. We concluded that the M-TENS produced faster and better mechanical analgesia than the L-TENS in the mice skin/muscle incision retraction model. Those behavior differences were not in accordance with cytokine changes in the spinal cord or DRG.

  16. High-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alters thermal but not mechanical allodynia following chronic constriction injury of the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, D L; Clemente, F R

    1998-11-01

    To determine if daily transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can alter the thermal and mechanical allodynia that develops after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve of rats. A completely randomized experimental design was used. Four groups of rats underwent CCI surgery to the right sciatic nerve and either were not treated with TENS or received TENS starting at different times after the CCI surgery. TENS was delivered daily for 1 hour to CCI rats through self-adhesive electrodes applied to skin innervated by the right dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves L1-6. Rats of different groups received daily TENS starting immediately, 20 to 30 hours, or 3 days after the CCI surgery. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of hind paws were assessed bilaterally in all rats twice before the CCI surgery (baseline) and then 2, 7, 12, and 14 days after surgery. Thermal and mechanical allodynia were expressed as difference scores between the pain thresholds of right and left hind paws. These values were normalized to differences that existed between the two paws at baseline. Daily TENS beginning immediately after CCI surgery prevented the development of thermal allodynia at all assessment times (p < .05). Daily TENS starting 1 day after surgery reduced thermal allodynia, but only on days 2 and 14 (p < .05). Daily TENS beginning 3 days after surgery had no effect on the development of thermal allodynia. Regardless of when it was started, daily TENS did not consistently alter mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. It appears that daily TENS can prevent thermal but not mechanical allodynia in this model. However, early intervention with the treatment is critical if it is to be effective at all.

  17. Epidural and transcutaneous spinal electrical stimulation for restoration of movement after incomplete and complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2016-12-01

    The Purpose of this review is to outline and explain the therapeutic use of electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for modification of spinal motor output. Central functional stimulation provides afferent input to posterior root neurons and is applied to improve volitional movements, posture and their endurance, control spasticity, and improve bladder function or perfusion in the lower limbs. Clinical accomplishments strongly depend on each individual's physiological state and specific methodical adaptation to that physiological state. Effectiveness of this neuromodulory technique for changing motor control after spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to be explored along with the underlying mechanisms of its effect in people with complete and incomplete spinal cord injuries. There are extensive studies of tonic and rhythmical activity elicited from the lumbar cord as well as data demonstrating augmentation of residual volitional activity. Recent studies have focused on verifying if and how SCS can modify features of neurocontrol in ambulatory spinal cord patients. In this review, we emphasize recent publications of research revealing that SCS can substitute for the reduced brain drive for control of excitability in people with SCI. Artificially replacing diminished or lost brain control over the spinal cord has limitations. A fundamental requirement for successful SCS application is analysis of each individual's residual postinjury neural function. This will allow a better understanding of the physiological interactions between SCS and spinal cord motor control below injury and provide criteria for its application. Finally, the publication of both successful and failed applications of SCS will be crucial for gaining future progress.

  18. Effects of visual illusion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A randomised controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Çağla; Kılınç, Muhammed; Yıldırım, Sibel Aksu; Topçuoğlu, Elif Yalçın; Akyüz, Müfit

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). No therapeutic drugs or drug groups are proven to be superior for neuropathic pain and treatments only aim to convert pain from dull to tolerable levels and not to remove it. This study was planned to compare the effect of visual illusion (VI) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain intensity, pain quality and functional capacity in SCI patients with neuropathic pain. Twenty-four patients were included and randomly categorized into two groups. In the first group (n= 12), visual illusion was applied for first two weeks, 1 week wash out period and then TENS was applied for 2 weeks. In second group (n= 12), TENS was applied firstly, 1 week wash out and then %visual illusion VI were applied. Pain severity, pain quality, and functional capacity were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS), the neuropathic pain scale (NPS), and the brief pain inventory (BPI), respectively. A pre-post-treatment and cross over design was used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group analyses. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses that compared different groups. It was observed that pain intensity decrease immediately after both applications (VI: p= 0.07, TENS: p= 0.08). After TENS application for 2 weeks, it was observed that significant decrease in most (p= 0.04) and less (p= 0.02) pain intensity; while there was no significant decrease in pain intensity after 2 weeks for VI (p> 0.05). When findings of NPS were analyzed, hot (p= 0.047), sharp (p= 0.02), unpleasant (p= 0.03) and deep items (p= 0.047) decreased after VI application. When the results of BPI were detected, they were observed that the negative effect of pain on moving ability (p= 0.04) after visual illusion application and the negative effect of pain on mood (p= 0.03), relationships with others (p= 0.04) and sleep (p= 0.04) after TENS application decreased significantly. TENS and VI therapies can be successfully

  19. Mirror Therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Management of Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees - A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Merlyn; Isaac, Serin Anna; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Vasanthan, Lenny Thinagaran; Subbaiah, Rajalakshmi Sankaran; Babu, Andrew; Bhide, Rohit; Tharion, George

    2016-06-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) can be disabling for nearly two thirds of amputees. Hence, there is a need to find an effective and inexpensive treatment that can be self administered. Among the non-pharmacological treatment for PLP, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to the contralateral extremity and mirror therapy are two promising options. However, there are no studies to compare the two treatments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare mirror therapy and TENS in the management of PLP in subjects with amputation. The study was an assessor blinded randomized controlled trial conducted at Physiotherapy Gymnasium of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore. Twenty-six subjects with PLP consented to participate. An initial assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) and universal pain score (UPS) was performed by a therapist blinded to the treatment given. Random allocation into Group I-mirror therapy and Group II-TENS was carried out. After 4 days of treatment, pain was re-assessed by the same therapist. The mean difference in Pre and Post values were compared among the groups. The change in pre-post score was analyzed using the paired t test. Participants of Group I had significant decrease in pain [VAS ( p = 0.003) and UPS ( p = 0.001)]. Group II also showed a significant reduction in pain [VAS ( p = 0.003) and UPS ( p = 0.002)]. However, no difference was observed between the two groups [VAS ( p = 0.223 and UPS ( p = 0.956)]. Both Mirror Therapy and TENS were found to be effective in pain reduction on a short-term basis. However, no difference between the two groups was found. Substantiation with long-term follow-up is essential to find its long-term effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 治脊疗法与TENS治疗躯体性耳鸣%Effects of chiropractic vs.transcutaneous electrical stimulation treating somatic tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶泉; 杜青; 周璇; 杨晓颜; 刘刚; 冯宇伟; 毛琳

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究治脊疗法与经皮神经电刺激(TENS)治疗头颈肌紧张引起躯体性耳鸣的差异性.方法:耳鸣患者28例,随机分为2组各14例,治脊组采用治脊疗法,TENS组采用TENS治疗.测定2组治疗前后双侧咀嚼肌、胸锁乳突肌和上斜方肌静态下电位及耳鸣程度.结果:治疗2周后,2组耳鸣侧静态下电位值及耳鸣响度VAS均值均降低(P<0.01,0.05),治脊组较TENS组下降更显著(P<0.05),治脊组总有效率明显高于TENS组(P<0.01).结论:治脊疗法和TENS对头颈肌紧张引起躯体性耳鸣具有治疗作用,且治脊疗法效果更佳.%Objective: To study the differences of chiropractic vs. transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) treating somatic tinnitus caused by muscular tension in the head and neck. Methods-. Twenty-eight cases of tinnitus were randomly divided into chiropractic group and TENS group with fourteen cases in each group. Bilateral static potential in masticatory muscles, sternocleidomastoid and superior trapezius by sEMG and tinnitus loudness were assessed before and after treatment. Results: After two weeks of treatment, static potential and VAS score of tinnitus loudness in both groups were decreased (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05), more significantly in chiropractic group than in TENS group (P<0. 05). The effective rates of chiropractic group was obviously higher than TENS group(P< 0. 01). Conclusion: Somatic tinnitus caused by muscular tension in the head and neck can be improved by chiropractic or TENS treatment, and chiropractic is more satisfactory.

  1. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-06-15

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in acute and persistent inflammatory pains. Here, by using CFA rat model, we tested the efficacy of TENS on inhibiting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and of its downstream cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at spinal level. Rats were randomly divided into control, model and TENS groups, and injected subcutaneously with 100 μl CFA or saline in the plantar surface of right hind paw. Rats in the TENS group were treated with TENS (constant aquare wave, 2 Hz and 100 Hz alternating frequencies, intensities ranging from 1 to 2 mA, lasting for 30 min each time) at 5 h and 24 h after injection. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured with dynamic plantar aesthesiometer at 3d before modeling and 5 h, 6 h, and 25 h after CFA injection. The ipsilateral sides of the lumbar spinal cord dosral horns were harvested for detecting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and COX-2 by western blot analysis and qPCR, and PGE2 by ELISA. CFA-induced periphery inflammation decreased PWTs and increased paw volume of rats. TENS treatment significantly alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA. However, no anti-inflammatory effect of TENS was observed. Expression of p-ERK1/2 protein and COX-2 mRNA was significantly up-regualted at 5 h and 6 h after CFA injection, while COX-2 and PGE2 protein level only increased at 6 h after modeling. Furthermore, the high expression of p-ERK1

  2. Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shojiro; Suzuki, Shota

    2014-01-01

    The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface.

  3. A new repeatable, optical writing and electrical erasing device based on photochromism and electrochromism of viologen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-ping; Wei, Jian; Wang, Yue-chuan; Ding, Guo-jing; Yang, Yu-lin

    2012-08-01

    New optical writing and electrical erasing devices have been successfully fabricated that exploit the photochromism and electrochromism of viologen. In a preliminary study, both the structures of viologen and device were investigated in detail by UV-vis spectra in order to confirm their effects on the optical writing and electrical erasing performances of corresponding devices. For sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on benzyl viologen (BV 2+), only optical writing can be performed, not electrical erasing operations, which indicated these devices cannot realize optical information rewriting. For single and complementary devices based on styrene-functional viologen (V BV 2+) and acrylic-functional viologen (ACV 2+), optical writing and electrical erasing operations can be reversibly performed and optical information rewriting realized. It is clear that single devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ possess better performance accompanied with contrast without significant degradation and bleaching times and without significant deterioration over 10 repeated writing/erasing cycles. Furthermore, we put forward possible mechanisms for sandwiched, single and complementary devices based on V BV2+ and ACV2+ for the optical writing and electrical erasing operations. This study provides a new strategy to design optical writing and electrical erasing devices to realize optical information rewriting.

  4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS V/S NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Raj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not only an unpleasant sensation but also increases morbidity of any operation like atelectasis, ileus, requirement of intensive care and increase in hospital stay. By neuro-modulation based on the gate control theory, we can achieve the similar results as with pharmaceutics without their side effects. Aim of this study was to compare the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID with Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation (TENS in terms of postoperative pain and duration of pain relief by using a visual analogue scale. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included open cholecystectomy patients, 25 patients in each group (Groups I with NSAID, group II with TENS use. The lower limit of age was 20 years. All patients who underwent open cholecystectomy and above 20 years of age without any comorbidities were included in the study. Data was analysed by using SPSS software version 16. RESULTS In TENS therapy group, patient’s acceptance was 84%. Patients in group I had a higher VAS score and less duration of pain relief than group II at 24 and 48 hours (VAS = 4 v/s 2, duration of pain relief = 8.0 and 8.8 hours v/s 10.8 and 11.2 hours. Average numbers of application for the group I was higher than group II (3 v/s 2.1. Both showed no complications of pain equal physiologic parameters like pulse and blood pressure, so both modalities were effective in controlling pain. CONCLUSION TENS can be used without analgesic for the postoperative pain of cholecystectomy with good patient acceptance and effectiveness.

  5. Low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of vagus nerve ameliorates left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transforming growth factor β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lilei; Huang, Bing; Wang, Songyun; Liao, Kai; Saren, Gaowa; Zhou, Xiaoya; Jiang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation improves left ventricular (LV) remodeling by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Our previous study found that low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (LL-TS) could be substituted for vagus nerve stimulation to reverse cardiac remodeling. So, we hypothesize that LL-TS could ameliorate LV remodeling by regulation of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 after myocardial infarction (MI). Twenty-two beagle dogs were randomly divided into a control group (MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery, n = 8), an LL-TS group (MI with long-term intermittent LL-TS, n = 8), and a normal group (sham ligation without stimulation, n = 6). At the end of 6 weeks follow-up, LL-TS significantly reduced LV end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions, improved ejection fraction and ratio of early (E) to late (A) peak mitral inflow velocity. LL-TS attenuated interstitial fibrosis and collagen degradation in the noninfarcted myocardium compared with the control group. Elevated level of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 in LV tissue and peripheral plasma were diminished in the LL-TS treated dogs. LL-TS improves cardiac function and prevents cardiac remodeling in the late stages after MI by downregulation of MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression.

  6. Transcutaneous optical power converter for implantable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Kawarada, Atsushi; Togawa, Tatsuo; Oberg, P. Ake

    1994-02-01

    An optical transcutaneous power converter has been developed for the power supply of implanted devices. It consists of a light source, optical fiber system and a photo detector. The light source is either a halogen lamp or continuous high-power laser diode which illuminated skin surface. The light penetrates through the skin to the solar cells. The preliminary experiments with a slice of tissue in between the light source and the solar cells showed that the power transfer efficiency was 40% in comparison to direct illumination of the solar cells. The maximum electric power obtained with a slice of tissue simulating the skin was about 8 mW at a laser diode run at a power of 100 mW. The electric power transferred is enough to supply low power consuming CMOS circuits.

  7. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raimond K.W., E-mail: wongrai@hhsc.ca [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Deshmukh, Snehal [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wyatt, Gwen [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Sagar, Stephen [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Singh, Anurag K. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Sultanem, Khalil [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F. [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Yom, Sue S. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cardinale, Joseph [Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yao, Min [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hodson, Ian [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Matthiesen, Chance L. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Suh, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Thakrar, Harish [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County MB-CCOP, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berk, Lawrence [University of South Florida H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  8. Comparison of NSAID patch given as monotherapy and NSAID patch in combination with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyeong; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Park, SangHa; Jin, Tae Eun; An, Yoo Jin; Schepis, Eric A; Yoon, Duck Mi

    2014-12-01

    This study compared the therapeutic effect of monotherapy with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch vs an NSAID patch combined with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the upper trapezius. A randomized, single-blind, controlled study of combination therapy for patients with MPS was performed. Ninety-nine patients were randomly assigned to one of four different self-management methods for treatment: NSAID patch (N = 25), NSAID patch + TENS (N = 24), NSAID patch + heating pad (N = 25), and NSAID patch + topical capsaicin (N = 25). The NSAID patch used in this study was a ketoprofen patch. All treatment groups were observed for 2 weeks, and the numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score, cervical active range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and Neck Disability Index were assessed. There was no significant difference between the NSAID patch alone group and the three combination therapy groups with respect to decrease in NRS score from baseline (day 0) to each period of observation. In covariate analysis, although there was no difference among the groups in most of the periods, the data at day 14 indicated a trend (P = 0.057). There were no significant differences in the other variables. We did not observe a statistical difference in improvements to the clinical variables among the four different methods. However, further studies regarding the effectiveness of a mixture of topical capsaicin and ketoprofen in patients with MPS should be considered. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Simultaneously Applied Short-Term Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Tactile Stimulation on Memory and Affective Behaviour of Patients with Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scherder

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies beneficial effects of peripheral electrical or tactile nerve stimulation were observed on memory and affective behaviour in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, it was investigated whether electrical and tactile stimulation applied simultaneously to Alzheimer patients would exceed the effects which were observed following treatment by each type of stimulation separately. Our data reveal that the simultaneous application of the two types of stimulation had a beneficial effect on non-verbal and verbal long-term recognition memory. In addition, patients who were treated participated more in activities of daily living, and were more interested in social contacts. In spite of these positive results, comparisons with those of previous studies suggest that a combination of electrical and tactile stimulation does not yield more effects than application of each type of stimulation separately.

  10. The value of adding transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim) to traditional therapy for post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Li, Y; Huang, R; Yin, J; Shen, Y; Shi, J

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is not uncommon after stroke. Dysphagia may delay the functional recovery and substantially affects the quality of life after stroke, mainly if lest untreated. To detect and treat dysphagia as early as possible is critical for patients' recovery after stroke. Electrical stimulation has been reported as a treatment for pharyngeal dysphagia in recent studies, but the therapeutic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) therapy lacks convincing supporting evidence, needs further clinical investigation. To investigate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) and traditional swallowing therapy on recovery of swallowing difficulties after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. 135 stroke patients who had a diagnosis of dysphagia at the age between 50-80. 135 subjects were randomly divided into three groups: traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45), VitalStim® therapy (N. = 45), and VitalStim® therapy plus traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45). The traditional swallowing therapy included basic training and direct food intake training. Electrical stimulation was applied by an occupational therapist, using a modified hand-held battery-powered electrical stimulator (VitalStim® Dual Channel Unit and electrodes, Chattanooga Group, Hixson, TN, USA). Surface electromyography (sEMG), the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA), Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess swallowing function before and 4 weeks after the treatment. The study included 118 subjects with dysphagia, 40 in the traditional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim® therapy group, 38 in the VitalStim and traditional swallowing therapy group. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA and VFSS scores in each group after the treatment (P sEMG value (917.1 ± 91.2), SSA value (21.8 ± 3.5), oral transit time (0.4 ± 0.1) and pharyngeal transit time (0.8 ± 0.1) were

  11. Evaluation of administration of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration on depression of a nociceptive withdrawal reflex evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadavecchia, Claudia; Levionnois, Olivier; Kronen, Peter W; Leandri, Massimo; Spadavecchia, Luciano; Schatzmann, Urs

    2006-05-01

    To investigate effects of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the forelimb of ponies as a method for quantifying anesthetic potency. 7 healthy adult Shetland ponies. Individual MAC (iMAC) for isoflurane was determined for each pony. Then, effects of isoflurane administered at 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05 iMAC on the NWR were assessed. At each concentration, the NWR threshold was defined electromyographically for the common digital extensor and deltoid muscles by stimulating the digital nerve; additional electrical stimulations (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mA) were delivered, and the evoked activity was recorded and analyzed. After the end of anesthesia, the NWR threshold was assessed in standing ponies. Mean +/- SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.0 +/- 0.2%. The NWR thresholds for both muscles increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner during anesthesia, whereas they decreased in awake ponies. Significantly higher thresholds were found for the deltoid muscle, compared with thresholds for the common digital extensor muscle, in anesthetized ponies. At each iMAC tested, amplitudes of the reflex responses from both muscles increased as stimulus intensities increased from 3 to 40 mA. A concentration-dependent depression of evoked reflexes with reduction in slopes of the stimulus-response functions was detected. Anesthetic-induced changes in sensory-motor processing in ponies anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of approximately 1.0 MAC can be detected by assessment of NWR. This method will permit comparison of effects of inhaled anesthetics or anesthetic combinations on spinal processing in equids.

  12. A frequency and pulse-width co-modulation strategy for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation based on sEMG time-domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Hai-Peng; Bao, Xue-Liang; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is often used as a control signal in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) systems to enhance the voluntary control and proprioceptive sensory feedback of paralyzed patients. Most sEMG-controlled NMES systems use the envelope of the sEMG signal to modulate the stimulation intensity (current amplitude or pulse width) with a constant frequency. The aims of this study were to develop a strategy that co-modulates frequency and pulse width based on features of the sEMG signal and to investigate the torque-reproduction performance and the level of fatigue resistance achieved with our strategy. Approach. We examined the relationships between wrist torque and two stimulation parameters (frequency and pulse width) and between wrist torque and two sEMG time-domain features (mean absolute value (MAV) and number of slope sign changes (NSS)) in eight healthy volunteers. By using wrist torque as an intermediate variable, customized and generalized transfer functions were constructed to convert the two features of the sEMG signal into the two stimulation parameters, thereby establishing a MAV/NSS dual-coding (MNDC) algorithm. Wrist torque reproduction performance was assessed by comparing the torque generated by the algorithms with that originally recorded during voluntary contractions. Muscle fatigue was assessed by measuring the decline percentage of the peak torque and by comparing the torque time integral of the response to test stimulation trains before and after fatigue sessions. Main Results. The MNDC approach could produce a wrist torque that closely matched the voluntary wrist torque. In addition, a smaller decay in the wrist torque was observed after the MNDC-coded fatigue stimulation was applied than after stimulation using pulse-width modulation alone. Significance. Compared with pulse-width modulation stimulation strategies that are based on sEMG detection, the MNDC strategy is more effective for both voluntary muscle

  13. Effects of sit-to-stand training combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation on spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in patients with stroke: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-05-01

    Sit-to-stand is a fundamental movement of human being for performing mobility and independent activity. However, Stroke people symptoms experience difficulty in conducting the sit-to-stand due to paralysis and especially ankle spasticity. Recently, transcutaneouselectrical- stimulation (TENS) is used to reduce pain but also to manage spasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether TENS would lead to ankle spasticity reduction and (2) whether sit-to-stand training combined with TENS would improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in stroke patients. Forty-stroke patients were recruited and were randomly divided into two groups: TENS group (n=20) and sham group (n=20). All participants underwent 30-sessions of sit-to-stand training (for 15-min, five-times per week for 6-weeks). Prior to each training session, 30-min of TENS over the peroneal nerve was given in TENS group, whereas sham group received non-electrically stimulated TENS for the same amount of time. Composite-Spasticity-Score was used to assess spasticity level of ankle plantar-flexors. Isometric strength in the extensor of hip, knee and ankle were measured by handheld dynamometer. Postural-sway distance was measured using a force platform. The spasticity score in the TENS group (2.6±0.8) improved significantly greater than the sham group (0.7±0.8, psit-to-stand training combined with TENS may be used to improve the spasticity, balance function and muscle strength in stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  15. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术中刺激内关穴对术后恶心呕吐的影响%Effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation at Neiguan (P6) on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 赵成文; 徐咏梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 本研究旨在探讨在腹腔镜胆囊切除术中经皮电刺激内关穴对术后恶心呕吐的影响.方法 随机将ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级的97例行腹腔镜下胆切除囊术的患者分为四组.空白组(20例):整个手术过程中无任何干预措施;经皮电刺激组(23例):全麻诱导后用电刺激仪以强度100 mA,频率为124 Hz刺激内关穴,直至手术结束;格拉司琼组(34例):于手术开始10 min后静脉注射格拉司琼3 mg;联合组(20例):静脉注射格拉司琼3 mg同时给予上述电刺激强度与频率.观察两组患者术后恶心呕吐的发生率.结果 空白组呕吐发生率为20.0%,恶心发生率为45.0%,格拉司琼组呕吐发生率为11.8%,恶心发生率为11.8%,皮电刺激组呕吐发生率为8.7%,恶心发生率为12.6%,联合组呕吐发生率为5.0%,恶心发生率为15.0%.空白组的恶心、呕吐发生率与其他三组比较差异均有统计学意义(均P 0.05).结论 术中对内关穴持续经皮电刺激可以降低术后恶心呕吐的发生率,其作用与预防性应用3 mg格拉司琼相似,经皮电刺激与格拉司琼组在预防恶心呕吐中无协同作用.%Objective To study the effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation at Neiguan (P6) on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods 97 ASA I - ?undergoed elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided into four groups and control group (20 cases); transcutaneous electrical stimulation group (23 cases), transcutaneous electrical stimulation at P6 point was performed from induction of general anesthesia and maintained until the end of surgery with stimulation at frequency of 124 Hz and intensity of 100 mA; Granisetron group (34 caese); combination group (20 cease). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were followed-up within 24 h after the operation. Results The incidence of nausea was 45.0% and that of vomiting was 20.0% in control group. The incidence of nausea was 11.8% and

  16. 经皮穴位电刺激后鼠耐力训练中体能的变化%Changes in physical fitness of mice and rats in endurance training after transcutaneous electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼; 李章华; 何金森

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport fatigue has been all along the hotspot and difficulty in the study of sport medicine. To eliminate sport fatigue and prevent from excessive fatigue effectively and in time is related directly to the results of sport training, improvement of sport achievement and health of athletes. It has been verified during long-term medical practice that the therapies in Chinese medicine are safe, effective, convenient and economical, in which, acupuncture is limited in the treatment of sport injury and sport disease in sport medicine. But, there is few study of it on prevention and treatment of fatigue.OBJECTIVE: Due to the limitation of acupuncture in practical training,this experiment is to observe the effects of atraumatic transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation on physical fitness in mice and rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment was designed.SETTING: Department of Sports Medicine, Wuhan Institute of Physical Education;College of Acupuncture & Massage, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese MedicineMATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Acupuncture and Massage College of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from June 2002mice of 4 weeks old, which was randomized into blank control and transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation group (TAES group), 10 mice in each one.blank control, training control and TAES group, 10 rats in each one.METHODS: Effect on loaded swimming time and hypoxia endurance time:G6805-A electric acupuncture apparatus (bipolar non-parallel pulsating, 0.5ms in width, 2V of peak value in pulsating voltage, randomized alternated disperse-dense wave at the range of 2 to 30 Hz) was used. The points selected (corresponding to baihui and mingmen in human body) were stimulated for 15 minutes before being trained every day in TAES group on Kunming mice.The mouse was placed in a swimming trough, 30 cm deep, at (25±0.5)℃ of water temperature, with 10% load of body mass on the tail for loaded swimming

  17. Avaliação da estimulação elétrica transcutânea do nervo para alívio de dor após cesárea: ensaio clínico randomizado Assessment of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief after cesarean section: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Sousa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a utilização da estimulação elétrica transcutânea do nervo no alívio de dor após cesárea. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo clínico controlado randomizado e simples-cego. Participaram do estudo 20 puérperas no grupo experimental que recebiam a estimulação elétrica transcutânea do nervo e 20 no grupo controle. Para avaliar a dor foi usada a escala de categoria numérica e o questionário de dor McGill. Foram realizadas três avaliações: a primeira antes da intervenção com a estimulação elétrica transcutânea do nervo, a segunda após a intervenção e a terceira, uma hora após a intervenção. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste nãoparamétrico de Mann-Whitney U. RESULTADOS: o grupo experimental apresentou redução maior da dor estatisticamente significante que o grupo controle na segunda e na terceira avaliação pela escala numérica de dor (pOBJECTIVES: to assess the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS for post-cesarean pain relief. METHODS: a simple-blind and random clinical controlled-study was carried out. The experimental group comprised twenty puerperal women to whom the TENS technique had been applied and 20 others as a control group. The numeric rating scale and the McGill Pain Questionnare were used to evaluate pain. Three evaluations were carried out: the first before the intervention using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; a second, after the intervention and a third, one hour after the intervention. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney's non-parametric test was used. RESULTS: the experimental group presented a statistically significant larger reduction in pain than the control group on the second and the third evaluation using both the numeric rating scale (p<0.001 and McGill (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is effective for the reduction of pain and the resulting relief persists for an hour subsequent to

  18. 经皮电刺激合谷内关穴配合放松训练对胃镜检查不适反应的影响%Effect on adverse reaction of gastroscopy patients by transcutaneous electric stimulation of Hegu-Neiguan points matching by relax training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素芳; 储浩然; 李学军; 朱诗文; 李霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析经皮电刺激合谷内关穴配合放松训练,对胃镜检查患者紧张恐惧、恶心呕吐等不适反应的影响.方法 将100例患者随机分为两组,观察组50例,对胃镜检查患者采用经皮电刺激患者双侧的合谷内关穴配合放松训练等护理干预;对照组50例,单纯给予常规的胃镜术配合指导.结果 观察组不适反应改善明显优于对照组,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 经皮电刺激合谷内关穴配合放松训练可明显减轻胃镜检查患者的紧张恐惧、恶心呕吐等不适,提高插镜的成功率及患者的舒适度.%Objective To evaluate the effect on the adverse reaction (tense fear, nausea and vomiting)of gastroscopy patients by transcutaneous electric stimulation of Hegu, Neiguan points matching by relax training. Methods 100 patients were divided into two groups (testing group and control group) randomly. The subjects in testing group (n=50) were treated with nursing intervention on adverse reaction, by transcutaneous electric stimulation of Hegu-Neiguan points matching by relax training. The individuals in control group (n=50) were treated with endoscopic surgery with conventional guidance. Results Adverse reactions in testing group were better than control group (P< 0.05). Conclusions Transcutaneous electric stimulation of Hegu-Neiguan points matching by relax training could release the adverse reaction of gastroscopy patients significantly,increase the success rate of gastroscopy and improve the patients comfort.

  19. Noninvasive transcutaneous bionic baroreflex system prevents severe orthostatic hypotension in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masayoshi; Murayama, Yoshinori; Chishaki, Akiko; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Central baroreflex failure in patients with spinal cord injury results in serious orthostatic hypotension. We examined if transcutaneous electrical stimulation regulates arterial pressure in those patients. We identified skin regions capable of increasing arterial pressure and determined respective transfer function. Using the transfer function, we designed the feedback regulator (i.e., bionic baroreflex system) to control arterial pressure. Orthostatic stress decreased arterial pressure profoundly. Activation of bionic regulator restored and maintained arterial pressure at pre-specified levels. We conclude that the transcutaneous bionic system is noninvasive and capable of stabilizing arterial pressure in patients with spinal cord injury.

  20. 针刺结合经皮穴位电刺激治疗颈椎病颈痛的临床研究%Acupuncture Combined with Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation for Neck Pain of Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 王勇军; 赵建国

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation ( TEAS) on neck pain of cervical spondylosis as well as acupuncture combined with TEAS .Methods:58 cases with neck pain of cervical spondylosis were randomly divided into acupuncture group ,TEAS group and combined group .The curative effect was evaluated by NPQ scale before treatment , after treatment and one month after stopping treatment .Results:The effective rates in acupuncture group , TEAS group and combined group were 94 .74%, 89 .47% and 100% respectively .The NPQ score in each group was significantly decreased after treatment compared with that before treatment , with a statistically significant difference (P<0.01).The mean of the combined group was lower than the acupuncture group and the TEAS group , with statistical differences re-spectively(P<0.05).In addition, NPQ score in each group had statistical differences at one month after stop-ping treatment(P<0.01).Conclusion:Both acupuncture and TEAS are safe and effective treatments for neck pain of cervical spondylosis .Moreover , there is a better efficacy by combining acupuncture with TEAS .%目的:对比观察针刺、经皮穴位电刺激及针刺结合经皮穴位电刺激对颈椎病颈痛的疗效。方法:将58例颈椎病颈痛患者随机分为针刺组、经皮组和结合组,治疗后用NPQ颈痛量表进行疗效评价,观察治疗前、治疗结束和治疗结束随访1个月时的组间评分差异。结果:针刺组、经皮组与结合组有效率分别为94.74%、89.47%与100%,各组治疗后较治疗前NPQ评分均明显降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),在治疗结束时,结合组与经皮组NPQ评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),结合组均数低于经皮组;结合组与针刺组NPQ评分差异有统计学意义( P<0.05),结合组均数低于针刺组;随访1个月时,各组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01

  1. Estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS no pós-operatório de cesariana Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS following cesarean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Melo de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da aplicação da TENS no quadro álgico de pacientes submetidas à cirurgia de cesariana. MÉTODO: Foi utilizada uma amostragem de 30 mulheres, voluntárias, com faixa etária entre 16 e 35 anos, em período imediato de pós-operatório de cesariana, com a presença de dor abdominal e no baixo ventre, subdivididas em dois grupos A e B, contendo em cada um deles 15 mulheres, submetidas, respectivamente, à eletroestimulação e ao tratamento placebo por eletroestimulação. A rotina hospitalar de administração de fármacos não foi alterada e manteve-se similar em ambos os grupos. A corrente utilizada foi a TENS convencional (F= 100Hz e T= 50mis, com pulso bipolar assimétrico, que foi aplicada através de quatro eletrodos de borracha siliconada e carbonada, gel e fita adesiva para a fixação dos mesmos de forma peri-incisional em técnica bipolar com dois pares de eletrodos cruzados, após cessar o efeito da anestesia, por 50 minutos, com intensidade em um nível sensorial forte. A Escala Visual Analógica (EVA foi utilizada para a quantificação da intensidade da dor antes e após a eletroestimulação. Para a análise dos dados foi aplicado o teste t de Student, para amostras pareadas, com um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foi demonstrada uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre as intensidades da dor, antes e após a aplicação da TENS, apenas nos indivíduos participantes do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: Levando em consideração as condições experimentais deste estudo, podemos concluir que a aplicação da TENS pode constituir mais um recurso usado em mulheres submetidas à cesariana.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on pain in patients who underwent cesarean surgery. METHOD: A sample of 30 female volunteers aged between 16 and 35 years old was recruited. All were in the immediate postoperative period following cesarean surgery

  2. Transcutaneous Determination of Arterial Oxygen Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Evaluated were two techniques (the conventional method and the new transcutaneous method) of measuring arterial oxygen tension in 20 severely ill preterm and term infants and in 70 healthy infants. (Author/CL)

  3. TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

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    Sandhu Premjeet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and sublingual. Transcutaneous drug delivery has many theoretic and practical advantage and disadvantages, and such issues are often a concern for both clinicians and patients. Transcutaneous patches are flexible pharmaceutical preparations of varying sizes, containing one or more active ingredient, intended to be applied to the unbroken skin in order to deliver the active ingredient to the systemic circulation after passing through the skin barriers. A Transcutaneous patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. In this method, the drug enters the bloodstream directly through skin and it avoid first pass effect. Characterization of Transcutaneous patch are necessary because check it’s quality, size, time of onset & duration, adhesive property, thickness, weight of patch, moisture of content, uniformity & cutaneous toxicological studies. Their requirements for evaluation are HPLC, U.V. spectrophotometer, screw gauge, digital balance, desiccators, thin layer chromatography & K.C. Cell used.

  4. A miniaturized transcutaneous system for continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Robert A; Vaddiraju, SanthiSagar; Kondo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Liang; Zhu, Kai; Islam, Syed K; Burgess, Diane J; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Jain, Faquir C

    2013-02-01

    Implantable sensors for continuous glucose monitoring hold great potential for optimal diabetes management. This is often undermined by a variety of issues associated with: (1) negative tissue response; (2) poor sensor performance; and (3) lack of device miniaturization needed to reduce implantation trauma. Herein, we report our initial results towards constructing an implantable device that simultaneously address all three aforementioned issues. In terms of device miniaturization, a highly miniaturized CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) potentiostat and signal processing unit was employed (with a combined area of 0.665 mm(2)). The signal processing unit converts the current generated by a transcutaneous, Clark-type amperometric sensor to output frequency in a linear fashion. The Clark-type amperometric sensor employs stratification of five functional layers to attain a well-balanced mass transfer which in turn yields a linear sensor response from 0 to 25 mM of glucose concentration, well beyond the physiologically observed (2 to 22 mM) range. In addition, it is coated with a thick polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel with embedded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres intended to provide continuous, localized delivery of dexamethasone to suppress inflammation and fibrosis. In vivo evaluation in rat model has shown that the transcutaneous sensor system reproducibly tracks repeated glycemic events. Clarke's error grid analysis on the as-obtained glycemic data has indicated that all of the measured glucose readings fell in the desired Zones A & B and none fell in the erroneous Zones C, D and E. Such reproducible operation of the transcutaneous sensor system, together with low power (140 μW) consumption and capability for current-to-frequency conversion renders this a versatile platform for continuous glucose monitoring and other biomedical sensing devices.

  5. EFFECT OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL ACUPOINT STIMULATION ON SEVOFLUPANE ANESTHESIA IN UPPER ABDOMINAL OPERATION%经皮穴位电刺激对上腹部手术病人七氟烷麻醉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明山; 王玲; 马福国; 侯念果; 张彦平; 陈怀龙

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究相同麻醉深度下经皮穴位电刺激对上腹部手术病人七氟烷麻醉的影响.方法:选取40例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级上腹部手术病人,随机分为经皮穴位电刺激复合七氟烷组(A组),单纯七氟烷(B组),每组20例.麻醉诱导前,A组电刺激双侧内关、合谷、足三里穴30min,B组静置30min.气管插管后,A、B两组静脉输注瑞芬太尼0.15μg/(kg·min),吸入七氟烷维持,A组持续穴位电刺激.分别在穴位刺激前(T)、切皮时(T)、开腹探查时(T)、开腹探查后30min(T)、开腹探查后60min(T),监测平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR),同时采静脉血监测血浆血管紧张素Ⅱ、皮质醇浓度;记录七氟烷的使用量.结果:组间比较,两组病人MAP、HR和血管紧张素Ⅱ、皮质醇在各时间点无统计学差异(P>0.05);组内比较,T、T、与T时间点MAP、HR、血管紧张素Ⅱ、皮质醇升高(P<0.05).A组七氟烷的使用量与B组相比降低了32%(P<0.01);结论:经皮穴位电刺激增强了七氟烷的麻醉效能,减少了七氟烷的使用量,并保持了相同的应激反应强度.%Objective: To study the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on sevoflurane anesthesia in upper obdominal operation. Methods: 40 patients undergoing selective epigastric operations with ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ were randomly divided into group A (20 cases) and B (20 cases). In group A, TEAS was performed and sevoflurane was inhaled during operation. In group B, only sevoflurane was inhaled. Electrical stimulation on Nei-guan, He-gu and Zu-sanli acupeints was performed for 30 min before induction of anesthesia in group A while patients in group B waited for 30min. After intubation, in group A, TEAS was performed persistently and sevoflurane was inhaled, meanwhile remifentanil O. 15μg was infused during operation. In group B, only sevoflurane was inhaled and the same dose of remifentanil 15μg/( kg · min) was infused. At different time points: before TEAS ( T0

  6. Comportamento da impedância elétrica dos tecidos biológicos durante estimulação elétrica transcutânea Electrical impedance behavior of biological tissues during transcutaneous electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ Bolfe

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a impedância elétrica dos tecidos biológicos durante estimulação elétrica em diferentes segmentos, faces e freqüências da corrente, aumentando-se a distância intereletrodos. MÉTODO: 20 voluntárias, idade média 23 ± 2,25anos e índice de massa corporal 20,65 ± 1,44kg/m², permaneceram em decúbito, sendo um eletrodo posicionado proximalmente às interlinhas articulares do punho e tornozelo, anterior e posteriormente, ou à espinha ilíaca póstero-superior, e outro eletrodo distanciado seqüencialmente em 10, 20, 30 e 40cm. Foram aplicadas duas correntes (100us e 10mA, uma de 100Hz (BF e outra de 2000Hz modulada em 100% da amplitude para 100Hz (MF, com intervalo mínimo de 7 dias. A impedância foi calculada, indiretamente, pela Lei de Ohm, a partir da intensidade aplicada e da tensão elétrica captada em sistema composto por osciloscópio digital (TDS 210, Tektronix® e gerador de corrente constante (Dualpex 961, Quark®. Para análise estatística, aplicou-se Anova-F e Kruskal-Wallis com post hoc (SNK, teste de Friedman e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, considerando pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the electrical impedance of biological tissues during electrical stimulation in relation to different segments, surfaces and current frequencies, with increasing distance between electrodes. METHOD: 20 female volunteers of mean age 23 ± 2.25 years and mean body mass index 20.65 ± 1.44 kg/m² were positioned in decubitus with one electrode placed proximally to the wrist and ankle joint lines, anteriorly and posteriorly, or on the posterosuperior iliac spine, and the other electrode was placed at distance of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm, sequentially. Two currents (100 us and 10 mA were applied: one at 100 Hz (LF and the other at 2000 Hz modulated at 100% of the amplitude for 100 Hz (MF, with a minimum interval of seven days. The impedance was calculated indirectly using Ohm's Law, from the applied intensity and the

  7. 经皮神经电刺激治疗膝骨关节炎性疼痛的荟萃分析%Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief in knee osteoarthritis:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翔; 张屹; 邓桢翰; 杨烨; 杨拓; 李辉; 雷光华

    2015-01-01

    背景:以往的研究表明经皮神经电刺激对缓解多种疾病引起的疼痛症状有效,但其对缓解膝骨关节炎患者疼痛的确切疗效仍存在争议。且经皮神经电刺激可分为高频和低频两种模式,目前关于其分别针对膝骨关节炎疼痛的疗效尚不明确。目的:荟萃分析高频经皮神经电刺激与低频经皮神经电刺激缓解膝骨关节炎疼痛的作用。方法:计算机检索PubMed,Embase和Cochrane数据库以及手工检索国内外公开发表的有关经皮神经电刺激缓解膝骨关节炎疼痛的随机对照试验,所有检索截止至2014年2月。严格评价纳入研究的方法学质量并提取数据,2名研究人员独立运用RevMan 5.2软件对数据进行统计分析。结果与结论:共纳入10项随机对照试验,累计519例研究对象。荟萃分析结果显示,与对照组相比,高频经皮神经电刺激可显著缓解膝骨关节炎患者的疼痛[MD=-0.56,95%CI(-0.98,-0.15),P=0.008];与对照组相比,低频经皮神经电刺激并未缓解膝骨关节炎患者的疼痛[MD=-0.13,95%CI(-1.63,1.38), P=0.87];与低频经皮神经电刺激相比,高频经皮神经电刺激可显著缓解膝骨关节炎患者的疼痛[MD=-0.85,95%CI(-1.32,-0.37),P=0.0005]。提示高频经皮神经电刺激可一定程度缓解膝骨关节炎患者的疼痛症状,而对比高频经皮神经电刺激,低频经皮神经电刺激对缓解膝骨关节炎患者的疼痛症状无明显作用。但由于样本量较小,纳入各研究在参数选择存在差异,存在一定局限性,此结论未来尚需更多高质量的随机对照试验进一步证实。%BACKGROUND:Extensive studies have shown that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plays a positive role in relieving the pain caused by a variety of diseases. However, its exact effect to manage pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis is stil controversial. TENS is

  8. Estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea após cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monique Barbosa Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Após a cirurgia cardíaca, os pacientes apresentam limitação na força muscular respiratória, o que favorece a instalação de complicações pulmonares. OBJETIVO: Analisar a eficácia da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea sobre o processo doloroso e força muscular respiratória em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM. MÉTODOS: Foram inclusos pacientes em pós-operatório de CRM por meio de esternotomia, com uso de circulação extracorpórea, anestesia geral, sem estar sob efeito de bloqueio neuromuscular, uso de drenos de tórax e mediastino, extubados até 6 horas pós-procedimento e apresentando índice igual ou superior a três na escala analógica visual da dor (EVA, estando no primeiro dia de pós-operatório (1º DPO. Foram recrutados 20 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos, sem predomínio de sexo: Grupo Controle (n=10, que recebeu terapia analgésica mais fisioterapia; e Grupo TENS, que recebeu terapia analgésica, fisioterapia e TENS. A TENS foi aplicada por 30 minutos, três vezes ao dia, num intervalo de 3 horas cada aplicação. RESULTADOS: Para o grau de dor, houve uma média inicial e final, respectivamente, de 7,0 e 1,0 para o Grupo TENS e 7,0 e 8,0 para o Grupo Controle. Para a Pimáx, a média inicial e final foi de, respectivamente, -102,5 cmH2O e -141,17 cmH2O para o Grupo TENS e -97,0 cmH2O e -100,3 cmH2O para o Controle. Quanto a Pemáx, a média inicial e final foi de, respectivamente, 63 cmH2O e 125 cmH2O para o Grupo TENS e 55,3 cmH2O e 53,2 cmH2O para o Grupo Controle. CONCLUSÃO: A TENS demonstrou eficácia significativa na redução da algia e no aumento das forças musculares respiratórias no 1º DPO de CRM.INTRODUCTION: After cardiac surgery, patients have a limitation in respiratory muscle strength, which favors the appearing of pulmonary complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS

  9. Therapeutic electric stimulation does not affect immune status in healthy individuals - a preliminary report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kopitar, Andreja N; Kotnik, Vladimir; Vidmar, Gaj; Ihan, Alojz; Novak, Primoz; Stefancic, Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of our study was to examine the possible immunological consequences of moderate low-frequency transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening in healthy individuals...

  10. Electric signal emissions during repeated abrupt uniaxial compressional stress steps in amphibolite from KTB drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Triantis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have confirmed that the application of uniaxial stress on rock samples is accompanied by the production of weak electric currents, to which the term Pressure Stimulated Currents – PSC has been attributed. In this work the PSC emissions in amphibolite samples from KTB drilling are presented and commented upon. After having applied sequential loading and unloading cycles on the amphibolite samples, it was ascertained that in every new loading cycle after unloading, the emitted PSC exhibits lower peaks. This attitude of the current peaks is consistent with the acoustic emissions phenomena, and in this work is verified for PSC emissions during loading – unloading procedures. Consequently, the evaluation of such signals can help to correlate the state and the remaining strength of the sample with respect to the history of its mechanical stress.

  11. Transcutaneous immunization using microneedles and cubosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattanapak, Teerawan; Birchall, James; Young, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous (TCI) immunization is a novel vaccination approach that provides many advantages over traditional parenteral vaccination. However, a major barrier to TCI is mediating penetration of vaccine antigens through the stratum corneum (SC) to the deeper tissue layers. Many approaches have...

  12. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock from a transcutaneous muscle stimulation device therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lau, Chu-Pak

    2005-06-01

    Inappropriate shock from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may result from external electromagnetic interference (EMI), especially for unipolar ventricle sensing. Previous case reports and small in-vitro safety study suggested that endocardial bipolar lead system may be immune from EMI resulting from transcutaneous electrical neuromuscle stimulation (TENS) therapy. This report presents an unusual case of inappropriate discharge in a patient with ICD of endocardial bipolar lead system, receiving TENS from a commercially available device.

  13. ¿Qué respuesta fisiológica desencadena la aplicación de la técnica de estimulación nerviosa eléctrica transcutánea? Which physiological response triggers the application of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Amer-Cuenca

    2010-10-01

    intensidades elevadas para conseguir una mayor duración del efecto postsesión. La aplicación repetida diariamente de TENS con los mismos parámetros produce el desarrollo de tolerancia. Aunque se ha especulado respecto a un efecto vascular de la aplicación de TENS, éste sólo tiene efecto sobre la circulación periférica aplicado a una intensidad suficiente para conseguir contracciones musculares importantes; en todo caso, el efecto es local sobre la zona de aplicación. La aplicación de TENS puede influir positivamente en la actividad muscular de pacientes con déficits motores en accidentes cerebrovasculares y otros desórdenes neurológicos.Purpose: To analyze the physiological effects of the application of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS technique on patients, to provide guidance for successful implementation in clinical practice. TENS technique involves the application of a pulsed electric current, traditionally used for pain control. Different TENS programming parameters should be adjusted, taking into account that the different programming options will activate various physiological mechanisms. Extensive studies in animals and in healthy subjects have been conducted recently, in order to elucidate the physiological effects produced in the body when TENS is applied. Material and methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of published scientific literature on the use of the TENS technique and its physiological effects. Relevant trials were identified through a search of various databases and reference books on the subject, from the Library of the CEU-Cardenal Herrera University of Valencia. Results: We found 97 references that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: TENS produces its analgesic effect by activation of afferents of deep tissues by stimulation of primary Aβ large diameter afferent fibers. The physiological mechanisms of action of TENS at low and high frequency are different, although both occur at peripheral, spinal and

  14. Efeitos da crioterapia, estimulação elétrica transcutânea e da sua associação na atividade elétrica do nervo femoral em ratos Effects of cryotherapy, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and their combination on femoral nerve electrical activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Santuzzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Relatos clínicos sugerem que a associação terapêutica entre crioterapia (CRIO e estimulação elétrica transcutânea (TENS favorece analgesia local. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade elétrica do nervo femoral (ANF, em repouso e durante a aplicação isolada, e associada de TENS e CRIO em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados nove ratos (Wistar adultos com peso de ±300g. Após anestesia (Uretana, 1mg/g i.p., o nervo femoral direito foi isolado para registro da ANF basal e durante as modalidades analgésicas. Depois da fixação dos eletrodos no terço inferior da coxa direita, foram aplicadas TENS (50Hz, 10mÅ por cinco minutos, CRIO isolada e terapia associada (TA por dez minutos. Os registros contínuos da ANF foram realizados por meio de um amplificador de potenciais de ação, avaliados posteriormente no primeiro, quinto e décimo minuto em unidades arbitrárias (Ua. Utilizaram-se a análise de variância (ANOVA uma via e o teste de Dunnett como post-hoc. Valores expressos como média ±EPM e as diferenças fixadas em pBACKGROUND: Clinical reports suggest that the therapeutic association between cryotherapy (CRYO and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS favors local analgesia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the electrical activity of the femoral nerve (FNA, at rest and during single and combined application of TENS and CRYO, in rats. METHODS: Nine adult Wistar rats weighting ±300g were used in this study. After inducing anesthesia (Urethane, 1mg/g i.p., the right femoral nerve was isolated in order to record the FNA at baseline and during the therapeutic modalities. After attaching the electrodes to the lower third of the right thigh, TENS (50Hz, 10mÅ was applied for five minutes, and CRYO and the combined therapy (CT for ten minutes. The FNA was recorded continuously by means of an action potential amplifier and the recordings from the first, fifth and tenth minutes were subsequently evaluated using arbitrary units (a

  15. Effect of repeated pulsed electric field treatment on the quality of hot-boned beef loins and topsides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2016-01-01

    The effects of repeated (1×, 2×, 3×) pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (10 kV, 90 Hz, 20 μs) on the quality of beef loins and topsides were evaluated, including the tenderness, purge loss, cooking loss, myofibrillar protein profile and post-mortem proteolysis. Both muscle types were obtained from each of 12 steers and were processed within 6h. After PEF treatment samples of both muscle types were subjected to 3, 7, 14 and 21 days ageing. The 1× and 2× PEF treatments had no effect on the tenderisation of hot-boned beef Musculus longissimus lumborum muscle for all ageing treatment times, while the 3× treatment reduced the tenderness. The opposite effect was observed in hot-boned beef Musculus semimembranosus muscles where the 3× treatment produced meat with lowest shear force at 3 days post-treatment time, but this beneficial effect disappeared with longer ageing times. An increase in proteolysis of troponin T was seen to the largest extent with 1× PEF treatment and decreased with every extra application of treatment.

  16. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  17. Improvement in magnetic field immunity of externally-coupled transcutaneous energy transmission system for a totally implantable artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) that uses electromagnetic induction between the external and internal coils of a transformer is the most promising method to supply driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart without invasion. Induction-heating (IH) cookers generate magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with the external and internal coils of the transcutaneous transformer. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. Hence, it is necessary to improve the magnetic field immunity of the TET system. During operation of the system, if the transcutaneous transformer is in close proximity to an IH cooker, the electric power generated by the cooker and coupled to the transformer can drive the artificial heart system. To prevent this coupling, the external coil was shielded with a conductive shield that had a slit in it. This reduces the coupling between the transformer and the magnetic field generated by the induction cooker. However, the temperature of the shield increased due to heating by eddy currents. The temperature of the shield can be reduced by separating the IH cooker and the shield.

  18. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco LH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leandro H Grecco,1,3,4,* Shasha Li,1,5,* Sarah Michel,1,6,* Laura Castillo-Saavedra,1 Andoni Mourdoukoutas,7 Marom Bikson,7 Felipe Fregni1,21Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 2Spaulding-Harvard Spinal Cord Injury Model System, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; 3Special Laboratory of Pain and Signaling, Butantan Institute, 4Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Namur, Belgium; 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI still have limited effects. Electrical stimulation might facilitate plastic changes in affected spinal circuitries that may be beneficial in improving motor function and spasticity or SCI-related neuropathic pain. Based on available animal and clinical evidence, we critically reviewed the physiological basis and therapeutic action of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in SCI. We analyzed the literature published on PubMed to date, looking for the role of three main noninvasive stimulation techniques in the recovery process of SCI and focusing mainly on transcutaneous spinal stimulation. This review discusses the main clinical applications, latest advances, and limitations of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Although most recent research in this topic has focused on transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS, we also reviewed the technique of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES as potential methods to modulate spinal cord

  19. Development of mobile phone based transcutaneous billirubinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Alexander P.; Harrison, Brandon; McCormick, Zachary T.; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Patil, Chetan A.

    2017-03-01

    Infants in the US are routinely screened for risk of neurodevelopmental impairment due to neonatal jaundice using transcutaneous bilirubinometry (TcB). In low-resource settings, such as sub-Saharan Africa, TcB devices are not common, however, mobile camera-phones are now widespread. We provide an update on the development of TcB using the built-in camera and flash of a mobile phone, along with a snap-on adapter containing optical filters. We will present Monte Carlo Extreme modeling of diffuse reflectance in neonatal skin, implications in design, and refined analysis methods.

  20. Transcutaneous oxygen tension in imminent foot gangrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H

    1978-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs...... the arterioles into the tissue sink and counter current gas shunting. The hypoxia in spite of a positive perfusion pressure up to 50 mmHg explains our experience that ischemic ulcers in feet such low pressures never heal.......Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs...... with moderate obstruction, the oxygen tension reached zero at a toe systolic blood pressure of 5--10 mmHg (tilt toe up) and reached arterial oxygen tension at about 50 to 70 mmHg (tilt toe down). In legs withsevere arterial obstruction and ischaemic rest pain, oxygen tension rose from zero not before systolic...

  1. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry in the newborn infant: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, T

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant continues to challenge physicians. Clinical evaluation and treatment have evolved well-established principles over the past decade. This review examines neonatal bilirubin metabolism and focuses on a recently developed clinical diagnostic tool, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer. In spite of some limitations, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer can be best applied as a screening tool to identify healthy full-term infants who require serum bilirubin determination. With proper application, this device can eliminate most invasive diagnostic testing. Optimal use of the instrument requires the relationship between the serum bilirubin concentration and the transcutaneous bilirubinometer index to be determined for each device, institution, and population.

  2. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...... burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature....

  3. Effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 pulse/sec) through custom-made disposable surface electrodes covering Omura's ST36 area of both legs on normal cell telomeres, oncogen C-fosAb2, integrin alpha5beta1, chlamydia trachomatis, etc. in breast cancer & alzheimer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lermand, Olivia; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that when extremely reduced normal cell (NC) telomeres in various cancer patients are increased over 500 ng BDORT units, abnormally high cancer cell telomeres and cancer-related markers such as Oncogen C-fosAb2 (Onco.)& Integrin alpha5beta1 (Integ.), & 8-OH-dG as well as bacterial & viral infections, mercury, asbestos, chromium, & beta-amyloid (1-42) markedly reduced due to improved circulation & excretion of these substances in urine. Since 1995, we have been using press-needle stimulation of Omura's ST36 with 200x press-release procedure 4x a day, with significant improvements in various cancer patients. In this study, Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES) at 60 pulses/min, which is close to patient's heart rate, was given between Omura's ST36 of both legs of the breast cancer & Alzheimer's patients. After about 10 minutes of TES, NC telomeres increased from 1 yg (= 10-24 g) to 500-525 ng; Integ. reduced from 85-75 ng to 0.5 ng & Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) reduced from 4500-3500 ng to 0.5 ng. An additional 10 minutes TES increased NC telomeres to 800-875 ng, while Integ. reduced to 0.5 yg & CT became less than 0.1 yg. After a total 30 minutes of TES, NC telomeres increased to 1000-1200ng BDORT units, with decreases in Integ. and Onco. to less than 0.1 yg. CT reduced to Alzheimer patient, abnormally high beta-Amyloid (1-42) of 7-12 ng markedly reduced to within normal value of less than 1.5 ng by 20-30 min TES. Stimulation beyond 30 minutes gradually reduced NC telomeres. TES pulse rate of 4 pulses/sec for the same patient initially increased NC telomere up to 750-950 ng BDORT units within 20 minutes, but when stimulation continued more than 20 min, NC telomeres rapidly reduced to -150 ng in less than 10 min of TES with reduced beneficial effects.

  4. 手针、电针及经皮穴位电刺激调节人脑功能的功能性磁共振观察%EFFECTS OF MANUAL ACUPUNCTURE, ELECTROACUPUNCTURE AND TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL ACUPOINT STIMULATION ON THE HUMAN BRAIN-AN FMRI STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董悦; 董玉茹; 姜胤; 王军凯; 韩济生; 王宏; 崔彩莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of manual acupuncture (MA),electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the human brain activity,expressed by BOLD signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods:16 (8 male) healthy righthanded subjects were recruited to participate in four fMRI scanning sessions,and in each session received only one kind of stimulation,including MA,EA,TEAS and skin touch control.Data processing was carried out by using the Statistical Parametic Mapping (SPM8). Results:EA,MA and TEAS.all three kinds of stimulation produced fMRI signal increase in the primary somatic sensory area (S I ).secondary somatic sensory area (S Ⅱ ),insula and cerebellum.EA produced significant signal decrease in limbic structures including hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus,while TEAS specifically produced fMRI signal increase in putamen and claustrum (P 22). Conclusion:Different forms of acupuncture produced common effects on the human brain BOLD signal expression,with some characteristic changes.The functional impacts of these changes deserve further investigation.%目的:比较不同的针刺方法对人脑功能的调节作用.方法:16名健康成年被试(男8例),每名被试均参加4次实验,分别接受手针、电针、经皮穴位电刺激及触觉对照刺激,在刺激过程中同时进行功能性磁共振(血氧依赖水平,blood oxygen level dependent,BOLD)数据采集.结果:4种刺激均表现为对躯体运动感觉系统、岛叶和小脑的BOLD信号激活.此外,电针还表现为对边缘系统的BOLD信号的抑制,而经皮穴位电刺激则特异性地激活了基底核(P<0.001,uncorrected, k> 22).结论:电针和经皮穴位电刺激可模拟手针对脑BOLD信号的调节作用,表明3者有其共性,又各具特色.其生理意义有待进一步阐明.

  5. Comparação dos efeitos da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea e da hidroterapia na dor, flexibilidade e qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia Comparison of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and hydrotherapy effects on pain, flexibility and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Gomes da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou comparar a eficácia da hidroterapia e da estimulação elétrica transcutânea do nervo (TENS na melhora da sintomatologia de pacientes com fibromialgia Participaram do estudo 10 sujeitos com fibromialgia (48,8±9,8 anos divididos em dois grupos: um tratado com hidroterapia e outro com TENS. Todos foram avaliados antes e após o tratamento quanto à flexibilidade (pelo índice terceiro dedo-solo, dor (por escala visual-analógica, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (pelos questionários SF-36 e Nottingham Health Profile - NHP e tendência à depressão (pelo Inventário de Beck. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente, com nível de significância fixado em pThe purpose of this study was to compare the effects of hydrotherapy and of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on symptomology of patients with fibromyalgia. Ten subjects (aged 48.8±9.8 years with fibromyalgia were divided into two groups, one treated with hydrotherapy, the other with TENS. All were evaluated before and after treatment as to flexibility (by means of the fingertip-to-floor test, pain (by visual analogue scale, health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 and the Nottingham Health Profile - NHP - questionnaires and trend to depression (by the Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were statistically analysed, and significance level set at p<0.05. Results show that patients treated with TENS had significant pain reduction and better quality of life as measured by the SF-36 and some NHP items, while patients treated with hydrotherapy showed improvement in SF-36 scores. It may hence be said that both treatments were efficient in improving physical functioning, but TENS produced better results in relieving pain and in a greater number of variables, suggesting that it is more efficient for treating fibromyalgia.

  6. Efeito da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea no tratamento da dor no ombro de pacientes com doença renal crônica: relato de casos Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in the shoulder of patients with chronic kidney disease: a two-case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Bertoli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A doença renal crônica (DRC pode causar muitas complicações clínicas associadas ao tempo de diálise. A amiloidose é uma dessas complicações e pode levar à dor no ombro, comum em pacientes com DRC. Só foram encontrados na literatura relatos de tratamento cirúrgico e/ou medicamentoso para esse tipo de dor. O objetivo aqui foi avaliar o benefício da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS no tratamento da dor no ombro devida à amiloidose em pacientes com DRC. Duas pacientes foram avaliadas quatro vezes num período de três meses. Na avaliação inicial as pacientes foram orientadas e receberam um aparelho de TENS para uso domiciliar (10Hz, 150 µs, duas vezes por dia, por 40 minutos durante três meses. A dor foi avaliada utilizando-se uma escala visual analógica e o questionário de dor de Wisconsin. Os resultados mostram que o tratamento com TENS reduziu a dor no ombro em ambas as pacientes. O tratamento com a TENS pode pois ser eficaz em reduzir a dor no ombro em pacientes com DRC.Chronic kidney disease (CKD may bring about several clinical complications associated to long-term dialysis. Amyloidosis is one of such complications and may lead to shoulder pain, common among CKD patients, for which no studies could be found in literature on the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS - only surgical and medicine treatments are reported. The purpose here was to assess benefits of TENS in treating shoulder pain due to amyloidosis in patients with CKD. Two female patients were assessed four times in a three-month period. At the initial evaluation, patients were guided as to its use and given a TENS device for use at home (10 Hz, 150 µs, twice a day, for 40 minutes for three months. Pain was assessed by means of a visual analog scale and of the Wisconsin brief pain questionnaire. Results show that TENS reduced shoulder pain in both patients. Treatment with TENS may hence be effective in reducing shoulder

  7. RehaMovePro: A versatile mobile stimulation system for transcutaneous FES applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Valtin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation is a commonly used method in clinical rehabilitation and research to trigger useful muscle contractions by electrical stimuli. In this work, we present a stimulation system for transcutaneous electrical stimulation that gives extensive control over the stimulation waveform and the stimulation timing. The system supports electrode arrays, which have been suggested to achieve better selectivity and to simplify electrode placement. Electromyography (EMG measurements are obtained from the active stimulation electrodes (between the stimulation pulses or from separate surface EMG electrodes. The modular design enables the implementation of sophisticated stimulation control systems including external triggers or wireless sensors. This is demonstrated by the standalone implementation of a feedback-controlled drop foot neuroprosthesis, which uses a wireless inertial sensor for real-time gait phase detection and foot orientation measurement.

  8. Use of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions for assessing indices of gas exchange during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R; Banham, S W

    2000-04-01

    The slow response characteristics of the combined transcutaneous electrode have been viewed as a major disadvantage when compared with other types of non-invasive assessment of gas exchange during exercise testing. We have previously shown that by using the highest recommended temperature of 45 degrees C to reduce response times, and combining this with an exercise protocol of gradual work load increments, that this allows changes in arterial blood gases to be closely followed by transcutaneous values. In the present study we have validated the use of a transcutaneous electrode for estimation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)) during exercise, against values calculated from direct arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred measurements were made in 20 patients with various cardiopulmonary disorders who underwent exercise testing. Exercise testing was performed by bicycle ergometry with a specific protocol involving gradual work load increments at 2 min intervals. Transcutaneous gas tensions were measured by a heated combined O2 and CO2 electrode. Arterial blood was sampled at the midpoint of each stage of exercise and transcutaneous tensions noted at the end of each stage. The mean difference of the AaO2 gradient calculated from blood gas tensions obtained by the two methods was 0.14 kPa. The limits of agreement were -0.26 and 0.63 kPa. The same values for V(D)/V(T) calculated from gas tensions measured by the two methods were: mean difference 0001; limits of agreement -0.0242 and 0.0252. For both these parameters there was an even scatter around the mean value on Bland and Altman analysis. The findings of this study suggest that estimation of parameters of gas exchange using transcutaneous values during exercise testing is reliable, provided the electrode is heated to a slightly higher temperature than usual and the work load increments are gradual, allowing for the latency in the response time of the system

  9. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF LACTATE DURING EXERCISE IN HUMANS USING SUBCUTANEOUS AND TRANSCUTANEOUS MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H; VISSER, KR; MOOK, GA; KORF, J

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the possibility of monitoring the plasma lactate concentration in human volunteers during cycle ergometer exercise using subcutaneous and transcutaneous microdialysis. In transcutaneous microdialysis, the relative increase in dialysate lactate concentration exceeded that of plasma

  10. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF LACTATE DURING EXERCISE IN HUMANS USING SUBCUTANEOUS AND TRANSCUTANEOUS MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H; VISSER, KR; MOOK, GA; KORF, J

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the possibility of monitoring the plasma lactate concentration in human volunteers during cycle ergometer exercise using subcutaneous and transcutaneous microdialysis. In transcutaneous microdialysis, the relative increase in dialysate lactate concentration exceeded that of plasma

  11. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  12. Estimulação diafragmática elétrica transcutânea melhora as condições metabólicas dos músculos respiratórios de ratos Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the diaphragm improves the metabolic conditions of respiratory muscles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM Cancelliero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o conteúdo de glicogênio dos músculos respiratórios e o registro eletrocardiográfico (ECG de ratos submetidos à estimulação diafragmática elétrica transcutânea (EDET. Método: Ratos adultos Wistar foram divididos em 2 grupos (n=6: controle (C e tratado com EDET (f=50Hz; T ON / T OFF= 2/2 seg.; T= 400ms, i= 5mA com acréscimo de 1mA a cada 3 min.; t= 20 minutos durante 5 dias. Após o período experimental, a análise do ECG foi realizada seguida do sacrifício dos animais para a obtenção das amostras dos músculos peitoral, intercostal, diafragma e abdominal, que foram encaminhadas para a análise do conteúdo de glicogênio. A análise estatística foi feita através do teste de normalidade e teste tde Student (p0,05, 81,2% no intercostal (C: 0,32 ± 0,08 x EDET: 0,58 ± 0,17, p>0,05, 96,7% no peitoral (C: 0,30 ± 0,05 x EDET: 0,59 ± 0,06, pObjective: To evaluate the respiratory muscle glycogen content and electrocardiogram (ECG records of rats subjected to transcutaneous electric stimulation of the diaphragm (TESD. Method: Two groups (n=6 of male adult Wistar rats were utilized over a five-day period: controls (C and TESD treatment (f = 50Hz; T ON / T OFF = 2/2 sec.; T = 400ms, i = 5mA with 1mA increase every three min.; t = 20 minutes. After this period, ECG analysis was done, followed by sacrificing the animals to obtain samples of the pectoral, intercostal, diaphragm and abdominal (A muscles, which were used for glycogen content analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the normality and Student t tests (p0.05; 81.2% in the intercostal muscle (C: 0.32 ± 0.08 vs. TESD: 0.58 ± 0.17, p>0.05; 96.7% in the pectoral muscle (C: 0.30 ± 0.05 vs. TESD: 0.59 ± 0.06, p<0.05; and 104.5% in the abdominal muscles (C: 0.22 ± 0.01 vs. TESD: 0.45 ± 0.03, p<0.05. The ECG analysis showed that there were no alterations in the parameters analyzed (heart rate and QR, QT and QTc intervals in the TESD group. Conclusion

  13. Transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation using perineal vibration: a novel method for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, Jens; Ohl, Dana A; Bonde, Birthe;

    2007-01-01

    We defined basic guidelines for transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in modifying pelvic floor responses in women and determined the efficacy of transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in treating stress urinary incontinence.......We defined basic guidelines for transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in modifying pelvic floor responses in women and determined the efficacy of transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in treating stress urinary incontinence....

  14. EFFECT OF TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION IN TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi.A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial trigger point release using TENS with stretching is very effective in the treatment of trapezitis.Palpating the trigger point is important it is the point where maximum tenderness occur with minimumpressure in the muscle. The aim of my study is to find which parameters of TENS is more effective torelievetrigger point as well as pain for acute stage of trapezitis.100 number of patients affected withtrapezitis weregrouped into moderate acute stage and severe acute stage of pain receiving a 7 to 15 days treatment withtwo session and passive stretching is given to the patients. The improvement is reassessed with thehelp of VASSCALE . Difference were found between the moderate and severe acute pain group of treatment using TENSparticularly in a trigger point with this parameter produced greater relief of pain and passive stretchingincreases the range of motion to the patients.

  15. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MI; Claydon, LS; Herbison, GP; Paley, CA; Jones, G.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of TENS for fibromyalgia in adults. We will assess TENS on its own or added to usual care in comparisons with placebo (sham) TENS, usual care, or no treatment.

  16. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE-STIMULATION FOR THE CONTROL OF PAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENVAARWERK, IAM; MEYLER, WJ; DEJONGSTE, MJL

    1995-01-01

    In this review article the neurophysiological mechanisms through which the effect of TENS can be explained will be discussed. The clinical studies on the effectiveness of TENS for the control of pain, both in the acute and chronic state, are summarized, including contradictory findings, mainly due t

  17. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  18. Transcutaneous electrical spinal-cord stimulation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimenko, Yury; Gorodnichev, Ruslan; Moshonkina, Tatiana; Sayenko, Dimitry; Gad, Parag; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor behavior is controlled by specific neural circuits called central pattern generators primarily located at the lumbosacral spinal cord. These locomotor-related neuronal circuits have a high level of automaticity; that is, they can produce a “stepping” movement pattern also seen on electromyography (EMG) in the absence of supraspinal and/or peripheral afferent inputs. These circuits can be modulated by epidural spinal-cord stimulation and/or pharmacological intervention. Such interven...

  19. Association of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Limbs Arthrosis; Non Arthrosic Limbs Arthralgia; Chronic Lomboradiculalgia; Chronic Back Pain; Cervical Radiculopathy; Post-herpetic Neuralgia; Post-surgical Peripheral Neuropathic Pain; Post Trauma Neuropathic Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I or II; Tendinopathy

  20. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Mahram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children’s Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR- was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  1. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Oveisi, Sonia; Jaberi, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children's Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR) were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR-) was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  2. Redução do efeito analgésico da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea de baixa freqüência em ratos tolerantes à morfina Reduction in analgesic effect from low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in morphine-tolerant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Resende

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da TENS de baixa (10 Hz e alta freqüência(130 Hz aplicadas na pata inflamada do rato após tratamento crônico com morfina. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 140 ratos Holtzman fêmeas, nos quais a carragenina (Cg 250 µg/0,1ml foi administrada na pata posterior direita para a indução da inflamação. TENS de baixa e alta freqüência foi aplicada por 20 min, após 2 h e 30 min da Cg e seu efeito medido através do método de Randall-Selitto. O antagonista opióide Naltrexona (3mg/kg,sc, foi administrado 30 minutos antes da TENS para verificar a liberação de substâncias opióides endógenas. A tolerância foi obtida após administração da morfina (10 mg/kg,sc, duas vezes ao dia, durante sete dias. O tratamento com TENS de baixa e alta freqüência foi realizado no oitavo dia às 2 h e 30 min após Cg. A análise estatística foi feita pelo método da análise de variância ANOVA (One Way seguido de um teste "post hoc" (Teste de Bonferroni, com nível de significância quando p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low (10 Hz and high-frequency (130 Hz transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS applied to inflamed paws of rats following chronic treatment with morphine. METHOD: 140 female Holtzman rats were utilized. Carrageenan (250 µg/0.1 ml was administered to the right hind paws to induce inflammation. Two and a half hours after carrageenan injection, low and high frequency TENS was applied to the inflamed paw for 20 min, and its effect was measured via the Randall-Selitto method. The opioid antagonist naltrexone (3.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously was administered 30 min before TENS, to verify the release of endogenous opioids. Morphine tolerance (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously was induced by twice-daily injection over seven days. Low and high frequency TENS treatment was carried out on the eighth day, 2.5 hours after carrageenan injection. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA

  3. Influência da estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea (TENS associada ao alongamento muscular no ganho de flexibilidade Influence of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS associate with muscle stretching on flexibility gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Maciel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O aumento da tolerância à dor provocada pelo alongamento é um fator importante no ganho de flexibilidade. A Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea (TENS é uma importante terapia no tratamento da dor, porém seu uso durante alongamento não foi investigado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da associação alongamento e TENS nos músculos isquiotibiais de mulheres saudáveis sobre ganho de flexibilidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trinta mulheres foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos (n=10: controle (C e grupos de alongamento (Al e Al+TENS. Estes últimos foram submetidos a alongamento estático (três repetições de 30 segundos por duas semanas, sendo um deles (Al+TENS submetido à aplicação de TENS por dez minutos (100hz; 40µs antes da manobra, com estimulação presente durante a mesma. A flexibilidade foi avaliada pela extensão passiva do joelho antes e após cada sessão, sendo retiradas fotografias para análise pelo software AUTOCAD. A dor percebida foi avaliada com uma Escala Numérica de 0 a 10 pontos. Os dados foram analisados mediante o teste t de Student, para amostras independentes e análise de variância, considerando nível de significância estatística o valor de pBACKGROUND: Increased pain tolerance caused by stretching is an important factor in flexibility gains. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS is therapeutic method for pain treatment, but its use during stretching has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of associating TENS with stretching to achieve flexibility gains for the hamstring muscles of healthy women. METHODS: Thirty women were randomized into three groups (n=10: one control (C and two stretching groups (St and St+TENS. The stretching groups underwent static stretching (three repetitions of 30 seconds for two weeks, and the other (St+TENS underwent TENS application for ten minutes (100hz, 40µs before the stretching, with the stimulation also

  4. Mechanistic studies on transcutaneous vaccine delivery : microneedles, nanoparticles and adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Suzanne Marleen

    2011-01-01

    Microneedle-based transcutaneous immunisation is an appealing alternative to the classical manner of injecting vaccines by intramuscular or subcutaneous route. Importantly, as a consequence of the fact that the skin is in direct contact with the environment and should protect the body against pathog

  5. 经皮穴位电刺激对颅脑手术行控制性降压重要脏器功能的保护效应%The protective effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on vital organ function in neurosurgery doing controlled hypotension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫云长; 陈林碧; 王茜茜; 潘媛媛; 骆珊; 黄陆平; 王均炉

    2016-01-01

    功能指标方面:与T1相比,对照组患者的AST、ALT、α-GST含量分别在T2、T3、T4或T5明显升高(P<0.05),PA含量在T2和T5显著降低(P<0.05)。与对照相比,观察组在T2与T3时可以降低α-GST含量,在T4与T5时降低AST和ALT水平(P<0.05)。结论:颅脑手术行控制性降压时,对脑、肝、肾可产生一定的影响,TEAS在开颅手术行控制性降压时对脑、肝、肾等器官起到一定的保护作用。%Objective: To study the protective effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) combined with controlled hypotension on brain, liver and kidney in neurosurgery.Methods: Fifty elec-tive surgery patients with brain tumor were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, each was 25 cases. The treatment group (TEAS group) with TEAS plus controlled hypotension, stimulation frenquecy was 2/ 100 Hz, density wave, the intensity of 8-12 mA, electrical stimulation of bilateral Hegu, Sanyinjiao, Qu Chi and Zusanli, and reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) to the target and maintained 40-50 minutes. In the control group (Sham group): only electrodes attached to the same points, no stimulation, as other treatments with the TEAS group. Then we extracted internal jugular vein in these time points, including 5 minutes before lowering blood pressure (T1), to maintain blood pressure 60 minutes (T2), after elevated blood pressure 60 minutes (T3), 24 hours and 48 hours after surgery (T4 and T5), detected cerebral protection factor and damage factor: SOD, CGRP, ET, MDA,IL-6 and S100β protein; the function indicators of heart: LDH, cTnI, MYO, CK and CK-MB; indexes of liver function: prealbumin, glutathione, ALT, AST, ALP, γ-transglutaminase; renal function parameters: Cystatin C, BUN, Cr, uric acid.Results:①The cerebral protection factor and damage factor: Compared with T1, the level of SOD decreased obviously in the patients of control group at T2, T3 and T5 time points (P0.05).③The indexes of

  6. Transcutaneous bilirubin nomograms in African neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, Cecilia A.; Imosemi, Donald O.; Emokpae, Abieyuwa A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) as a screening tool, based on relevant population-specific nomogram, or proxy for total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in assessing the risk of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is supported by several clinical guidelines on the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, while TcB has been found to significantly over-estimate TSB in neonates of African-American ancestry, with variations across TcB devices, no nomogram has been specifically reported for this racial group. This study therefore set out to develop TcB nomograms for healthy late pre-term and term black African neonates derived from two widely used bilirubinometers. Methods A retrospective analysis of 12,377 TcB measurements obtained from 6,373 neonates in the first postnatal week, over a period of 48 months using Bilichek and JM-103 bilirubinometers. TcB percentiles were computed from hour-specific TcB values and nomograms developed for each of the screening devices. Predictive ability of the 75th and 95th percentiles to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia was evaluated between 24–96 hours of age. The 95th percentile curve was compared with those from other populations. Results The velocity of TcB rise at 75th and 95th percentiles was generally higher with JM-103 than Bilichek. Both percentiles also peaked at higher TcB levels with JM-103. The 95th percentile for both instruments showed a downward trend as from approximately 114 hours. Both instruments had high negative predictive values across the selected time-epochs and lower discriminatory ability than reported in non-black populations. Conclusions The predictive utility of TcB as a potential screening tool varies across devices in black African neonates with or without risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, and lower than levels reported in non-black populations. Equipment-specific nomograms should be considered for TcB monitoring in this racial population where TSB is not routinely

  7. Estimulação elétrica transcutânea no alívio da dor do trabalho de parto: revisão sistemática e meta-análise Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain relief during labor: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa F. D. Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A estimulação elétrica transcutânea (EET é um método não farmacológico utilizado no alívio da dor do trabalho de parto. Sua aplicação representa um método adjuvante que não se propõe a substituir outras técnicas. OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a eficácia da EET comparada à ausência de EET ou placebo, segundo os desfechos: alívio da dor do trabalho de parto (desfecho primário, uso de analgesia complementar, duração do trabalho de parto, satisfação da parturiente, tipo de parto e repercussões fetais (desfechos secundários. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma busca sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e SCIELO por ensaios clínicos randomizados e quasirandomizados, publicados entre 1966 e 2008. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram 'TENS', 'labor', 'labor pain' e 'labor obstetric'. A seleção de artigos elegíveis e a avaliação de sua qualidade metodológica foram feitas independentemente por dois revisores. Meta-análises de efeitos randômicos foram realizadas quando estudos que investigavam um mesmo desfecho eram suficientemente homogêneos. RESULTADOS: Nove estudos, incluindo 1076 gestantes, foram selecionados. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no alívio da dor do parto (pooled RR=1,09; 95%IC=0,72-1,65 ou na necessidade de analgesia complementar (pooled RR=0,89; 95%IC=0,74-1,08. Não se observou evidência da interferência da EET em nenhum dos desfechos, exceto no desejo da parturiente em utilizar a EET em futuros partos. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização da EET não demonstrou nenhum impacto sobre a mãe ou concepto e nenhuma influência no trabalho de parto. De acordo com os resultados desta revisão, não há evidência de que a EET reduz o uso de analgesia complementar.BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS is a non-pharmacological pain relief method. It is an auxiliary method and not intended to replace other techniques. OBJECTIVES

  8. Evaluation of Relevances on Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea Patients by Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation Adopting Traditional Chinese Medicine Pattern Effect Scale%中医证候量表评价TEAS治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明显; 叶开升; 金曼

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relevances in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea ( IBS - D) patients by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) adopting Traditional Chinese Medicine pattern effect scale (TCM - PES). Methods; 110 IBS - D patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The treatment group was stimulated 3 acupoints(Taichong,Yinlingquan and Tianshu)by TEAS twice a day. The control group was simulated for TEAS by stimulating the same acupoints. The treatment lasted for 4 weeks for each group. IBS bowel symptom severity scale (IBS - BSS) ,IBS defecation state questionnaire( IBS - DSQ) ,IBS quality of life questionnaire(IBS - QOL) were measured to evaluate the relevances with TCM - PES. The TCM pattern effect was evaluated by TCM - PES before and 4 weeks after the treatment respectively. Results ;The result showed IBS - BSS, abdominal pain severity, abdominal pain days, abdominal distensions, bowel habit satisficing and life interference had the positive correlation with TCM - PES(P < 0.05,P<0.01). And IBS-QOL, sleep .energy and social role had the negative correlation with TCM - PES(P <0. 05, P<0.01). The TCM -PES result showed TEAS group had more effective than control group in the aspects of primary symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, sternocostal flatulence) and secondary symptoms ( abdominal fullness and distention, depression and irritability, borborygmus and fart gas, belching, sighs ) ( P < 0.05, P < 0. 01). Conclusion; For IBS - D patients, bowel symptom severity and quality of life had the correlations with TCM pattern. TCM - PES could evaluate the pattern effect of IBS - D patients with pattern of the liver - qi invading the spleen. TEAS could improve the pattern effect of IBS - D patients.%目的:应用中医证候量表评价经皮穴位电刺激法(TEAS)治疗腹泻型肠易激综合征(IBS-D)的相关性.方法:110例IBS-D患者随机分为两组,治疗组予TEAS刺激太冲、阴陵泉和天枢三穴,每天2

  9. 经皮穴位电刺激复合药物全麻行控制性降压对丘脑局部血流的影响%Effect of deliberated hypotension on thalamus regional blood flow during general anesthesia combined with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓梅; 方剑乔; 周传龙; 郭小青; 张乐乐; 金铃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of deliberated hypotension on thalamus regional blood flow during general anesthesia combined with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS). Methods Fourteen beagle dogs were randomly divided into treatment group (general anesthesia. n=7) and control group (combined TEAS and general anesthesia, n = 7). TEAS(2/ l00Hz, 8-10 mA) was applied to Quchi (LI 11). Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) following isoflurane anesthesia (lvol%). Every dog received nitroprusside-induced hypotension and regional cerebral blood flow of thalamus was delected by laser Doppler at baseline(TD), the time when MAP decreased to 70%(T, ),60%(T2),50%(T3), 40%(T1),and 40%-45% maintaining for 10 min (T5), 20 min(T6), 30min(T7), 40 min(T8), 50 min(T9), 60 min(T10). Results The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of treatment group (161.80±73. 65) was higher significantly than that of control group(84. 33±50.65) during the beginning of hypotension(P<0.05). The rCBF of treatment group was also higher at T5-T10 compared with To (P<0.05). The rCBF of treatment group at T1-T10 was higher than that of control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion TEAS combined with general anesthesia can benefit the brain by increasing thalamus blood flow and improving oxygen delivery during deliberated hypotension when MAP decreased to 40% of baseline for 1 hour.%目的 观察经皮穴位电刺激(TEAS)复合药物全麻行控制性降压对丘脑血流的影响.方法 成年健康雄性比格犬随机均分为单纯药物全麻行控制性降压组(对照组)和TEAS复合药物全麻行控制性降压组(观察组).对照组采用常规异氟醚吸入全麻联合硝普钠静脉泵注行控制性降压,观察组在常规全麻行控制性降压时复合TEAS,电刺激强度8~10 mA,频率2/100 Hz,取双侧“曲池”、“合谷”、“足三里”、“三阴交”穴位.两组比格犬均将MAP下降至麻醉前的40%水平,并在40%~45% MAP

  10. Transcutaneous Noninvasive Device for the Responsive Delivery of Melatonin in Microgravity. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our goal is develop a smart, transcutaneous device for individualized circadian (sleep) therapy by responsive release of melatonin, in microgravity. Additionally,...

  11. Assessment of transcutaneous vaccine delivery by optical coherence tomography Assessment of transcutaneous vaccine delivery by OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, T.; Doronin, A.; Rattanapak, T.; Hook, S.; Meglinski, I.

    2012-08-01

    Immunization is one of the most efficient and cost-effective means for the prevention of diseases. The latest trend for inducing protective immunity is topical application of vaccines to intact skin rather than invasive administration via injection. Apart from being a non-invasive route of drug delivery, skin itself also offers advantages through the presence of cells of the immune system in both the dermis and epidermis. However, vaccine penetration through the outermost layers of skin is limited by the barrier provided by the Stratum corneum. In the current study utilizing conventional Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) we investigate the transcutaneous delivery of a nano- particulate peptide vaccine into mouse skin in vivo. We demonstrate that a front of molecular diffusion within the skin can be clearly observed by using cross-correlations of successive 2D OCT images. Thus, OCT provides a unique tool for quantitative assessment of dynamics of diffusion of drugs, target compounds, analytes, cosmetics and various chemical agents in biological tissues in vivo.

  12. Transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation using perineal vibration: a novel method for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, Jens; Ohl, Dana A; Bonde, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    We defined basic guidelines for transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in modifying pelvic floor responses in women and determined the efficacy of transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in treating stress urinary incontinence....

  13. [New routes of administration: epidermal, transcutaneous mucosal ways of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, François; Alain, Sophie; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2007-04-01

    A successful vaccine triggers the interaction of various cells of the immune system as does a regular immune response. It is thus necessary to introduce the vaccine antigens into an anatomic site where they will contact immune cells. The route of administration is thus critical for the outcome of vaccination. Intramuscular or subcutaneous injections are the most popular. Antigens injected intramuscularly can form persistent precipitates that are dissolved and re-absorbed relatively slowly. If injecting antigens is a quick, easy and reproducible way to vaccination, it requires trained personnel. Alternatives exist, through non-invasive formulations which allow administration by the patient or a third party with no particular expertise. The skin, especially its epidermal layer, is an accessible and competent immune environment and an attractive target for vaccine delivery, through transcutaneous delivery or immunostimulant patches. Mucosal immunization is another strategy: its major rationale is that organisms invade the body via mucosal surfaces. Therefore, local protection at mucosal surface as well as systemic defense is beneficial. Various formulations of mucosal vaccines have been developed, such as the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV), rotavirus vaccines, cold-adapted influenza vaccines or vaccine against typhoid fever. Thus we are entering in an era where mucosal and transcutaneous immunisation will play an important role in disease management. However, it has not been so easy to obtain regulatory approval for mucosal or transcutaneous formulations and needle-based vaccines continue to dominate the market.

  14. Body Position Influences Which Neural Structures Are Recruited by Lumbar Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation.

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    Simon M Danner

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous stimulation of the human lumbosacral spinal cord is used to evoke spinal reflexes and to neuromodulate altered sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury. Both applications require the reliable stimulation of afferent posterior root fibers. Yet under certain circumstances, efferent anterior root fibers can be co-activated. We hypothesized that body position influences the preferential stimulation of sensory or motor fibers. Stimulus-triggered responses to transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded using surface-electromyography from quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles in 10 individuals with intact nervous systems in the supine, standing and prone positions. Single and paired (30-ms inter-stimulus intervals biphasic stimulation pulses were applied through surface electrodes placed on the skin between the T11 and T12 inter-spinous processes referenced to electrodes on the abdomen. The paired stimulation was applied to evaluate the origin of the evoked electromyographic response; trans-synaptic responses would be suppressed whereas direct efferent responses would almost retain their amplitude. We found that responses to the second stimulus were decreased to 14%±5% of the amplitude of the response to the initial pulse in the supine position across muscles, to 30%±5% in the standing, and to only 80%±5% in the prone position. Response thresholds were lowest during standing and highest in the prone position and response amplitudes were largest in the supine and smallest in the prone position. The responses obtained in the supine and standing positions likely resulted from selective stimulation of sensory fibers while concomitant motor-fiber stimulation occurred in the prone position. We assume that changes of root-fiber paths within the generated electric field when in the prone position increase the stimulation thresholds of posterior above those of anterior root fibers. Thus, we

  15. Interface of data transmission for a transcutaneous communication system using the human body as transmission medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kato, Yoshikuni; Seino, Kazuyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2012-03-01

    We have been developing a new transcutaneous communication system (TCS) that uses the human body as an electrical conductive medium. We studied an interface circuit of the TCS in order to optimize the leading data current into the human body effectively. Two types of LC circuits were examined for the interface circuit, one was an LC series-parallel circuit, and the other was a parallel-connected LC circuit. The LC series-parallel circuit connected to the body could be tuned to a resonant frequency, and the frequency was determined by the values of an external inductor and an external capacitor. Permittivity of the body did not influence the electrical resonance. Connection of the LC series-parallel circuit to the body degraded the quality factor Q because of the conductivity of the body. However, the LC parallel-connected circuit when connected to the body did not indicate electrical resonance. The LC series-parallel circuit restricts a direct current and a low-frequency current to flow into the body; thus, it can prevent a patient from getting a shock. According to the above results, an LC series-parallel circuit is an optimum interface circuit between the TCS and the body for leading data current into the body effectively and safely.

  16. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide induces mitochondrial apoptosis and suppresses metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Takeda

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the main histological type of oral cancer. Its growth rate and incidence of metastasis to regional lymph nodes is influenced by various factors, including hypoxic conditions. We have previously reported that transcutaneous CO2 induces mitochondrial apoptosis and decreases lung metastasis by reoxygenating sarcoma cells. However, previous studies have not determined the sequential mechanism by which transcutaneous CO2 suppresses growth of epithelial tumors, including SCCs. Moreover, there is no report that transcutaneous CO2 suppresses lymphogenous metastasis using human cell lines xenografts. In this study, we examined the effects of transcutaneous CO2 on cancer apoptosis and lymphogenous metastasis using human SCC xenografts. Our results showed that transcutaneous CO2 affects expressions of PGC-1α and TFAM and protein levels of cleavage products of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP, which relatives mitochondrial apoptosis. They also showed that transcutaneous CO2 significantly inhibits SCC tumor growth and affects expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which play essential roles in tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, transcutaneous CO2 suppressed tumor growth, increased mitochondrial apoptosis and decreased the number of lymph node metastasis in human SCC by decreasing intra-tumoral hypoxia and suppressing metastatic potential with no observable effect in vivo. Our findings indicate that transcutaneous CO2 could be a novel therapeutic tool for treating human SCC.

  17. 经皮神经电刺激与穴位按压联合艾灸对减轻肺癌患者含顺铂方案化疗后胃肠道反应的对比研究%Comparison of therapeutic efficacy between transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and points acupressure combined with moxibustion in preventing gastrointestinal reactions caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy of patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡国华; 徐兴祥; 陈勇; 闵凌峰; 林征

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic efficacy between transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation( TENS) and points acupressure combined with moxibustion in preventing gastrointestinal reactions caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy of patients with lung cancer. Methods One hundred patients with lung cancer were randomly allocated to an TENS group of 50 cases and a TCM ( Traditional Chinese Medicine) group of 50 cases. During chemotherapy period, conventional anti-nausea treatments were used in both groups, and the TENS therapy were used in the TENS group while the points acupressure combined with moxibustion were used in the TCM group, twice a day, from the 1th day before chemotherapy to the 3rd day after it. Observe and compare incidences of gastrointestinal reaction and severity of symptoms in two groups from the first day to the sixth day of chemotherapy. Results The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting have no significant difference between TENS group and TCM group(P>0.05). The incidence of anepithymia were significantly lower in TENS group than which in TCM group (P0.05);TENS组患者食欲不振的发生率低于中医组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),同时,TENS组食欲不振的症状程度也轻于中医组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论 TENS与中医穴位按压联合艾灸治疗均可减轻肺癌患者含顺铂方案化疗所致的胃肠道反应,在降低患者恶心、呕吐的发生率及症状程度方面两组无明显差异,但在改善食欲不振发生率和症状程度方面,TENS治疗有一定优势。

  18. Interference of heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring in the measurement of bioelectrical impedance analysis in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Comym

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify if the connection of electrodes for heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring interfere with the measurement of electrical bioimpedance in preterm newborns. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded, controlled, cross-sectional, crossover study that assessed and compared paired measures of resistance (R and reactance (Xc by BIA, obtained with and without monitoring wires attached to the preterm newborn. The measurements were performed in immediate sequence, after randomization to the presence or absence of electrodes. The sample size calculated was 114 measurements or tests with monitoring wires and 114 without monitoring wires, considering for a difference between the averages of 0.1 ohms, with an alpha error of 10% and beta error of 20%, with significance <0.05. Results: No differences were observed between the R (677.37 ± 196.07 vs. 677.46 ± 194.86 and Xc (31.15 ± 9.36 vs. 31.01 ± 9.56 values obtained with and without monitoring wires, respectively, with good correlation between them (R: 0.997 and Xc: 0.968. Conclusion: The presence of heart and/or transcutaneous oxygen monitoring wires connected to the preterm newborn did not affect the values of R or Xc measured by BIA, allowing them to be carried out in this population without risks.

  19. Cannabidiol and endogenous opioid peptide-mediated mechanisms modulate antinociception induced by transcutaneous electrostimulation of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thais Cristina Teixeira; Londe, Anna Karla; Albano, Rafael Isaac Pires; de Araújo Júnior, Artur Teixeira; de Aguiar Azeredo, Mariana; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Vasconcellos, Thiago Henrique Ferreira; Dos Reis Ferreira, Célio Marcos; Teixeira, Dulcinéa Gonçalves; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Vieira, Débora; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-12-15

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological therapy for the treatment of pain. The present work investigated the effect of cannabidiol, naloxone and diazepam in combination with 10 Hz and 150 Hz TENS. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the tail-flick test (baseline), and each rodent received an acute administration (intraperitoneal) of naloxone (3.0mg/kg), diazepam (1.5mg/kg) or cannabidiol (0.75 mg/kg, 1.5mg/kg, 3.0mg/kg, 4.5mg/kg, 6.0mg/kg and 12.0mg/kg); 10 min after the acute administration, 10 Hz or 150 Hz TENS or a sham procedure was performed for 30 min. Subsequently, tail-flick measures were recorded over a 90-min period, at 5-min intervals. 10 Hz TENS increased the nociceptive threshold during the 90-min period. This antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone pre-treatment, was not altered by diazepam pre-treatment and was abolished by cannabidiol pre-treatment (1.5mg/kg). Moreover, 150 Hz TENS increased tail-flick latencies by 35 min post-treatment, which was partially inhibited by naloxone pre-treatment and totally inhibited by cannabidiol (1.5mg/kg). These data suggest the involvement of the endogenous opioid system and the cannabinoid-mediated neuromodulation of the antinociception induced by transcutaneous electrostimulation at 10 Hz and 150 Hz TENS.

  20. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  1. Effective transcutaneous immunization by antigen-loaded flexible liposome in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni Li1, Li-Hua Peng1, Xi Chen1, Shinsaku Nakagawa2, Jian-Qing Gao11Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Biotechnology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, JapanBackground: Transcutaneous vaccines have received wide attention due to their easy-to-use, needle-free, noninvasive delivery. However, the novel barrier function of stratum corneum hinders the transport of antigen and adjuvant in transcutaneous immunization. Novel nanoscale delivery systems employing, for example, liposomes and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated to overcome the penetration barrier of stratum corneum for effective transcutaneous immunization.Objective: The objective of this study was to prepare two types of flexible liposomes and determine their efficacies for the transcutaneous delivery of antigen and the subsequent immune response induced in vivo.Methods: Ovalbumin (OVA liposome-based transcutaneous vaccines were prepared using reverse-phase evaporation and film-dispersion methods. Particle sizes and antigen encapsulating efficiency were then evaluated. After application to bare mouse skin, topical sites were examined for the presence of fluorescence-labeled liposome. The efficacy of the transcutaneously delivered OVA-loaded flexible liposome in activating the immune responses was investigated by detecting serum immunoglobulin G levels. The influence of an adjuvant, imiquimod, in the transcutaneous immunization was also tested.Results: Two flexible liposomes with well-encapsulated OVA were successfully prepared by film-dispersion or reverse-phase evaporation methods. The sizes of the prepared flexible liposomes ranged from 200 to 400 nm. In vivo, the fluorescence-labeled liposome was detected in hair-follicle ducts, indicating that the flexible liposome can penetrate the skin barrier through the hair

  2. Effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the action potential of spinal cord posterior horn cells in rats after peripheral nerve injury%低频电疗对白鼠周围神经损伤后脊髓后角神经细胞活动电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔松彪; 赵和荣; 吴光; 朴虎男; 许梅花

    2006-01-01

    度刺激所引发的脊髓后角神经细胞的膜电位明显高于注射前[每10 s(174.5±0.41),(235.4±1.41)次,P<0.01].结论:低频电刺激能有效抑制被无害刺激所引发的脊髓后角神经细胞的活动电位,且静脉注射纳洛酮(8 mg/kg)可使之逆转到治疗前的水平,说明低频电疗可能是刺激中枢神经系统使其分泌内源鸦片物质,作用于脊髓后角细胞使其活性降低,从而达到缓解疼痛的目的.%BACKGROUND: Up to now, few studies related to the mechanism of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in relieving pain, and the effect of low-frequency TENS on the activity potential of dorsal horn cells in rats after peripheral nerve injury. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of low-frequency TENS on the activity potential of dorsal horn cells induced by mechanical allodynia and thermal allodynia by using animal models of peripheral nerve injury, and observe the efficacy after interfering of naloxone. DESIGN: A randomized control animal study. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Yanbian University. MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the central laboratory of Medical College, Yanbian University between February and October 2004. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and 60 random selected ones were operated to separate sciatic nerve, two branch tibial nerves and sural nerves of sciatic nerve were amputated after ligation, and peroneal nerve was left as the experimental group; the other 20 rats were placed at the origin after sciatic nerve was separated, and then the skin was sutured as the control group. METHODS: ① Pain detection (Behavioral test): At 1 week postoperatively, the rats were given mechanical allodynia and thermal allodynia once every 5 seconds for 10 times, and then the frequency of foot withdrawal was detected (0%-40% for mild pain, 40%-70% for moderate pain; 70% and above for severe pain). ② The spontaneous

  3. Transcutaneous monitoring of steroid-induced osteoporosis with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Although glucocorticoids are among the most frequently prescribed anti-inflammatory agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, extended exposure to this steroid hormone is the leading cause of iatrogenic osteoporosis. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to exploit biochemical differences between osteoporotic and normal bones in order to predict fracture risk. In this presentation, we report the results of ongoing research in our laboratory towards the clinical translation of this technique. We will discuss strategies for the transcutaneous acquisition of spectra from the tibiae of mice that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk.

  4. Effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Burak UĞURLU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exercise - induced hypoalgesia typically reported during and / or follow ing exercise. In this study, we investigated the role of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise. Eleven male athletes aged 23,125 ± 0,99 years with 10,25 ± 2,66 years of athl etic training were recruited for this study . Following baseline measurements of pressure pain threshold and tolerance from m. biceps brachii and m. triceps brachii muscle and myofascial regions of the dominant upper extremity by using a digital algometer, subjects were underwent an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Participants were completed 4 sets of eccentric exercise each comprising 20 repetitions of lifting 80% of their 1 RM by using a dumbbell. Pressure pain threshold and tolerance tests were repeated 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and 24 and 48 hours following exercise. One week after acute exercise protocol, EMS protocol was applied to the participants immediately following eccentric exercise, and all measurements were repeated at the same timeline as eccent ric exercise. Standard EMS protocol at active recovery mode for 10 minutes was applied to the m. biceps brachii muscle by using surface electrodes. Results are presented as mean + standarts deviation. Data of the same timeline were analyzed by using repeat ed measures of ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test . A level of p<0.05 was accepted statistical significant. Eccentric exercise resulted to increase the pain tolerence in athletes, and EMS was found to decrease the pain tolerence 10 and 20 minutes at th e muscle region, and 10 and 30 minutes, and 24 hours at the myofascial region of m. biceps brachii, 10 min and 24 hr from muscle region, 10 and 30 min and 24 hr from myofascial region of M. triceps brachii following acute bout of eccentric exercise. We con cluded that EMS at active recovery phase mitigates the the hypoalgesic response following single bout of

  5. Investigation of spatial resolution dependent variability in transcutaneous oxygen saturation using point spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimon, Sheena P.; Huong, Audrey K. C.; Ngu, Xavier T. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the variation in one’s percent mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (StO2) with differences in spatial resolution of data. This work required the knowledge of extinction coefficient of hemoglobin derivatives in the wavelength range of 520 - 600 nm to solve for the StO2 value via an iterative fitting procedure. A pilot study was conducted on three healthy subjects with spectroscopic data collected from their right index finger at different arbitrarily selected distances. The StO2 value estimated by Extended Modified Lambert Beer (EMLB) model revealed a higher mean StO2 of 91.1 ± 1.3% at a proximity distance of 30 mm compared to 60.83 ± 2.8% at 200 mm. The results showed a high correlation between data spatial resolution and StO2 value, and revealed a decrease in StO2 value as the sampling distance increased. The preliminary findings from this study contribute to the knowledge of the appropriate distance range for consistent and high repeatability measurement of skin oxygenation.

  6. Reproducibility of transcutaneous oximetry and laser Doppler flowmetry in facial skin and gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalestad, J; Hellem, S; Vaagbø, G; Irgens, A; Thorsen, E

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO(2)) are non-invasive techniques, widely used in the clinical setting, for assessing microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygen tension, e.g. recording vascular changes after radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With standardized procedures and improved reproducibility, these methods might also be applicable in longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of facial skin and gingival LDF and facial skin TcPO(2). The subjects comprised ten healthy volunteers, 5 men, aged 31-68 years. Gingival perfusion was recorded with the LDF probe fixed to a custom made, tooth-supported acrylic splint. Skin perfusion was recorded on the cheek. TcPO(2) was recorded on the forehead and cheek and in the second intercostal space. The reproducibility of LDF measurements taken after vasodilation by heat provocation was greater than for basal flow in both facial skin and mandibular gingiva. Pronounced intraday variations were observed. Interweek reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.96 for LDF and from 0.44 to 0.75 for TcPO(2). The results confirm acceptable reproducibility of LDF and TcPO(2) in longitudinal studies in a vascular laboratory where subjects serve as their own controls. The use of thermoprobes is recommended. Repeat measurements should be taken at the same time of day.

  7. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia; Pfister, Riccardo E; Karam, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks' gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was -0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of -4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  8. A Prototype Therapy System for Transcutaneous Application of Boiling Histotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Yuldashev, Petr V; Kreider, Wayne; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Schade, George R; Hall, Timothy L; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2017-08-14

    Boiling histotripsy is a method of focused ultrasound surgery that noninvasively applies millisecond-length pulses with high-amplitude shock fronts to generate liquefied lesions in tissue. Such a technique requires unique outputs compared to a focused ultrasound thermal therapy apparatus, particularly to achieve high in situ pressure levels through intervening tissue. This article describes the design and characterization of a system capable of producing the necessary pressure to transcutaneously administer boiling histotripsy therapy through clinically relevant overlying tissue paths using pulses with duration up to 10 ms. A high-voltage electronic pulser was constructed to drive a 1-MHz focused ultrasound transducer to produce shock waves with amplitude capable of generating boiling within the pulse duration in tissue. The system output was characterized by numerical modeling with the 3D Westervelt equation using boundary conditions established by acoustic holography measurements of the source field. Such simulations were found to be in agreement with directly measured focal waveforms. An existing derating method for nonlinear therapeutic fields was used to estimate in situ pressure levels at different tissue depths. The system was tested in ex vivo bovine liver samples to create boiling histotripsy lesions at depths up to 7 cm. Lesions were also created through excised porcine body wall (skin, adipose, muscle) with 3-5 cm thickness. These results indicate that the system is capable of producing the necessary output for transcutaneous ablation with boiling histotripsy.

  9. A highlight on lipid based nanocarriers for transcutaneous immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Maha; Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Alyoussef, Abdullah A

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous vaccination has become a widely used technique for providing immunity against several types of pathogens, taking advantage of the immune components found in the skin. The success in the field of vaccination has not only relied on the type of antigen and adjuvant delivered, but also on how they are delivered. In this regard, particulate carriers, especially nanoparticles have evoked considerable interest, owing to the desirable properties that they impart to the substance being delivered. The presentation of antigens by the nanoparticles mimics the presentation of the immunogen by the pathogen; hence, it creates a similar immune response. Furthermore, nanoparticles protect the antigen from degradation and allow its prolonged release, which maximizes its exposure to the immune cells. The most commonly used materials for the formulation of nanoparticles are either polymer-based or lipid based. This review will focus on the lipid based nanocarriers, either vesicular such as liposomes, transfersomes, and ethosomes, or non-vesicular such as cubosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nano-structured lipid carriers, solid in oil nanodispersions, lipoplexes, and hybrid polymeric-lipidic systems. The applications of these carriers in the field of transcutaneous immunization will be discussed in this review as well.

  10. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  11. Continuous measurement of transcutaneous oxygen tension of neonates under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, P; Hayden, W; Miller, T

    1980-06-01

    Neonates present unique challenges to the anesthesiologist because of their susceptibility to oxygen toxicity and because clinical assessment of the degree of an infant's hypoxia is more difficult than in the adult. Equipment is now available for the continuous noninvasive measurement of transcutaneous oxygen tension. We used this equipment to monitor nine different neonates undergoing ten surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia. We found that certain of the infants were above and below what we considered to be a safe range for the transcutaneous oxygen tension for a significant portion of the surgery. Additionally, the manipulations of the surgeon and anesthesiologists were seen to cause sudden and large fluctuations in the transcutaneous oxygen tension. By providing the anesthesiologist with continuous and immediate data on the cardiorespiratory status of the infant, transcutaneous oxygen monitoring makes itself a valuable addition to the equipment used in the intraoperative monitoring of the neonate.

  12. Neonatal Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring--Effect on Clinical Management and Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Maurer, Rie; Puopolo, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    ... with and without transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) monitors. This work also measures agreement between simultaneous PtcCO2 and blood gas CO2 measurements and ascertains factors that affect agreement...

  13. Transcutaneous versus blood carbon dioxide monitoring during acute noninvasive ventilation in the emergency department - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Christian Michael; Brutsche, Martin Hugo; Baty, Florent; Rüdiger, Jochen Julius

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide (PtCO2) has been suggested as an alternative to invasively obtained PaCO2 for the monitoring of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Current data on monitoring in hypoxaemic respiratory failure are scarce and show conflicting results in hypercapnic patients in the emergency department. We performed a retrospective comparison of real-time PtCO2 (SenTec Digital Monitor) and arterial/venous carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2/PvCO2) measurements in patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure during NIV. Agreement between PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2 was the primary endpoint. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression were used. 102 patients had at least one matched measurement of PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2. For patients with arterial blood gas analysis, the mean difference was 0.46 kPa at baseline (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23 to 0.60, limits of agreement 95% CI -0.54 to 1.45) and 0.12 kPa after NIV (95% CI -0.04 to 0.29, limits of agreement 95% CI: -0.61 to 0.86). The linear regression analysis found a correlation R2 of 0.88 (p 8 kPa was associated with a lesser degree of agreement between the levels of PtCO2 and PaCO2/PvCO2 (p Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring shows a good concordance with PaCO2 and is a reliable, feasible, patient-friendly and safe alternative to repeated blood gas analysis for patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure receiving emergency NIV in the emergency department. An initial blood gas analysis to evaluate the respiratory and metabolic state and to rule out a significant discrepancy compared with the transcutaneous measurement is recommended.

  14. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  15. Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: an educational review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Crevenna, Richard; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this educational review is to provide an overview of the clinical application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the extremities in patients with upper motor neurone lesions. In general two methods of electrical stimulation can be distinguished: (i) therapeutic electrical stimulation, and (ii) functional electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electrical stimulation improves neuromuscular functional condition by strengthening muscles, increasing motor control, reducing spasticity, decreasing pain and increasing range of motion. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may be used for neuromuscular electrical stimulation inducing repetitive muscle contraction, electromyography-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation, position-triggered electrical stimulation and subsensory or sensory transcutaneous electric stimulation. Functional electrical stimulation provokes muscle contraction and thereby produces a functionally useful movement during stimulation. In patients with spinal cord injuries or stroke, electrical upper limb neuroprostheses are applied to enhance upper limb and hand function, and electrical lower limb neuroprostheses are applied for restoration of standing and walking. For example, a dropped foot stimulator is used to trigger ankle dorsiflexion to restore gait function. A review of the literature and clinical experience of the use of therapeutic electrical stimulation as well as of functional electrical stimulation in combination with botulinum toxin, exercise therapy and/or splinting are presented. Although the evidence is limited we conclude that neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality to improve function, and that combination with other treatments has an additive therapeutic effect.

  16. Microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA coated on cationic PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wonganan, Piyanuch; Sandoval, Michael A.; Li, Xinran; Zhu, Saijie; Cui, Zhengrong

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA can potentially induce a stronger immune response than intramuscular injection of the same plasmid DNA. In the present study, we showed that the immune responses induced by transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area pretreated with solid microneedles were significantly enhanced by coating the plasmid DNA on the surface of cationic nanoparticles. In addition, the net surface charge of the DNA-coated nanoparticles significantly affected their in vitro skin permeation and their ability to induce immune responses in vivo. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged anoparticles elicited a stronger immune response than with plasmid DNA-coated net negatively charged nanoparticles or by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA alone. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged nanoparticles induced comparable immune responses as intramuscular injection of them, but transcutaneous immunization was able to induce specific mucosal immunity and a more balanced T helper type 1 and type 2 response. The ability of the net positively charged DNA-coated nanoparticles to induce a strong immune response through microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization may be attributed to their ability to increase the expression of the antigen gene encoded by the plasmid and to more effectively stimulate the maturation of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:22921518

  17. Dependence of transcutaneous oxygen tension on local arteriovenous pressure gradient in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C R; Matsen, F A; King, R V; Simmons, C W; Burgess, E M

    1981-05-01

    1. We studied the relationship between transcutaneous oxygen tension at the foot and local arteriovenous pressure difference in 15 normal men and women; arteriovenous pressure difference was varied by changing the height of the foot with respect to the heart and by applying external pressure to the foot. 2. Control transcutaneous oxygen tension was 67 +/- 9 SD mmHg (8.9 +/- 1.2 kPa) at a control arteriovenous pressure difference of 80 +/- 6 SD mmHg (10.6 +/- 0.8 kPa). 3. In every subject transcutaneous oxygen tension fell non-linearly with a decrease in arteriovenous pressure difference; transcutaneous oxygen tension was relatively insensitive to changes in arteriovenous pressure difference when arteriovenous pressure difference was high, but always fell sharply to zero at some positive arteriovenous pressure difference [range 13-34 mmHg (1.7-4.5 kPa)]. 4. An analysis of the data indicated that transcutaneous oxygen tension varied with arteriovenous pressure difference approximately as the oxygen tension of cutaneous venous blood under the sensor varied (in the absence of changes in cutaneous vascular resistance and oxygen consumption). 5. This analysis was supported by studies in three subjects in whom the oxygen tension of superficial venous drainage from a warmed hand or foot was measured along with transcutaneous oxygen tension while arteriovenous pressure difference was varied.

  18. Electrochemical sensor for continuous transcutaneous PCO2 measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, A V; Huxtable, R F; Sperling, D R

    1976-09-01

    A sensor suitable for continuous transcutaneous PCO2 measurements is described. The sensor consists of an antimony-antimony oxide electrode in combination with a silver-silver chloride reference electrode, bathed in an electrolyte and covered by a Teflon membrane. A servo-controlled heater unit was used to maintain the sensor's temperature and to produce local hyperemia. The resulting oxidation-reduction potential under constant temperature is a linear function of the logarithm PCO2. Response time (95%) to step changes in PCO2 from 27 to 70 mmHg was 2.7 +/- 0.3 min. Following a 12-h "aging" time, the electrode exhibited a minimal drift of 5.2 +/- 2.2 mV for 16 h, representing an average PCO2 drift of 0.5 mmHg/h. This sensor was applied on three rabbits and on five human volunteers, and found satisfactory under normal physiological conditions.

  19. Transcutaneous delivery of levodopa: enhancement by fatty acid synthesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, Kumar; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the role of fatty acid synthesis inhibition in enhancing transcutaneous delivery of levodopa (LD). Rat epidermis was treated with ethanol and various doses of cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase enzyme system) for reducing the normal level of fatty acids. Calcium chloride (0.1 mM) and/or verapamil (1 microM) were coapplied to cerulenin treated skin in order to modulate duration of epidermal perturbation. These treated skin portions were used for estimation of altered triglyceride content (an indicator of fatty acid synthesis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and in vitro permeation of LD. Plasma concentration of LD was monitored in rats following topical application of various transdermal formulations. Application of cerulenin (0.1 or 0.15 mM/7 cm(2)) to viable rat skin inhibited approximately 60% triglyceride synthesis with respect to control at 2 h. Coapplication of calcium chloride (0.1 mM) significantly increased this inhibition, whereas verapamil application reduced this effect. The decrease in triglyceride content reduced the enthalpy of the lipid endothermic transition. The in vitro permeation of LD was enhanced 3-fold across skin excised after treatment with cerulenin. LD did not permeate across normal skin. The effective plasma concentration (C(eff)) of LD was achieved within 3 h and maintained till 10 h by a single topical application of a carbidopa-levodopa combination (1:4) to ethanol-perturbed cerulenin-treated skin. Coapplication of calcium chloride reduced the time lag to achieve C(eff) to 2 h and maintained it till 24 h. A single transdermal LD (64 mg) patch formulated with calcium chloride (0.1 mM) and cerulenin (0.1 mM) dissolved in a propylene glycol:ethanol (7:3) mixture seems to offer a noninvasive approach for transcutaneous delivery of levodopa.

  20. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

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    Marie Janaillac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2, compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2. Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks’ gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g, providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson’s R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring.

  1. 经皮电神经刺激治疗症状性糖尿病周围神经病随机对照研究的系统评价%Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treatment for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金冬梅; 徐芸; 耿登峰; 陈丽植; 马超; 燕铁斌

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价经皮电神经刺激(TENS)治疗症状性糖尿病周围神经病的有效性与安全性.方法 计算机检索PUBMED、EMBASE、Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials、中国生物医学文献数据库.由2位评价员独立检索、筛选文献,对符合纳入标准的文献进行方法 学质量评价并对各被研究患者的基本特征、干预措施、疗效观察指标等资料进行提取.用Revman4.2.8软件进行统计分析.结果 共纳入3个随机对照试验(RCT),包括78例患者.3个RCT采用无效刺激作为对照,按TENS治疗时间将其分为4,6,12周3个亚组进行缓解疼痛有效性的分析,报道治疗第4周与第6周时患者情况的各有1个RCT,结果 显示TENS组优于无效刺激组,其差异有统计学意义[SMD-5.37,95%CI(-6.97,-3.77);SMD-1.01,95%CI(-2.01,-0.01)],报道治疗第12周时患者情况的有2个RCT,其中1个RCT显示TENS组优于无效刺激组.另1个则无明显差异,Meta-分析显示2组之间差异无统计学意义[SMD-1.65,95%CI(-4.02,0.73)].在改善患者麻木等其他主观症状方面,TENS组明显优于无效刺激组[WMD-0.18,95%CI(-0.32,-0.051)].结论 TENS是一种治疗症状性糖尿病周围神经病有前景的、安全的治疗方法 .因纳入样本量较少,观察时间较短,长期疗效尚不清楚,仍值得临床上进一步研究.%Objective To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of transcutaneous electricalnerve stimulation (TENS) on symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Methods Electronic databases such asPUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese Biomedical Database weresearched by using such mesh and text keywords as "TENS" and "diabetic neuropathy". Randomized controlled trials(RCTs) on the effect of TENS on symptomatic diabetic neuropathy were included. Studies were selected and availa-ble data was extracted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 4.2.8 software

  2. Evaluation of a transcutaneous blood gas monitoring system in critically ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowaychuk, Marie K; Fujita, Hiroshi; Bersenas, Alexa M E

    2014-01-01

    To describe the use of a transcutaneous blood gas monitoring system in critically ill dogs, determine if transcutaneous and arterial blood gas values have good agreement, and verify if clinical or laboratory variables are correlated with differences between transcutaneous and arterial blood gas measurements. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital ICU. Twenty-three client-owned dogs. In critically ill dogs undergoing arterial blood gas monitoring, a transcutaneous blood gas monitor was used to measure transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO2 ) values 30 minutes after sensor placement, which were compared to PaCO2 and PaO2 values measured simultaneously. Clinical and laboratory variables were concurrently recorded to determine if they were correlated with the difference between transcutaneous and arterial blood gas measurements. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean bias of 4.6 ± 26.3 mm Hg (limits of agreement [LOA]: -46.9/+56.1 mm Hg) between PtcO2 and PaO2 and a mean bias of 9.3 ± 8.5 mm Hg (LOA: -7.5/+26.0 mm Hg) between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 . The difference between PtcCO2 -PaCO2 was strongly negatively correlated with HCO3 (-) (r(2) = 0.52, P blood pressure (r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.044), whereas the difference between PtcCO2 -PaCO2 was moderately negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r(2) = 0.33, P = 0.008). Agreement between transcutaneous and arterial PO2 and PCO2 measurements in these critically ill dogs was inferior to that reported in similar adult and pediatric human studies. The transcutaneous monitor consistently over-estimated PaO2 and PaCO2 and should not be used to replace arterial blood gas measurements in critically ill dogs requiring blood gas interpretation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  3. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eiji; Hasegawa, Takumi; Takeda, Daisuke; Ueha, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Akisue, Toshihiro; Sakai, Yoshitada; Komori, Takahide

    2016-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common form of oral cancers. Recent studies have shown that the malignant transformation of various carcinomas, including OSCC, is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and that expression of the EMT factors are significantly associated with tumor invasion, tumor metastasis, and survival rates in OSCC patients. Hence, there is a possibility that EMT suppression may improve the prognosis of OSCC patients. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a crucial microenvironmental factor in tumor progression, which induces the expression of EMT factors. We previously reported that transcutaneous CO2 suppresses both human OSCC tumor growth and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes by improving hypoxia in treated tissue. According to this background, we hypothesized that increased EMT with HIF-1α expression may increase the progression and the metastatic potential of OSCC, and that decreased hypoxia by transcutaneous CO2 could suppress EMT. In the present study, in vitro studies showed that hypoxic conditions increased the expression of HIF-1α and EMT factors in OSCC cells. In addition, in vivo studies revealed that transcutaneous CO2 increased E-cadherin expression with the decreased expression of HIF-1α, Snail, Slug, N-cadherin, and Vimentin in tumor treatment. These results suggest that transcutaneous CO2 could suppress EMT by improving hypoxia, resulting in the reduction of metastatic potential of OSCC. The findings indicate that transcutaneous CO2 may be able to improve the prognosis of OSCC patients through the suppression of EMT.

  4. Improvement of physical performance by transcutaneous nerve stimulation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaada, B

    1984-01-01

    The present pilot study tested the exercise response to transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) of 21 volunteers, who were well-trained competitive athletes. In 62 experiments (n) they received low-frequency TNS (2 Hz) for 30-45 min prior to either a road or track race, swimming race, bicycle ergometer exercise, isometric muscular endurance test, or dynamometer hand grip test. Improvement in performance compared with a corresponding number of control tests, without TNS or with placebo stimulation in the same subjects, was almost regularly observed in running, swimming and ergometer cycling, although with great individual variations. The average improvement was 4.3 sec (2.2%) in 1.000 m road racing (n = 9); 2.3 sec (1.8%) in 800 m track racing (n = 5); 0.9 sec (1.4%) in 100 m swimming (n = 12); 1.3 sec (0.8%) in 200 m swimming (n = 6); and 2.5 sec (0.9%) in 400 m swimming (n = 3). In a bicycle ergometer test with stepwise, progressive exercise to muscular fatigue, the maximal capacity was increased by 9% (n = 4). Local isometric muscle endurance of the elbow flexors (n = 7) and hand grip strengths (n = 11) were not significantly altered. Possible mechanisms involved in the response to TNS are discussed.

  5. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of gastric distension with fluid in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marcos; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie; Rose, Patricia; Muirhead, Tammy

    2007-02-01

    To develop a transcutaneous ultrasonography (TUS) method for measuring the location of the stomach during various levels of fluid distension and evaluate any correlation between gastric fluid distension and stomach position. 6 adult horses. Known volumes of water were administered in 2 trials. In trial 1, the stomach was evaluated prior to and after the administration of 2, 4, and 6 L of water. In trial 2, the stomach was evaluated after administration of 6, 8, 10, and 12 L of water. The TUS was performed at the 7th through 16th left intercostal spaces (ICSs). For each volume of water, an image was captured at the most dorsal point in each ICS where the dorsolateral aspect of the stomach wall was viewed. The distance between this point and a horizontal line drawn on the skin at the level of the elbow joint was measured. The measurements at all ICSs were used to estimate the gastric wall height at ICS 12, which was subsequently evaluated for statistical association with volume administered. Significant correlation between the estimated height of the stomach wall at ICS 12 and the volume of fluid administered was detected. A regression equation to estimate gastric fluid volume when initial values for gastric wall height (cm) at ICS 12 and fluid volume (L) are known was developed. Results suggested that use of TUS for gastric fluid volume estimation is a potentially useful technique.

  6. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation boosts associative memory in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Riphagen, Joost M; Razat, Chantalle M; Wiese, Svenja; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-05-01

    Direct vagus nerve stimulation (dVNS) is known to improve mood, epilepsy, and memory. Memory improvements have been observed in Alzheimer's disease patients after long-term stimulation. The potential of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a noninvasive alternative to dVNS, to alter memory performance remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of a single-session tVNS on associative memory performance in healthy older individuals. To investigate this, we performed a single-blind sham-controlled randomized crossover pilot study in healthy older individuals (n = 30, 50% female). During the stimulation or sham condition, participants performed an associative face-name memory task. tVNS enhanced the number of hits of the memory task, compared with the sham condition. This effect was specific to the experimental task. Participants reported few side effects. We conclude that tVNS is a promising neuromodulatory technique to improve associative memory performance in older individuals, even after a single session. More research is necessary to investigate its underlying neural mechanisms, the impact of varying stimulation parameters, and its applicability in patients with cognitive decline.

  7. Central and Peripheral Effects of Transcutaneous Acupuncture Treatment for Nausea in Patients with Diabetic Gastroparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Irene; Song, Gengqing; Sun, Yan; Sandoval, Hugo; Sands, Stephen; Chen, Jiande; McCallum, Richard W

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Nausea, an unpleasant symptom of diabetic gastroparesis (DMGP), has been reported to be alleviated by needleless transcutaneous electrical acupuncture (TEA). Our study was designed to utilize electroencephalography (EEG) and electrogastrography (EGG) recordings to investigate the central and peripheral responses of TEA in the treatment of nausea in DMGP patients. Methods Eleven DMGP subjects underwent simultaneous EEG and EGG testing while grading the severity of nausea following 30-minute intervals of: (1) baseline, (2) visual stimulation (VS) to provoke more nausea, (3) active VS together with TEA, and (4) TEA alone, and a final 15-minute recording without any intervention. Results The nausea score was increased to 5.9 ± 1.5 with VS (P < 0.05, vs 3.5 ± 1.0 at baseline), then reduced to 3.5 ± 1.2 with VS plus TEA, and to 2.5 ± 1.3 with TEA alone, while it continued at a score of 2.9 ± 1.0 post TEA (all significant, P < 0.05, vs VS without TEA). The mean percentage of normal gastric slow waves was decreased to 60.0 ± 5.7% with VS (P < 0.05, vs 66.6 ± 4.5% at baseline), then improved to 69.2 ± 4.8% with VS plus TEA, and maintained at 70 ± 3.6% with TEA alone. During initial VS, EEG signals showed right inferior frontal activity as the prominent finding, but during VS with TEA, left inferior frontal activity predominated. Conclusions In DMGP, TEA improves gastric dysrhythmia and ameliorates nausea. TEA treatment of nausea provoked by VS resulted in a change of dominance from right to left inferior frontal lobe activity. These data provide new understandings of peripheral and central mechanisms for nausea, and potential future directions for DMGP treatment approaches. PMID:28163260

  8. Differential effects of acute and repeated electrically and chemically induced seizures on ( sup 3 H)Nimodipine and ( sup 125 I)omega-conotoxin GVIA binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Cain, C.J.; Weiss, S.R.; Post, R.M.; Marangos, P.J. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    ({sup 3}H)Nimodipine and high-affinity ({sup 125}I)omega-conotoxin GVIA (CgTX) binding were investigated in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus after electrically and chemically induced seizures. Animals were decapitated 30 min after a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or lidocaine-induced seizure and 24 h after the last of 10 once-daily ECS or six once-daily lidocaine-induced seizures. After a single ECS, ({sup 3}H)nimodipine and ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding sites decreased in cerebral cortex (by 10% and 17%, respectively). A downregulation of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in hippocampus occurred after single and repeated lidocaine-induced seizures (by 24% and 11%, respectively), whereas ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding remained unaltered. An earlier report on changes in ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding after chronic ECS in cortex and hippocampus was not confirmed.

  9. A novel system for transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide causing an "artificial Bohr effect" in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitada Sakai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO(2 therapy refers to the transcutaneous administration of CO(2 for therapeutic purposes. This effect has been explained by an increase in the pressure of O(2 in tissues known as the Bohr effect. However, there have been no reports investigating the oxygen dissociation of haemoglobin (Hb during transcutaneous application of CO(2in vivo. In this study, we investigate whether the Bohr effect is caused by transcutaneous application of CO2 in human living body. METHODS: We used a novel system for transcutaneous application of CO(2 using pure CO(2 gas, hydrogel, and a plastic adaptor. The validity of the CO(2 hydrogel was confirmed in vitro using a measuring device for transcutaneous CO(2 absorption using rat skin. Next, we measured the pH change in the human triceps surae muscle during transcutaneous application of CO(2 using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in vivo. In addition, oxy- and deoxy-Hb concentrations were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy in the human arm with occulted blood flow to investigate O2 dissociation from Hb caused by transcutaneous application of CO(2. RESULTS: The rat skin experiment showed that CO(2 hydrogel enhanced CO(2 gas permeation through the rat skin. The intracellular pH of the triceps surae muscle decreased significantly 10 min. after transcutaneous application of CO(2. The NIRS data show the oxy-Hb concentration decreased significantly 4 min. after CO(2 application, and deoxy-Hb concentration increased significantly 2 min. after CO(2 application in the CO(2-applied group compared to the control group. Oxy-Hb concentration significantly decreased while deoxy-Hb concentration significantly increased after transcutaneous CO(2 application. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel transcutaneous CO(2 application facilitated an O(2 dissociation from Hb in the human body, thus providing evidence of the Bohr effect in vivo.

  10. Transcutaneous vagus and trigeminal nerve stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Shiozawa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS. All techniques have shown preliminary promising results, although the results are mixed. Method: We performed a systematic review of the Medline and Embase databases, with no constraint to dates, through June 2013. The keywords were [(1 trigeminal nerve stimulation OR (2 cranial nerve OR (3 trigemin* OR (4 transcutaneous VNS OR (5 transcutaneous cranial nerve stimulation] and (6 mental disorders. Results: We included four preclinical and clinical five studies on TNS. All clinical data were based on open-label studies with small samples, which diminished the external validity of the results, thus reflecting the modest impact of TNS in current clinical practice. Of the tVNS clinical trials, three assessed physiological features in healthy volunteers, and one examined patients with epilepsy. Conclusion: TNS and tVNS improve treatment of particular neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression.

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Barbara M; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle.

  12. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation modulates human corticospinal system excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocci, Tommaso; Marceglia, Sara; Vergari, Maurizio; Cognetto, Valeria; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Priori, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of thoracic anodal and cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on upper and lower limb corticospinal excitability. Although there have been studies assessing how thoracic tsDCS influences the spinal ascending tract and reflexes, none has assessed the effects of this technique over upper and lower limb corticomotor neuronal connections. In 14 healthy subjects we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from abductor hallucis (AH) and hand abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles before (baseline) and at different time points (0 and 30 min) after anodal or cathodal tsDCS (2.5 mA, 20 min, T9-T11 level). In 8 of the 14 subjects we also tested the soleus H reflex and the F waves from AH and ADM before and after tsDCS. Both anodal and cathodal tsDCS left the upper limb MEPs and F wave unchanged. Conversely, while leaving lower limb H reflex unchanged, they oppositely affected lower limb MEPs: whereas anodal tsDCS increased resting motor threshold [(mean ± SE) 107.33 ± 3.3% increase immediately after tsDCS and 108.37 ± 3.2% increase 30 min after tsDCS compared with baseline] and had no effects on MEP area and latency, cathodal tsDCS increased MEP area (139.71 ± 12.9% increase immediately after tsDCS and 132.74 ± 22.0% increase 30 min after tsDCS compared with baseline) without affecting resting motor threshold and MEP latency. Our results show that tsDCS induces polarity-specific changes in corticospinal excitability that last for >30 min after tsDCS offset and selectively affect responses in lower limb muscles innervated by lumbar and sacral motor neurons.

  13. Influence of extradural blockade and ephedrine on transcutaneous oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Sih, I L; Bovill, J G; van der Broek, B; Oosting, J

    1986-10-01

    The influence of lumbar extradural blockade with 0.5% pain bupivacaine on transcutaneous oxygen tension (PtcO2) and skin temperature was studied in 20 patients, 10 scheduled for vascular surgery and 10 for urological surgery. At the time of maximum extent of blockade, mean arterial pressure (MAP) had decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 96.6 +/- 18.8 mm Hg to 69.5 +/- 10.1 (mean +/- SD) in the vascular group and from 88.0 +/- 14.7 mm Hg to 71.1 +/- 12 mm Hg in the urological group. In the vascular group PtcO2 decreased significantly in the ischaemic (P less than 0.01) and non-ischaemic (P less than 0.001) limbs. In the urological group, there was a significant (P less than 0.001) decrease in PtcO2 in both limbs. There was no change in cutaneous temperature in the ischaemic limbs (vascular group), but the temperature in the non-ischaemic limbs increased significantly (P less than 0.01). In the urological group, the cutaneous temperature increased significantly (P less than 0.001) in both limbs. When ephedrine 10 mg was administered i.v., MAP increased significantly (P less than 0.001) in both groups to pre-blockade values. This was accompanied in both groups by significant increases in PtcO2' but not by a change in skin temperature. There was a significant correlation between change in MAP and change in PtcO2 in both groups after ephedrine.

  14. Accuracy of transcutaneous laryngeal ultrasound for detecting vocal cord paralysis in the immediate postoperative period after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marcos; Peláez, Eva M; Caubet, Enric; González, Óscar; Velasco, Mercedes; Rigual, Lidia

    2017-06-14

    Transcutaneous laryngeal ultrasound (TLUS) has emerged as a promising imaging tool for vocal cord examination in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. The focus of this prospective, double-blind study was to assess the accuracy of TLUS in the diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis in the immediate postoperative period following total thyroidectomy. The study included 93 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and assessed by videostrobolaryngoscopy (VSL) and TLUS. VSL was carried out the day before surgery and was repeated at 4 days postoperatively. TLUS was performed before surgery in the preanesthesia holding area and at completion of the procedure in the postanesthesia care unit. The preoperative and postoperative TLUS results were correlated with those of VSL. The statistical analysis included the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (with 95% CI) of TLUS for detecting vocal cord paralysis. The visualization rate associated with TLUS was 93%. The total vocal cord paralysis rate was 16.1%. The performance of TLUS for diagnosing this condition was as follows: sensitivity, 93.3% (95% CI, 77.3%-100%); specificity 96.1% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%); positive predictive value, 82.3% (95% CI, 61.2%-100%); negative predictive value, 98.6% (95%CI, 95.4%-100%). TLUS may be a suitable technique for detecting vocal cord paralysis shortly after total thyroidectomy.

  15. Transcutaneous migration of foreign body into thorax in children: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothra Jyoti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation and ingestion of foreign bodies is common in pediatric age group. However transcutaneous migration of sharps into the lung parenchyma is rarely reported and can be hazardous. We report two such cases with details on the diagnosis and the treatment modalities used for the management.

  16. Nanotextured titanium surfaces for enhancing skin growth on transcutaneous osseointegrated devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Sabrina D; Lee, Phin Peng; Ciombor, Deborah M; Aaron, Roy K; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-06-01

    A major problem with transcutaneous osseointegrated implants is infection, mainly due to improper closure of the implant-skin interface. Therefore, the design of transcutaneous osseointegrated devices that better promote skin growth around these exit sites needs to be examined and, if successful, would clearly limit infection. Due to the success already demonstrated for orthopedic implants, developing surfaces with biologically inspired nanometer features is a design criterion that needs to be investigated for transcutaneous devices. This study therefore examined the influence of nanotextured titanium (Ti) created through electron beam evaporation and anodization on keratinocyte (skin-forming cell) function. Electron beam evaporation created Ti surfaces with nanometer features while anodization created Ti surfaces with nanotubes. Conventional Ti surfaces were largely micron rough, with few nanometer surface features. Results revealed increased keratinocyte adhesion in addition to increased keratinocyte spreading and differences in keratinocyte filopodia extension on the nanotextured Ti surfaces prepared by either electron beam evaporation or anodization compared to their conventional, unmodified counterparts after 4h. Results further revealed increased keratinocyte proliferation and cell spreading over 3 and 5days only on the nanorough Ti surfaces prepared by electron beam evaporation compared to both the anodized nanotubular and unmodified Ti surfaces. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study provided the first evidence that nano-modification techniques should be further researched as a means to possibly improve skin growth, thereby improving transcutaneous osseointegrated orthopedic implant longevity.

  17. Comparison between a new implantable transcutaneous bone conductor and percutaneous bone-conduction hearing implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Myrthe K S; Nelissen, Rik C; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Snik, Ad F M

    2013-08-01

    Despite good results on osseointegration and limited skin reactions with percutaneous bone conductors, there remains room for improvement. Especially in children, adverse events with percutaneous bone conductors might occur more frequently. Transcutaneous bone conductors, if powerful enough, can provide a solution that minimizes adverse events and implant loss. This study compares a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing aid, the Sophono Alpha 1 (Sophono), with the percutaneous BAHA system (BAHA). In our tertiary referral center, 12 patients (age 5-12 yr) with congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss were enrolled in the study as follows: 6 patients with the Sophono and 6 with the BAHA. Both clinical results and audiologic data were gathered. For an objective audiologic comparison between both systems, we used a skull simulator. The skin reactions were comparable between both groups, in 1 implant was lost 1 month after second phase surgery (BAHA). The users received audiologic benefits from both systems. The BAHA-based outcome was slightly better compared with Sophono-based results in sound field thresholds, speech recognition threshold, and speech comprehension at 65 dB. The skull simulator demonstrated that the BAHA device has an output that is 10 to 15 dB higher compared with the Sophono device. The Sophono offers appealing clinical benefits of transcutaneous bone conduction hearing; however, the audiologic challenges of transcutaneous application remain, as the Sophono does not exceed percutaneous application regarding audiologic output.

  18. Validation of a Transcutaneous CO2 Monitor in Adult Patients with Chronic Respiratory Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, A.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Wijkstra, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Home mechanical ventilation is usually started in hospital as arterial blood gas sampling is deemed necessary to monitor CO2 and O-2 adequately during institution of ventilatory support. A non-invasive device to reliably measure CO2 transcutaneously would alleviate the need for high care

  19. Microneedle arrays for the transcutaneous immunization of diphtheria and influenza in BALB/c mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Z.; Verbaan, F. J.; Bivas-Benita, M.; Bungener, L.; Huckriede, A.; van den Berg, D. J.; Kersten, G.; Bouwstra, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is limited by poor permeation of macromolecules across the skin. Microneedle arrays form transient conduits and enhance the transport of vaccine molecules across the skin barrier without pain sensation. Here we investigated in mouse the immune responses after TO usi

  20. A novel approach for an ECG electrode integrated into a transcutaneous sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, U

    1987-01-01

    The integration of an ECG-electrode into a common transcutaneous sensor allows simple handling and leads to a reduction of the physiological stress of pre-term infants. Furthermore it may allow future replacement of an invasive method to measure the ECG under labour by a non-invasive one.

  1. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  2. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide application accelerates muscle injury repair in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Shiho; Sakai, Yoshitada; Ueha, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Hanako; Inoue, Miho; Niikura, Takahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2017-05-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are commonly observed in sports and traumatology medicine. Previously, we demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2) to lower limbs increased the number of muscle mitochondria and promoted muscle endurance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether transcutaneous CO2 application could enhance recovery from muscle injury. Tibialis anterior muscle damage was induced in 27 Sprague Dawley rats via intramuscular injection of bupivacaine. After muscle injury, rats were randomly assigned to transcutaneous CO2-treated or -untreated groups. From each group, three rats were sacrificed at weeks one, two, four and six. At each time point, histology and immunofluorescence analyses were performed, and changes in muscle weight, muscle weight/body weight ratio, muscle fibre circumference, gene expression levels and capillary density were measured. Injured muscle fibres were completely repaired at week six in the CO2-treated group but only partially repaired in the untreated group. The repair of basement and plasma membranes did not differ significantly between groups. However, expression levels of genes and proteins related to muscle protein synthesis were significantly higher in the CO2-treated group and significantly more capillaries four weeks after injury. Transcutaneous CO2 application can accelerate recovery after muscle injury in rats.

  3. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).

  4. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t...

  5. Fluorescently labeled cyclodextrin derivatives as exogenous markers for real-time transcutaneous measurement of renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiaguo; Weinfurter, Stefanie; Pinto, Pedro Caetano; Pretze, Marc; Kränzlin, Bettina; Pill, Johannes; Federica, Rodeghiero; Perciaccante, Rossana; Ciana, Leopoldo Della; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Gretz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of renal function is crucial for a number of clinical situations. Here, we reported a novel exogenous fluorescent marker (FITC-HPβCD) to real-time assess renal function by using a transcutaneous fluorescent detection technique. FITC-HPβCD was designed based on the principle of renal

  6. Fluorescently Labeled Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Exogenous Markers for Real-Time Transcutaneous Measurement of Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Weinfurter, S.; Pinto, P.C.; Pretze, M.; Kranzlin, B.; Pill, J.; Federica, R.; Perciaccante, R.; Ciana, L.D.; Masereeuw, R.; Gretz, N.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of renal function is crucial for a number of clinical situations. Here, we reported a novel exogenous fluorescent marker (FITC-HPbetaCD) to real-time assess renal function by using a transcutaneous fluorescent detection technique. FITC-HPbetaCD was designed based on the principle of renal

  7. Transcutaneous Port for Continuous Duodenal Levodopa/Carbidopa Administration in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Nyman, Rickard; van Laar, Teus; Drent, Martje; Prins, Ted; Leenders, Klaus Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    Motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be reduced by intraduodenal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa (Duodopa (R)) via percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEG). We applied the transcutaneous soft-tissue anchored titanium port (T-port) in 15 PD patients with motor fluctuations; 7 Duod

  8. Effects of a single dose of terlipressin on transcutaneous oxygen pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Terlipressin (TP) is a potent vasoconstrictor, which is widely used in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices and the hepatorenal syndrome. Side effects to TP are often related to skin hypoxaemia. The aim of the study was to investigate the transcutaneous oxygen pressures...

  9. Optimization of antitumor treatment conditions for transcutaneous CO2 application: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Onishi, Yasuo; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Toda, Mitsunori; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro; Sakai, Yoshitada

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) therapy can be applied to treat a variety of disorders. We previously found that transcutaneous application of CO2 with a hydrogel decreased the tumor volume of several types of tumors and induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. However, only one condition of treatment intensity has been tested. For widespread application in clinical antitumor therapy, the conditions must be optimized. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the duration, frequency, and treatment interval of transcutaneous CO2 application and antitumor effects in murine xenograft models. Murine xenograft models of three types of human tumors (breast cancer, osteosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma) were used to assess the antitumor effects of transcutaneous CO2 application of varying durations, frequencies, and treatment intervals. In all human tumor xenografts, apoptosis was significantly induced by CO2 treatment for ≥10 min, and a significant decrease in tumor volume was observed with CO2 treatments of >5 min. The effect on tumor volume was not dependent on the frequency of CO2 application, i.e., twice or five times per week. However, treatment using 3- and 4-day intervals was more effective at decreasing tumor volume than treatment using 2- and 5-day intervals. The optimal conditions of transcutaneous CO2 application to obtain the best antitumor effect in various tumors were as follows: greater than 10 min per application, twice per week, with 3- and 4-day intervals, and application to the site of the tumor. The results suggest that this novel transcutaneous CO2 application might be useful to treat primary tumors, while mitigating some side effects, and therefore could be safe for clinical trials.

  10. A new transcutaneous energy transmission system with hybrid energy coils for driving an implantable biventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Akasaka, Yuhta; Motomura, Tadashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system for a totally implantable biventricular assist device (BVAD) system in the New Energy and Industrial Development Organization (NEDO) artificial heart project. The TET system mainly consists of an energy transmitter, a hybrid energy coil unit, an energy receiver, an internal battery system, and an optical telemetry system. The hybrid energy coil unit consists of an air-core energy transmission coil and an energy-receiving coil having a ferrite core. Internal units of the TET system are encapsulated in a titanium alloy casing, which has a size of 111 mm in width, 73 mm in length, and 25 mm in height. In in vitro experiments, the TET system can transmit a maximum electric energy of 60 Watts, and it has a maximum transmission efficiency of 87.3%. A maximum surface temperature of 46.1 degrees C was measured at the ferrite core of the energy-receiving coil during an energy transmission of 20 Watts in air. The long-term performance test shows that the TET system has been able to operate stably for over 4 years with a decrease of energy-transmission efficiency from 85% to 80%. In conclusion, the TET system with the hybrid energy coil can overcome the drawback of previously reported TET systems, and it promises to be the highest performance TET system in the world.

  11. Measurement of electrode-tissue interface impedance for improvement of a transcutaneous data transmission using human body as transmission medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kato, Yoshikuni; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The electrical property between an electrode and skin or tissue is one of the important issues for communication performance of the transcutaneous communication system (TCS) using a human body as a conductive medium.In this study, we used a simple method to measure interface resistance between the electrode and skin on the surface of the body. The electrode-electrode impedance was measured by a commercially available LCR meter with changes in the distance between two electrodes on an arm of a healthy male subject, and we obtained the tissue resistivity and electrode-skin interface resistance using the cross-sectional area of the arm.We also measured transmission gain of the TCS on the surface of the body, and we investigated the relationship between electrode-skin interface resistance and transmission gain. We examined four kinds of electrodes: a stainless steel electrode, a titanium electrode, an Ag-AgCl electrode and an Ag-AgCl paste electrode. The stainless steel electrode, which had lower electrode-skin resistance, had higher transmission gain.The results indicate that an electrode that has lower electrode-skin resistance will contribute to improvement of the performance of the TCS and that electrode-skin interface resistance is one of valuable evaluation parameters for selecting an optimum electrode for the TCS.

  12. Augmentation of Voluntary Locomotor Activity by Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation in Motor-Incomplete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Krenn, Matthias; Danner, Simon M; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; McKay, William B; Mayr, Winfried; Minassian, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The level of sustainable excitability within lumbar spinal cord circuitries is one of the factors determining the functional outcome of locomotor therapy after motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Here, we present initial data using noninvasive transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) to modulate this central state of excitability during voluntary treadmill stepping in three motor-incomplete spinal cord-injured individuals. Stimulation was applied at 30 Hz with an intensity that generated tingling sensations in the lower limb dermatomes, yet without producing muscle reflex activity. This stimulation changed muscle activation, gait kinematics, and the amount of manual assistance required from the therapists to maintain stepping with some interindividual differences. The effect on motor outputs during treadmill-stepping was essentially augmentative and step-phase dependent despite the invariant tonic stimulation. The most consistent modification was found in the gait kinematics, with the hip flexion during swing increased by 11.3° ± 5.6° across all subjects. This preliminary work suggests that tSCS provides for a background increase in activation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuitry that has partially lost its descending drive. Voluntary inputs and step-related feedback build upon the stimulation-induced increased state of excitability in the generation of locomotor activity. Thus, tSCS essentially works as an electrical neuroprosthesis augmenting remaining motor control.

  13. The Anticonvulsant Effect of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation is Associated with Balancing the Autonomic Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation is associated with balancing the autonomic dysfunction in rats.

  14. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  15. The effect of transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, Keisuke [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Ueha, Takeshi [NeoChemir Inc, Kobe (Japan); Sakai, Yoshitada, E-mail: sakai.yoshitada@gm.himeji-du.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Care Sciences, Himeji Dokkyo University, Himeji (Japan); Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Koh, Akihiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hasegawa, Takumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Tanaka, Masaya [NeoChemir Inc, Kobe (Japan); Miwa, Masahiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} PGC-1{alpha} is up-regulated as a result of exercise such as mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber-type switching, and up-regulation of VEGF. {yields} We demonstrated transcutaneous application of CO{sub 2} up-regulated the gene expression of PGC-1{alpha}, SIRT1 and VEGF, and instance of muscle fiber switching. {yields} Transcutaneous application of CO{sub 2} may cause similar effect to aerobic exercise in skeletal muscle. -- Abstract: In Europe, carbon dioxide therapy has been used for cardiac disease and skin problems for a long time. However there have been few reports investigating the effects of carbon dioxide therapy on skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1{alpha}) is up-regulated as a result of exercise and mediates known responses to exercise, such as mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber-type switching, and neovascularization via up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is also known that silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs 1 (SIRT1) enhances PGC-1{alpha}-mediated muscle fiber-type switching. Previously, we demonstrated transcutaneous application of CO{sub 2} increased blood flow and a partial increase of O{sub 2} pressure in the local tissue known as the Bohr effect. In this study, we transcutaneously applied CO{sub 2} to the lower limbs of rats, and investigated the effect on the fast muscle, tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The transcutaneous CO{sub 2} application caused: (1) the gene expression of PGC-1{alpha}, silent mating type information regulation 2 homologs 1 (SIRT1) and VEGF, and increased the number of mitochondria, as proven by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, (2) muscle fiber switching in the TA muscle, as proven by isolation of myosin heavy chain and ATPase staining. Our results suggest the transcutaneous application of CO{sub 2} may have therapeutic potential for muscular strength recovery resulting from disuse

  16. Transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A R; Krishnamoorthy, G; Patil, N; Mondkar, J A; Swar, B D

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm neonates. A mixture of coconut oil and Meadowfoam oil which contains unique fatty acids, which acted as marker fatty acids was applied to the skin of babies. One mL blood was collected before and one hour after post oil application. Both pre and post oil application serum samples were hydrolysed and derivatised with 2-phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in order to detect fatty acids by HPLC analysis on C-8 column. None of the pre oil application serum sample showed the presence of the marker fatty acids. The post oil application serum sample of all the 12 babies showed the presence of marker fatty acids of Meadowfoam oil which indicates transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies.

  17. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength combined with transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation in primary fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1991-01-01

    Twenty women with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 age matched healthy women were investigated. The subjects performed maximum voluntary isokinetic contractions of the right quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions of the right quadriceps were performe...

  18. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the relief of pain related to physical therapy after abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Marques Tonella; Sebastião Araújo; Áurea Maria Oliveira da Silva

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A eletroestimulação nervosa transcutânea (TENS) tem sido pouco estudada como método facilitador da fisioterapia pós-operatória. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a eficácia da TENS no alívio da dor relacionada com fisioterapia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a intervenções cirúrgicas abdominais. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo clínico, prospectivo, com distribuição aleatória, incluindo 48 pacientes no primeiro dia de pós-operatório, que apresentavam escore d...

  19. Can transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation improve achilles tendon healing in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. C. Folha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tendon injury is one of the most frequent injuries in sports activities. TENS is a physical agent used in the treatment of pain but its influence on the tendon's healing process is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of TENS on the healing of partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in rats. METHOD: Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon by direct trauma and randomized into six groups (TENS or Sham stimulation and the time of evaluation (7, 14, and 21 days post-injury. Burst TENS was applied for 30 minutes, 6 days, 100 Hz frequency, 2 Hz burst frequency, 200 µs pulse duration, and 300 ms pulse train duration. Microscopic analyses were performed to quantify the blood vessels and mast cells, birefringence to quantify collagen fiber alignment, and immunohistochemistry to quantify types I and III collagen fibers. RESULTS: A significant interaction was observed for collagen type I (p=0.020 where the TENS group presented lower percentage in 14 days after the lesion (p=0.33. The main group effect showed that the TENS group presented worse collagen fiber alignment (p=0.001 and lower percentage of collagen III (p=0.001 and the main time effect (p=0.001 showed decreased percentage of collagen III at 7 days (p=0.001 and 14 days (p=0.001 after lesion when compared to 21 days. CONCLUSIONS: Burst TENS inhibited collagen I and III production and impaired its alignment during healing of partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in rats.

  20. [Postoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in shoulder surgery (randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, R; Molnar, M; Pipam, W; Koppert, W; Quantschnigg, B; Disselhoff, B; Sittl, R

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 days of TENS therapy postoperatively after shoulder operations would result in better pain relief and/or reduced analgesic intake when compared to placebo. The study was carried out randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. Thirty patients were randomized to two groups. The verum group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 6 mA and the placebo group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 0 mA. The pain was assessed pre-operatively using the Hamburg Pain Adjective List. Premedication and Anaesthesia were standardized. TENS was applied to the patients immediately postoperatively for 8 hours and then on the following days 5 times daily for 45 minutes. The effectiveness was evaluated postoperatively using a visual analogue scale (rest, activity), the Hamburg Pain Adjective List and postoperative analgesic consumption. The visual analogue scale at rest and on activity showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride in the first 24 hours was at time 8 hours postoperative significantly and at all other time points markedly less in the verum group compared to the placebo group. The sensory secondary scale score of the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" was significantly lower postoperatively compared to preoperatively in the verum group. We were able to show in this study that TENS applied postoperatively after shoulder surgery clearly reduced analgesic consumption in the first 72 hours. Furthermore there was a significant difference in the pain scores using the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" in favour of the verum group. TENS applied postoperatively is a effective, simple modality with few side-effects.

  1. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION IN MODULATION OF PAIN OF TENDER POINTS IN SYNDROME FIBROMYALGIA: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Rori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has animportant role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-yearold female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points.

  2. Can transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation improve achilles tendon healing in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folha, Roberta A. C.; Pinfildi, Carlos E.; Liebano, Richard E.; Rampazo, Érika P.; Pereira, Raphael N.; Ferreira, Lydia M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tendon injury is one of the most frequent injuries in sports activities. TENS is a physical agent used in the treatment of pain but its influence on the tendon's healing process is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of TENS on the healing of partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in rats. METHOD: Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon by direct trauma and randomized into six groups (TENS or Sham stimulation) and the time of evaluation (7, 14, and 21 days post-injury). Burst TENS was applied for 30 minutes, 6 days, 100 Hz frequency, 2 Hz burst frequency, 200 µs pulse duration, and 300 ms pulse train duration. Microscopic analyses were performed to quantify the blood vessels and mast cells, birefringence to quantify collagen fiber alignment, and immunohistochemistry to quantify types I and III collagen fibers. RESULTS: A significant interaction was observed for collagen type I (p=0.020) where the TENS group presented lower percentage in 14 days after the lesion (p=0.33). The main group effect showed that the TENS group presented worse collagen fiber alignment (p=0.001) and lower percentage of collagen III (p=0.001) and the main time effect (p=0.001) showed decreased percentage of collagen III at 7 days (p=0.001) and 14 days (p=0.001) after lesion when compared to 21 days. CONCLUSIONS: Burst TENS inhibited collagen I and III production and impaired its alignment during healing of partial rupture of the Achilles tendon in rats. PMID:26647744

  3. The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation on the Orthodontic Movement of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Bone is said to have piezoelectric (piezo - from the Greek word meaning "pressure") properties ’. 4 6 primarily due to its collagenous composition as...Movement, Am. J. Orthod . 80. 256-262, 1981. $ 3. Litton, S.F.: Orthodontic Tooth Movement During Ascorbic Acid Deficiency, Am. J. Orthod . 65: 290-302...Nucleotides, Am J. Orthod . 76: 14-32, 1980. 5. Gianelly, A.A., and Schnur, R.M.: The Use of Para- thyroid Hormone to Assist Orthodontic Tooth Movement

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Auricular Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Managing Posthysterectomy Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin Cheung Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Result. As compared to the baseline, only the true TENS group reported a significant reduction in VAS-rest (P=.001, VAS-huff (P=.004, and VAS-cough (P=.001, while no significant reduction in any of the VAS scores was seen in the sham TENS group (all P>.05. In contrast, a small rising trend was observed in the VAS-rest and VAS-huff scores of the control group, while the VAS-cough score remained largely unchanged during the period of the study. A between-group comparison revealed that all three VAS scores of the true TENS group were significantly lower than those of the control group at 15 and 30 minutes after the intervention (all P<.02. No significant between-group difference was observed in PEFR at any point in time. Conclusion. A single session of auricular TENS applied at specific therapeutic points significantly reduced resting (VAS-rest and movement-evoked pain (VAS-huff, VAS-cough, and the effects lasted for at least 30 minutes after the stimulation. The analgesic effects of auricular TENS appeared to be point specific and could not be attributed to the placebo effect alone. However, auricular TENS did not produce any significant improvement in the performance of PEFR.

  5. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) does not increase prosocial behavior in Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaro, Roberta; Steenbergen, Laura; Verkuil, Bart; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that individuals experience vicarious social pain (i.e., ostracism). It has been proposed that observing ostracism increases activity in the insula and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), two key brain regions activated by directly experiencing ostracism. Here, we assessed the causal role of the insula and PFC in modulating neural activity in these areas by applying transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS), a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus ...

  6. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Method for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yu; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) on the auricular branch of the vagus nerve has been receiving attention due to its therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the mechanism of tVNS is not yet completely understood, studies have demonstrated the potential role of vagal afferent nerve stimulation in the regulation of mood and visceral state associated with social communication. In addition, a growing body of evidence shows that tVNS can activate the brain region...

  7. Early cortical biomarkers of longitudinal transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment success in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jiliang; Egorova, Natalia; Rong, Peijing; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Fan, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Honghong; Yu, Yutian; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Li, Shaoyuan; Zhao, Jingjun; Luo, Man; Bing ZHU

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, has shown promising results in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) in several pilot studies. However, the neural mechanism by which the effect on depression might be achieved has not been fully investigated, with only a few neuroimaging studies demonstrating tVNS-induced changes in the brains of healthy volunteers. Identifying specific neural pathways...

  8. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) does not increase prosocial behavior in Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta eSellaro; Laura eSteenbergen; Bart eVerkuil; Marinus eVan IJzendoorn; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that individuals experience vicarious social pain (i.e., ostracism). It has been proposed that observing ostracism increases activity in the insula and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), two key brain regions activated by directly experiencing ostracism. Here, we assessed the causal role of the insula and PFC in modulating neural activity in these areas by applying transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus ...

  9. Comparison of Transcutaneous and Capillary Measurement of PCO2 in Hypercapnic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Sven; Matthes, Sandhya; Priegnitz, Christina; Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of PCO2 is vital in determining effective alveolar ventilation. However, obtaining capillary PCO2 by a skin prick of the earlobe is painful, and nocturnal measurements disturb sleep. End-expiratory measurement of PCO2 is also well established, but there is a low precision in predicting arterial or capillary CO2. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nocturnal measurement of noninvasive, transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2 ) measurement in hypercapnic subjects. In this prospective study, 31 subjects with chronic hypercapnic failure--in a stable phase of the underlying disease--and a control group of 12 healthy volunteers were included. Transcutaneous measurements were taken by the Tosca sensor (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) over a period of at least 6 h during the night. A capillary blood gas was measured at midnight and 4:00 am. The mean nocturnal capillary PCO2 (PcapCO2 ) of subjects was 50.6 ± 10.2 mm Hg. In the 31 subjects with known hypercapnic respiratory failure, the correlation between PtcCO2 and PcapCO2 at midnight was 0.86 and at 4:00 am r = 0.80. The bias of the hypercapnic subjects was d = + 4.5 with a limit(s) of agreement of 2 SD = 13.0. The process of blood sampling caused no significant change in PtcCO2 . Our study evaluated transcutaneous capnography as a continuous nocturnal measurement in hypercapnic subjects. We found a good agreement between the methods. Because CO2 is not constant in patients with respiratory failure, but instead fluctuates, we would recommend the continuous transcutaneous measurement of PCO2 as our method of choice in the diagnosis of nocturnal hypercapnia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Transcutaneous oximetry monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and critical limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O N Bondarenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate transcutaneous oximetry as a method for diagnostics and monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and critical limb ischemia (CLI after percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTBA.Materials and Methods. We enrolled 126 patients with DM and CLI for participation in this study (148 limbs in total. 22 patients underwent PTBA on both lower limbs, and 104 – on single limb. Transcutaneous oximetry and duplex ultrasonography of lower limb arteries was performed prior to PTBA with subsequent examinations on 5-7th days, 1st, 3rd and 6th month after intervention. Transcu- taneous oxygen tension (TcpO2 was measured by Radiometer (Copenhagen oximeter system. Duplex ultrasonography was performed on Voluson 730® Expert system (GE Medical Systems Kretztechnik GmbH&Co OHG, Austria.Results. Multiple factor analysis suggests that results of TcpO2 monitoring prior to and after PTBA are influenced by presence of ischemic heart disease, severe lower limb infections, serum creatinine, arterial hypertension and lower limb reperfusion edema. We observed a strong correlation of TcpO2 with the degree of anterior tibial artery and dorsal pedis artery occlusion.Conclusion. Transcutaneous oximetry allows evaluation of CLI severity and efficiency of PTBA in the majority oа patients with DM and CLI. Certain comorbidities impose limitations on this technique. Efficiency of endovascular intervention should be evaluated based on complex non-invasive examination, clinical data and signs of CLI.

  11. Reduced discomfort during High-Definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan eGuleyupoglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area High-Definition (HD electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35cm2. In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies.MethodsPre-treatment with 6% benzocaine was compared with control (no pretreatment for 22 minutes 2 mA of stimulation, with either CCNY-4 or Lectron II electroconductive gel, for both cathodal and anodal transcutaneous (forearm stimulation (8 different combinations.Results Results show that for all conditions and polarities tested, stimulation with HD electrodes is safe and well tolerated and that pretreatment further reduced subjective discomfort. ConclusionPretreatment with a mild analgesic reduces discomfort during HD-tDCS.

  12. Innervation of the Human Cavum Conchae and Auditory Canal: Anatomical Basis for Transcutaneous Auricular Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, P.; López, M.; Larraya, I.; Chamorro, J.; Cobo, J. L.; Ordóñez, S.

    2017-01-01

    The innocuous transcutaneous stimulation of nerves supplying the outer ear has been demonstrated to be as effective as the invasive direct stimulation of the vagus nerve for the treatment of some neurological and nonneurological disturbances. Thus, the precise knowledge of external ear innervation is of maximal interest for the design of transcutaneous auricular nerve stimulation devices. We analyzed eleven outer ears, and the innervation was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, or immunofluorescence (neurofilaments, S100 protein, and myelin-basic protein). In both the cavum conchae and the auditory canal, nerve profiles were identified between the cartilage and the skin and out of the cartilage. The density of nerves and of myelinated nerve fibers was higher out of the cartilage and in the auditory canal with respect to the cavum conchae. Moreover, the nerves were more numerous in the superior and posterior-inferior than in the anterior-inferior segments of the auditory canal. The present study established a precise nerve map of the human cavum conchae and the cartilaginous segment of the auditory canal demonstrating regional differences in the pattern of innervation of the human outer ear. These results may provide additional neuroanatomical basis for the accurate design of auricular transcutaneous nerve stimulation devices.

  13. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara N. Bocan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters and variability (changes over time. Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver.

  14. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, Kara N; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-03-18

    Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters) and variability (changes over time). Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable) systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver.

  15. Muscle twitch responses for shaping the multi-pad electrode for functional electrical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Malešević Nebojša; Popović Lana; Bijelić Goran; Kvaščev Goran

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for optimization of multi-pad electrode spatial selectivity during transcutaneous Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of hand. The presented method is based on measurement of individual muscle twitch responses during low frequency electrical stimulation via pads within multi-pad electrode. Twitch responses are recorded by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers. The aim of this methodology is to substitute bulky sensors, torque sensor...

  16. "Hemosuccus pancreaticus"--primarily ultrasound-guided successful intervention using transcutaneous fibrin glue application and histoacryl injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, U; Mueller, A-K; Grote, R; Meyer, F

    2008-12-01

    There is a broad spectrum of causes for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding that can be stopped by various approaches. On the basis of the report of an extraordinary case, the favorable minimally invasive approach of applying fibrin glue and histoacryl/lipiodol to the vascular basis of a bleeding pseudoaneurysm leading to "Hemosuccus pancreaticus" as a rare cause of recurrent bleeding in the upper GI tract and dangerous complications in the case of chronic pancreatitis is described. There were recurrent bleeding episodes within the upper GI tract in a 40-year-old female patient. Her medical history was significant for chronic pancreatitis and pseudocyst. Abdominal ultrasound plus duplex ultrasonography revealed a pseudoaneurysm within the tail of the pancreas as the cause of "Hemosuccus pancreaticus". Ultrasound guidance was used to repeatedly apply 2 ml of fibrin glue and 2 x 2 ml of the mixture of lipiodol and histoacryl to the basis of the pseudoaneurysm which led to complete and permanent cessation of the bleeding. Immediate and follow-up control duplex ultrasonographies (up to one year) demonstrated sufficient exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm but a preservation of the lienal artery with no disturbance of the blood perfusion in the splenic parenchyma. In conclusion, this is one of the first reports of the successful cessation of recurrent bleeding into a pseudocyst out of pseudoaneurysm ("Hemosuccus pancreaticus") by an ultrasound-guided transcutaneous fibrin glue and histoacryl/lipiodol application, which 1. is recommended as an alternative but feasible and safe therapeutic tool, 2. can provide sufficient and permanent cessation of bleeding but preserve the perfusion of the natural vessel as an initial step in the possible therapeutic algorithm, and 3. can avoid, in case of success, more invasive approaches such as angiography-guided embolization with coils or implantation of a prosthesis and even open surgical intervention, in particular, in high

  17. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  18. Repeated 100 Hz TENS for the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Hyperalgesia and Suppression of Spinal Release of Substance P in Monoarthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been shown to be an effective measure for pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal intensity and interval of repeated 100 Hz TENS for the treatment of chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia in a monoarthritic pain model of the rat, and to assess the changes of the spinal substance P (SP release in response to TENS treatment. A reliable, reproducible chronic monoarthritic pain model was produced by intra-articular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA at single ankle joint. The efficacy of 100 Hz TENS treatments with different frequencies and intensities was compared. In the acute period (within 3 weeks of monoarthritis, twice-a-week schedule of TENS reduced the swelling of the inflamed ankle significantly. In the stable period (4–9 weeks, however, once-a-week schedule produced a significantly better therapeutic effect on both inflammation and arthritic hyperalgesia than that of twice- or five-times-a-week schedule. Using three levels of intensity of TENS, we found that the weaker (1-1-2 mA stimulation produced significantly better therapeutic effects. Repeated TENS produced a reduction of SP content in spinal perfusate in parallel with the progressive reduction of the arthritic pain scores. Our results suggest that (i consecutive TENS treatments produced cumulative effect for chronic hyperalgesia, (ii for chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia, a weaker intensity and more sparsely arranged treatment schedule may produce better therapeutic effect and (iii a decrease in SP release may serve as one of the possible neurochemical mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of multiple TENS treatments on chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  19. Evaluation of the correlation between transcutaneous measurement andconcentration ofbilirubin inthe blood serum ofa newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Morawiecka-Pietrzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to the potential toxicity of high concentrations of bilirubin, newborns are monitored in terms of the potential emergence of a group at risk of the development of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and, rarely, encephalopathy and kernicterus. The transcutaneous measurement of bilirubin, as a non-invasive method, is applied in neonatal centres. The paper presents an evaluation of the correlation between the transcutaneous measurement and the concentration of bilirubin in the blood serum of a newborn, taking into consideration the reduction of the necessity to carry out blood tests related to the transcutaneous measurement. Material and method: The analysis comprised 1,076 medical histories of newborns hospitalised at the Department of Neonatology of the Municipal Hospital in Zabrze in the period from 1 January to 31 December 2013 (a primary referral centre. The inclusion criteria for the study were: performing a simultaneous transcutaneous measurement and a blood serum concentration measurement of bilirubin, gestational age ≥35 Hbd and birth weight >2,500 g. 272 children were qualified for the study. Results: Boys constituted 51.7%, and girls 48.3% of the research group. The mean gestational age was 38.7 Hbd and the mean birth weight was 3,323.4 g; 67.8% of the children were born by natural labour and 32.2% – by caesarean section. The mean Apgar score in the 5th minute was 9.8 points. The measurement of the concentration of bilirubin was performed on average on the 3.9 day of life. The mean transcutaneous measurement was 9.67 mg% (2.7–17.2 mg% and the mean concentration of bilirubin in the blood serum was 13.18 mg% (7.0–19.8 mg%; the difference was 3.5 mg% (p < 0.0001. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of bilirubin obtained in the transcutaneous measurement and the concentrations in the blood serum (according to Spearman, r

  20. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-07-15

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize "high-definition" electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 min on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of five types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring and Ag/AgCl disc) and seven conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, rubber and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels.

  1. Magnetic-Field Immunity Examination and Evaluation of Transcutaneous Energy-Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous energy transmission (TET is the most promising noninvasive method for supplying driving energy to a totally implantable artificial heart. Induction-heating (IH cookers generate a magnetic flux, and if a cooker is operated near a transcutaneous transformer, the magnetic flux generated will link with its external and internal coils. This will affect the performance of the TET and the artificial heart system. In this paper, we present the design and development of a coil to be used for a magnetic immunity test, and we detail the investigation of the magnetic immunity of a transcutaneous transformer. The experimental coil, with five turns like a solenoid, was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in the necessary bandwidth. A magnetic-field immunity examination of the TET system was performed using this coil, and the system was confirmed to have sufficient immunity to the magnetic field generated as a result of the conventional operation of induction-heating cooker.

  2. Flap monitoring by transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2: importance of transcutaneous PCO2 in determining follow-up treatment for compromised free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Hideki; Takiwaki, Hirotsugu; Takase, Maki Toda; Yamano, Masahiro; Sedo, Hiromichi

    2007-07-01

    The authors conducted a two-part study to determine whether transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO (2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (TcPCO (2)) can be used to monitor flap viability after transplantation. The first part was an animal study in which TcPO (2) and TcPCO (2) were measured in 10 epigastric island flaps subjected to arterial or venous ischemia. The second part was a clinical study in which both were measured in 27 free skin flaps. In the experimental study, TcPO (2) decreased to nearly 0 mmHg after 10 minutes of arterial and venous ischemia. TcPCO (2) increased to 100 mmHg after 60 minutes of either type of ischemia. In the clinical study, congestion was suspected in six flaps on the basis of clinical signs alone. Three congested flaps with TcPCO (2) more than 90 mmHg were selected for intervention. The remaining three congested flaps, with TcPCO (2) 80 mmHg or less, survived completely without further treatment. The TcPO (2) of all treated flaps and of the six flaps not requiring further treatment was 0 mmHg. Results of experimental study indicate that TcPO (2) is more sensitive than TcPCO (2) to flap ischemia. However, results of clinical study suggest that it is very hard to distinguish congested flaps from healthy flaps by TcPO (2) alone. The authors believe that a congested flap with a TcPCO (2) more than 90 mmHg requires further treatment.

  3. [Potentialities of transcutaneous and transhepatic cholangiography as a method of studying diseases of the bile excretory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, V Sh; Khalikov, T Kh

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive examinations of 62 patients with jaundice of obscure origins involved transcutaneous transhepatic cholangiography carried out in all the patients, hepatolymphography in 60 cases, relaxation duodenography in 31, angiography in 41, ultrasonic examination of the liver in 31, endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography in 28 and liver scanning in 19 patients. These studies have extended the knowledge on the biliferous system status in obturation and parenchymatous jaundices and helped define the role of transcutaneous transhepatic cholangiography among the invasive methods of radiologic examinations and pararadiologic methods.

  4. Novel diode-based laser system for combined transcutaneous monitoring and computer-controlled intermittent treatment of jaundiced neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    The high efficacy of laser phototherapy combined with transcutaneous monitoring of serum bilirubin provides optimum safety for jaundiced infants from the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. In this paper the authors introduce the design and operating principles of a new laser system that can provide simultaneous monitoring and treatment of several jaundiced babies at one time. The new system incorporates diode-based laser sources oscillating at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to the computer controlled intermittent laser therapy through a network of optical fibers. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  5. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  6. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring for the prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschettini, Matteo; Romantsik, Olga; Zappettini, Simona; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Calevo, Maria Grazia

    2016-02-13

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement is a fundamental evaluation in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), as both low and high values of CO2 might have detrimental effects on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Though measurement of CO2 in the arterial blood gas is the most accurate way to assess the amount of CO2, it requires blood sampling and it does not provide a continuous monitoring of CO2. To assess whether the use of continuous transcutaneous CO2 (tcCO2) monitoring in newborn infants reduces mortality and improves short and long term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to November 1, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to November 1, 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to November 1, 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Randomized, quasi-randomized and cluster randomized controlled trials comparing different strategies regarding tcCO2 monitoring in newborns. Three comparisons were considered, that is, continuous tcCO2 monitoring versus 1) any intermittent modalities to measure CO2; 2) other continuous CO2 monitoring; and 3) with or without intermittent CO2 monitoring. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Two review authors independently assessed studies identified by the search strategy for inclusion. Our search strategy yielded 106 references. Two review authors independently assessed all references for inclusion. We did not find any completed studies for inclusion, nor ongoing trials. There was no evidence to recommend or refute the use of transcutaneous CO2 monitoring in neonates. Well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled studies are necessary to address efficacy and safety of transcutaneous CO2 monitoring

  7. Evaluation of a transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor in patients with acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Nicolini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-invasive measurement of oxygenation is a routine procedure in clinical practice, but transcutaneous monitoring of PCO 2 (PtCO 2 is used much less than expected. Methods : The aim of our study was to analyze the value of a commercially available combined SpO 2 /PtCO 2 monitor (TOSCA-Linde Medical System, Basel, Switzerland in adult non-invasive ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Eighty critically ill adult patients, requiring arterial blood sample gas analyses, underwent SpO 2 and PtCO 2 measurements (10 min after the probe was attached to an earlobe simultaneously with arterial blood sampling. The level of agreement between PaCO2 - PtCO 2 and SaO 2 - SpO 2 was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Results : Both, SaO 2 from blood gas analysis and SpO 2 from the transcutaneous monitor, and PaCO 2 and PtCO 2 were equally useful. No measurements were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of ± 7.5 mmHg. Conclusions : The accuracy of estimation of the TOSCA transcutaneous electrode (compared with the "gold standard" blood sample gas analysis was generally good. Moreover, TOSCA presents the advantage of the possibility of continuous non-invasive measurement. The level of agreement of the two methods of measurement allows us to state that the TOSCA sensor is useful in routine monitoring of adults admitted to an intermediate respiratory unit and undergoing non-invasive ventilation.

  8. Usefulness of transcutaneous PCO2 to assess nocturnal hypoventilation in restrictive lung disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marjolaine; Nguyen-Baranoff, Danièle; Griffon, Lucie; Foignot, Clement; Bonniaud, Philippe; Camus, Philippe; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Rabec, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    Nocturnal hypoventilation is now an accepted indication for the initiation of non-invasive ventilation. Nocturnal hypoventilation may be an under diagnosed condition in chronic respiratory failure. The most appropriate strategy to identify sleep hypoventilation is not yet clearly defined. In clinical practice, it is indirectly assessed using nocturnal pulse oximetry (NPO) and morning arterial blood gases (mABG). Even though continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (TcPCO2 ) monitoring is theoretically superior to NPO plus mABG, it is not routinely used. We aimed to prospectively compare NPO plus mABG with nocturnal TcPCO2 for the detection of alveolar hypoventilation in a cohort of patients with chronic restrictive respiratory dysfunction. We assessed 80 recordings of mABG, nocturnal TcPCO2 and NPO in 72 consecutive patients with neuromuscular disease or thoracic cage disorders. Nocturnal hypoventilation was defined as a mean nightime TcPCO2 ≥50 mm Hg, and nocturnal hypoxaemia as ≥30% of the night with transcutaneous pulse oxygen saturation ≤90% and/or >5 consecutive minutes with transcutaneous pulse oxygen saturation ≤88%. Amongst the 80 recordings, 25 of 76 (32.9%) without nocturnal hypoxaemia and 16 of 59 (27.1%) without hypercapnia on mABG showed nocturnal hypoventilation on TcPCO2 . Amongst recordings showing both normal NPO and mABG, 16 of 52 (30.8%) had a mean TcPCO2 ≥50 mm Hg. Nocturnal hypoxaemia was associated with nocturnal hypoventilation in all recordings. However, 5 of 21 (23.8%) recordings that showed an absence of nocturnal hypoventilation at the chosen threshold showed hypercapnia on mABG. Morning arterial blood gases and NPO alone or in combination underestimate nocturnal hypoventilation in patients with chronic restrictive respiratory dysfunction of extrapulmonary origin. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji

    A transcutaneous optical information transmission system (TOITS) offers the most promising method for noninvasively transmitting the information to control a total artificial heart (TAH). We had used light-emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD) with different wavelengths for full-duplex bidirectional communication in the TOITS. In this study, reduction of optical crosstalk in full-duplex bidirectional communication was investigated by using a combination of two orthogonal polarizers with the same wavelength. As a result, we confirmed that optical crosstalk could be prevented for communication through a cow's skin (3.5 mm thick) and that the signal waveform could be transmitted satisfactorily.

  10. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    De Couck, Marijke; Cserjesi, Renata; Caers, Ralf; Zijlstra, W.-P.; Widjaja, Devy; Wolf, Nicole; Luminet, Olivier; Ellrich, Jens; Gidron, Yori

    2017-01-01

    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10 min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects expe...

  11. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Retrospective Assessment of Cardiac Safety in a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Michael Kreuzer; Michael eLandgrebe; Oliver eHusser; Markus eResch; Martin eSchecklmann; Florian eGeisreiter; Poeppl, Timm B.; Sarah Julia Prasser; Goeran eHajak; Berthold eLangguth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation has been successfully used as a treatment strategy for epilepsy and affective disorders for years. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a new non-invasive method to stimulate the vagus nerve, which has been shown to modulate neuronal activity in distinct brain areas. OBJECTIVES: Here we report effects of tVNS on cardiac function from a pilot study, which was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of tVNS for the treatment of c...

  12. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q; Møller, H J; Pfeiffer Jensen, M; Drewes, A M; Farmer, A D

    2016-12-12

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t-VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which warrants further evaluation in larger controlled studies.

  13. Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Febles, Nicole; Minhas, Preet; Hahn, Christoph; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm2 contact area) “High-Definition” (HD) electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35 cm2). In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current. Objective: The purpose of ...

  14. Artificial SMA valve for treatment of urinary incontinence: upgrading of valve and introduction of transcutaneous transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Hirano, K; Goto, H; Namima, T; Uchi, K; Jiang, Z W; Matsuki, H; Tanahashi, Y; Orikasa, S; Chonan, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of an artificial urethral valve driven by shape memory alloy actuators, which is attached onto the urethra of a urinary incontinence sufferer for treating the involuntary micturition. Three types of compact cylindrical valves are assembled and their opening and closing functions are examined experimentally. The updated valve is heated and opened by using the transcutaneous energy transformer consisting of a pair of flexible spiral-formed copper wire coils. The experiment using the canine urinary canal verifies that the total system of the valve and the transformer works well as an artificial sphictor muscle and controls the urinary flow through the canal appropriately.

  15. Transcutaneous closure of chronic broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by duct occluder device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Marwah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopleural fistula (BPF is a well known complication of several pulmonary conditions posing challenging management problem and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Though no consensus exists on a definite closure management algorithm, strategies for closure widely include various methods like tube thoracostomy with suction, open surgical closure, bronchoscopy directed glue, coiling and sealants which now also includes use of occlusion devices. We report a case in which a novel method of delivery and closure of recurrent post-operative broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by a duct occluder device was done transcutaneously which has not been previously described in literature.

  16. HeNe laser irradiation delivered transcutaneously: its effect on the sciatic nerve of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, M; Rochkind, S; Razon, N; Bartal, A

    1986-01-01

    For our study of the effect of low energy laser irradiation (LELI) on living tissue we used HeNe laser on rats. The exponential absorption was reaffirmed in the living tissues overlying the sciatic nerve. An optimal range of energy between 3.5 and 7 J--associated with energy concentration of 4-10 J/cm2 delivered transcutaneously--was found to cause a significant increase in action potential in the sciatic nerve. The effect lasted for more than 8 months after the irradiation session.

  17. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...... following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them......, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly...

  18. Sound Localization in Patients With Congenital Unilateral Conductive Hearing Loss With a Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocil, Erich; Liepins, Rudolfs; Kaider, Alexandra; Blineder, Michaela; Hamzavi, Sasan

    2017-03-01

    There is no consensus regarding the benefit of implantable hearing aids in congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL). This study aimed to measure sound source localization performance in patients with congenital UCHL and contralateral normal hearing who received a new bone conduction implant. Evaluation of within-subject performance differences for sound source localization in a horizontal plane. Tertiary referral center. Five patients with atresia of the external auditory canal and contralateral normal hearing implanted with transcutaneous bone conduction implant at the Medical University of Vienna were tested. Activated/deactivated implant. Sound source localization test; localization performance quantified using the root mean square (RMS) error. Sound source localization ability was highly variable among individual subjects, with RMS errors ranging from 21 to 40 degrees. Horizontal plane localization performance in aided conditions showed statistically significant improvement compared with the unaided conditions, with RMS errors ranging from 17 to 27 degrees. The mean RMS error decreased by a factor of 0.71 (p < 0.001). Analysis revealed improved sound localization performance in a horizontal plane with the activated transcutaneous bone conduction implant. Some patients with congenital UCHL might be capable of developing improved horizontal plane localization abilities with the binaural cues provided by this device.

  19. Fluorescently Labeled Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Exogenous Markers for Real-Time Transcutaneous Measurement of Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaguo; Weinfurter, Stefanie; Pinto, Pedro Caetano; Pretze, Marc; Kränzlin, Bettina; Pill, Johannes; Federica, Rodeghiero; Perciaccante, Rossana; Ciana, Leopoldo Della; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Gretz, Norbert

    2016-10-19

    Evaluation of renal function is crucial for a number of clinical situations. Here, we reported a novel exogenous fluorescent marker (FITC-HPβCD) to real-time assess renal function by using a transcutaneous fluorescent detection technique. FITC-HPβCD was designed based on the principle of renal clearance of designed drugs. It displays favorable fluorescent properties, high hydrophilicity, low plasma protein binding, and high stability in porcine liver esterase as well as in plasma and nontoxicity. More importantly, FITC-HPβCD can be efficiently and rapidly filtered by glomerulus and completely excreted into urine without proximal tubular reabsorption or secretion in rat models. Additionally, the marker was well-tolerated, with nearly 100% urinary recovery of the given doses, and no metabolism were found. Relying on this novel kidney function marker and transcutaneous devices, we demonstrate a rapid, robust, and convenient approach for real-time assessing renal function without the need of time-consuming blood and urine sample preparation. Our work provides a promising tool for noninvasive real-time monitoring of renal function in vivo.

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  1. Overconstrained library-based fitting method reveals age- and disease-related differences in transcutaneous Raman spectra of murine bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason A.; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely on measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent on its chemical composition. Raman spectroscopy has been used extensively in ex vivo studies to measure the chemical composition of bone. Recently, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) has been utilized to measure bone transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make noninvasive, in vivo measurements of bone with SORS that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based on fitting with spectral libraries. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both bone and soft tissue. The algorithm was utilized to transcutaneously detect biochemical differences in the tibiae of wild-type mice between 1 and 7 months of age and between the tibiae of wild-type mice and a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. These results represent the first diagnostically sensitive, transcutaneous measurements of bone using SORS. PMID:23817761

  2. Audiometric Comparison Between the First Patients With the Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implant and Matched Percutaneous Bone Anchored Hearing Device Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigato, C.; Reinfeldt, S.; Hakansson, B.; Jansson, K.J.; Hol, M.K.S.; Eeg-Olofsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The transcutaneous bone conduction implant (BCI) is compared with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) under the hypothesis that the BCI can give similar rehabilitation from an audiological as well as patient-related point of view. BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from conductive and mixed h

  3. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  4. Estimulação elétrica nervosa transcutânea no alívio da dor pós-operatória relacionada com procedimentos fisioterapêuticos em pacientes submetidos a intervenções cirúrgicas abdominais Estimulación eléctrica nerviosa transcutánea no alivio del dolor postoperatorio relacionado con los procedimientos fisioterapéuticos en pacientes sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the relief of pain related to physical therapy after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marques Tonella

    2006-12-01

    estudiada como método facilitador de la fisioterapia postoperatoria. El objetivo del estudio fue el de verificar la eficacia de la TENS en el alivio del dolor relacionado a la fisioterapia postoperatoria en pacientes sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio clínico, prospectivo, con distribución aleatoria, incluyendo 48 pacientes en el 1º día de postoperatorio, que presentaban un puntaje de dolor > 3 puntos en la escala visual analógica (VAS, divididos en tres grupos: Grupo Control: con rutina analgésica habitual, sin TENS y con fisioterapia; Grupo Estudio, recibiendo rutina analgésica habitual más TENS, y fisioterapia; Grupo Contraste-Placebo, recibiendo rutina analgésica habitual, fisioterapia y TENS desvinculada. Se presentó a los pacientes una escala visual analógica de dolor antes (M1, después de la TENS (M2 y después de la fisioterapia (M3 - tos, incentivador respiratorio, cambio de decúbito lateral y sentado - cuantificando la efectividad de la analgesia. El tiempo de electroestimulación fue de 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Hubo un alivio significativo del dolor en el Grupo Estudio, comparándolo con los tres grupos, apenas para el procedimiento tos, en el M3 (p = 0,015. Dentro de ese grupo hubo una disminución significativa del dolor para tos (p = 0,003 [M1 versus M3]; para decúbito lateral (p = 0,025, sentarse (p = 0,001 y utilizar el incentivador inspiratorio (p = 0,017 [M1 versus M2]; y al cambiar para decúbito lateral (p = 0,03 y sentarse (p = 0,001 [M1xM3]. No hobo diferencia significativa en el Grupo Contraste Placebo. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo disminución del dolor en el Grupo Estudio, en algunos momentos y parámetros. Estudios adicionales se hacen necesarios, ya que la utilización de la TENS está indicada apenas como coadyuvante en el control del dolor postoperatorio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are few studies on transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS as an adjunct to postoperative physical

  5. Fundamental analysis and development of the current and voltage control method by changing the driving frequency for the transcutaneous energy transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hidekazu; Yamada, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    We have been developing transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) for a ventricular assist device, shape memory alloy (SMA) fibered artificial organs and so on, the system has high efficiency and a compact size. In this paper, we summarize the development, design method and characteristics of the TETS. New control methods for stabilizing output voltage or current of the TETS are proposed. These methods are primary side, are outside of the body, not depending on a communication system from the inside the body. Basically, the TETS operates at the fixed frequency with a suitable compensation capacitor so that the internal impedance is minimalized and a flat load characteristic is obtained. However, when the coil shifted from the optimal position, the coupling factor changes and the output is fluctuated. TETS has a resonant property; its output can be controlled by changing the driving frequency. The continuous current to continuous voltage driving method was implemented by changing driving frequency and setting of limitation of low side frequency. This method is useful for battery charging system for electrically driven artificial hearts and also useful for SMA fibered artificial organs which need intermittent high peak power comsumption. In this system, the internal storage capacitor is charged slowly while the fibers are turned off and discharge the energy when the fibers are turned on. We examined the effect of the system. It was found that the size and maximum output of the TETS would able to be reduced.

  6. Postocclusive Hyperemia Measured with Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in the Diagnosis of Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Prospective, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Paweł; Henry, Brandon Michael; Kmiotek, Elizabeth K.; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Kaczmarczyk, Paweł; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity and specificity of transcutaneous oxygen tension and postocclusive hyperemia testing using laser Doppler flowmetry in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. One hundred patients and one hundred controls were included in the study. Baseline microvascular blood flow and then time to peak flow following occlusion were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Afterwards, the transcutaneous oxygen tension was recorded. The sensitivities of baseline microvascular blood flow, postocclusive time to peak flow, and transcutaneous oxygen tension were 79%, 79%, and 77%, respectively. The postocclusive time peak flow had a superior specificity of 90% and area under the curve of 0.92 as compared to 66% and 0.80 for baseline microvascular flow and 64% and 0.76 for transcutaneous oxygen tension. Time to postocclusive peak blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry is a highly accurate test for differentiating patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon from healthy controls. PMID:28101516

  7. Postocclusive Hyperemia Measured with Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in the Diagnosis of Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Prospective, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Paweł; Henry, Brandon Michael; Kmiotek, Elizabeth K; Gregorczyk-Maga, Iwona; Kaczmarczyk, Paweł; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Niżankowski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity and specificity of transcutaneous oxygen tension and postocclusive hyperemia testing using laser Doppler flowmetry in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. One hundred patients and one hundred controls were included in the study. Baseline microvascular blood flow and then time to peak flow following occlusion were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Afterwards, the transcutaneous oxygen tension was recorded. The sensitivities of baseline microvascular blood flow, postocclusive time to peak flow, and transcutaneous oxygen tension were 79%, 79%, and 77%, respectively. The postocclusive time peak flow had a superior specificity of 90% and area under the curve of 0.92 as compared to 66% and 0.80 for baseline microvascular flow and 64% and 0.76 for transcutaneous oxygen tension. Time to postocclusive peak blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry is a highly accurate test for differentiating patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon from healthy controls.

  8. Transcutaneous immunization with toxin-coregulated pilin A induces protective immunity against Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollenhagen, Julianne E; Kalsy, Anuj; Cerda, Francisca; John, Manohar; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Taylor, Ronald K; Ryan, Edward T

    2006-10-01

    Toxin-coregulated pilin A (TcpA) is the main structural subunit of a type IV bundle-forming pilus of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. Toxin-coregulated pilus is involved in formation of microcolonies of V. cholerae at the intestinal surface, and strains of V. cholerae deficient in TcpA are attenuated and unable to colonize intestinal surfaces. Anti-TcpA immunity is common in humans recovering from cholera in Bangladesh, and immunization against TcpA is protective in murine V. cholerae models. To evaluate whether transcutaneously applied TcpA is immunogenic, we transcutaneously immunized mice with 100 mug of TcpA or TcpA with an immunoadjuvant (cholera toxin [CT], 50 mug) on days 0, 19, and 40. Mice immunized with TcpA alone did not develop anti-TcpA responses. Mice that received transcutaneously applied TcpA and CT developed prominent anti-TcpA immunoglobulin G (IgG) serum responses but minimal anti-TcpA IgA. Transcutaneous immunization with CT induced prominent IgG and IgA anti-CT serum responses. In an infant mouse model, offspring born to dams transcutaneously immunized either with TcpA and CT or with CT alone were challenged with 10(6) CFU (one 50% lethal dose) wild-type V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain N16961. At 48 h, mice born to females transcutaneously immunized with CT alone had 36% +/- 10% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) survival, while mice born to females transcutaneously immunized with TcpA and CT had 69% +/- 6% survival (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that transcutaneous immunization with TcpA and an immunoadjuvant induces protective anti-TcpA immune responses. Anti-TcpA responses may contribute to an optimal cholera vaccine.

  9. 经皮测胆红素在新生儿高胆红素血症中的应用价值%The Application Value of Transcutaneous Bilirubin in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼; 张飞忠

    2014-01-01

    Objectiv:To investigate the application value of transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB) in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Methods:215 cases of children with hyperbilirubinemia were dynamically tested by transcutaneous bilirubin method and blood bilirubin method at 6h, 12h, 2d, 4d, 7d and other time points respectively after the admission, and the correlation of the two sets of data was compared.Results:the values measured by transcutaneous bilirubin method and blood bilirubin method at 6h, 12h, 2d, 4d, 7d and other time points showed a linear correlation relationship (P<0.05).Conclusion:TCB has many advantages such as non-invasive, repeatable testing, easy to perform, rapid detection, dynamic monitoring of neonatal bilirubin changes, etc. it deserves clinical application.%目的::探讨经皮测胆红素(TCB)在新生儿高胆红素血症中的应用价值。方法:在入院第6h、12h、2d、4d、7d等时间点采用经皮测胆红素和经血测胆红素方法对215例高胆红素血症患儿进行动态检测,比较两组数据的相关性。结果:经皮测胆红素值和经血测胆红素值在新生儿入院第6h、12h、2d、4d、7d等时间点呈直线相关性关系(P<0.05)。结论:TCB具有无创伤性、可重复多次检测、操作简单易学、检测迅速、可动态监测新生儿胆红素变化情况等优点,值得临床推广使用。

  10. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  11. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) in pharmacoresistant epilepsies: a proof of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Hermann; Kreiselmeyer, Gernot; Kerling, Frank; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Rauch, Christophe; Heers, Marcel; Kasper, Burkhard S; Hammen, Thilo; Rzonsa, Martina; Pauli, Elisabeth; Ellrich, Jens; Graf, Wolfgang; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger

    2012-07-01

    To elucidate, in a pilot-study, whether noninvasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) is a safe and tolerable alternative treatment option in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. t-VNS was applied to 10 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Stimulation via the auricular branch of the vagus nerve of the left tragus was delivered three times per day for 9 months. Subjective documentation of stimulation effects was obtained from patients' seizure diaries. For a more reliable assessment of seizure frequency, we carried out prolonged outpatient video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring. In addition, computerized testing of cognitive, affective, and emotional functions was performed. Three patients aborted the study. Of the remaining seven patients, an overall reduction of seizure frequency was observed in five patients after 9 months of t-VNS. The noninvasive t-VNS stimulation is a safe and well-tolerated method for relatively long periods, and might be an alternative treatment option for patients with epilepsy.

  12. Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

  13. Artificial Anal Sphincter with Sensor Feedback Powered by Transcutaneous Energy Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua; YAN Guo-zheng; ZAN Peng; ZHAO Yu-juan; LUO Nian-ting

    2008-01-01

    This artificial anal sphincter (AAS) is used to help patients who are in severe incontinence. It consists of two parts. The first part is taken outside with patients. The second is implanted in the bodies to provide independent evacuation for patients. It is powered through transcutaneous energy transmission by the first part. There are two sensors in the second part. One sensor measures the pressure in the cuff-clamp around the recta. The other measures the pressure of the recta. As soon as the pressure measured by the later reaches the threshold, a signal is sent out to patients through wireless communication to alarm patients preparing defecation. Patients can give a start signal to begin defecating after they are ready. And they can also give a signal to stop defecating like a healthy person. With the aids of the novel medical device, patients can defecate as a healthy person. The first generation of this AAS is presented.

  14. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Method for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) on the auricular branch of the vagus nerve has been receiving attention due to its therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the mechanism of tVNS is not yet completely understood, studies have demonstrated the potential role of vagal afferent nerve stimulation in the regulation of mood and visceral state associated with social communication. In addition, a growing body of evidence shows that tVNS can activate the brain regions associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), trigger neuroimmune modulation and produce treatment effects for comorbid disorders of ASD such as epilepsy and depression. We thus hypothesize that tVNS may be a promising treatment for ASD, not only for comorbid epilepsy and depression, but also for the core symptoms of ASD. The goal of this manuscript is to summarize the findings and rationales for applying tVNS to treat ASD and propose potential parameters for tVNS treatment of ASD.

  15. [Sensitive electrodiagnostic examination in patients with chronic pain treated with transcutaneous stimulation electroanalgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, M; Zelaschi, F

    1983-03-01

    The electrodiagnostic sensitive exam on patients suffering from a chronic pain treated which transcutaneous electroanalgesia stimulation. G. Ital Med Lav 1983; 5: 89 - 94. The AA carry out this exam before, during and after the sittings of electroanalgesia. The only parameter to vary in such research is the sensitive Reobase, which raises during the T.E.N.S. lasting unchanged for the all active period, turning then to the basal values within the following fifteen minutes at the end of application. As no other significant changes occur bath the frequency change of stimulus and the total period of application have no influence. What said above and the unchanged period of analgesic level after the return to the values of the sensitive Reobase when the T.E.N.S. is interrupted let us assume that such mechanism is of unspecific type and not involved in the mechanism of control of pain from the T.E.N.S. itself.

  16. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenliang Chen(陈文亮); Rong Liu(刘蓉); Houxin Cui(崔厚欣); Kexin Xu(徐可欣); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed,and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/1, respectively.

  17. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  18. Pathophysiologic classification of peripheral vascular disease by positional changes in regional transcutaneous oxygen tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, C J; Appel, P; Shoemaker, W C

    1984-06-01

    The clinical manifestations and prognosis of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) depend upon the severity of limb hypoxia. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (Ptco2) is related to tissue oxygenation, but limb Ptco2 varies with changes in systemic as well as peripheral oxygen delivery (Do2). Previously we have found that simultaneous assessment of limb and chest Ptco2 yields a ratio, or regional perfusion index (RPI), that is independent of systemic Do2 and accurately reflects the adequacy of limb perfusion. Analysis of segmental limb Ptco2, RPI, and position-induced RPI changes was performed in 24 control limbs and 14 limbs with intermittent claudication (IC), 8 limbs with rest pain (RP), and 7 limbs with gangrene (G). Control limbs had high RPI values that varied little with position. The IC group had modestly decreased RPIs in the supine position, but extremity RPIs decreased markedly during leg elevation. Patients with RP had ischemia while supine, but the RPI improved to nearly normal upon standing. Feet with G were hypoxic even in the standing position. Segmental RPI decreases correlated with the presence of significant arterial lesions. This correlation was unaffected by diabetes. Analysis of regional transcutaneous oximetry allows classification of PVD by quantitative criteria based upon the adequacy of limb perfusion under functional conditions. RPI is characteristically high in normal persons and low in persons with G. Limbs with marginally compensated perfusion may have nearly normal RPI values under some conditions, but typical ischemic changes are elicited by positional change and exercise. The ease of such provocation of RPI decreases constitutes an index of the severity of disease. Such quantitative assessments of limb hypoxia can form the basis for a physiologic approach to arterial reconstruction.

  19. Neonatal Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring--Effect on Clinical Management and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Maurer, Rie; Puopolo, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to compare frequency of blood gas measurements per day of mechanical ventilation, occurrence of extreme blood gas CO2 values, and clinical outcomes among ventilated neonates managed with and without transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2) monitors. This work also measures agreement between simultaneous PtcCO2 and blood gas CO2 measurements and ascertains factors that affect agreement. This is a cohort study with retrospective analysis comparing 5,726 blood gas measurements and clinical outcomes for 123 neonates intubated for >48 h before and after the introduction of transcutaneous carbon-di-oxide monitoring devices in a single tertiary care unit. Median (interquartile range) blood gas frequency per mechanical ventilation day was 3.9 (2.6-5.3) and 2.9 (2.1-4.0) before and after PtcCO2 monitoring (P = .002) without differences in clinical outcomes at discharge. After adjusting for confounders using Poisson regression, this difference remained significant. The mean ± 2 SD blood gas-PtcCO2 difference was -5.2 ± 17.3 mm Hg. 64% of simultaneous blood gas-PtcCO2 measurements per subject were within ± 7 mm Hg. Greater bias was noted with arterial sample and during the use of high-frequency ventilation. Despite only moderate agreement between simultaneous PtcCO2 and blood gas measurements, PtcCO2 monitoring statistically decreased blood gas frequency among ventilated neonates without affecting the duration of mechanical ventilation or clinical outcomes at discharge. The clinical impact of this technology appears to be minimal. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Evaluation of the internal mammary artery graft: Usefulness of transcutaneous Doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Koh, Young Hwan; Kim, Hyung Beom; Kim, Ki Bong; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of transcutaneous Doppler sonography for assessment of internal mammary artery graft patency after coronary bypass graft. Doppler sonography of internal mammary artery was performed in 23 patients, who underwent postoperative cardiac catheterization studies. Doppler signals from the proximal part of the internal mammary artery graft were studied from the supraclavicular fossa in the left internal mammary artery and from the high intercostal space in the right internal mammary artery. According to the coronary angiographic studies, internal mammary artery grafts were divided into two groups: Group A with significant stenosis (>75% stenosis) of the internal mammary artery, and Group B with no significant stenosis of the internal mammary artery. The diastolic/systolic peak velocity ration and diastolic/systolic flow-volume ratio between the two groups were analyzed. Doppler spectrum of the internal mammary artery were obtained from 21 patients, but not from 2 patients, because of the poor sonic window. According to the coronary angiographic studies, there were 6 cases in Group A and 16 cases in Group B. The diastolic/systolic peak velocity ration and diastolic/systolic flow-volume ration in Group A were significantly smaller than in group B (p<0.05). A diastolic/systolic peak velocity ratio <0.4 predicted significant internal mammary artery graft stenosis (>75% stenosis) with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 75% respectively. A diastolic/ systolic flow-volume ratio <0.45 predicted significant internal mammary artery graft stenosis (>75% stenosis) with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 88% respectively. Transcutaneous doppler sonography is useful for non-invasive assessment of the internal mammary artery graft patency.

  1. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  2. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  3. Plant electrical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  4. Osseocutaneous integration of an intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prosthesis implant used for reconstruction of a transhumeral amputee: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Norbert V; Pendegrass, Catherine; Marks, Linda; Blunn, Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Exoprosthetic replacement with an artificial limb is the main option for reconstruction after traumatic amputation of an upper limb. Direct skeletal attachment using an osseointegrated implant improves the ease of fixation of the exoprosthesis to the amputation stump. We now report the use of an intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prosthesis that is designed to achieve osseocutaneous integration. Osseocutaneous integration differs from osseointegration because the aim is to create a stable interface among the implant, the bone, and the soft tissues. This reduces the risk of soft tissue infection and troublesome discharge, which are problems encountered with current osseointegrated implants that focus largely on the bone-implant interface. We describe our experience with an intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prosthesis in a case of transhumeral amputation with 2 years of follow-up.

  5. Microcirculatory efficacy of topical treatment with aescin + essential phospholipids gel on transcutaneous PO2 in venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Ippolito, E; Ricci, A; Ruffini, M; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    A gel including aescin, essential phospholipids (EPL), and heparin (EG) has been used for many years for local treatment of venous, microcirculatory alterations (varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency). Bruises, swelling, thrombophlebitis, and contusions are effectively treated with this compound. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the effects of an AEPL (aescin+EPL) gel on the microcirculation in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency, venous hypertension (CVH), and venous microangiopathy. Transcutaneous PO(2) was measured at the perimalleolar region. After 2 weeks of treatment, all individual values (100%) were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In all patients, PO(2) increased, indicating a decrease in level of venous microangiopathy. Considering transcutaneous skin PO(2), treatment with AEPL in areas of venous microangiopathy is beneficial in the prevention of ulceration and improves skin healing.

  6. Transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2 induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Onishi

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with cancer progression. In mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α regulates the activities of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial proliferation. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PGC-1α leads to mitochondrial proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO(2 to rat skeletal muscle induces PGC-1α expression and causes an increase in mitochondrial proliferation. In this study, we utilized a murine model of human MFH to determine the effect of transcutaneous CO(2 exposure on PGC-1α expression, mitochondrial proliferation and cellular apoptosis. PGC-1α expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, while mitochondrial proliferation was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine mitochondrial apoptosis. We also evaluated the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins, such as caspases, cytochorome c and Bax, by immunoblot analysis. We show that transcutaneous application of CO(2 induces PGC-1α expression, and increases mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly reducing tumor volume. Proteins involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, including caspase 3 and caspase 9, were elevated in CO(2 treated tumors compared to control. We also observed an enrichment of cytochrome c in the cytoplasmic fraction and Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction of CO(2 treated tumors, highlighting the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis

  7. The effects of cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongés, Siobhan C; D'Amico, Jessica M; Butler, Jane E; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive, weak direct current stimulation can induce changes in excitability of underlying neural tissue. Many studies have used transcranial direct current stimulation to induce changes in the brain, however more recently a number of studies have used transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation to induce changes in the spinal cord. This study further characterises the effects following cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb. In Study 1, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 5 F) received 20 minutes of either real or sham direct current stimulation at 3 mA through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck (anode anterior). Biceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis and first dorsal interosseous responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (motor evoked potentials) and cervicomedullary stimulation (cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials) were measured before and after real or sham stimulation. In Study 2, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 7 F) received either real or sham direct current stimulation in the same way as for Study 1. Before and after real or sham stimulation, median nerve stimulation elicited M waves and H reflexes in the flexor carpi radialis. H-reflex recruitment curves and homosynaptic depression of the H reflex were assessed. Results show that the effects of real and sham direct current stimulation did not differ for motor evoked potentials or cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials for any muscle, nor for H-reflex recruitment curve parameters or homosynaptic depression. Cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation with the parameters described here does not modify motor responses to corticospinal stimulation nor does it modify H reflexes of the upper limb. These results are important for the emerging field of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation.

  8. Systemic and mucosal immune response induced by transcutaneous immunization using Hepatitis B surface antigen-loaded modified liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dinesh; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Dubey, Vaibhav; Nahar, Manoj; Dabadghao, Sunil; Jain, N K

    2008-04-23

    We have evaluated the efficiency of novel modified liposomes (ethosomes) for transcutaneous immunization (TCI) against Hepatitis B. Antigen-loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for shape, lamellarity, fluidity, size distribution, and entrapment efficiency. Spectral bio-imaging and flow cytometric studies showed efficient uptake of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-loaded ethosomes by murine dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, reaching a peak by 180 min. Transcutaneous delivery potential of the antigen-loaded system using human cadaver skin demonstrated a much higher skin permeation of the antigen in comparison to conventional liposomes and soluble antigen preparation. Topically applied HBsAg-loaded ethosomes in experimental mice showed a robust systemic and mucosal humoral immune response compared to intramuscularly administered alum-adsorbed HBsAg suspension, topically applied plain HBsAg solution and hydroethanolic (25%) HBsAg solution. The ability of the antigen-pulsed DCs to stimulate autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes was demonstrated by BrdU assay and a predominantly TH1 type of immune response was observed by multiplex cytometric bead array analysis. HBsAg-loaded ethosomes are able to generate a protective immune response and their ability to traverse and target the immunological milieu of the skin may find a potential application in the development of a transcutaneous vaccine against Hepatitis B virus (HBV).

  9. Application of electric-atomization inhalation of pulmicort respules in preventing repeated attack of asthmatic bronchitis%电动雾化吸入普米克令舒预防喘息样支气管炎反复发作的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金剑; 何梦藻; 滕懿群

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨电动雾化吸入普米克令舒在预防喘息样支气管炎反复发作中的作用。方法:将68例反复发作≥2次的喘息样支气管炎患儿分成2组,对照组患儿出院后予常规口服止咳、抗过敏药物巩固治疗3~5天,观察组患儿出院后在常规巩固治疗基础上,加电驱动雾化吸入普米克令舒。对于IgE升高或有过敏史、遗传史者,2组均加孟鲁斯特口服(4mg qN )。随访1年,比较2组患儿喘息反复发作次数。结果:观察组复发率明显低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论:电动雾化吸入普米克令舒可有效预防喘息样支气管炎反复发作,值得临床推荐使用。%Objective ] To study the effects of electric-atomization inhalation of pulmicort respules in preventing repeated at-tacks of asthmatic bronchitis .[Method] A total of 62 chileren with asthmatic bronchitis who suffered from repeated attack ≥2 times were randomly divided into two groups .Control group was received conventional treatment of anti-cough and anti-al-lergy for 3-5days after discharge .On that basis ,electric-atomization inhalation of pulmicort respules were used in observa-tion group .Additional mantelukast (4mg ,po ,qn) were used in patients with elevated serum IgE ,allergy history or inherited his-tory in both groups .All patients were followed-up for one year and the recurrence rate of the wheezing were comparatively an-alyzed .[Result] The recurrence rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group and the comparative dif-ference of the two groups was statically significant .[Conclusion] Electric-atomization inhalation of pulmicort respules could effectively prevent repeated attacks of asthmatic bronchitis .It holds promise for clinical application .

  10. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  11. Development and in vitro evaluation of a nanoemulsion for transcutaneous delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Grace; Pamujula, Sarala; Walker, Valencia; Simon, Shana; Graves, Richard; Mandal, Tarun K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a nanoemulsion formulation for its use as a transcutaneous vaccine delivery system. Materials and methods With bovine albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (FITC-BSA) as a vaccine model, formulations were selected with the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and a short-term stability study. The size of the emulsion droplets was furthered optimized with high-pressure homogenization. The optimized formulation was evaluated for its skin permeation efficiency. In vitro skin permeation studies were conducted with shaved BALB/c mice skin samples with a Franz diffusion cell system. Different drug concentrations were compared, and the effect of the nanoemulsion excipients on the permeation of the FITC-BSA was also studied. Results The optimum homogenization regime was determined to be five passes at 20 000 psi, with no evidence of protein degradation during processing. With these conditions, the particle diameter was 85.2 nm ± 15.5 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.186 ± 0.026 and viscosity of 14.6 cP ± 1.2 cP. The optimized formulation proved stable for 1 year at 4 °C. In vitro skin diffusion studies show that the optimized formulation improves the permeation of FITC-BSA through skin with an enhancement ratio of 4.2 compared to a neat control solution. Finally, a comparison of the skin permeation of the nanoemulsion versus only the surfactant excipients resulted in a steady state flux of 23.44 μg/cm2/h for the nanoemulsion as opposed to 6.10 μg/cm2/h for the emulsifiers. Conclusion A novel nanoemulsion with optimized physical characteristics and superior skin permeation compared to control solution was manufactured. The formulation proposed in this study has the flexibility for the incorporation of a variety of active ingredients and warrants further development as a transcutaneous vaccine delivery vehicle. PMID:23600657

  12. Clinical study of transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch for tetanus and diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Sachiko; Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Morito, Hironori; Asada, Hideo; Takaya, Yusuke; Mukai, Yohei; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2012-02-27

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a non-invasive and easy-to-use vaccination method. We demonstrated the efficacy and safety of a transcutaneous vaccine formulation using a hydrogel patch in animal experiments. In the present study, we performed a clinical study to apply our TCI formulation for vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in human. The TCI device was a hydrogel patch (antigen-free) applied to the left brachial medial skin of 22 healthy volunteers for 48 h. Next, the hydrogel patch, containing 2mg tetanus toxoid (TT) and 2mg diphtheria toxoid (DT) as the TCI formulation, was applied to 27 healthy volunteers for 24h and some volunteers were vaccinated again by TCI formulation. For safety assessment, the patch application site was observed to assess local adverse events, and systemic adverse events were determined by a blood test. The antigen-free hydrogel patch and TCI formulation containing TT and DT did not induce local or systemic severe adverse events. For vaccine efficacy estimation, toxoid-specific serum antibody titers were determined by ELISA and the toxin-neutralizing activity of the induced antibody was evaluated in a passive-challenge experiment. The anti-TT IgG titer and the anti-DT IgG titer increased, and a significant effect was detected by paired t-test. The antibody titers were maintained at higher level than that before vaccination for at least 1 year. Moreover, toxoid-specific antibodies were produced by the second vaccination in some subjects. Antibodies induced by application of the TCI formulation neutralized the toxin and prevented toxic death in mice. In addition, changes in the skin condition due to application of the TCI formulation were observed under in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. The amount of water and patch components in the stratum corneum increased after application of the TCI formulation, suggesting that the change in the skin condition was related to antigen penetration. These data indicate that this easy

  13. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  14. Dose-volume histogram constrains for small intestine in postoperative transcutaneous radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma: comparison between conventional and conformal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Ramić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the dose-volume histogram (DVH constrains of conventional and conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy for small intestine and perform their comparison.Methods: This retrospective-prospective study included patients who were treated for endometrial cancer using conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy at the Department of Radiotherapy Clinic of Oncology,Hematology and Radiotherapy, University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 2009 to 2011. The study was performed on patients of all ages suffering from this condition. The study involved 35 patients. DVHparameters which were analyzed are: minimum dose (Dmin, maximum dose (Dmax, medium dose (Daver of the small intestine, as well as the volume of the small intestine, which is included in 75%, 95% and 100%dose (V33,75Gy, V42,75Gy, V45Gy expressed in percentages and cubic centimeters of the affected organ. Working hypothesis was tested with paired t test. The difference between the variables at the level of p Results: DVH constrains of transcutaneous conformal radiotherapy showed signifi cantly smaller dose contribution on small intestine than DVH parameters of conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy (pConclusion: The dose contribution on small intestine was signifi cantly lower by planning three-dimensional conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy in comparison to the conventional planning.

  15. Dose-volume histogram constrains for small intestine in postoperative transcutaneous radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma: comparison between conventional and conformal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Ramić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the dose-volume histogram (DVH constrains of conventional and conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy for small intestine and perform their comparison.Methods: This retrospective-prospective study included patients who were treated for endometrial cancer using conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy at the Department of Radiotherapy Clinic of Oncology,Hematology and Radiotherapy, University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 2009 to 2011. The study was performed on patients of all ages suffering from this condition. The study involved 35 patients. DVHparameters which were analyzed are: minimum dose (Dmin, maximum dose (Dmax, medium dose (Daver of the small intestine, as well as the volume of the small intestine, which is included in 75%, 95% and 100%dose (V33,75Gy, V42,75Gy, V45Gy expressed in percentages and cubic centimeters of the affected organ. Working hypothesis was tested with paired t test. The difference between the variables at the level of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: DVH constrains of transcutaneous conformal radiotherapy showed signifi cantly smaller dose contribution on small intestine than DVH parameters of conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The dose contribution on small intestine was signifi cantly lower by planning three-dimensional conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy in comparison to the conventional planning.

  16. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  17. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS does not increase prosocial behavior in Cyberball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research suggests that individuals experience vicarious social pain (i.e., ostracism. It has been proposed that observing ostracism increases activity in the insula and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, two key brain regions activated by directly experiencing ostracism. Here, we assessed the causal role of the insula and PFC in modulating neural activity in these areas by applying transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS, a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus nerve which has been shown to activate the insula and PFC. A single-blind, sham-controlled, within-subjects design was used to assess the effect of on-line (i.e., stimulation overlapping with the critical task tVNS in healthy young volunteers (n=24 on prosocial Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game designed to measure prosocial compensation of ostracism. Active tVNS did not increase prosocial helping behavior toward an ostracized person, as compared to sham (placebo stimulation. Corroborated by Bayesian inference, we conclude that tVNS does not modulate reactions to vicarious ostracism, as indexed by performance in a Cyberball game.

  18. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) does not increase prosocial behavior in Cyberball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Steenbergen, Laura; Verkuil, Bart; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that individuals experience vicarious social pain (i.e., ostracism). It has been proposed that observing ostracism increases activity in the insula and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), two key brain regions activated by directly experiencing ostracism. Here, we assessed the causal role of the insula and PFC in modulating neural activity in these areas by applying transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS), a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus nerve that has been shown to activate the insula and PFC. A single-blind, sham-controlled, within-subjects design was used to assess the effect of on-line (i.e., stimulation overlapping with the critical task) tVNS in healthy young volunteers (n = 24) on the prosocial Cyberball game, a virtual ball-tossing game designed to measure prosocial compensation of ostracism. Active tVNS did not increase prosocial helping behavior toward an ostracized person, as compared to sham (placebo) stimulation. Corroborated by Bayesian inference, we conclude that tVNS does not modulate reactions to vicarious ostracism, as indexed by performance in a Cyberball game.

  19. Sixth hour transcutaneous bilirubin predicting significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO incompatible neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Y Bhat; Pavan CG Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonates with ABO hemolytic disease are at greater risk for developing significant hyperbilirubinemia. We aimed to determine whether sixth hour transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) could predict such a risk. Methods: TcB measurements were obtained at the 6th hour of life in blood group A or B neonates born to blood group O, rhesus factor compatible mothers. Subsequent hyperbilirubinemia was monitored and considered significant if a neonate required phototherapy/exchange transfusion. The predictive role of sixth hour TcB was estimated. Results: Of 144 ABO incompatible neonates, 41(OA, 24; O-B, 17) had significant hyperbilirubinemia. Mean sixth hour TcB was significantly higher among neonates who developed significant hyperbilirubinemia than those who did not (5.83±1.35 mg/dL vs. 3.65±0.96 mg/dL, P4 mg/dL had the highest sensitivity of 93.5% and >6 mg/dL had the highest specifi city of 99%. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.898. Conclusion: Sixth hour TcB predicts subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO incompatible neonates.

  20. Dynamic visualization of dendritic cell-antigen interactions in the skin following transcutaneous immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawan Rattanapak

    Full Text Available Delivery of vaccines into the skin provides many advantages over traditional parenteral vaccination and is a promising approach due to the abundance of antigen presenting cells (APC residing in the skin including Langerhans cells (LC and dermal dendritic cells (DDC. However, the main obstacle for transcutaneous immunization (TCI is the effective delivery of the vaccine through the stratum corneum (SC barrier to the APC in the deeper skin layers. This study therefore utilized microneedles (MN and a lipid-based colloidal delivery system (cubosomes as a synergistic approach for the delivery of vaccines to APC in the skin. The process of vaccine uptake and recruitment by specific types of skin APC was investigated in real-time over 4 hours in B6.Cg-Tg (Itgax-EYFP 1 Mnz/J mice by two-photon microscopy. Incorporation of the vaccine into a particulate delivery system and the use of MN preferentially increased vaccine antigen uptake by a highly motile subpopulation of skin APC known as CD207⁺ DC. No uptake of antigen or any response to immunisation by LC could be detected.

  1. Effects of short and prolonged transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Couck, M; Cserjesi, R; Caers, R; Zijlstra, W P; Widjaja, D; Wolf, N; Luminet, O; Ellrich, J; Gidron, Y

    2017-03-01

    The vagus nerve is strategically located in the body, and has multiple homeostatic and health-promoting effects. Low vagal activity predicts onset and progression of diseases. These are the reasons to activate this nerve. This study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on a main index of vagal activity, namely heart rate variability (HRV). In Study 1, we compared short (10min) left versus right ear t-VNS versus sham (no stimulation) in a within-subjects experimental design. Results revealed significant increases in only one HRV parameter (standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN)) following right-ear t-VNS. Study 2 examined the prolonged effects of t-VNS (1h) in the right ear. Compared to baseline, right-t-VNS significantly increased the LF and LF/HF components of HRV, and SDNN in women, but not in men. These results show limited effects of t-VNS on HRV, and are discussed in light of neuroanatomical and statistical considerations and future directions are proposed.

  2. A controlled trial of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihua, Liu; Lu, Song; Liping, Li; Xiuru, Wang; Hua, Lin; Yuping, Wang

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the efficacy and safety of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (t-VNS) in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A total of 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups based on the stimulation zone: the Ramsay-Hunt zone (treatment group) and the earlobe (control group). Before and after the 12-month treatment period, all patients completed the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale (LSSS), and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31). Seizure frequency was determined according to the patient's seizure diary. During our study, the antiepileptic drugs were maintained at a constant level in all subjects. After 12 months, the monthly seizure frequency was lower in the treatment group than in the control group (8.0 to 4.0; P=0.003). This reduction in seizure frequency was correlated with seizure frequency at baseline and duration of epilepsy (both P>0.05). Additionally, all patients showed improved SAS, SDS, LSSS, and QOLIE-31 scores that were not correlated with a reduction in seizure frequency. The side effects in the treatment group were dizziness (1 case) and daytime drowsiness (3 cases), which could be relieved by reducing the stimulation intensity. In the control group, compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in seizure frequency (P=0.397), SAS, SDS, LESS, or QOLIE-31. There were also no complications in this group.

  3. Transcutaneous Intraluminal Impedance Measurement for Minimally Invasive Monitoring of Gastric Motility: Validation in Acute Canine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Poscente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement (TIIM is a new method to cutaneously measure gastric contractions by assessing the attenuation dynamics of a small oscillating voltage emitted by a battery-powered ingestible capsule retained in the stomach. In the present study, we investigated whether TIIM can reliably assess gastric motility in acute canine models. Methods. Eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: half received an active TIIM pill and half received an identically sized sham capsule. After 24-hour fasting and transoral administration of the pill (active or sham, two force transducers (FT were sutured onto the antral serosa at laparotomy. After closure, three standard cutaneous electrodes were placed on the abdomen, registering the transluminally emitted voltage. Thirty-minute baseline recordings were followed by pharmacological induction of gastric contractions using neostigmine IV and another 30-minute recording. Normalized one-minute baseline and post-neostigmine gastric motility indices (GMIs were calculated and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs between cutaneous and FT GMIs were obtained. Statistically significant GMI PCCs were seen in both baseline and post-neostigmine states. There were no significant GMI PCCs in the sham capsule test. Further chronic animal studies of this novel long-term gastric motility measurement technique are needed before testing it on humans.

  4. Optical Transcutaneous pCO2 Sensor using Soft Lithography Method for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Do-Eok; Leem, Myoung-Kun; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Kang, Shin-Won

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we carried out development of non-invasive optical transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2, monitoring system. The purpose of this system is to detect CO2 from outer skin, not from the arterial blood-gathering method. There are advantages about a reduction of analysis time and real-time monitoring that this system might be available. The measurement system is composed of the IR lamp, the pyroelectric sensor including a 4.26 μm optical filter, the optical gas reaction chamber and the signal processing circuit. The optical reaction length of chamber was reduced by 1 mm using the soft-lithography method which CO2 is exhausted in human body as we considered. The fabricated pCO2 monitoring system showed linear result of 6.50×10-6 absorbance/ppm sensitivity for CO2 concentration from 0 ˜5,000 ppm by MFC and about 2 seconds of fast response time. The proposed system can be used in the optical biosensor field for the medical diagnosis such as pCO2 monitoring system and environment monitoring systems.

  5. Physical activity and transcutaneous oxygen pressure in men with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Crespo-Ruiz, MSc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study proposed a method for assessing the status of vascular flow measured by transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2 in the area of the ischium in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. In a sample of 38 men (two groups: 12 physically active and 26 sedentary with thoracic SCI, the distribution of the physiological response of the tissues under load during sitting was assessed through analysis of ischium TcPO2 values obtained by an oximeter. TcPO2 baseline, recovery time of TcPO2 after sitting (Trec, the percentage of TcPO2 (%TcPO2 of maximum pressure TcPO2, and mechanic maximal pressure (Pmax were evaluated. Trec in the physically active group was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than in the sedentary group. Likewise, significant differences in %TcPO2 between groups (p < 0.05 were also found. We concluded that the physiological response of the tissues under an individual with SCI’s own weight resulting from prolonged sitting is better in those who are physically active.

  6. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure. An effective measure for prosthesis fitting on below-knee amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, J M; Michel, C; Aurelle, B; Becker, F; Marcer, I; Schultz, S; Didier, J P

    1993-02-01

    After amputation for arterial occlusive disease of the lower limbs, healing and local adaptation to a prosthesis depend on the oxygen ratio in the tissue. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) is a noninvasive microcirculatory exploration. Forty six below-knee stumps were selected without any prosthetic problem excepting vascular, with a follow-up mean duration of 23 months. They were classified into different prosthetic categories. The first was the worst because it required further amputation on the thigh and the fourth the best, which displayed complete adaptation to a socket contact. These groups were related to their TcPO2 values on the anterior and exterior face of the stumps in both reclined and seated positions. It seems that it is impossible to achieve healing when the TcPO2 value is lower than 15 mm Hg in lying position. However, healing is possible above 20 mm Hg but socket contact is not possible when TcPO2 values are under 40 mm Hg. When TcPO2 values are above 40 mm Hg, a good prosthesis fitting is possible when no problems are encountered other than vascular ones.

  7. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep H. Lakshminarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dead space fraction (Vd/Vt measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2. In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2 has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of Vd/Vt. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had Vd/Vt calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean Vd/Vt calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson’s correlation = 0.87, p<0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of −0.05 (95% CI: −0.01 to −0.09 between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure Vd/Vt, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  8. Can Transcutaneous CO2 Tension Be Used to Calculate Ventilatory Dead Space? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep H; Geeti, Adiba A; Darr, Umer M; Kaufman, David A

    2016-01-01

    Dead space fraction (V d/V t) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of V d/V t. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had V d/V t calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2. The mean V d/V t calculated using PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 0.48 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively, with a strong positive correlation between the two methods of calculation (Pearson's correlation = 0.87, p < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.05 (95% CI: -0.01 to -0.09) between the two methods. PtcCO2 measurements can provide a noninvasive means to measure V d/V t, thus accessing important physiologic information and prognostic assessment in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  9. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Improves the Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Balazs; Kiss, Istvan; Jencsik, Timea; Peter, Ivan; Kreska, Zita; Koszegi, Tamas; Miseta, Attila; Kustan, Peter; Boncz, Imre; Laczo, Andrea; Ajtay, Zeno

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) therapy on the nitric oxide (NO) pathway by monitoring plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations. Forty-seven hypertensive patients who underwent transcutaneous CO2 therapy were enrolled. Thirty healthy individuals were recruited for the control group. Blood samples were taken one hour before, as well as one hour, 24 hours and 3 weeks after the first CO2 treatment. Controls did not undergo CO2 treatment. Plasma ADMA levels were measured by ELISA. ADMA levels decreased significantly one hour after the first CO2 treatment compared to the baseline concentrations (p=0.003). Significantly greater reduction was found among patients in whom angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were administered (p=0.019). The short- and long-term decrease of ADMA levels suggests that CO2 is not only a vasodilator, but also has a beneficial effect on the NO pathway. ACE inhibition seems to enhance the effect of CO2 treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances response selection during action cascading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Verkuil, Bart; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-06-01

    The ever-changing environment we are living in requires us to apply different action control strategies in order to fulfill a task goal. Indeed, when confronted with multiple response options it is fundamental to prioritize and cascade different actions. So far, very little is known about the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the causal role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and noradrenergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by applying transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a new non-invasive and safe method to stimulate the vagus nerve and to increase GABA and norepinephrine concentrations in the brain. A single-blind, sham-controlled, between-group design was used to assess the effect of on-line (i.e., stimulation overlapping with the critical task) tVNS in healthy young volunteers (n=30)-on a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that active, as compared to sham stimulation, enhanced response selection functions during action cascading and led to faster responses when two actions were executed in succession. These findings provide evidence for the important role of the GABA-ergic and noradrenergic system in modulating performance in action cascading.

  11. An alternative therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy: transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Peijing; Liu Aihua; Zhang Jianguo; Wang Yuping; Yang Anchao; Li Liang; Ben Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective therapy for drugresistant epilepsy.Acupuncture is also used to treat epilepsy.This study was designed to examine the safety and effectiveness of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.Methods A total of 50 volunteer patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were selected for a random clinical trial to observe the therapeutic effect of ta-VNS.The seizure frequency,quality of life,and severity were assessed in weeks 8,16,and 24 of the treatment according to the percentage of seizure frequency reduction.Results In the pilot study,47 of the 50 epilepsy patients completed the 24-week treatment; three dropped off.After 8-week treatment,six of the 47 patients (12%) were seizure free and 12 (24%) had a reduction in seizure frequency.In week 16 of the continuous treatment,six of the 47 patients (12%)were seizure free; 17 (34%) had a reduction in seizure frequency.After 24 weeks' treatment,eight patients (16%) were seizure free; 19 (38%) had reduced seizure frequency.Conclusion Similar to the therapeutic effect of VNS,ta-VNS can suppress epileptic seizures and is a safe,effective,economical,and widely applicable treatment option for drug-resistant epilepsy.(ChiCTR-TRC-10001023)

  12. Treatment of peritendinitis calcarea of the shoulder by transcutaneous nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaada, B

    1984-01-01

    Low-frequency transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TNS) is known to produce pain relief as well as widespread and prolonged increases in micro-circulation in the skin and other organs. Such stimulation has further been shown to eliminate skin calcium deposits in systemic sclerosis. The present study tested the effects of TNS on clinical symptoms in peritendinitis calcarea of the shoulder and the possibility that this procedure could eliminate calcium deposits in this disease. Ten patients with 14 calcareous shoulders received TNS-treatment with a follow-up time of 3-10 months. Two of these were classified as acute, 9 as chronic, and 3 as asymptomatic. Great relief of pain and of restricted mobility was encountered in 10 of the 11 symptomatic shoulders one week or two after the onset of daily stimulation with subsequent progressive improvement of residual complaints during the following weeks. There was one relapse after 2 months' freedom of pain. Calcium deposits persisted in the 3 asymptomatic shoulders, but was completely eliminated or greatly reduced in 7 of the 11 symptomatic ones. Comparison is made with reported untreated series. Even if most shoulders with calcified peritendinitis will spontaneously improve in time, TNS-treatment shortens the period of incapacitation and discomfort, secures freedom of pain, and allows earlier mobilization. It may thus represent an alternative method to other therapeutic procedures, such as roentgen irradiation and injection of anesthetics and hydrocortisone, in this disabling disorder.

  13. Transcutaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate in small rodents: through the skin for the win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Cai, Xiaochu; Walker, David D; Dickinson, Hayley; Kett, Michelle M

    2015-03-01

    Rodent models of renal physiology and pathology are crucial to our understanding of the molecular, histological and functional sequelae that contribute to kidney diseases. One of the most important measures of renal function is glomerular filtration rate (GFR). While the accurate determination of GFR is pivotal to understanding the progression of disease and/or the benefits of treatment strategies, in rodents the conventional methods for assessment of GFR are inconvenient and cumbersome, not the least because they involve stress and often anaesthesia. The legitimacy of assay-based assessment of plasma and urine markers of GFR in mice has also been heavily scrutinized for their insensitivity to minor declines in GFR and inaccurate detection of renal biomarkers. While infusion-based clearance methods of GFR assessment are thus the gold standard in terms of accuracy, they are limited by the fact that they are primarily non-recovery procedures. This presents a dilemma when trying to document the progression of renal disease, as these measures cannot be taken in the same experimental subject. Here we review a technique of transcutaneous measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled sinistrin to calculate GFR in small rodents, using a non-invasive clearance device (NIC-Kidney Device). This is a recently validated non-invasive technique for measuring GFR in small rodents that allows for the real-time measurement of GFR in conscious animals, without the need for plasma and urine assays.

  14. [Transcutaneous osseointegrated prosthesis (TOP) after limb amputation : Status quo and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Krettek, Christian

    2017-04-10

    The majority of transfemoral and transtibial amputees can be functionally fitted with conventional suspension sockets; however, due to socket problems using conventional stump care, 60% of the patients have limited function and even in younger patients approximately one sixth are unable to wear the prosthesis daily. After the introduction of transcutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (TOP) the inherent problems of socket-stump care can be avoided for these patients. Against this background this article reviews the recent clinical development of TOP in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia and USA currently in nine centers. Unanimously, all groups show that TOP enables physiological weight bearing, improved range of motion in the proximal joint, as well as osseoperceptive sensory feedback and better control of the artificial limb. Likewise, there is agreement that as a rule that there is a clinically less relevant superficial contamination of the stoma. Furthermore, TOP is nowadays also used for transhumeral amputees and after thumb amputation and the development of the indications for this technique are increasing. Future aspects include novel treatment options using implanted intramedullary electrodes allowing permanent and unlimited bidirectional communication with the human body (osseointegrated human-machine gateway). This could possibly realize an innovative form of prosthesis control as well as the combination of TOP and targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery to create more advanced prosthesis systems for upper and lower extremity amputees.

  15. A novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan Peng; Yan Guozheng; Liu Hua

    2008-01-01

    For controlling anal incontinence, a new artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) with sensor feedback based on transcutaneous energy transmission is developed. The device mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter (AAS), a wireless power supply subsystem, and a communication subsystem. The artificial anal sphincter comprises a front cuff and a sensor cuff placed around the rectum, a reservoir sited in abdominal cavity and a micropump controlling inflation and deflation of the front cuff. There are two pressure sensors in the artificial anal sphincter. One can measure the pressure in the front cuff to clamp the rectum, the other in the sensor cuff can measure the pressure of the rectum. Wireless power supply subsystem includes a resonance transmit coil to transmit an alternating magnetic field and a secondary coil to receive the power. Wireless communication subsystem can transmit the pressure information of the artificial anal sphincter to the monitor, or send the control commands to the artificial anal sphincter. A prototype is designed and the basic function of the artificial anal sphincter system has been tested through experiments. The results demonstrate that the artificial anal sphincter system can control anal incontinence effectively.

  16. Focused ultrasound: concept for automated transcutaneous control of hemorrhage in austere settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, John C; Bailey, Michael R; Kaczkowski, Peter J; Carter, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is being developed for a range of clinical applications. Of particular interest to NASA and the military is the use of HIFU for traumatic injuries because HIFU has the unique ability to transcutaneously stop bleeding. Automation of this technology would make possible its use in remote, austere settings by personnel not specialized in medical ultrasound. Here a system to automatically detect and target bleeding is tested and reported. The system uses Doppler ultrasound images from a clinical ultrasound scanner for bleeding detection and hardware for HIFU therapy. The system was tested using a moving string to simulate blood flow and targeting was visualized by Schlieren imaging to show the focusing of the HIFU acoustic waves. When instructed by the operator, a Doppler ultrasound image is acquired and processed to detect and localize the moving string, and the focus of the HIFU array is electronically adjusted to target the string. Precise and accurate targeting was verified in the Schlieren images. An automated system to detect and target simulated bleeding has been built and tested. The system could be combined with existing algorithms to detect, target, and treat clinical bleeding.

  17. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure as a surrogate index of lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Hiroomi; Minakata, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Motoyuki; Ikeda, Takafumi; Shimizu, Akira; Yokode, Masayuki; Morita, Satoshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2016-12-01

    A large number of clinical trials of therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with critical limb ischemia have been conducted in recent years. However, limb amputation, which is used as a primary endpoint in such studies, is not often required in Japan, which can make it difficult to carry out related clinical trials. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) is widely used to evaluate the severity of limb ischemia, to decide the level of amputation, and to predict wound healing after limb amputation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether TcPO2 can be a surrogate index of limb ischemia, and to define an appropriate cutoff value for wound healing after limb amputation using meta-analysis. A computer search was performed to identify studies describing the association between TcPO2 and limb ischemic events. From these, studies focused on wound healing after limb amputation were combined and analyzed. Eleven studies were identified for inclusion in this analysis. The analysis demonstrated that TcPO2 20 mmHg was a valid cutoff value for limb amputation and TcPO2 30 mmHg would be an appropriate value for wound healing after limb amputation. TcPO2 of 20 and 30 mmHg were considered appropriate cutoff values for limb amputation and wound healing after amputation, respectively.

  18. Enhancing the soft tissue seal around intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses using silanized fibronectin titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Pendegrass, C; Blunn, G, E-mail: mukai.cg@mac.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on achieving a tight seal between the soft tissues and the implant in order to avoid infection. Fibronectin (Fn) may be silanized onto titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in order to promote soft-tissue attachment. The silanization process includes passivation with sulphuric acid, which alters surface characteristics. This study aimed to improve in vitro fibroblast adhesion to silanized fibronectin (SiFn) titanium alloy by omitting the passivation stage. Additionally, the study assessed the effects of SiFn on in vivo dermal attachment, comparing the results with adsorbed Fn, hydroxyapatite (HA), Fn adsorbed onto HA (HAFn) and uncoated controls. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurement. Anti-vinculin antibodies were used to immunolocalize fibroblast adhesion sites. A histological assessment of soft-tissue attachment and cell alignment relative to implants in an in vivo ovine model was performed. Passivation resulted in rougher, more hydrophobic, microcracked surfaces and was associated with poorer fibroblast adhesion than unpassivated controls. SiFn and HAFn surfaces resulted in more favourable cell alignment in vivo, implying that dermal attachment was enhanced. These results suggest that SiFn and HAFn surfaces could be useful in optimizing the soft tissue seal around ITAP.

  19. [Randomized blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of transcutaneous adaptive electrostimulation in the treatment of nonspecific low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeeva, L R; Setchenkova, N M; Magzhanov, R V; Abdrashitova, E V; Bulgakova, A Z

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of dynamic transcutaneous electrostimulation was compared to its imitation in patients with low back pain. Patients were randomized into two groups: 21 patients were treated with transcutaneous electrostimulation and 21 patients received placebo. Patients had one session of electrostimulation (20 minutes) daily during 7-10 days. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analogous scale (VAS) daily. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale, the Beck Depression scale and the Spilberger-Khanin Anxiety test were used as well before and after the treatment. The significant improvement on the VAS (p=0,048) and the Oswestry scale (p=0,047) was found in the main group compared to the placebo one. No side-effects of transcutaneous electrostimulation were observed.

  20. Global Design Analysis for Highly Repeatable Solid-state Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, Dal Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the repeatability issue in the electrical-to-radio frequency conversion chains using pulsed klystrons. The focus is on the power electronics used in klystron modulators. Repeatability definition is presented and simulation results allow deriving important conclusions regarding the voltage repeatability harmonic content versus power electronics design directions. The trade-off between klystron modulator and low level RF controls is a key point for optimizing the global system repeatability performance.

  1. Evaluation of effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study gave us an insight about the effectiveness of TENS therapy in stimulating salivary flow in healthy subjects and it is very effective when used in conjunction with radiation therapy by reducing the side-effects of radiation therapy. Hence, TENS therapy can be used as an adjunctive method for the treatment of xerostomia along with other treatment modalities.

  2. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) reduces pain, fatigue, and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, Dana L.; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol GT; Richard E. Liebano; Anand, Amrit S; Bush, Heather M.; Lee, Kyoung S; Lee, Jennifer E.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Because TENS works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we tested the hypothesis that TENS would reduce pain and fatigue and improve function and hyperalgesia in people with fibromyalgia who have enhanced central excitability and reduced inhibition. The current study used a double-blinded randomized, placebo controlled cross-over design to test effects of a single treatment of TENS in people with fibromyalgia. Three treatments were assessed in random or...

  3. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. A. Akinbo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD is definedas the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD.Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes.Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  4. Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-invasive electrotherapy is commonly used for treatment of chronic low back pain. Evidence for efficacy of most electrotherapy modalities is weak or lacking. This study aims to execute a high-quality, double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 1) H-Wave® Device stimulation plus usual care with 2) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plus usual care, and 3) Sham electrotherapy plus usual care to determine comparative efficacy for treatment of chro...

  5. Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed® with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher Hans

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gold standard to assess hyperbilirubinemia in neonates remains the serum bilirubin measurement. Unfortunately, this is invasive, painful, and costly. Bilimed®, a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer, suggests more accuracy compared to the existing non-invasive bilirubinometers because of its new technology. It furthermore takes into account different skin colours. No contact with the skin is needed during measurement, no additional material costs occur. Our aim was to assess the agreement between the Bilimed® and serum bilirubin in preterm and term infants of different skin colours. Methods The transcutaneous bilirubin measurements were performed on the infant's sternum and serum bilirubin was determined simultaneously. The agreement between both methods was assessed by Pearson's correlation and by Bland-Altman analysis. Results A total of 117 measurement cycles were performed in 99 term infants (group1, further 47 measurements in 38 preterm infants born between 34 - 36 6/7 gestational weeks (group 2, and finally 21 measurements in 13 preterm infants born between 28 - 33 6/7 gestational weeks (group 3. The mean deviation and variability (+/- 2SD of the transcutaneous from serum bilirubin were: -14 (+/- 144 μmol/l; -0.82 (+/- 8.4 mg/dl in group 1, +16 (+/- 91 μmol/l;+0.93(+/- 5.3 mg/dl in group 2 and -8 (+/- 76 μmol/l; -0.47 (+/- 4.4 mg/dl in group 3. These limits of agreement are too wide to be acceptable in a clinical setting. Moreover, there was to be a trend towards less good agreement with increasing bilirubin values. Conclusion Despite its new technology the Bilimed® has no advantages, and more specifically no better agreement not only in term and near-term Caucasian infants, but also in non-Caucasian and more premature infants.

  6. Transcutaneous PTCCO2 measurement in combination with arterial blood gas analysis provides superior accuracy and reliability in ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelten, Oliver; Fiedler, Fritz; Schier, Robert; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2017-02-01

    Hyper or hypoventilation may have serious clinical consequences in critically ill patients and should be generally avoided, especially in neurosurgical patients. Therefore, monitoring of carbon dioxide partial pressure by intermittent arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2) has become standard in intensive care units (ICUs). However, several additional methods are available to determine PCO2 including end-tidal (PETCO2) and transcutaneous (PTCCO2) measurements. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of different methods to determine PCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients on ICU. After approval of the local ethics committee PCO2 was determined in n = 32 ICU consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation: (1) arterial PaCO2 blood gas analysis with Radiometer ABL 625 (ABL; gold standard), (2) arterial PaCO2 analysis with Immediate Response Mobile Analyzer (IRMA), (3) end-tidal PETCO2 by a Propaq 106 EL monitor and (4) transcutaneous PTCCO2 determination by a Tina TCM4. Bland-Altman method was used for statistical analysis; p analysis revealed good correlation between PaCO2 by IRMA and ABL (R(2) = 0.766; p analysis revealed a bias and precision of 2.0 ± 3.7 mmHg for the IRMA, 2.2 ± 5.7 mmHg for transcutaneous, and -5.5 ± 5.6 mmHg for end-tidal measurement. Arterial CO2 partial pressure by IRMA (PaCO2) and PTCCO2 provided greater accuracy compared to the reference measurement (ABL) than the end-tidal CO2 measurements in critically ill in mechanically ventilated patients patients.

  7. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses versus dental implants: a comparison between keratinocyte and gingival epithelial cell adhesion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendegrass, C J; Lancashire, H T; Fontaine, C; Chan, G; Hosseini, P; Blunn, G W

    2015-04-19

    Infection is the primary failure modality for transcutaneous implants because the skin breach provides a route for pathogens to enter the body. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) are being developed to overcome this problem by creating a seal at the skin-implant interface. Oral gingival epithelial cell attachment creates an infection-free seal around dental implants. However, this has yet to be achieved consistently outside of the oral environment. Epithelial cells attach to metal substrates by means of hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions. Their density per unit cell is an indicator of attachment strength. We postulate that gingival epithelial cells express more hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions at earlier time points, compared with epidermal keratinocytes, and this increased speed and strength of attachment may be the reason why an infection-free seal is often achieved around dental implants but less frequently around ITAP. The aim of this study was to compare epidermal keratinocyte with oral gingival cell attachment on titanium alloy in vitro, to determine whether these two cell types differ in their speed and strength of attachment. We aimed to test the hypothesis that gingival cells up-regulate focal adhesion and hemidesmosome formation at earlier time points compared with extra-oral keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis we cultured epidermal keratinocytes and oral gingival cells on titanium alloy substrates and assessed cell attachment by focal adhesions and hemidesmosome expression at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Formation and expression of hemidesmosomes temporally lagged behind that of focal adhesions in both cell types. Gingival derived cells up-regulated focal adhesion and hemidesmosome expression at earlier time points compared with epidermal keratinocytes. Hemidesmosome expression in oral gingival cells was 3 times greater compared with epidermal keratinocytes at 4 hours. Our findings indicate that earlier attachment may be key to the

  8. [A new method for the transcutaneous measurement of deep body temperature during anaesthesia and intensive care (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, U; Hanf, K; Köhler, C O; Just, O H

    1978-04-01

    A new method for monitoring deep body temperature is described. It is based on the establishment, by means of electronic appliances, of a zone without heatflow from the deep tissues. The method is simple and the results compare favourably with those obtained by other procedures for measuring core temperature. The uses of this transcutaneous mehtod are discussed and its advantages and reliability in the operating theatre and intensive care unit are emphasized. It becomes less reliable if it is employed during and after extracorporeal circulation in hypothermia on account of the temperature gradient.

  9. Transcutaneous pressure at which the internal jugular vein is collapsed on ultrasonic imaging predicts easiness of the venous puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Woo Jin; Fukui, Michihiko; Kooguchi, Kunihiko; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Shinzato, Taiichi

    2011-04-01

    Even though we use ultrasound guidance for central venous puncture, we sometimes experience difficulties. We infer that in such cases the vein is collapsed and that the transcutaneous ultrasound probe pressure at which the vein is collapsed (P (tc)) may predict the easiness of the venous puncture. We measured P (tc) and the diameter of the internal jugular vein in 47 adult patients in our ICU. After successful puncture, we also measured venous pressure (P (v)). The patients were divided into two groups based on the number of puncture attempts: ≥3 attempts constituted the "difficult group" and venous collapsibility and vertical diameter determine difficulty in performing venous puncture.

  10. A transcutaneous energy transmission system for artificial heart adapting to changing impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Hu, Liang; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a coil-coupling-based transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) for wirelessly powering an implanted artificial heart. Keeping high efficiency is especially important for TETS, which is usually difficult due to transmission impedance changes in practice, which are commonly caused by power requirement variation for different body movements and coil-couple malposition accompanying skin peristalsis. The TETS introduced in this article is designed based on a class-E power amplifier (E-PA), of which efficiency is over 95% when its load is kept in a certain range. A resonance matching and impedance compressing functions coupled network based on parallel-series capacitors is proposed in the design, to enhance the energy transmission efficiency and capacity of the coil-couple through resonating, and meanwhile compress the changing range of the transmission impedance to meet the load requirements of the E-PA and thus keep the high efficiency of TETS. An analytical model of the designed TETS is built to analyze the effect of the network and also provide bases for following parameters determination. Then, according algorithms are provided to determine the optimal parameters required in the TETS for good performance both in resonance matching and impedance compressing. The design is tested by a series of experiments, which validate that the TETS can transmit a wide range of power with a total efficiency of at least 70% and commonly beyond 80%, even when the coil-couple is seriously malpositioned. The design methodology proposed in this article can be applied to any existing TETS based on E-PA to improve their performance in actual applications.

  11. Early cortical biomarkers of longitudinal transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment success in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiliang; Egorova, Natalia; Rong, Peijing; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Fan, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Honghong; Yu, Yutian; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Li, Shaoyuan; Zhao, Jingjun; Luo, Man; Zhu, Bing; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, has shown promising results in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) in several pilot studies. However, the neural mechanism by which the effect on depression might be achieved has not been fully investigated, with only a few neuroimaging studies demonstrating tVNS-induced changes in the brains of healthy volunteers. Identifying specific neural pathways, which are influenced by tVNS compared with sham in depressed individuals, as well as determining neurobiomarkers of tVNS treatment success are needed to advance the application of tVNS for MDD. In order to address these questions, we measured fMRI brain activity of thirty-eight depressed patients assigned to undergo tVNS (n = 17) or sham (n = 21) treatment for 4 weeks, during the first stimulation session. The results showed significant fMRI signal increases in the left anterior insula, revealed by a direct comparison of tVNS and sham stimulation. Importantly, the insula activation level during the first stimulation session in the tVNS group was significantly associated with the clinical improvement at the end of the four-week treatment, as indicated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Our findings suggest that anterior insula fMRI activity could serve as a potential cortical biomarker and an early predictor of tVNS longitudinal treatment success.

  12. Moving Beyond the Brain: Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, major advances in cognitive neuroscience have clearly shown that the language function is not restricted into the classical language areas but it involves brain regions, which had never previously considered. Indeed, recent lines of evidence have suggested that the processing of words associated to motor schemata, such as action verbs, modulates the activity of the sensorimotor cortex, which, in turn, facilitates its retrieval. To date, no studies have investigated whether the spinal cord, which is functionally connected to the sensorimotor system, might also work as an auxiliary support for language processing. We explored the combined effect of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS and language treatment in a randomized double-blind design for the recovery of verbs and nouns in 14 chronic aphasics. During each treatment, each subject received tsDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the thoracic vertebrae (10th vertebra in three different conditions: (1 anodic, (2 cathodic and (3 sham, while performing a verb and noun naming tasks. Each experimental condition was run in five consecutive daily sessions over 3 weeks. Overall, a significant greater improvement in verb naming was found during the anodic condition with respect to the other two conditions, which persisted at 1 week after the end of the treatment. No significant differences were present for noun naming among the three conditions. The hypothesis is advanced that anodic tsDCS might have influenced activity along the ascending somatosensory pathways, ultimately eliciting neurophysiological changes into the sensorimotor areas which, in turn, supported the retrieval of verbs. These results further support the evidence that action words, due to their sensorimotor semantic properties, are partly represented into the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, they also document, for the first time, that tsDCS enhances verb recovery in chronic aphasia and it may

  13. Evaluation of transcutaneous and end-tidal carbon dioxide levels during inhalation sedation in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Chikuda, Mami; Ohashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Miho; Kuji, Akiyoshi; Joh, Shigeharu

    2016-08-01

    Measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) is useful because of its noninvasiveness, continuity, and response time when sudden changes in ventilation occur during inhalation sedation. We compared the accuracy of PETCO2 using a nasal mask and nasal cannula with the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TC-CO2) and determined which method is more useful during inhalation sedation in volunteers. We used a modified nasal mask (MNM) and modified nasal cannula (MNC) for measurement of PETCO2. The capnometer measured PETCO2 in the gas expired from the nasal cavity by means of two devices. The volunteers received supplemental O2 by means of each device at a flow rate of 6 L/min. After the volunteers lay quietly for 5 min with a supply of 100 % O2, they received supplemental N2O by means of each device at concentrations of 10, 20, and 25 % for 5 min and 30 % for 25 min. The correlation coefficient was poorer in the MNM than in the MNC, and the mean difference between TC-CO2 and PETCO2 in the MNM was greater than that in the MNC. The difference between the TC-CO2 and PETCO2 ranged from 3 to 6 mmHg in the MNM and from 2 to 5 mmHg in the MNC. The difference between two variables against the TC-CO2 and the CO2 waveforms obtained by means of the two devices were within the clinically acceptable range. Our two devices can provide continuous monitoring of PETCO2 with a supply of N2O/O2 in patients undergoing inhalation sedation.

  14. Modification of spasticity by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; McKay, William B; Tansey, Keith E; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut; Minassian, Karen

    2014-03-01

    To examine the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) on lower-limb spasticity. Interventional pilot study to produce preliminary data. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Three subjects with chronic motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk ≥10 m. Two interconnected stimulating skin electrodes (Ø 5 cm) were placed paraspinally at the T11/T12 vertebral levels, and two rectangular electrodes (8 × 13 cm) on the abdomen for the reference. Biphasic 2 ms-width pulses were delivered at 50 Hz for 30 minutes at intensities producing paraesthesias but no motor responses in the lower limbs. The Wartenberg pendulum test and neurological recordings of surface-electromyography (EMG) were used to assess effects on exaggerated reflex excitability. Non-functional co-activation during volitional movement was evaluated. The timed 10-m walk test provided measures of clinical function. The index of spasticity derived from the pendulum test changed from 0.8 ± 0.4 pre- to 0.9 ± 0.3 post-stimulation, with an improvement in the subject with the lowest pre-stimulation index. Exaggerated reflex responsiveness was decreased after tSCS across all subjects, with the most profound effect on passive lower-limb movement (pre- to post-tSCS EMG ratio: 0.2 ± 0.1), as was non-functional co-activation during voluntary movement. Gait speed values increased in two subjects by 39%. These preliminary results suggest that tSCS, similar to epidurally delivered stimulation, may be used for spasticity control, without negatively impacting residual motor control in incomplete SCI. Further study in a larger population is warranted.

  15. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO2) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO2 and minimum SaO2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO2 profiles showed transient TcCO2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  17. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  18. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  19. Noninvasive Transcutaneous Monitoring in Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Thromboangiitis Obliterans Treated With Intravenous Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Elio; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Sanctis, Francesco De; Spontoni, Paolo; Nuti, Marco; Dell'Omodarme, Matteo; Ferrari, Mauro; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous iloprost (IVI) in outpatients with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and lower limb noninvasive transcutaneous monitoring (TCM) at follow-up (FU). Ten consecutive patients with TAO underwent IVI therapy. Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo 2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco 2) determination and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed before and after IVI at 3, 6, and 12 months of FU. Clinical response was positive in 7 patients, whereas 3 nonresponders underwent a second IVI cycle with 1 showing a late positive clinical response. After 12 months of FU, all patients were alive without amputations. Supine and dependent TcP2 levels significantly improved (P < .005). Hallux LDF values showed significant change with the maximal hyperemic test at 44°C (P < .005). Forefoot maximal hyperemic test at 44°C LDF (P < .005) and improved venous arterial reflex (P < .05) showed statistically significant time evolution. We demonstrated some degree of IVI effectiveness and evaluated TCM in patients with TAO.

  20. Evaluation of Transcutaneous Electroacupoint Stimulation with the Train-of-four Mode for Preventing Nausea and Vomiting after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-yong; DUAN Shan-e; CAI Ming-xue; ZOU Peng; LAI Yong; LI Ya-lan

    2008-01-01

    Obiectve:To evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electroacupoint stimulation with a train-of-four(TOF)mode for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV)in the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Methods:Ninety-six ASA Grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into Neiguan(P6)electroacupoint stimulation group(treated group)and a placebo control group(placement of electrodes without electroacupoint stimulation).The anesthetic regimen was standardized by needling at Neiguan on the left side and connecting the TOF peripheral nerve stimulator.The incidence of nausea,vomiting,severity,antiemetic dosage and the degree of pain were assessed at 0,60,120 min,and 24 h after surgery.Results:The incidence of nausea and vomiting,the dose of antiemetics and the occurrence of severe nausea were all significantly lower in the treated group compared with the control group and the score for pain was obviously reduced in patients of the treated group at 24 h post-operation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion:Transcutaneous electroacupoint stimulation at P6 with the TOF mode could reduce the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting with analgesic effects.

  1. Transcutaneous pneumatic injection of glucose solution: a morphometric evaluation of in vivo micropig skin and tissue-mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S B; Kwon, T R; Yoo, K H; Oh, C T; Choi, E J; Kim, B J

    2017-02-01

    Needle-free, transcutaneous pneumatic injection systems can be used to deliver therapeutic solutions to targeted layers of skin in a minimally invasive manner. To evaluate jet infiltration patterns and tissue reactions, 5% isotonic and 20% hypertonic glucose solutions were pneumatically injected into in vivo micropig skin. Gelatin TM phantom was additionally prepared to analyze penetration and dispersion patterns for different experimental settings. As immediate tissue reactions in the in vivo micropig skin, distinct pneumatic injection injury zones (PIIZs) in the dermis, extending from the papillary dermis deep into the dermo-subcutaneous junction, were generated with the 5% and 20% glucose solutions and with pneumatic pressures of 4.64 and 5.7 bars, respectively. PIIZs markedly decreased in appearance at 1 day after treatment, accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, and disappeared at 7 days post-treatment with increased collagen and elastin production. In TM phantom study, the PIIZs created by 20% glucose mainly comprised a single, homogenous, round to oval zone, whereas those created by 5% glucose were irregular and multi-lobular. The present study suggests that transcutaneous pneumatic injection therapy may exert mechanical stimulatory effects, immediate tissue shrinkage via hypertonic solutions, and late tissue regeneration effects during wound healing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Noninvasive control of the power transferred to an implanted device by an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovitz, Doron; Ozeri, Shaul; Wang, Chua-Chin; Spivak, Boaz

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer is an effective method for powering implanted devices noninvasively. Nevertheless, the amount of power harvested by the implanted receiver is sensitive to the distance and orientation of the external transmitting transducer attached to the skin with respect to the implanted receiving transducer. This paper describes an ultrasonic power transfer link whose harvested power is controlled by an inductive link. A small (5 μF) storage capacitor voltage, which is part of the implanted unit, is allowed to swing between 3.8 and 3.5 V using hysteretic control. The two control states are indicated by excitation (while the implanted storage capacitor voltage decreases) or the absence of excitation of an implanted coil that is magnetically coupled to an external coil attached to the skin surface. A 35 mW Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer link was fabricated using two piezoelectric transducers of equal size (Fuji Ceramics C-2 PZT disc 15 mm × 3 mm) operated at a vibration frequency of 720 kHz. By applying the proposed hysteretic control, the captured power was effectively regulated for implantation depths of up to 85 mm.

  3. Basic electrical parameters for safe and effective electro-therapeutics [electro-acupuncture, TES, TENMS (or TEMS), TENS and electro-magnetic field stimulation with or without drug field] for pain, neuromuscular skeletal problems, and circulatory disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Y

    1987-01-01

    Using voltage-time-dependent negative resistance characteristics of Voltage-Current curves of excitable cell membranes estimated without using artificial voltage clamp method, the author made a quantitative analysis of excitability of cell membranes and different conditions of transmembrane action potentials as a bias voltage to the negative resistance of the excitable cell membrane. The pacemaker cells were classified as "Astable Oscillators" and nonpacemaker excitable cells as "Monostable Oscillators," and application of a rapidly changing electromagnetic field to the cells was analyzed as a means of stimulating the cells. The understanding of the 10 essential electrical parameters is highly desirable for safe and effective electrical stimulation. Among these, emphasis was placed on the often neglected, important electrical parameters of "output impedance" of stimulation pulse wave complexes for + and - polarity components, as well as the importance of capacitive current (Ic = C.dV/dt) which depends on rise time as well as fall time of the stimulation pulse wave, and undesirable side effects of electrolysis phenomena due to excessive D.C. current. The difference and similarity between TENS (Transcutaneous Nerve Stimulation) and TES (Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation), TENMS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve and Muscle Stimulation) or TMS (Transcutaneous Muscle Stimulation) was discussed. The author's clinical study indicated that effective TES (TENMS)--characterized by effective muscle contraction without creating pain with a pulse repetition rate approximately the same as the heart rate of the individual--can often give superior beneficial effects in improvement of micro-circulation and subsequent relief of pain and other symptoms compared with TENS that creates stimulation of large diameter sensory nerve fibers without creating significant muscle contraction. Such improvement is often accompanied by the abolishment of the pain with disappearance of local

  4. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  5. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  6. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  7. Intra-abdominal pressure alterations after large pancreatic pseudocyst transcutaneous drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papavramidis Theodossis S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis leads to abdominal hypertension and compartment syndrome. Weeks after the episodes pancreatic fluids sometimes organize to pseudocysts, fluid collections by or in the gland. Aims of the present study were to evaluate the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP induced by large pancreatic pseudocysts and to examine the effect of their transcutaneous drainage on IAP. Methods Twenty seven patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were included. Nine patients with pseudocysts greater than 1l (group A had CT drainage and eighteen (volume less than 1l were the control group. The measurements of group A were taken 6 hours before and every morning after the drainage, while for group B, two measurements were performed, one at the day of the initial CT and one 7 days after. Abdominal compliance (Cabd was calculated. Data were analyzed using student's t-test. Results Baseline IAP for group A was 9.3 mmHg (S.D. 1.7 mmHg, while the first post-drainage day (PDD IAP was 5.1 mmHg (S.D. 0.7 mmHg. The second PDD IAP was 5.6 mmHg (S.D. 0.8 mmHg, the third 6.4 mmH (S.D. 1.2 mmHgg, the fourth 6.9 mmHg (S.D. 1.6 mmHg, the fifth 7.9 mmHg (S.D. 1.5 mmHg, the sixth 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.4 mmHg, and the seventh 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.5 mmHg. Group B had baseline IAP 8.0 mmHg (S.D. 1.2 mmHg and final 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.4 mmHg. Cabd after drainage was 185.6 ml/mmHg (SD 47.5 ml/mmHg. IAP values were reduced between the baseline and all the post-drainage measurements in group A. IAPs seem to stabilize after the 5th post-drainage day. Baseline IAP was higher in group A than in group B, while the two values, at day 7, were equivalent. Conclusion The drainage of large pancreatic pseudocyst reduces IAP. Moreover, the IAP seems to rise shortly after the drainage again, but in a way that it remains inferior to the initial value. More chronic changes to the IAP are related to abdominal cavity's properties and have to be further studied.

  8. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in Subjects With Acute Respiratory Failure and Severe Hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yolanda; Farrero, Eva; Córdoba, Ana; González, Nuria; Dorca, Jordi; Prats, Enric

    2016-04-01

    Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (P(tcCO2)) monitoring is being used increasingly to assess acute respiratory failure. However, there are conflicting findings concerning its reliability when evaluating patients with high levels of P(aCO2). Our study evaluates the accuracy of this method in subjects with respiratory failure according to the severity of hypercapnia. We included subjects with respiratory failure, admitted to a respiratory intermediate care unit, who required arterial blood gas analysis. Simultaneously, P(tcCO2) was measured using a digital monitor. Relations between P(aCO2) and P(tcCO2) were assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analysis was used to test data dispersion, and an analysis of variance test was used to compare the differences between P(aCO2) and the corresponding P(tcCO2) at different levels (level 1, 60 mm Hg). Eighty-one subjects were analyzed. The main diagnosis was COPD exacerbation (45%). P(tcCO2) correlated well with P(aCO2) (r2 = 0.93, P < .001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean P(aCO2) - P(tcCO2) difference of 4.9 ± 4.4 with 95% limits of agreement ranging from -3.6 to 13.4. The difference between variables increased in line with P(aCO2) severity: level 1, 1.7 ± 3.2 mm Hg; level 2, 3.7 ± 2.8; level 3, 6.8 ± 4.7 (analysis of variance, P < .001). Our study showed an acceptable agreement of P(tcCO2) monitoring with arterial blood gas analysis. However, we should consider that P(tcCO2) underestimates P(aCO2) levels, and its accuracy depends on the level of hypercapnia, so this method would not be suitable for acute patients with severe hypercapnia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. Validity of transcutaneous PCO2 in monitoring chronic hypoventilation treated with non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrestad, Sigurd; Tollefsen, Elin; Kleiven, Anne Louise; Qvarfort, Magnus; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an efficient treatment for patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CRF), but requires regular monitoring to detect both diurnal and nocturnal residual hypercapnia. The present study was designed to determine 1) whether transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) is a valid tool for monitoring PaCO2 in this group of patients, and 2) if overnight instrumental drift of the PtcCO2 sensor is clinically significant. Sixty-seven patients with CRF on long term NIV were included. Arterial blood gases (ABG) were sampled from the radial artery during PtcCO2 measurement. PtcCO2 was recorded 2 min after ABG sampling. Instrumental drift was tested by measuring a gas of known CO2 concentration after auto-calibration of the sensor in the evening, and on the following morning. PaCO2 values ranged from 3.97 kPa to 9.0 kPa. Thirty-six (53%) patients were hypercapnic. Correlation between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was highly significant (r(2) = 0.9, p < 0.0001), Bias (d) and SD of bias (s) were 0.23 kPa and 0.28 kPa respectively, with a minor underestimation of PaCO2. Limits of agreement (d ± 2s) were; -0.32; 0.79 kPa. None of the paired values of PaCO2/PtcCO2 had a difference exceeding 1 kPa. The mean drift of PtcCO2 was 0.14 ± 0.54 kPa/8 h (p = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). With the device tested, in stable patients under NIV-treatment for CRF, PtcCO2 accurately reflects PaCO2. PtcCO2 can be used to monitor CO2 overnight during NIV without any clinically significant drift. TRIAL REGISTRATION N°: NCT01845233. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurements in Women Receiving Intrathecal Morphine for Cesarean Delivery: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchat, Jeanette R; McCarthy, Robert; Fitzgerald, Paul; Kolb, Stephen; Wong, Cynthia A

    2017-03-01

    Neuraxial morphine is the most commonly used analgesic technique after cesarean delivery. The incidence of respiratory depression is reported to be very low (0%-1.2%) in this patient population as measured by pulse oximetry and respiratory rates. However, hypercapnia may be a more sensitive measure of respiratory depression. In the current study, the incidence of hypercapnia events (transcutaneous CO2 [TcCO2] >50 mm Hg) for ≥2-minute duration was evaluated using the Topological Oscillation Search with Kinematical Analysis monitor in women who received intrathecal morphine for postcesarean delivery analgesia. Healthy women (>37 weeks of gestation) scheduled for a cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine were recruited. Baseline STOP-BANG sleep apnea questionnaire and TcCO2 readings were obtained. Spinal anesthesia was initiated with 12 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine, 15 µg fentanyl, and 150 µg morphine. The Topological Oscillation Search with Kinematical Analysis monitor was reapplied in the postanesthesia care unit and TcCO2 measurements obtained for up to 24 hours. Supplemental opioid administration and adverse respiratory events were recorded. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypercapnia events, defined as a TcCO2 reading >50 mm Hg for ≥2 minutes in the first 24 hours after delivery. Of the 120 women who were recruited, 108 completed the study. Thirty-five women (32%; 99.15% confidence interval, 21%-45%) reached the primary outcome of a sustained hypercapnia event. The median time (interquartile range [IQR]) from intrathecal morphine administration to the hypercapnia event was 300 (124-691) minutes. The median (IQR) number of events was 3 (1-6) and longest duration of an event was 25.6 (8.4-98.7) minutes. Baseline median (IQR) TcCO2 measurements were 35 (30-0) mm Hg and postoperatively, median (IQR) TcCO2 measurements were 40 (36-43) mm Hg, a difference of 5 mm Hg (99.15% confidence interval of the difference 2-8 mm Hg, P 38 mm

  11. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring with Reduced-Temperature Probes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Safwat; El-Dib, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mohamed; Aly, Hany

    2017-04-01

    Background Obtaining blood gases in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is an invasive procedure. Studies using transcutaneous carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) have reported variable skin complications with high-temperature probes. No enough data available on tcPCO2 monitoring using reduced-temperature probes (41°C). Objective The objective of this study was to assess reliability and safety of tcPCO2 monitoring at reduced-temperature probe in VLBW infants. Design and Methods A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants. tcPCO2 was monitored for 12 hours. Default skin probe temperature was adjusted at 41°C. Blood gases were done as clinically indicated. Arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) as well as capillary CO2 were compared with simultaneous tcPCO2. Results A total of 124 data points were identified from 50 patients (gestational age [GA] = 28.1 ± 2.4 weeks and birth weight [BW] = 1,035 ± 291 g). Patients were supported with continuous positive airway pressure (40%), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (16%), mechanical ventilation (18%), and high-frequency oscillation ventilation (24%). PaCO2 was measured using either capillary (58%) or arterial (42%) samples. Mean CO2 did not differ between tcPCO2 (51.3 ± 16) and PaCO2 (49.1 ± 13.7) mm Hg. tcPCO2 showed positive correlation with partial pressure of CO2 (r = 0.6, p < 0.001). This correlation continued to be significant after controlling for GA, postmenstrual age, type of sample, and pH. No skin complications were reported. Conclusion tcPCO2 monitoring using a temperature of 41°C is feasible and reliable in VLBW infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Sleep Transcutaneous vs. End-Tidal CO2 Monitoring for Patients with Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yu Hui; Choi, Won Ah; Lee, Jang Woo; Bach, John Robert; Park, Jinyoung; Kang, Seong-Woong

    2016-02-01

    This study compared transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) monitoring during sleep for patients with neuromuscular disease. This is a retrospective study of patients whose PtcCO2 and PetCO2 were monitored before they began using noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The outcomes were divided into four groupings: group 1, both PtcCO2 and PetCO2 are greater than or equal to 49 mm Hg; group 2, PtcCO2 is greater than or equal to 49 mm Hg but PetCO2 is less than 49 mm Hg; group 3, PtcCO2 is less than 49 mm Hg but PetCO2 is greater than or equal to 49 mm Hg; and group 4, both PtcCO2 and PetCO2 are less than 49 mm Hg. A total of 39 subjects (mean [SD] age, 27.7 [19.3] yrs) were enrolled. PtcCO2 values were significantly higher than PetCO2 values (P < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient between maximal and mean values of PtcCO2 and PetCO2 was 0.612 and 0.718, respectively. Bias and limits of agreement between PtcCO2 and PetCO2 were -7.5 mm Hg and -21.3 to 6.3 mm Hg for maximal values and -4.8 mm Hg and -14.8 to 5.3 mm Hg for mean values. Group 2 included 19 (48.7%) and group 3 included 3 (7.6%) patients who showed discrepancy of hypercapnia between two methods. Maximum PtcCO2 was significantly greater than maximum PetCO2 for both groups and, therefore, tends to be higher than PetCO2 in this population. This should be taken into consideration when assessing patients for sleep hypoventilation.

  13. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  14. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  15. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) might be a mechanism behind the analgesic effects of auricular acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usichenko, Taras; Hacker, Henriette; Lotze, Martin

    2017-08-02

    Randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated that auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain, although the mechanisms behind AA are not elucidated. The data concerning the localization of AA points, which are commonly used to treat pain, were extracted from the meta-analysis of 17 RCTs and evaluated using the anatomical map of auricular afferent nerve supply. Fifteen out of 20 specific AA points, used in the treatment of pain, are situated in areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve (ABVN), whereas sham stimulation was applied at the helix of the auricle, innervated by cervical nerves. Considering the clinical data relating to the anatomy of neural pathways and experimental findings of the mechanisms of transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation, the analgesic effects of AA may be explained by stimulation of ABVN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment for patients with shoulder pain booked for surgery: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Murray; Loughnan, Terence

    2014-02-01

    Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal problem and accounts for 5% of general practitioner consultations. Although many treatments are described, there is no consensus on optimal treatment and up to 40% of patients still have pain 12 months after initially seeking help for pain. Previously, the effect of transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment (TCPRFT) was evaluated in a retrospective audit that showed good pain relief for a mean 395 days and justified this randomized sham controlled trial. In this study, 51 patients entered into a randomized double-blinded, placebo controlled study of TCPRFT. Patients were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks by a blinded observer and compared with baseline. We observed sustained reductions in pain at night, pain with activity, and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks with active but not sham TCPRFT. The 25 subjects who received active treatment showed statistically significant reductions of 24/100 in pain at night and 20/100 of pain with activity at 4 weeks and 18/100 and 19/100, respectively, at 12 weeks from baseline. Statistically significant lower Brief Pain Inventory pain and function scores (4 and 12 weeks), improved pain self-efficacy (4 weeks), Oxford Shoulder scores (12 weeks), and internal rotation (12 weeks) were seen. Pain at both rest and shoulder elevation were not improved by active treatment. No complications were seen. This study of a simple, low risk, outpatient treatment confirms the findings of our earlier study of TCPRFT for knee pain and shoulder pain audit that transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment may help some people with painful shoulders.

  17. Proceedings in the study of transcutaneous CO2 emission in acupuncture andmeridians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Bo Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To observe the features of acupuncture and meridians by measuring transcutaneous CO2 emission(TCE).METHODS A high sensitive CO2 analyzer was used to measure the TCE. TCE on 31 levels of meridianpoints and control points along stomach meridian on leg, large intestine meridian on arm (30) andpericardium meridian on whole course (22) were measured. During needling Jianshi (P5), the changes ofTCE on distal side, proximal side and outside of the pericardium meridian were measured in 20 healthypeople. TCE on 24 source points of twelve meridians in 30 healthy people and some related source points inpatients were measured. TCE on source points, connecting points and sea points in 20 healthy cases weremeasured. Acupoints and reference points (no opening time) were measured on the opening time and nonopening time according to day-prescription in midnight-noon Ebb-flow law in 15 healthy people. The relationbetween TCE and skin temperature and TCE change after muscular exercise were also studied.RESULTS The mean TCE on the meridians was significantly higher (P<0.05, same below) than controlpoints. About 40% levers showed significantly higher TCE on meridian points than on control points amongwhich two third were acupoints, mostly were Jing point and He point where Oi were rich. TCE increasedsignificantly in both the meridian and control points during the needling, while moderately increased on themeridian line, particularly the proximal direction. The correlative coefficient (CC) between the points alongpericardium meridian was 0.65 between acupoi, nts which was significantly higher than 0.56 between nonacupoints. For the 24 source points, CC between the points on same meridian, exterior meridian and internalmeridian, same named hand and foot meridian and normal meridian were 0.81, 0.65, 0.51 and 0.38respectively with significant difference. The mean CC between connecting points was 0.67, significantlyhigher than 0.61 between source points and 0.56 between sea points. The

  18. 大鼠肌紧张带重复低频电刺激后的生物力学及病理学改变%Biomechanical and pathological changes of taut bands in rats after repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永慧; 孟菲; 丁欣利; 范真真; 王超; 岳寿伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical and pathological changes in vivo in the taut bands (TB) of biceps femoris in rats after repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation.Methods Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group,an electrical intensity-dependent fatigue group,which were subject to electric intensity-dependent fatigue test,and an electrical frequency-dependent fatigue group,which were subject to electrical frequency-dependent fatigue test.After fatigue tests,the taut band of the biceps femoris and the non-taut band of the contralateral biceps femoris were harvested for pathological observation.The maximum contraction force (MCF),electrical intensity-and frequency-dependent fatigue characteristics and any pathological changes in the TBs were assessed and compared to the non-taut band region of the other biceps femoris.Results The MCF at the 15th and 20th stimulation (1.42 ± 0.28 g and 0.93 ± 0.54 g respectively) were significantly lower than that at the 1 st and 5th stimulation of the TBs.High stimulation intensity (HSI) at the 15th and 20th stimulation (3.76 ± 0.71 V and 3.44 ± 0.97 V) were also significantly lower than at the 1st TB stimulation.At the 10th,15th and 20th stimulation of the TBs,MCF and HSI were both significantly lower than in the bands which were not tight.In the frequency-dependent fatigue stimulation tests,the frequency which generated the MCF of the TBs was significantly lower than in the bands which were not tight,while the MCF of the TBs was significantly higher than that of non-TBs.After either intensity or frequency fatigue testing,more severe edema,uneven cytoplasmic death and degeneration of muscle fibers were observed in sections from TBs than from the bands which were not tight.Conclusions Taut muscle bands are significantly less fatigue-resistant than normal muscle fibers.Taut bands may contribute to the fatigue of myofascial pain syndromes.%目的 研究大鼠肌紧张带(TB)重复低频电

  19. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  20. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  1. [Changes in the blood rheological properties in the transcutaneous irradiation of the ulnar vascular fascicle with a helium-neon laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleev, N R; Karandashov, V I; Voronina, M A; Fin'ko, I A

    1993-10-01

    An investigation of blood rheologic properties in 12 patients with acute pneumonia has been made by using low-energy He-Ne laser (LG-79-2) irradiation of vascular fascicle. 37 exposures have been performed, 40 min each. Immediate effects of He-Ne laser were studied comparing blood samples taken before and after the radiation. Results obtained have demonstrated transcutaneous blood irradiation causing prompt and pronounced effects on blood rheologic characteristics: reduced blood viscosity, improved both viscous-elastic properties and osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, activated platelet aggregation. These effects excluding the latter are rather positive for the human body. As for platelet aggregation, its activation following transcutaneous laser irradiation of blood might be expected to grow into a factor of risk provoking pathologic thrombogenesis in venous congestion, hypercoagulation and vascular wall injury.

  2. Effects of sustained electrical stimulation on spasticity assessed by the pendulum test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Luna José L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation using electrical stimulation is able to enhance motor control of individuals suffering an upper motor neuron disorder. This work examined the effect of sustained electrical stimulation to modify spasticity in the leg muscles. We applied transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation with a pulse rate of 50 Hz for 30 min. The subjects were assessed before and after the intervention using in a pendulum test setup. The motion of the free swinging leg was acquired through video tracking and goniometer measurements. The quantification was done through the R2n index which shows consistency identifying the spasticity levels. In all incomplete SCI subjects having severe spasticity, the results show that electrical stimulation is effective to modify the increased muscle tone.

  3. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria.

  4. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  5. A multi-pad electrode based functional electrical stimulation system for restoration of grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Nebojša M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES applied via transcutaneous electrodes is a common rehabilitation technique for assisting grasp in patients with central nervous system lesions. To improve the stimulation effectiveness of conventional FES, we introduce multi-pad electrodes and a new stimulation paradigm. Methods The new FES system comprises an electrode composed of small pads that can be activated individually. This electrode allows the targeting of motoneurons that activate synergistic muscles and produce a functional movement. The new stimulation paradigm allows asynchronous activation of motoneurons and provides controlled spatial distribution of the electrical charge that is delivered to the motoneurons. We developed an automated technique for the determination of the preferred electrode based on a cost function that considers the required movement of the fingers and the stabilization of the wrist joint. The data used within the cost function come from a sensorized garment that is easy to implement and does not require calibration. The design of the system also includes the possibility for fine-tuning and adaptation with a manually controllable interface. Results The device was tested on three stroke patients. The results show that the multi-pad electrodes provide the desired level of selectivity and can be used for generating a functional grasp. The results also show that the procedure, when performed on a specific user, results in the preferred electrode configuration characteristics for that patient. The findings from this study are of importance for the application of transcutaneous stimulation in the clinical and home environments.

  6. Electric Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade Electric Power Industry Office (CCPIT Electric Power), one of the pro-fessional industrial branches of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), was established in 2006.

  7. Electricity economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Systematically analyzing for the first time the production output from electricity consumption for enterprises, sectors, and industries, this study uses the function of EAI (electricity as input), and includes national E-GDP figures for more than 20 countries.

  8. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charton A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antoine Charton,1 François Péronnet,2 Stephane Doutreleau,3 Evelyne Lonsdorfer,3 Alexis Klein,4 Liliana Jimenez,4 Bernard Geny,3 Pierre Diemunsch,1 Ruddy Richard5 1Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, and EA 3072, Hôpital de Hautepierre; University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 2Department of Kinesiology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, New Civil Hospital, Strasbourg, France and University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, France; 4Danone Research, Palaiseau, France; 5Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations, CHU Clermont-Ferrand and INRA UMR 1019, CRNH-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2 supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods: Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach. Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2, skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2 were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results: Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in

  9. The application of transcutaneous CO2 pressure monitoring in the anesthesia of obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiang Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2 with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m(2 were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2, as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2-PaCO2 and. (PTCCO2-PaCO2 were calculated. Bland-Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19-54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86-160 kg, mean 119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3-51.1 kg/m(2, mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m(2 were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference was 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. And the average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference was 10.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. The linear regression equation of PaCO2-PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.64, P<0.01, whereas the one of PaCO2-PTCCO2 is PTCCO2 = 0.60 + 0.97 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.89. The LOA (limits of agreement of 95% average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference is 10.3 ± 4.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD, while the LOA of 95% average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference is 0.9 ± 2.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD. In conclusion, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

  10. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  11. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  12. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  13. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  14. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  15. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  16. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  17. Coupling analysis of transcutaneous energy transfer coils with planar sandwich structure for a novel artificial anal sphincter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei KE; Guo-zheng YAN; Sheng YAN; Zhi-wu WANG; Da-sheng LIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions used to determine the coupling coefficient between primary and secondary Litz-wire planar coils used in a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system. A TET system has been designed to power a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) for treating severe fecal incontinence (FI), a condition that would benefit from an optimized TET. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductances of planar coils on a ferrite substrate are provided. The effects of ferrite substrate conductivity, relative permeability, and geometrical dimensions are also considered. To verify these expressions, mutual coupling between planar coils is computed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA), and the proposed expressions show good agreement with numerical results. Different types of planar coils are fabricated with or without ferrite substrate. Measured results for each of the cases are compared with theoretical predictions and FEA solutions. The theoretical results and FEA results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Low impedance pH sensitive electrochemical devices that are potentially applicable to transcutaneous PCO2 measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H N; Beran, A V; Huxtable, R F

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of low impedance, non-glass membrane electrodes for pH measurement were evaluated: (I) Metal--metal oxide electrodes and (II) Reduction-oxidation electrodes. The fundamental cause of oxygen sensitivity of metal-metal oxide electrodes were examined and three approaches for its suppression were proposed. For the case of Sb--Sb2Ox electordes, oxygen sensitivity can be attenuated partially by cell loading, either directly across the reference electrode or indirectly across a third slave electrode. In a PO2 range of 8--54 kPa, more than 95% of the PO2 response can be suppressed by loading the cell emf to half of tis open-circuit value. The oxygen sensitivity also was observed to diminished by grinding the metal-metal oxide and pressing it under high pressure into a pellet electrode. Other metal-metal oxide electrodes that have promise in transcutaneous measurement are the Pd-PdO2 electrodes. The redox electrodes are typified by the Quinhydrone electrode. A membrane Quinhydrome electrode showed a sensitivity of 56 mV/Decade at 37 degree C and no oxygen sensitivity up to 50 kPa and a drift of 1 mV/h over a 24-h period. However, the stability deteriorated over a long-term period.

  19. Transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch induces effective immune responses to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in hairless rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yumiko; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Mukai, Yohei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) targeting the Langerhans cells (LCs) of the epidermal layer is a promising needle-free, easy-to-use, and non-invasive vaccination method. We developed a hydrogel patch formulation to promote the penetration of antigenic proteins into the stratum corneum. Here, we investigated the characteristics of the immune responses induced by this vaccination method and the vaccine efficacy of TCI using a hydrogel patch containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. Our TCI system induced toxoid-specific IgG production in an antigen dose-, patch area-, and application period-dependent manner. Moreover, IgG subclass analysis indicated that our TCI predominantly elicited a Th2-type immune response rather than a Th1-type immune response. Importantly, our TCI system induced antigen-specific immune memory based on the booster effect and showed potent efficacy, comparable to that of subcutaneous immunization in toxin-challenge experiments. On the basis of these results, we are now performing translational research to apply TCI for tetanus and diphtheria.

  20. Design and evaluation of an intelligent artificial anal sphincter system powered by an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Yongbing; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Dasheng

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize an intelligent artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) II for patients with severe fecal incontinence. Redesigning and integrating a pressure sensor into the sphincter prosthesis allows us to reduce the sensor volume and makes it suitable for a chronic, ambulatory application. Furthermore, a close-loop frequency control method was designed for the transcutaneous energy transfer system. Finally, a longer working time of the implanted device was obtained by the low-power design of the hardware and software. The new model was implanted in 2 dogs and studied for periods of up to 5 weeks. The output voltage induced on the load of 30 Ω, for a variation range in k of 0.12 ~ 0.42, was maintained at approximately 6.8 V with a frequency control range of the 270 ~ 320 kHz. The minimum and maximum output voltages of the pressure sensor were found to be 1.7 V and 2.34 V, respectively, which corresponded to a pressure range of 90 ~ 120 kPa with maximum change rate of approximately 3.7% caused by the temperature variations. Moreover, compared with AASS I, the low-power design resulting in 94% reduction in power consumption. The efficacy of the device in achieving continence and sensing the need to defecate was assessed in an animal model. The technical concept and the design of the AASS II turned out to be capable of fulfilling the medical requirements.

  1. Transcutaneous noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) in the treatment of schizophrenia: a bicentric randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Wolff-Menzler, Claus; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Falkai, Peter; Weidinger, Elif; Jobst, Andrea; Hoell, Imke; Malchow, Berend; Yeganeh-Doost, Peyman; Strube, Wolfgang; Quast, Silke; Müller, Norbert; Wobrock, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Despite many pharmacological and psychosocial treatment options, schizophrenia remains a debilitating disorder. Thus, new treatment strategies rooted in the pathophysiology of the disorder are needed. Recently, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been proposed as a potential treatment option for various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time the feasibility, safety and efficacy of transcutaneous VNS in stable schizophrenia. A bicentric randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. Twenty schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The first group (active tVNS) received daily active stimulation of the left auricle for 26 weeks. The second group (sham tVNS) received daily sham stimulation for 12 weeks followed by 14 weeks of active stimulation. Primary outcome was defined as change in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale total score between baseline and week 12. Various other secondary measures were assessed to investigate safety and efficacy. The intervention was well tolerated with no relevant adverse effects. We could not observe a statistically significant difference in the improvement of schizophrenia psychopathology during the observation period. Neither psychopathological and neurocognitive measures nor safety measures showed significant differences between study groups. Application of tVNS was well tolerated, but did not improve schizophrenia symptoms in our 26-week trial. While unsatisfactory compliance questions the feasibility of patient-controlled neurostimulation in schizophrenia, the overall pattern of symptom change might warrant further investigations in this population.

  2. Effect of mechanical vibration on transcutaneous oxygen levels in the feet of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Reyes, Gerardo; Núñez Carrera, Lidia; Alessi Montero, Aldo; Solís Vivanco, Adriana; Quiñones Uriostegui, Ivett; Pérez Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac

    2017-01-06

    Foot conditions in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are major causes of morbidity and disability. Whole body vibration may promote blood circulation in the lower limbs, hence facilitating perfusion and promoting the supply of nutrients and oxygen to comprised tissues. Transcutaneous oxygen levels (TcPO2)>40mmHg in cases of diabetic foot syndrome are associated with a good prognosis in the resolution of ulcers. The objective of this study was to determine whether whole body vibration favors some parameters of interest related to complications associated with the diabetic foot syndrome. Fifty-four patients with DM were included in a 12-week exercise program based on whole body vibration. Glycemic control was determined on the basis of the patients' levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); sensitivity and TcPO2 levels of each foot were also recorded. Assessments were performed prior to initiating the whole body vibration program and at the end of it. No significant changes were observed in the patients' HbA1c (P=.442) levels or sensitivity (P=.07). A significant 7mmHg increase (Pdiabetic foot syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcutaneous carbon-dioxide partial pressure trends during six-minute walk test in patients with very severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Jarosch, Inga; Gloeckl, Rainer; Schneeberger, Tessa; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A; Kenn, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    Transcutaneous carbon-dioxide partial-pressure (TCPCO2) can be reliably measured and may be of clinical relevance in COPD. Changes in TCPCO2 and exercise-induced hypercapnia (EIH) during six-minute walk test (6MWT) need further investigation. We aimed (1) to define patterns of TCPCO2 trends during 6MWT and (2) to study determinants of CO2-retention and EIH. Sixty-two COPD patients (age: 63±8years, FEV1: 33±10%pred.) were recruited and TCPCO2 was recorded by SenTec digital-monitoring-system during 6MWT. Half of patients (50%) exhibited CO2-retention (TCPCO2[Δ]>4mmHg); 26% preserved and 24% reduced TCPCO2. Nineteen (31%) patients presented EIH (TCPCO2>45mmHg). EIH was associated to higher baseline-PCCO2, worse FEV1, lower inspiratory-pressures, underweight/normal BMI, and pre-walk dyspnea. Stronger determinants of CO2-retention were FEV1 and pre-walk dyspnea, whereas baseline-PCCO2 and pre-walk dyspnea better predict EIH. PCO2 response to 6MWT is highly heterogeneous; however, very low FEV1 and elevated baseline-PCCO2 together with pre-walk dyspnea increase the risk for CO2-retention and EIH. Overweight-BMI seems to carry a protective effect against EIH in very severe COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcutaneous communication system using the human body as conductive medium: influence of transmission data current on the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kikuchi, Sakiko; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new transcutaneous communication system (TCS) that uses the human body as a conductive medium for monitoring and controlling artificial hearts and other artificial organs in the body.In this study, the physiological effect of data current discharged into the body during data transmission was evaluated by an animal experiment using a goat. The external and internal units of the new TCS each mainly consist of a data transmitter and a data receiver. The data transmitter has an amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulator (carrier frequencies: 4 and 10 MHz) and an electrode.The internal unit of the TCS was fixed on the pericardium and the external unit was placed on the left ear, and each transmitter discharged an ASK-modulated current of 7 mA (RMS) into the conscious goat. The TCS was able to transmit data for 4 weeks under full duplex communication with a transmission rate of 115 kbps. On the 28th postoperative day, an electrocardiogram was measured during data transmission. Cardiac rhythm and waveform of the electrocardiogram were not changed before and during bidirectional data transmission. Also, no adverse effect on the heart was observed by autopsy.

  5. Generation of an artificial skin construct containing a non-degradable fiber mesh: a potential transcutaneous interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Frederick [Biomedical Strategies Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kyriakides, Themis R [Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06536-9812 (United States)], E-mail: themis.kyriakides@yale.edu

    2008-09-01

    Generation of a stable interface between soft tissues and biomaterials could improve the function of transcutaneous prostheses, primarily by minimizing chronic infections. We hypothesized that inclusion of non-biodegradable biomaterials in an artificial skin substrate would improve integration of the neodermis. In the present study, we compared the biocompatibility of an experimental substrate, consisting of collagen and glycosylaminoglycans, with commercially available artificial skin of similar composition. By utilizing a mouse excisional wound model, we found that the source of collagen (bovine tendon versus hide), extent of injury and wound contraction were critical determinants of inflammation and neodermis formation. Reducing the extent of injury to underlying muscle reduced inflammation and improved remodeling; the improved conditions allowed the detection of a pro-inflammatory effect of hide-derived collagen. To eliminate the complication of wound contraction, subsequent grafts were performed in guinea pigs and showed that inclusion of carbon fibers or non-degradable sutures resulted in increased foreign body response (FBR) and altered remodeling. On the other hand, inclusion of a polyester multi-stranded mesh induced a mild FBR and allowed normal neodermis formation. Taken together, our observations suggest that non-degradable biomaterials can be embedded in an artificial skin construct without compromising its ability to induce neodermis formation.

  6. Application of exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements for detection of proximal lower extremity arterial disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahe, Guillaume; Kalra, Manju; Abraham, Pierre; Liedl, David A; Wennberg, Paul W

    2015-06-01

    Proximal claudication is secondary to ischemia caused by peripheral artery disease (PAD), whereas proximal pseudo-claudication is secondary to other disease processes such as hip arthritis, spinal stenosis, neuropathy, and so forth. The differentiation between the two can be challenging. Exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (exercise-TcPO2) allows noninvasive detection of flow-reducing lesions in the proximal arteries and tributaries of the lower extremity arterial tree. We present the first case report in the United States using an exercise-TcPO2 algorithm. A 71-year-old diabetic patient with proximal left-sided and right-calf claudication with indeterminate ankle-brachial indices underwent an exercise-TcPO2 study before and after endovascular intervention. Four TcPO2 probes were placed: one at chest level (reference probe), one on each buttock, and one on the symptomatic calf. The Delta from Resting Oxygen Pressure (DROP) index was calculated at each probe site using a previously validated protocol. Proximal left- and right-calf ischemia were confirmed by the initial exercise-TcPO2, and, after endovascular treatment of the left iliac artery lesion, improvements in proximal exercise-TcPO2 values were found. These data suggest that exercise-TcPO2 can be useful in PAD evaluation in patients with non-compressible arteries and/or proximal claudication.

  7. Transcutaneous perianal sonography:A sensitive method for the detection of perianal inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Wedemeyer; Timm Kirchhoff; Gernot Sellge; Oliver Bachmann; Joachim Lotz; Michael Galanski; Michael P.Manns; Michael J.Gebel; J(o)rg S.Bleck

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoanal ultrasound which are established imaging methods for perianal inflammatory lesions in patients with Crohn's disease require expensive specialized equipments and expertise. We investigated the feasibility and sensitivity of transcutaneous perianal ultrasound (PAUS) using regular ultrasound probes in the imaging of perianal inflammatory lesions. The sonographic findings were correlated to pelvic MRI-scans.METHODS: We performed PAUS in 25 patients with Crohn's disease and clinical signs of perianal inflammatory disease.Within a median of 10 d (range 0-75) these patients underwent MRI of the pelvis. Regular convex and linear high resolution probes were used for PAUS. The sonographic findings were correlated to the MRI findings by blinded investigators.RESULTS: The sonographic investigations were well tolerated by all patients. Fistulae typically presented as hypoechoic tracks. Twenty-nine fistulae were detected in22 patients. Abscesses were detected in 7 patients and presented as hypo- or anechoic formations. Twenty-six of29 fistulae and 6 of 7 abscesses could be confirmed by MRI. Kappa statistics showed an excellent agreement(kappa>0.83) between the two imaging methods.CONCLUSION: PAUS is a simple, painless, feasible, realtime method that can be performed without specific patient preparation which is comparable in its sensitivity to pelvic MRI in the detection of perianal fistulae and/or abscesses.PAUS can especially be recommended as a screening tool in acute perianal disorders such as perianal abscess and for follow-up studies of perianal inflammatory disease.

  8. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  10. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  11. Electrical stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  12. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  13. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  15. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  16. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  17. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  18. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  19. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  20. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  1. Transcutaneous calf-muscle electro-stimulation: A prospective treatment for diabetic claudicants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Christian; Gatt, Alfred

    2016-11-01

    First-line therapy for claudicants with diabetes include supervised exercise programmes to improve walking distance. However, exercise comes with a number of barriers and may be contraindicated in certain conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether calf-muscle electro-stimulation improves claudication distance. A prospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study design was employed on 40 participants living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease (ankle-brachial pressure index < 0.90) and calf-muscle claudication. Calf-muscle electro-stimulation of varying frequencies (1-250 Hz) was applied on both ischaemic limbs (N = 80) for 1 h per day for 12 consecutive weeks. The absolute claudication distance was measured at baseline and following the intervention. The cohort (n = 40; 30 males; mean age = 71 years; mean ankle-brachial pressure index = 0.70) registered a mean baseline absolute claudication distance of 333.71 m (standard deviation = 208). Following 91.68 days (standard deviation = 6.23) of electrical stimulation, a significant mean increase of 137 m (standard deviation = 136) in the absolute claudication distance was registered (p = 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Electrical stimulation of varying low to high frequencies on ischaemic calf muscles significantly increased the maximal walking capacity in claudicants with type 2 diabetes. This therapeutic approach may be considered in patients with impaired exercise tolerance or as an adjunct treatment modality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Repeatability of methacholine challenges in 2- to 4-year-old children with asthma, using a new technique for quantitative delivery of aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    , Xrs5) by the impulse oscillation technique, transcutaneous measurements of oxygen (PtcO2), and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Repeatability was evaluated by determining the provocative dose that caused a defined percentage of change relative to baseline (PD%: Rint PD30, Rrs5 PD30, Xrs5 PD80, PtcO2...... PD10, and sRaw PD80. Repeatability was estimated from the difference between the PD% obtained at the time of the two tests. Using the numeric value of these differences, the repeatability of Xrs5 PD60, PtcO2 PD10, and sRaw PD50 was [mean (SD)]: [0.8 (0.5)] [0.5 (0.4)] and [0.7 (0.6)] doubling doses......, respectively. Rint PD30 and Rrs5 PD30 proved to be less reproducible: [1.2 (1)] and [1.6 (0.9)] doubling doses, respectively. The new method of aerosol delivery offers a means of standardizing the bronchoconstrictor stimulus, and the results show that estimates of bronchial responsiveness in young children can...

  3. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  4. Regional differences of repeatability on visual analogue scale with experimental mechanical pain stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ueno, Takefumi; Arai, Young-Chang P; Shimo, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Makoto; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-12

    Pain-VAS is quite subjective as a scale, but has a tendency to assume differences in repeatability in accordance with perceived pain intensity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the repeatability of regional differences with ratings of pain-VAS. Three experimental mechanical stimuli were applied to twenty seven healthy volunteers across four sessions over four weeks within individuals. The same stimuli were also simultaneously measured in the same manner with an electric balance. The magnitude of mechanical stimuli was determined by 100 g, 300 g, and 600 g monofilaments. Standard deviations (SDs) across measurements with an electric balance showed a regular increase with stimulus magnitude, while coefficient variations (CVs) were constant in each stimulus. On the other hand, although SDs across pain-VAS measurements were significantly greater with the 300 g filament than with the 100 g and 600 g filaments, CVs showed a regular decrease in magnitude of stimulus. These results showed that the CVs of repeated measurement with electric balance were consistent regardless of stimulus intensity, in contrast, CVs of pain-VAS decreased with greater pain rating averaged by repeated measurement. These results suggest that a low rating in pain-VAS is inherently less objective, indicating poor repeatability. In contrast, a high rating in pain-VAS is more objective with better repeatability for experimental pain perception.

  5. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modu