WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated short-term study

  1. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  2. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  3. Evaluation of statistical tools used in short-term repeated dose administration toxicity studies with rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi; Pillai, K Sadasivan; Sakuratani, Yuki; Abe, Takemaru; Kamata, Eiichi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    In order to know the different statistical tools used to analyze the data obtained from twenty-eight-day repeated dose oral toxicity studies with rodents and the impact of these statistical tools on interpretation of data obtained from the studies, study reports of 122 numbers of twenty-eight-day repeated dose oral toxicity studies conducted in rats were examined. It was found that both complex and easy routes of decision trees were followed for the analysis of the quantitative data. These tools include Scheffe's test, non-parametric type Dunnett's and Scheffe's tests with very low power. Few studies used the non-parametric Dunnett type test and Mann-Whitney's U test. Though Chi-square and Fisher's tests are widely used for analysis of qualitative data, their sensitivity to detect a treatment-related effect is questionable. Mann-Whitney's U test has better sensitivity to analyze qualitative data than the chi-square and Fisher's tests. We propose Dunnett's test for analysis of quantitative data obtained from twenty-eight-day repeated dose oral toxicity tests and for qualitative data, Mann-Whitney's U test. For both tests, one-sided test with p=0.05 may be applied.

  4. Heart rate variability and DNA methylation levels are altered after short-term metal fume exposure among occupational welders: a repeated-measures panel study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: In occupational settings, boilermakers are exposed to high levels of metallic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the welding process. The effect of welding PM2.5 on heart rate variability (HRV) has been described, but the relationship between PM2.5, DNA methylation, and HRV is not known. Methods: In this repeated-measures panel study, we recorded resting HRV and measured DNA methylation levels in transposable elements Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE...

  5. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  6. Assessing variability and comparing short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure using a repeated measurements approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Manini, P; Campo, L; De Palma, G; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bertazzi, P A; Rappaport, S M

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is to compare several short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure, namely urinary styrene (StyU), mercapturic acids (M1+M2), mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), phenylglycine (PHG), and 4-vinylphenol conjugates (VP), for use as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic studies. A repeated measurements protocol (typically 4 measurements per worker over 6 weeks) was applied to measure airborne styrene (StyA) and urinary biomarkers in 10 varnish and 8 fiberglass reinforced plastic workers. Estimated geometric mean personal exposures to StyA were 2.96mg/m(3) in varnish workers and 15.7mg/m(3) in plastic workers. The corresponding levels of StyU, M1+M2, MA, PGA, MA+PGA, PHG and VP were 5.13microg/L, 0.111, 38.2, 22.7, 62.6, 0.978, and 3.97mg/g creatinine in varnish workers and 8.38microg/L, 0.303, 146, 83.4, 232, 2.85 and 3.97mg/g creatinine in plastic workers. Within-worker (sigma(wY)(2)) and between-worker (sigma(bY)(2)) variance components were estimated from the log-transformed data as were the corresponding fold ranges containing 95% of the respective lognormal distributions of daily levels ((w)R(0.95)) and subject-specific mean levels ((b)R(0.95)). Estimates of (w)R(0.95) (range: 4-26) were generally smaller than those of (b)R(0.95) (range: 5-790) for both environmental and biological markers; this indicates that exposures varied much more between workers than within workers in these groups. Since attenuation bias in an estimated exposure-response relationship increases with the variance ratio lambda=sigma(wY)(2)/sigma(bY)(2), we estimated values of lambda for all exposure measures in our study. Values of lambda were typically much less than one (median=0.220) and ranged from 0.089 for M1+M2 in plastic workers to 1.38 for PHG in varnish workers. Since values of lambda were 0.147 and 0.271 for StyA in varnish workers and plastic workers, respectively, compared to 0.178 and 0.210 for MA in the same groups, our results suggest that either

  7. Differential Short-Term Repeated Forearm Hyperaemic Reactivity in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Low Risk Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Bacon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperaemic response of the forearm is a widely used technique to assess the vascular reactivity. Little is known about the short-term reproducibility and the possible exhaustion of this response in normal or diseased states. As such, the current study was conducted to assess this phenomenon using a unique nuclear medicine- (NM- based technique. 19 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD undergoing NM exercise stress tests and 15 low risk (LR participants completed 2 reactive hyperaemia tests, using a SPECT-based technique, separated by 15  min. Analyses revealed that CAD patients had lower hyperaemic responses than LR participants (P<.001, and that there was a significant group × time interaction (P<.005, such that LR participants showed a larger decrease in the reactivity (5.2±0.4 to 3.6±0.4 than the CAD patients (2.9±0.3 to 2.6±0.3. These results suggest that there is a variability, due to disease states, in the reproducibility of the hypaeremic reactivity. This needs to be taken into account in short-term repeated measure studies.

  8. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P.; Foster, Norman L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25908614

  9. Extension of recovery time from fatigue by repeated rest with short-term sleep during continuous fatigue load: Development of chronic fatigue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Akinori; Okauchi, Takashi; Hu, Di; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Katayama, Yumiko; Koyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Cui, Yilong

    2016-05-01

    Homeostasis is known to be involved in maintaining the optimal internal environment, helping to achieve the best performance of biological functions. At the same time, a deviation from optimal conditions often attenuates the performance of biological functions, and such restricted performance could be considered as individual fatigue, including physical and mental fatigue. The present study seeks to develop an animal model of chronic or subacute fatigue in which the recovery time is extended through the gradual disruption of homeostasis. We show that repeated short-term rest periods with certain lengths of sleep during continuous fatigue loading extend recovery from spontaneous nighttime activity but not physical performance in comparison with a continuous fatigue-loading procedure. Furthermore, the immobility time in a forced swimming test was extended by repeated short-term rests. These results suggest that repeated short-term rest with certain lengths of sleep during continuous fatigue loading is able to extend the recovery from mental fatigue but not from physical fatigue and that this effect might occur via the disruption of a homeostatic mechanism that is involved in restoring the optimal internal environment.

  10. Short-Term Faculty-Led Study Abroad Programs Enhance Cultural Exchange and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, A. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Though many experts argue that semester or year abroad study is the optimal path, short-term programs meet the needs of students who would not otherwise study abroad and can be effective at increasing intercultural competency. The present study describes one type of short-term program--the embedded faculty-led model--and provides evidence that…

  11. A Short-Term Study Abroad Program for School Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Teddi; Caldwell, Charmaine; Geltner, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Well planned, short-term study abroad programs can benefit school counseling students through exposure to new and different cultural experiences. Students gain knowledge and skills that will help them serve the diverse cultural groups found in public school settings. The objective of the short-term study abroad program described in this article…

  12. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  14. Intercultural Sensitivity through Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Miranda, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    One of the foremost-cited rationales for study abroad during college is the development of a global perspective and intercultural sensitivity. Although this argument is mentioned frequently in promotional materials for study abroad, it has not yet been backed by research based on the outcomes of students' study abroad experiences. As more…

  15. Neuroscience study abroad: developing a short-term summer course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative and international scientific efforts continue to be of increasing importance in the development of successful educational and research programs. The goal of our study abroad program, Neuroscience Seminar in Germany, is to bring this fact to light for undergraduates and make them aware of the global opportunities that exist in the neurosciences and related biological sciences. Here we discuss our experience of conducting a four-week summer study abroad course in collaboration with two universities associated with the German Graduate Schools of Neuroscience: Munich Center for Neurosciences - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (MCN-LMU) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (a joint institution of the Freie Universität and the Humboldt-Universität). This course combined the historical foundations of neuroscience in Germany with current research programs at these two prominent German research universities. Two weeks were spent at each location and faculty members from the participating universities provided seminars, laboratory exercises, demonstrations and tours. Students were presented with background reading and lecture material prior to the seminars and activities. Additionally, they were responsible for leading seminar-style class discussions through brief presentations and submitting written critical analyses of primary research papers associated with the laboratory exercises. These assignments provided a means to assess learning outcomes, coupled with course evaluations. Overall, this experience may serve as a template for those interested in study abroad course development and research opportunities in the neurosciences.

  16. PRIMARY BILIARY-CIRRHOSIS - PREDICTION OF SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL BASED ON REPEATED PATIENT VISITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MURTAUGH, PA; DICKSON, ER; VANDAM, GM; MALINCHOC, M; GRAMBSCH, PM; LANGWORTHY, AL; GIPS, CH

    1994-01-01

    The progression of primary biliary cirrhosis was studied in 312 patients who were seen at the Mayo Clinic between January 1974 and May 1984. Follow-up was extended to April 30, 1988, by which time 140 of the patients had died and 29 had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation. These patients gene

  17. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  18. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  19. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  20. Study on the Method of Short-Term Synthetic Earthquake Prediction in the North China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Jianjun; Zhang Yongxian; Zhang Qingrong; Liu Suying; Chen Jianguo; Huang Wanfa; Mi Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the extraction and calculation of the short-term seismic precursory information magnitude from the 114 major precursory observations in the North China region, and together with consideration of factors such as geological structure, seismicity, crustal thickness, and in particular, the current geodynamics of the region, the authors studied the time-space evolution characteristics of the short-term earthquake precursory information magnitude and its relationship with earthquakes and proposed the index and method for the short-term synthetic prediction of earthquakes with Ms ≥ 5.0 in the North China region. The inspection through Rvalue shows that the method is effective to a certain extent for earthquake prediction.

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…

  2. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  3. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  4. The Cultural Adaptation Process during a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2015-01-01

    Globalization continuously shapes our world and influences post-secondary education. This study explored the cultural adaptation process of participants during a short-term study abroad program. Participants experienced stages which included initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career growth,…

  5. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  6. Short-Term Study Abroad: Culture and the Path of Least Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    American universities are decreasing the length of study abroad programs in an effort to send more students abroad. Recent publications find that "short-term" programs struggle to increase participants' cultural understanding. However, these research findings fail to offer an explanation as to why shorter programs are falling short. This…

  7. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  8. Dialogue Journals in Short-Term Study Abroad: "Today I Wrote My Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs are growing in popularity, and educators and researchers are exploring effective tools to enhance the learning and cultural experiences of students in these programs. Dialogue journals, writing journals in which students respond to instructor prompts and in turn initiate topics for further written discussion, are a…

  9. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  10. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  11. Dialogue Journals in Short-Term Study Abroad: "Today I Wrote My Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs are growing in popularity, and educators and researchers are exploring effective tools to enhance the learning and cultural experiences of students in these programs. Dialogue journals, writing journals in which students respond to instructor prompts and in turn initiate topics for further written discussion, are a…

  12. Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences on Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Colleen; Charles, Jennell; Bingham, Sue

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in the number of universities offering students opportunities to study abroad. Traditional semester-long programs have been shortened with many new programs ranging anywhere from 1 to 8 weeks in length. The increased number of short-term programs has enabled professional degree programs, such as…

  13. Repeatability of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses, and their correlation with testosterone and body condition in a terrestrial breeding anuran (Platymantis vitiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-01

    Repeatability of physiological response variables, such as the stress hormone corticosterone, across numerous sampling occasions is an important assumption for their use as predictors of behaviour, reproduction and fitness in animals. Very few studies have actually tested this assumption in free-living animals under uncontrolled natural conditions. Non-invasive urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol have enabled the rapid quantification of baseline corticosterone and short-term corticosterone stress responses in anuran amphibians. In this study, established non-invasive methods were used to monitor physiological stress and urinary testosterone levels in male individuals of the terrestrial breeding Fijian ground frog (Platymantis vitiana). Adult male frogs (n = 20) were sampled at nighttime on three repeated occasions at intervals of 14 days during their annual breeding season on Viwa Island, Fiji. All frogs expressed urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to the capture and handling stressor, with some frogs showing consistently higher urinary corticosterone responses than others. Ranks of corticosterone values at 0, 4 and 8 h, and the corrected rank were highly significant (r = 0.75-0.99) between the three repeated sampling occasions. Statistical repeatabilities were high for baseline corticosterone (r = 0.973) and for corticosterone values at 2 h (r = 0.862), 4 h (r = 0.861), 6 h (r = 0.820) and 8 h (r = 0.926), and also for the total (inclusive of baseline corticosterone values) and the corrected integrated responses (index of the acute response) [r = 0.867 and r = 0.870]. Urinary testosterone levels also showed high statistical repeatability (r = 0.78). Furthermore, variation in baseline and short-term corticosterone stress responses was greater between individuals than within individuals. Baseline urinary corticosterone was significantly negatively correlated with the corrected integrated corticosterone response (r = -0.3, p breeding period

  14. Developing a scale to measure the situational changes in short-term study abroad programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Ching

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposing to a new culture has always been a challenging part of short-term study abroad (exchange programs. Studies have shown that these exposures, if handled correctly, should be able to provide valuable cross-cultural experiences. As the opportunities for study abroad kept increasing, understanding the changes that happen is quite crucial in preparing students before they embark to their exchange destination. To answer this question, the current study discusses the formation and validation of a set of behavioral, cognitive, and affective situational changes that students encounter during their study abroad duration in Taiwan. Focus group interviews were conducted to gather and collect a set of situational changes that most short-term study abroad students encounter. A pilot study was conducted on 219 students; afterwards the validated survey was administered nationwide with a total of 512 respondents. Structured equation modelling was used to present the confirmatory factor analysis of the measured dimensions. It is hoped that by having a validated set of situational changes that most study abroad students encounter, more effective pre/post travel preparations can be made. In addition, the data collected from the nationwide survey can also be used to determine the current state of short-term study abroad students in Taiwan.

  15. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  16. A multiple case study of verbal short-term memory in velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Majerus, Steve; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, Martial; Eliez, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we presented a series of STM tasks exploring immediate serial recall for word and non-word lists to eight children with VCFS (aged 8 - 12 years) and to chron...

  17. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  18. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  19. FUNCTIONAL SHORT TERM RECOVERY FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH STROKE A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL COHORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Corrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential for early functional recovery in stroke patients is the basis for treatment choices and drives the rehabilitation. In this study we aimed to determine the predictive factors for short-term functional recovery in stroke patients admitted in a rehabilitation clinic. Methods: We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective cohort study on 108 stroke patients at Campolongo Hospital for Rehabilitation. The short-term functional recovery of stroke patients has been studied by the Motricity Index (MI and the Trunk Control Test (TCT in respect of motor recovery, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM scale about disability. The influence of predictors on short-term functional recovery has been studied by Chi square test. Results: All patients showed a good functional recovery at discharge. Statistically significant correlations have been found between patient’s age and the lack of trunk control at discharge (p = 0.0305, between patient’s age and the value of the Motricity Index at discharge (p = 0.0093, between the presence of aphasia and the severity of motor deficit at discharge (p = 0.0397, between the presence of neglect and the severity of motor deficit at both entry and discharge (p = 0.0051 and p = 0.0031. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that a predictive model of the short-term functional prognosis in early stroke patients allows for the optimization of the treatment and the rehabilitation taking charge. The final result will be an improvement of the patient’s satisfaction and a rationalization in the use of available resources.

  20. Acute and Short-Term Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    than JP-8 in equivalent tests . In addition, micronucleus induction was tested ; FT jet fuel does not induce micronuclei, indicating that the fuel is...OECD, 1981). A separate group of rats were used as controls for assessment of micronucleus induction in order to complete the genotoxicity testing of...toxicity study in F344 rats was investigated in a short-term mutagenicity assay, the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus (MN) test . Animals were exposed

  1. Communication and cultural implications of short-term study-abroad experiences on engineering students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Omachinski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Study abroad is an important international learning component to add to students’ university experience. As programs of study become more rigorous and detailed, it is difficult for students to incorporate study abroad into their schedules, especially those in engineering programs. Short-term study abroad provides engineering students with an opportunity to view engineering on a global scale and to gain cultural awareness. This research study examines the cultural adjustment, communication issues, and experiential learning of a group of engineering students who studied abroad in Germany during their winter break.

  2. Change in Measured Noncognitive Variables: A Quantitative Examination of the Influence of Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Reginald James

    2013-01-01

    Students have different motivations for participating in education abroad experiences. Short-term study abroad programs offer students the opportunity to experience education abroad without spending an entire semester or year abroad. As a result of these opportunities, short-term study abroad programs have emerged to meet the demands for students…

  3. Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joanna; Blasiak, Anna; Czerw, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Sowa, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. We also measured the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal cells and the protein levels of selected subunits of AMPA, NMDA, and GABAA receptors after repeated corticosterone administration. Repeatedly administered corticosterone induced an increase in the frequency but not in the amplitude of sEPSCs, while a single administration had no effect on the recorded excitatory currents. The frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs as well as the excitability of pyramidal cells were changed neither after single nor after repeated corticosterone administration. Treatment with corticosterone for 7 days did not modify the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone influenced neither the protein levels of GluA1, GluA2, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits of glutamate receptors nor those of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor. The increase in sEPSCs frequency induced by repeated corticosterone administration faded out within 7 days. These data indicate that prolonged administration of exogenous corticosterone selectively and reversibly enhances glutamatergic, but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex. Our results suggest that corticosterone treatment results in an enhancement of spontaneous glutamate release from presynaptic

  4. Systematic Study of the PbWO4 Crystal Short Term Instalibity Under Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, Alexander; Chipaux, Rémi; Drobychev, Gleb; Fedorov, Andrey; Géléoc, Marie; Golubev, Nikolai; Korzhik, Mikhail; Lecoq, Paul; Ligun, A B; Missevitch, Oleg; Pavlenko, V B; Peigneux, Jean-Pierre; Singovsky, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the irradiation on the lead tungstate ( PWO) scintillator properties has been studied at different irradiation facilities. Lead tungstate crystals grown with the tuning of oxides content in the melt to the stoichiometry of pure sheelite or sheelite-like type crystals and doped with heterovalent, trivalent and pentavalent impurities have been studied in order to optimize their resistance to irradiation. A combination of a selective cleaning of raw materials, a tuning of the melt from crystallization to crystallisation, and a destruction or compensation of the point structure defects has been used to minimize the short-term instability of PWO parameters under irradiation.

  5. Making short-term international medical volunteer placements work: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnawawy, Omnia; Lee, Andrew CK; Pohl, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Background International medical volunteering has grown in recent decades. It has the potential to benefit and harm the volunteer and host countries; but there is a paucity of literature on the impacts of international medical volunteering and a need to find ways to optimise the benefits of such placements. Aim In this study, one example of international medical volunteering was examined involving British GPs on short-term placements in Nepal. The intention was to explore the expectations and experiences of the local health workers, volunteers, and host organisation to try and understand what makes volunteer placements work. Design Qualitative study of key informant interviews. Setting Stakeholders of a short-term international medical volunteer (IMV) placement programme in Nepal. Method Key informant interviews were carried out via face-to-face or telephone/internet interviews with five previous volunteers, three representatives from a non-governmental organisation providing placements, and five local health workers in Nepal who had had contact with the IMVs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using standard thematic framework approaches. Results All the stakeholders had their own specific motives for participating in the IMV programme. The relationship between volunteers and the Nepalese health workers was complex and characterised by discrepant and occasionally unrealistic expectations. Managing these different expectations was challenging. Conclusion Contextual issues and cultural differences are important considerations in medical volunteer programmes, and this study highlights the importance of robust preparation pre-placement for the volunteer and host to ensure positive outcomes. PMID:24868070

  6. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model.

  7. Effects of short-term repeated exposure to different flooring surfaces on the behavior and physiology of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, K E; Cox, N R

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cattle managed in some pasture-based systems such as in New Zealand are predominantly kept outdoors all year around, but are often taken off pasture for periods of time in wet weather to avoid soil damage. It is common to keep cattle on concrete surfaces during such "stand-off" practices and we investigated whether the addition of rubber matting onto concrete areas improves the welfare of dairy cattle. Sixteen groups of 5 cows (4 groups/treatment, 5 cows/group) were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (concrete, 12-mm-thick rubber mat, 24-mm-thick rubber mat, or deep-bedded wood chips) and kept on these surfaces for 18 h/24h for 4 consecutive days (6h on pasture/24h). Each 4-d stand-off period was repeated 4 times (with 7 d of recovery between periods) to study the accumulated effects of repeated stand-off. Lying behavior was recorded continuously during the experiment. Gait score, stride length, hygiene score, live weight, and blood samples for cortisol analysis were recorded immediately before and after each stand-off period. Cows on wood chips spent the most time lying, and cows on concrete spent the least time lying compared with those on other surfaces [wood chips: 10.8h, 24-mm rubber mat: 7.3h, 12-mm rubber mat: 6.0 h, and concrete: 2.8h/18 h, standard error of the difference (SED): 0.71 h]. Cows on concrete spent more time lying during the 6h on pasture, likely compensating for the reduced lying during the stand-off period. Similarly, cows on concrete spent more time lying on pasture between stand-off periods (concrete: 12.1h, 12-mm rubber mat: 11.1h, 24-mm rubber mat: 11.2h, and wood chips: 10.7h/24h, SED: 0.28 h). Cows on concrete had higher gait score and shorter stride length after the 4-d stand-off period compared with cows on the other surface types, suggesting a change in gait pattern caused by discomfort. Cows on rubber mats were almost 3 times dirtier than cows on concrete or wood chips. Cortisol and live weight decreased for all treatment groups

  8. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  9. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded...... by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls. RESULTS......: Correlations between recalled and actual phone use were moderate to high (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 across countries) and of the same order for number and duration of calls. The kappa statistic demonstrated fair to moderate agreement for both number and duration of calls (weighted kappa ranging from 0.20 to 0...

  10. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity.

  11. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  12. Mediterranean dunes on the go: Evidence from a short term study on coastal herbaceous vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Irene; Stanisci, Angela; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed monitoring studies on permanent sites are a promising tool for an accurate evaluation of short, medium or long term vegetation dynamics. This work aims to evaluate short-term changes in coastal dune herbaceous plant species and EU Habitats through a multi-temporal analysis using permanent vegetation transects. In particular, (I) we analyze changes in species richness of coastal habitats; (II) we identify changes in plant cover of selected focal plants; and (III) we relate the changes to selected climatic variables and erosion/accretion processes. We selected one of the Italian's peninsula best preserved coastal dune areas (ca. 50 km along the Adriatic sea) with a relatively homogeneous coastal zonation and low anthropic pressure but with different erosion/accretion processes. We explored changes in richness over time using generalized linear models (GLMs). We identified different ecological guilds: focal, ruderal and alien plant species and investigated temporal trends in these guilds' species richness. We also applied GLMs to determine how plant cover of the most important focal species have changed over time. Overall, in this study we observed that the influence of climatic variables was relatively small. However, we found remarkable different trends in response to erosion/accretion processes both at community and at species level. Thus, our results highlight the importance of coastal dynamics in preserving not only coastal vegetation zonation, but also species richness and focal species cover. Moreover, we identified the dune grasslands as the most sensitive habitat for detecting the influence of climatic variables throughout a short term monitoring survey. Information from this study provides useful insights for detecting changes in vegetation, for establishing habitat protection priorities and for improving conservation efforts for these fragile ecosystems.

  13. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Caz

    Full Text Available The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors.

  14. A study on the effects of short term momentum on stock and industry return in Iran's stock exchange

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOUD MOEINADIN; FOROUGH HEYRANI; ALIREZA DEHGHANIZADEH BAGDADABAD; MOHAMMAD MIRMOHAMMADI SADRABADI

    2015-01-01

    One phenomenon challenging world's financial markets is the abnormal short term momentum pattern. So the presentstudy's aim was to examine the effects of 6-month and 12-month short term momentum pattern on stock and industry return in Iran's stock exchange. In this study, the sample consisted 50 selected companies in stock exchange during 2008-2013. To examine industry momentum, the sample was chosen among outstanding active industries in stock exchange. The investigated models include three-...

  15. What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This comparative case study explored the motives and goals of two American students participating in short-term study abroad (SA). Findings, interpreted from an activity theory perspective, demonstrated that despite similar language-learning histories and demographic characteristics, the students were learning French and participating in SA for…

  16. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in CIDP and MMN: a short-term nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocito, Dario; Merola, Aristide; Peci, Erdita; Mazzeo, Anna; Fazio, Raffaella; Francia, Ada; Valentino, Paola; Liguori, Rocco; Filosto, Massimiliano; Siciliano, Gabriele; Clerici, Angelo Maurizio; Lelli, Stefania; Marfia, Girolama Alessandra; Antonini, Giovanni; Cecconi, Ilaria; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    This multi-center Italian prospective observational study reports the 4 months follow-up data of 87 patients affected by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) shifted from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment. A therapeutic shift from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin was performed in 87 patients (66 CIDP; 21 MMN) affected by immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies with evidence of a sustained clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin. Patients were evaluated by means of the Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale, Medical Research Council Scale and Life Quality Index questionnaire, both at the time of therapeutic shift and after 4 months of subcutaneous immunoglobulin treatment. A sustained clinical efficacy was observed after the switch to subcutaneous immunoglobulin: the Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale score improved in the group of 66 CIDP patients (P = 0.018), with only one subject reporting a worsening of 1 point, and remained stable in the group of 21 MMN patients (P = 0.841), with one subject reporting a worsening of two points. An improvement in the patient's perception of therapeutic setting was reported in both groups. This large multi-center study confirms the short-term clinical equivalence of subcutaneous versus intravenous immunoglobulin and a possible improvement in the patient's perception of therapeutic setting with the subcutaneous administration. However, further studies are required to extend the results to a longer observational period.

  17. A prospective study of short-term functional outcome after dysvascular major lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hommel, Ami

    2017-08-12

    This study investigates functional status on Day 21 after dysvascular major lower limb amputation compared with one month pre-amputation and evaluates factors potentially influencing outcome. A prospective cohort study design was used. Data were collected via in-person interviews using structured instruments and covered functional level (Barthel index 100) one month pre-amputation and on Day 21. Out of a consecutive sample of patients having major lower limb amputation (tibia, knee or femoral) (n = 105), 51 participated on Day 21 follow-up. Clinical, demographic, body function and environmental data were analysed as factors potentially influencing outcome. From pre-amputation to Day 21, participants' functional level decreased significantly in all ten activities of daily living activities as measured by the Barthel Index. Almost 60% of participants were independent in bed-chair transfer on Day 21. Being independent in transfer on Day 21 was positively associated with younger age and attending physiotherapy after discharge. The findings indicate that short-term functional outcome is modifiable by quality of the postoperative care provided and thus highlights the need for increased focus on postoperative care to maintain basic function as well as establish and provide everyday rehabilitation in the general population of patients who have dysvascular lower limb amputations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Transfibular ankle arthrodesis: A novel method for ankle fusion - A short term retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muthukumar Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle arthrodesis has long been the traditional operative treatment for posttraumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infection, neuromuscular conditions, and salvage of failed ankle arthroplasty. It remains the treatment of choice for patients in whom heavy and prolonged activity is anticipated. We present our short term followup study of functional outcome of patients who underwent transfibular ankle arthrodesis for arthritis of ankle due to various indications. Materials and Methods: 29 transfibular ankle arthrodesis in 29 patients performed between April 2009 and April 2014 were included in this study. The mean age was 50 years (range 22-75 years. The outcome analysis with a minimum of 1-year postoperative followup were included. All the patients were assessed with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS Hindfoot scale. Results: All cases of ankle fusions (100% progressed to solid union in a mean postoperative duration of 3.8 months (range 3-6 months. All patients had sound arthrodesis. The mean followup period was 32.52 months (standard deviation ± 10.34. The mean AOFAS score was 74 (pain score = 32, functional score = 42. We found that twenty patients (68.96% out of 29, had excellent results, 7 (24.13% had good, and 2 (6.89% showed fair results. Conclusion: Transfibular ankle arthrodesis is a simple and effective procedure for ankle arthritis. It achieves a high rate of union and good functional outcome on midterm followup.

  19. Transfibular ankle arthrodesis: A novel method for ankle fusion – A short term retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S Muthukumar; Selvaraj, V; Devadoss, Sathish; Devadoss, Annamalai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ankle arthrodesis has long been the traditional operative treatment for posttraumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infection, neuromuscular conditions, and salvage of failed ankle arthroplasty. It remains the treatment of choice for patients in whom heavy and prolonged activity is anticipated. We present our short term followup study of functional outcome of patients who underwent transfibular ankle arthrodesis for arthritis of ankle due to various indications. Materials and Methods: 29 transfibular ankle arthrodesis in 29 patients performed between April 2009 and April 2014 were included in this study. The mean age was 50 years (range 22-75 years). The outcome analysis with a minimum of 1-year postoperative followup were included. All the patients were assessed with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot scale. Results: All cases of ankle fusions (100%) progressed to solid union in a mean postoperative duration of 3.8 months (range 3–6 months). All patients had sound arthrodesis. The mean followup period was 32.52 months (standard deviation ± 10.34). The mean AOFAS score was 74 (pain score = 32, functional score = 42). We found that twenty patients (68.96%) out of 29, had excellent results, 7 (24.13%) had good, and 2 (6.89%) showed fair results. Conclusion: Transfibular ankle arthrodesis is a simple and effective procedure for ankle arthritis. It achieves a high rate of union and good functional outcome on midterm followup. PMID:28216754

  20. Influence of Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences on Community Health Baccalaureate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Lynelle; Bloom, Tina; Gainey, Tammie; Chiocca, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Very short study abroad programs may be most feasible in undergraduate nursing programs, but little research describes their value for prospective nurses. The narratives of senior baccalaureate nursing students (N = 62) who traveled for 2 weeks to Cape Coast, Ghana, between semesters for a faculty-led community health clinical experience were analyzed. Students responded to pre- and posttravel semi-structured, open-ended prompts regarding expectations and perceptions of culture, health, and happiness. Data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Four themes emerged related to perceptions of culture, relationships with community, definitions of health and happiness, and adaptability and innovation. African American students' (n = 3) responses highlighted unique themes regarding personal identity. Student perceptions of culture demonstrated progression through previously described stages of cultural competence. Relatively novel themes regarding community relationships, perceptions of health and happiness, and adaptability suggest additional value of this short-term study abroad experience for nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(9):528-533.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Parametric and non-parametric modeling of short-term synaptic plasticity. Part II: Experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Wang, Zhuo; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Berger, Theodore W

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a synergistic parametric and non-parametric modeling study of short-term plasticity (STP) in the Schaffer collateral to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron (SC) synapse. Parametric models in the form of sets of differential and algebraic equations have been proposed on the basis of the current understanding of biological mechanisms active within the system. Non-parametric Poisson-Volterra models are obtained herein from broadband experimental input-output data. The non-parametric model is shown to provide better prediction of the experimental output than a parametric model with a single set of facilitation/depression (FD) process. The parametric model is then validated in terms of its input-output transformational properties using the non-parametric model since the latter constitutes a canonical and more complete representation of the synaptic nonlinear dynamics. Furthermore, discrepancies between the experimentally-derived non-parametric model and the equivalent non-parametric model of the parametric model suggest the presence of multiple FD processes in the SC synapses. Inclusion of an additional set of FD process in the parametric model makes it replicate better the characteristics of the experimentally-derived non-parametric model. This improved parametric model in turn provides the requisite biological interpretability that the non-parametric model lacks.

  2. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Predictors and consequences of sexual "hookups" among college students: a short-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2010-10-01

    "Hookups," sexual interactions between partners who do not expect a romantic commitment, are believed to be common among adolescents and young adults. Most existing research is cross-sectional and has not investigated the antecedents or consequences of hookups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first prospective investigation of the hypothesized predictors of penetrative sex hookups (i.e., oral, vaginal, and anal sex) and the first exploration of the short-term mental health consequences of hookups. A total of 140 first-semester college students (109 females, 31 males) completed an anonymous survey early in their first semester; the survey assessed 18 potential predictors of hooking up that were identified from theory and past research. At the end of their first semester, students again responded to a survey and provided data on their oral and vaginal sex hookup behavior (occurrence and number of partners), distress, and self-esteem. Baseline and follow-up data were linked using unique codes that protected participants' anonymity. Pre-college hookup patterns, peak intoxication level, and situational triggers for hookups were consistent predictors of oral and vaginal sex hookup behavior (and number of hookup partners) in the first semester of college. Penetrative sex hookups increased psychological distress for females, but not for males. Implications for education and intervention as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Clinical outcome of surgical periodontal therapy: a short-term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Fujinami, Koushu; Ida, Atsushi; Furusawa, Masahiro; Nikaido, Masahiko; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Saito, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate retrospectively the outcome of surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal surgeries implemented at General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital during the period of April 2010 through March 2012 were subjected to data analysis. After initial periodontal therapy, 17 clinicians performed a total of 138 periodontal surgeries in 80 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis (31 men and 49 women; mean age 54). Cases (sites) operated were as follows: open flap debridement=102, periodontal regenerative therapy=29 (17 for intrabony defects, 12 for furcation involvements) and periodontal plastic surgery=7. Enamel matrix derivative or bone graft was used for regenerative therapy. Clinical data were analyzed focusing on the comparison between open flap debridement and regenerative therapy. At 5 months after open flap debridement, mean reduction in probing depth (PD) and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL) was 3.9 mm (range -1.0-9.0) and 2.3 mm (range -1.0-9.0), respectively. The corresponding values with regenerative therapy were 4.0 mm (range 0-8.0) and 2.8 mm (-1.0-6.0), respectively. At sites with initial PD≥8 mm, a significantly greater gain in CAL was obtained with the regenerative therapy than with flap surgery (mean CAL gain 4.3 mm vs. 2.9 mm, pPeriodontal surgery performed in our clinical setting demonstrated a favorable short-term outcome. Our data suggest the efficacy of regenerative therapy, in particular for the treatment of deep pockets.

  5. [Short-term psychological consequences of car accidents: an empirical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunas, Antonio; Iavarone, Valentina; Fiorletta, Angela; Madeddu, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate short-term (3 and 5 months) psychological consequences of severe motor-vehicle accidents. The sample under investigation is composed of two groups: 8 survivors of severe motor-vehicle accidents with spinal cord injuries (SCI) hospitalized in a Spinal Cord Unit, and 6 survivors who did not require hospitalization. All subjects were assessed twice, three and five months after the accident, on a variety of measures including the CAPS and the BDI-SF. Prevalence of PTSD in the total sample was, 3 months after the accident, 14% with no significant differences between the two groups; some peculiarities in the symptomathological profile emerged as much as subjects with SCI experience avoidance of trauma-related stimuli more frequently. An overall decline in frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms between the two assessments was observed in the total sample, though some components (Criterion C symptoms) showed no relevant variations over time. Finally, depressive symptoms, which were characterized by higher severity in the SCI group, showed a significant decline between the two assessments. Our data, although based on a limited sample, might help in tailoring psychological interventions for prevention and treatment of PTSD in survivors of severe motor accidents.

  6. Short-term load forecasting study of wind power based on Elman neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinran; Yu, Jing; Long, Teng; Liu, Jicheng

    2017-01-01

    Since wind power has intermittent, irregular and volatility nature, improving load forecasting accuracy of wind power has significant influence on controlling wind system and guarantees stable operation of power grids. This paper constructed the wind farm loading forecasting in short-term based on Elman neural network, and made a numerical example analysis. . Examples show that, using input delayed of feedback Elman neural network, can reflect the inherent laws of wind load operation better, so as to present a new idea for short-term load forecasting of wind power.

  7. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  8. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2014-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated from the view point of cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data are required for stable spectral analysis. However, the phase angle of the cross-spectra has not been discus...

  9. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale. L. and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-Term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L. (Boraginaceae is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM. In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po, and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2 were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05, the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001 and mitotic figures (P = 0.007, as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA positive cells (P = 0.0001 and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05. On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001 and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001 was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  10. Short-term Disulfiram to Reverse Latent HIV Infection: A Phase 2 Dose Escalation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Julian H.; McMahon, James H.; Chang, Christina C.; Lee, Sulggi A.; Hartogensis, Wendy; Bumpus, Namandje; Savic, Rada; Roney, Janine; Hoh, Rebecca; Solomon, Ajantha; Piatak, Michael; Gorelick, Robert J.; Lifson, Jeff; Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disulfiram activates HIV transcription in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency and in a pilot clinical study increased plasma HIV RNA in individuals with adequate diulfiram exposure. Methods We conducted a prospective dose escalation study in order to optimise disulfiram exposure. Thirty people with HIV on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled, allocated sequentially to one of three dosing cohorts and received disulfiram daily for three days at a dose of 500mg, 1000mg or 2000mg. The primary endpoint was cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in CD4+ T-cells. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01944371. Findings The estimated fold increases in CA-US HIV RNA during and post-disulfiram for each cohort were: 500mg: 1·7 (95% confidence interval 1·3 – 2·2) and 2·1 (1·5 – 2·9); 1000mg: 1·9 (1·6 – 2·4) and 2·5 (1·9 – 3·3); and 2000mg: 1·6 (1·2 – 2·1) and 2·1 (1·5 – 3·1) respectively (p<0·003 for all). Disulfiram was well tolerated at all doses. Interpretation Short-term administration of disulfiram resulted in increases in CA-US HIV RNA at all doses, consistent with activating HIV latency. Disulfiram may be suited for future studies of combination and prolonged therapy to activate latent HIV. PMID:26614966

  11. Hazard identification of inhaled nanomaterials: making use of short-term inhalation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christoph L; Wiench, Karin; Wiemann, Martin; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    A major health concern for nanomaterials is their potential toxic effect after inhalation of dusts. Correspondingly, the core element of tier 1 in the currently proposed integrated testing strategy (ITS) is a short-term rat inhalation study (STIS) for this route of exposure. STIS comprises a comprehensive scheme of biological effects and marker determination in order to generate appropriate information on early key elements of pathogenesis, such as inflammatory reactions in the lung and indications of effects in other organs. Within the STIS information on the persistence, progression and/or regression of effects is obtained. The STIS also addresses organ burden in the lung and potential translocation to other tissues. Up to now, STIS was performed in research projects and routine testing of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, rat STIS results for more than 20 nanomaterials are available including the representative nanomaterials listed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) working party on manufactured nanomaterials (WPMN), which has endorsed a list of representative manufactured nanomaterials (MN) as well as a set of relevant endpoints to be addressed. Here, results of STIS carried out with different nanomaterials are discussed as case studies. The ranking of different nanomaterials potential to induce adverse effects and the ranking of the respective NOAEC are the same among the STIS and the corresponding subchronic and chronic studies. In another case study, a translocation of a coated silica nanomaterial was judged critical for its safety assessment. Thus, STIS enables application of the proposed ITS, as long as reliable and relevant in vitro methods for the tier 1 testing are still missing. Compared to traditional subacute and subchronic inhalation testing (according to OECD test guidelines 412 and 413), STIS uses less animals and resources and offers additional information on organ burden and progression or regression of potential effects.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.ozbek@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Acar, Kadir [Selcuk University, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Koc, Osman [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Saritas, Kadir [Afyon Kocatepe University, Department of General Surgery, Veterinary Faculty (Turkey); Toy, Hatice [Selcuk University, Department of Pathology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Solak, Yalcin [Selcuk University, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Ozbek, Seda [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Selcuklu School of Medicine (Turkey); Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim [Selcuk University, Department of Radiology, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman [Selcuk University, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Meram School of Medicine (Turkey); Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin [Hacettepe University, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  13. Premorbid nutrition and short term outcome of stroke: a multicentre study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Jyotsna, Rashmi; Singh, Ruma; Sylaja, Padmavati N; Vijaya, Pamidimukkala; Padma, Madakasira Vasantha; Venkateswaralu, Kolichana; Sukumaran, Sajith; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Sarma, Prabhakaran S; Mathew, Robert; Singh, Yashpal

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the impact of premorbid undernutrition on stroke outcome in developing countries. To study the impact of premorbid undernutrition status, measured by the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool, on short term stroke outcome. First ever stroke patients admitted to six major hospitals in North and South India participated in this study from 1 March 2008 to 30 September 2009. The SGA tool was administered within 48 h of stroke onset, and 6 months premorbid nutritional status was rated as well nourished (A rating) and undernourished (B and C ratings) using this tool. Stroke outcome was assessed after 30 days using the modified Rankin scale (mRs), and a mRs score >3 was defined as a poor outcome. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics V.17.0. Of 477 patients enrolled, 448 patients were included in the analyses. Mean age was 58.1±13.7 years (range 16-96) and 281 (62.7%) patients were men. At admission, premorbid undernutrition was found in 121 (27.2%) patients. Older age (OR 4.99, CI 1.26 to 19.64, p=0.021), hypertension (OR 1.99, CI 1.04 to 3.79, p=0.037) and patients from Andhra Pradesh State (OR 1.87, CI 1.05 to 3.32, p=0.032) were predictors of undernutrition in multiple logistic regression analysis. Premorbid undernutrition (OR 1.99, CI 1.20 to 3.31, p=0.007) and length of hospital stay (OR 3.41, CI 1.91 to 6.06, pstroke patients were found. Age, hypertension and patients from Andhra Pradesh State were predictors of premorbid undernutrition. Premorbid undernutrition was associated with poor stroke outcome. The results provide opportunities for primary prevention and improving stroke outcome.

  14. Impact of short-term hemodialysis catheters on the central veins: a catheter venographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Tercan, Fahri; Torun, Dilek; Yildirim, Tuelin; Zuemruetdal, Ayseguel; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2004-12-01

    defect and BCV stenosis when patients were grouped according to age, dwell time of the catheter, number of catheters inserted, and diameter of the SVC. Forty-two of the fifty-seven patients had had only right IJV (n=16) or right SCV (n=26) catheters. There were no differences between these groups with respect to rates of pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, or BCV stenosis. Conclusion: This study showed that even short-term catheters result in significantly high rates of pericatheter sleeve and thrombus formation which are two of the important causes of catheter malfunction. The IJV route is known to be much safer than the SCV route with respect to stenosis formation in the vein in which the catheter is inserted; however, the result showed no differences between the two routes with respect to frequencies of pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, and BCV stenosis. These findings remind us again that we should avoid unnecessary catheter insertion even for short-term in these chronically ill patients.

  15. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Ann Skewes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioural, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at six-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the GSI. For the SMI maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants’ psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing disinhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the small sample size and lack

  16. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Sally A; Samson, Rachel A; Simpson, Susan G; van Vreeswijk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group schema therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioral, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at 6-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the Global Symptom Index (GSI). For the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up, 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants' psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing inhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the

  17. Study on Carburizing Kinetics of Low-carbon Steel at High-temperature and Short-term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Sheng; Xiao Nianxin; Zhang Hailong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the carburizing kinetics of low-carbon steel at high-temperature and short-term in liquid cast-iron were studied by metallographic microscope, chemical analysis and so on, and the microstructure of carburized layer was also analyzed. The results show that the carburizing rate of low-carbon steel at high-temperature and short-term is so fast, and the microstructure of carburized layer possess higher carbon content, and cementite, pearlite and ferrite exist in carburized layer structure simultaneously. Besides, the kinetic equations of permeating layer forming have been presented, and the carburizing mechanism was preliminary discussed also.

  18. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated by cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data is required for stable results of the spectral analysis. However, the phase lag between responses, in terms of the phase angle...... of the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the relative...... phase angle was observed. In effect, the variability may compromise the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  19. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  20. Colour anomia resulting from weakened short-term colour memory. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, J B; Ostergaard, A L

    1984-06-01

    A patient exhibited marked colour anomia without object anomia, but was able to point to named colours. Five experiments were conducted to investigate his immediate colour memory. It was concluded that his colour anomia was the result of an impaired short-term memory deficit specific to colour. Temporary activation of specific entries in the colour lexicon enabled pointing and even naming to take place. A general model incorporating all forms of colour anomia is presented.

  1. In Their Own Words: Assessing Global Citizenship in a Short-Term Study-Abroad Program in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giacomo; Hashim, S. Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The article examines whether short-term study-abroad (STSA) experiences can cultivate the cultural understandings and ethical commitments entailed by a cosmopolitan civic education. We examine students' critical reflections on their participation in a two-week study-abroad program titled "Climate Change and Sustainable Development in…

  2. Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered…

  3. Treatment quality indicators predict short-term outcomes in patients with diabetes : a prospective cohort study using the GIANTT database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidorenkov, Grigory; Voorham, Jaco; de Zeeuw, Dick; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether quality indicators for treatment of cardiovascular and renal risk factors are associated with short-term outcomes in patients with diabetes. Design A prospective cohort study using linear regression adjusting for confounders. Setting The GIANTT database (Groningen Initiat

  4. Development of Short-term Molecular Thresholds to Predict Long-term Mouse Liver Tumor Outcomes: Phthalate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term molecular profiles are a central component of strategies to model health effects of environmental chemicals. In this study, a 7 day mouse assay was used to evaluate transcriptomic and proliferative responses in the liver for a hepatocarcinogenic phthalate, di (2-ethylh...

  5. Second-Language Learners' Identification of Target-Language Phonemes: A Short-Term Phonetic Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Juli; Carlet, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of short-term high-variability phonetic training on the perception of English /b/, /v/, /d/, /ð/, /ae/, /? /, /i/, and /i/ by Catalan/Spanish bilinguals learning English as a foreign language. Sixteen English-major undergraduates were tested before and after undergoing a four-session perceptual training program…

  6. Evaluation Study of Short-Term Programs at a Residential School for Students Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, Rona L.; Darst, Shannon; Boland, Teryl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The results of a 2009-2010 program evaluation study that examined parents, teachers of students with visual impairments, administrators, and students regarding overall satisfaction with and effectiveness of the short-term programs at a residential school for students who are blind and visually impaired are described. The findings are…

  7. Short term comparative study of topical 2% carteolol with and without benzalkonium chloride in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, C.; de Lunardo, C.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—A crossover, randomised double blind study was undertaken in 30 healthy volunteers, in order to compare the tolerance of 2% carteolol with and without preservative in short term use.
METHODS—Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed before and 30, 60, and 180 minutes after instillation of one drop of the solution, and after 3 days of preservative treatment. After a 5 day washout, the same examinations were done with the second drug.
RESULTS—Results showed good general tolerance for both formulations. No significant difference in subjective tolerance, corneal aesthesiometry, punctuate keratitis, Schirmer's test, intraocular pressure (IOP) decrease (about 25% in the two groups at 3 hours, 10% after 3 days of treatment), resting cardiac frequency, or blood pressure was observed. However, break up time was significantly reduced from baseline by preserved carteolol both at 3 hours (10.40 (5.9) seconds to 6.15 (3.9) seconds, p=0.001) and after 3 days (7.72 (5.5) seconds, p=0.04). Preservative free carteolol did not significantly change the break up time (baseline 9.08 (5.7) seconds; 3 hours = 7.88 (5.5) seconds, not significant; day 3 = 8.35 (5.8), non-significant).
CONCLUSIONS—These results confirm that carteolol is well tolerated, either with or without preservative. The preservative free group showed better stability of the tear film, without loss of effect on IOP. This difference, although mild in the healthy young subjects in the present study could be much more relevant in those patients treated long term, older patients, and/or those suffering from ocular surface disorders. In such instances, preservative free drugs could be of potential benefit to protect the lacrimal fluid integrity and corneoconjunctival surface.

 Keywords: glaucoma; carteolol; benzalkonium; preservatives; β blockers PMID:9536878

  8. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  9. Interpreting potential markers of storage and rehearsal: Implications for studies of verbal short-term memory and neuropsychological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Logie, Robert H; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychological studies of verbal short-term memory have often focused on two signature effects - phonological similarity and word length - the absence of which has been taken to indicate problems in phonological storage and rehearsal respectively. In the present study we present a possible alternative reading of such data, namely that the absence of these effects can follow as a consequence of an individual's poor level of recall. Data from a large normative sample of 251 adult participants were re-analyzed under the assumption that the size of phonological similarity and word length effects are proportional to an individual's overall level of recall. For both manipulations, when proportionalized effects were plotted against memory span, the same function fit the data in both auditory and visual presentation conditions. Furthermore, two additional sets of single-case data were broadly comparable to those that would be expected for an individual's level of verbal short-term memory performance albeit with some variation across tasks. These findings indicate that the absolute magnitude of phonological similarity and word length effects depends on overall levels of recall, and that these effects are necessarily eliminated at low levels of verbal short-term memory performance. This has implications for how one interprets any variation in the size of these effects, and raises serious questions about the causal direction of any relationship between impaired verbal short-term memory and the absence of phonological similarity or word length effects.

  10. [Defense mechanisms as outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy related to symptoms, severity and overall functioning: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccanari de' Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Piccione, Michele; Maiello, Luca; Giampà, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of defense mechanisms in psychotherapy is currently one of the most used ways to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy. In literature there are few reports on defense mechanisms changes by short-term treatments. To determine whether the defense mechanisms are changed after twelve sessions of short-term psychotherapy related to psychopathological symptoms, severity and overall functioning. Twenty patients (12 F and 8 M; age 38.4) affected by anxiety and mood disorders were recruited to the study between November 2008 and July 2009 and were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-88 (DSQ-88), scale Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), scale Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and scale Valutazione Globale del Funzionamento (VGF) at the beginning and after short-term psychotherapy. Half the sample also assumed drugs. The treatment was supportive-expressive psychotherapy of Luborsky, a short focal dynamic therapy, characterized by the integration of supportive and expressive techniques. Both patients showed a significant decrease in immature defenses and a significant-increase in mature defenses (p < 0.01). Mature defenses were significantly correlated with severity (r = -0632; p = 0.003) and overall functioning (r = 0529; p = 0.01). Immature and mature defenses seem to be a useful outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy as well as severity and overall functioning and the combined treatment may be most effective in reducing immature defenses.

  11. Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: A case study for tephra fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-12-01

    During volcanic crises, volcanologists estimate the impact of possible imminent eruptions usually through deterministic modeling of the effects of one or a few preestablished scenarios. Despite such an approach may bring an important information to the decision makers, the sole use of deterministic scenarios does not allow scientists to properly take into consideration all uncertainties, and it cannot be used to assess quantitatively the risk because the latter unavoidably requires a probabilistic approach. We present a model based on the concept of Bayesian event tree (hereinafter named BET_VH_ST, standing for Bayesian event tree for short-term volcanic hazard), for short-term near-real-time probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis formulated for any potential hazardous phenomenon accompanying an eruption. The specific goal of BET_VH_ST is to produce a quantitative assessment of the probability of exceedance of any potential level of intensity for a given volcanic hazard due to eruptions within restricted time windows (hours to days) in any area surrounding the volcano, accounting for all natural and epistemic uncertainties. BET_VH_ST properly assesses the conditional probability at each level of the event tree accounting for any relevant information derived from the monitoring system, theoretical models, and the past history of the volcano, propagating any relevant epistemic uncertainty underlying these assessments. As an application example of the model, we apply BET_VH_ST to assess short-term volcanic hazard related to tephra loading during Major Emergency Simulation Exercise, a major exercise at Mount Vesuvius that took place from 19 to 23 October 2006, consisting in a blind simulation of Vesuvius reactivation, from the early warning phase up to the final eruption, including the evacuation of a sample of about 2000 people from the area at risk. The results show that BET_VH_ST is able to produce short-term forecasts of the impact of tephra fall during a rapidly

  12. Study on medium-short term earthquake forecast in Yunnan Province by precursory events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦嘉政; 钱晓东

    2004-01-01

    The medium-short term forecast for a certain kinds of main earthquake events might be possible with the time-to-failure method presented by Varnes (1989), Bufe and Varnes (1993), which is to simulate an accelerative releasing model of precursory earthquake energy. By fitting the observed data with the theoretical formula, a medium-short term forecast technique for the main shock events could be established, by which the location, time and magnitude of the main shock could be determined. The data used in the paper are obtained from the earthquake catalogue recorded by Yunnan Regional Seismological Network with a time coverage of 1965~2002. The statistical analyses for the past 37 years show that the data of M≥2.5 earthquakes were fairly complete. In the present paper,30 main shocks occurred in Yunnan region were simulated. For 25 of them, the forecasting time and magnitude from the simulation of precursory sequence are very close to the actual values with the precision of about ±0.57(magnitude unit). Suppose that the last event of the precursory sequence is known, then the time error for the forecasting main shock is about ±0.64 year. For the other 5 main shocks, the simulation cannot be made due to the insufficient precursory events for the full determination of energy accelerating curve or disturbance to the energy-release curve. The results in the paper indicate that there is no obviously linear relation in the optimal searching radius for the main shock and the precursory events because Yunnan is an active region with damage earthquakes and moderate and small earthquakes. However, there is a strong correlation between the main shock moment and the coefficient k/m. The "optimal fitting range" for the forecasting time and magnitude can be further reduced using the relation between the main shock moment lgM0 and the coefficient lgk/m and the value range of the restricting index m, by which the forecast precision of the simulated main shock can be improved

  13. Cardiac complications associated with short-term mortality in schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia: a nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Tang Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. METHODS: In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741, we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia. Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. RESULTS: Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01. Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01, incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183 and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01. Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.

  14. An Evaluation Methodology for Longitudinal Studies of Short-Term Cancer Research Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Luz A; Venkatesh, Raam; Daniel, Casey L; Desmond, Renee A; Brooks, C Michael; Waterbor, John W

    2016-03-01

    The need to familiarize medical students and graduate health professional students with research training opportunities that cultivate the appeal of research careers is vital to the future of research. Comprehensive evaluation of a cancer research training program can be achieved through longitudinal tracking of program alumni to assess the program's impact on each participant's career path and professional achievements. With advances in technology and smarter means of communication, effective ways to track alumni have changed. In order to collect data on the career outcomes and achievements of nearly 500 short-term cancer research training program alumni from 1999-2013, we sought to contact each alumnus to request completion of a survey instrument online, or by means of a telephone interview. The effectiveness of each contact method that we used was quantified according to ease of use and time required. The most reliable source of contact information for tracking alumni from the early years of the program was previous tracking results, and for alumni from the later years, the most important source of contact information was university alumni records that provided email addresses and telephone numbers. Personal contacts with former preceptors were sometimes helpful, as were generic search engines and people search engines. Social networking was of little value for most searches. Using information from two or more sources in combination was most effective in tracking alumni. These results provide insights and tools for other research training programs that wish to track their alumni for long-term program evaluation.

  15. Brain tumor vessel response to synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy: a short-term in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serduc, Raphaël; Christen, Thomas; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bouchet, Audrey; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Segebarth, Christoph; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; LeDuc, Géraldine; Bravin, Alberto; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work focuses on the description of the short-term response of a 9L brain tumor model and its vasculature to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat 9L gliosarcomas implanted in nude mice brains were irradiated by MRT 13 days after tumor inoculation using two orthogonal arrays of equally spaced 28 planar microbeams (25 µm width, 211 µm spacing and dose 500 Gy). At 1, 7 and 14 days after MRT, apparent diffusion coefficient, blood volume and vessel size index were mapped by MRI. Mean survival time after tumor inoculation increased significantly between MRT-treated and untreated groups (23 and 28 days respectively, log-rank test, p brain but MRI results suggest that the increase in survival time after our MRT approach may be rather due to a cytoreduction than to early direct effects of ionizing radiation on tumor vessels. These results suggest that MRT parameters need to be optimized to further damage tumor vessels.

  16. Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwerenz Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20 + 5 sessions or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information. We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination and 12 months (follow-up. The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588

  17. Brain tumor vessel response to synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy: a short-term in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael; Christen, Thomas; Farion, Regine; Bouchet, Audrey; Sanden, Boudewijn van der; Segebarth, Christoph; Remy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L [INSERM, U836, F38043 Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Duc, Geraldine Le; Bravin, Alberto [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F38043 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: serduc@esrf.fr

    2008-07-07

    The aim of this work focuses on the description of the short-term response of a 9L brain tumor model and its vasculature to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat 9L gliosarcomas implanted in nude mice brains were irradiated by MRT 13 days after tumor inoculation using two orthogonal arrays of equally spaced 28 planar microbeams (25 {mu}m width, 211 {mu}m spacing and dose 500 Gy). At 1, 7 and 14 days after MRT, apparent diffusion coefficient, blood volume and vessel size index were mapped by MRI. Mean survival time after tumor inoculation increased significantly between MRT-treated and untreated groups (23 and 28 days respectively, log-rank test, p < 0.0001). A significant increase of apparent diffusion coefficient was observed 24 h after MRT in irradiated tumors versus non-irradiated ones. In the untreated group, both tumor size and vessel size index increased significantly (from 7.6 {+-} 2.2 to 19.2 {+-} 4.0 mm{sup 2} and +23%, respectively) between the 14th and the 21st day after tumor cell inoculation. During the same period, in the MRT-treated group, no difference in tumor size was observed. The vessel size index measured in the MRT-treated group increased significantly (+26%) between 14 and 28 days of tumor growth. We did not observe the significant difference in blood volume between the MRT-treated and untreated groups. MRT slows 9L tumor growth in a mouse brain but MRI results suggest that the increase in survival time after our MRT approach may be rather due to a cytoreduction than to early direct effects of ionizing radiation on tumor vessels. These results suggest that MRT parameters need to be optimized to further damage tumor vessels.

  18. Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Coastal Acid Sulfate Soils:A Short-Term Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. C. T. MACDONALD; O. T. DENMEAD; I.WHITE; G. BYRANT

    2011-01-01

    NOx and N2O emissions from coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) cultivated for sugarcane production were investigated on the coastal lowlands of northern New South Wales, Australia. Two series of short-term measurements were made using chambers and micrometeorological techniques. Series 1 occurred during the wet season, the water-filled pore space (WFPS) was between 60%-80% and the site flooded during the measurements. Measurements were made directly after the harvest of soybean crop, which fixed an estimated 100 kg N ha-1, and the emission amounted to 3.2 kg NOx-N ha-1 (12 d) and 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 (5 d). Series 2 was made towards the end of the dry season when the WFPS was less than 60%. In Series 2, after an application of 50 kg N ha-1, emissions were markedly less, amounting to 0.9 kg N ha-1 over 10 d. During both series when the soil was moist, emissions of NOx were larger than those of N2O. The emission of NOx appeared to be haphazard, with little time dependence, but there was a clear diurnal cycle for N2O, emphasising the need for continuous measurement procedures for both gases. Theseresults suggest that agricultural production on CASS could be important sources of greenhouse gases and nitrogen practices will need to be optimised to reduce the offsite effects of atmospheric warming, acidification or nitrification. Many questions still remain unanswered such as the emissions during the soybean bean filling stage and crop residue decomposition, the longer-term losses following the fertiliser application and emissions from CASS under different land uses.

  19. Color Stability of Composites After Short-term Oral Simulation: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdaş, Didem Öner; Kazak, Mağrur; Çilingir, Aylin; Subaşı, Meryem Gülce; Tiryaki, Murat; Günal, Şölen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although most of the studies investigated color stability of different restorative materials, evaluation of color stability of composites after immersion in multiple beverages in the same day by an in vitro oral simulation study is unclear. Objective: To assess color change of different restorative materials at the end of days 1, 14, and 30 of immersion in multiple liquid types to mimic the oral environment in vitro. Method: Ten disc-shaped specimens were made from each of four different resin composites (Filtek Z250, Voco x-tra base, Beautifil Flow Plus, Beautifil II). Baseline color value of each sample was measured using a spectrophotometer. Each composite was respectively immersed in coffee, an orange/pomegranate juice mixture, black tea, and a mouth rinse on the same day to mimic daily liquid consumption of individuals. Color measurements were taken after 1, 14, and 30 days by spectrophotometer and color change values were calculated. Statistical analyses were executed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey HSD and repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: All materials showed significant color change after 1, 14, and 30 days (P < 0.01) of immersion in liquids, with the lowest color alteration observed at the 1st day and the highest observed after the 30th day. Among the materials tested, at each time point (1, 14, and 30 days), the lowest color alteration was detected in Filtek Z250 and the highest color alteration was detected in Beautifil II. Conclusion: Color alteration of composite resins is affected by composite type and storage time. With the exception of 1 day of storage, color changes of all materials were substantial and clinically unacceptable. PMID:27733871

  20. Short-term incubation studies on degradation of biochar in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Giacomo; Wirth, Stephan; Geßler, Arthur; Kern, Jürgen; Mumme, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is considered a stable, recalcitrant substance, which holds potential to store carbon in soils for prolonged time and therefore would provide a long-term carbon sink. Furthermore, biochar is discussed to enhance soil fertility and plant productivity, and may improve water and nutrient holding capacity. However, mineralisation to CO2 may occur, as for any soil organic carbon pool, depending on char composition, soil properties and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into the stability of its carbon structure and the dynamics of decay processes in soil. The evaluation of biochar stability in soil is complicated by the impact of external factors thus as soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient status and moreover by extended decay timescales. To overcome these difficulties, we performed dynamic incubation experiments under laboratory conditions, using a multi-channel, automated infra-red gas analysis system at 20°C for up to 10 days to detect CO2 emission over time. Our aim was to compare the decay dynamics of different biochar preparations added to soil, i.e. HTC-char and pyrochar from maize silage with and without biological post-processing (anaerobic digestion), as compared to unmodified maize straw. Digestate from a maize silage-fed anaerobic biogas reactor was also tested. As a result, the addition of charred or digested materials to soil resulted in much lower CO2 emission rates as compared to the unmodified maize straw, proving stability of biochar carbon compounds. Pyrochar showed to be the most stable of all substrates added, as the CO2 emission was hardly distinguishable from that of the control soil. Soil enriched with HTC-char emitted significantly more CO2 compared to soil enriched with pyrochar, but the post-processing was effective in reducing the emissions. Furthermore, HTC-char showed a two-step decay kinetics, which cannot apparently be explained with a simple double-pool model. In conclusion, the short-term

  1. Comparative Study of the Effects of Long and Short Term Biological Processes on the Cycling of Colloidal Trace Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; West, A.

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticle (or colloids), with sizes operationally defined as ranging from 1nm to 1000nm diameter, are thought to play an important role in metal cycling in the ocean due to their high surface area to volume ratio and abundance in marine systems. In coastal waters, the bulk of marine nanoparticles are organic, so short and long term biological processes are expected to influence the dynamics of these types of particles in marine environments. This is, in turn, expected to influence metal concentrations. Here we selected two different environments to study the influence of long-term biological events (phytoplankton blooms) and short-term biological events (diel cycles of photosynthesis and respiration) on the cycling of colloidal trace metals. We focus on Cu and Fe, both biogeochemically important metals but with differing colloidal behavior. Long term processes (West Neck Bay): A bay (West Neck Bay, Long Island) with predictable natural phytoplankton blooms, but with limited inputs of freshwater, nutrients and metals, was selected to study the partitioning of Cu and Fe between colloidal and soluble pools over the course of a bloom. During the bloom, there was a significant build-up of Cu associated with DOM accumulation and a removal of Fe via particle stripping. Fraction-specific metal concentrations, and metal accumulation and removal rates, were found to be significantly correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration and with dissolved organic matter (DOM). Short term processes (Catalina Island): To identify the cyclical variation in metal speciation during diel (24-hour) cycles of photosynthesis and respiration, we conducted a study off Catalina Island, a pristine environment where trace metal cycling is solely controlled by biological processes and changes in the phytoplankton community are well characterized. The speciation of Fe between soluble and colloidal pools showed that Fe has a high affinity for colloidal material and that the distribution between

  2. A mathematical model of non-photochemical quenching to study short-term light memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyńska, Anna; Heidari, Somayyeh; Jahns, Peter; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Plants are permanently exposed to rapidly changing environments, therefore it is evident that they had to evolve mechanisms enabling them to dynamically adapt to such fluctuations. Here we study how plants can be trained to enhance their photoprotection and elaborate on the concept of the short-term illumination memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. By monitoring fluorescence emission dynamics we systematically observe the extent of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) after previous light exposure to recognise and quantify the memory effect. We propose a simplified mathematical model of photosynthesis that includes the key components required for NPQ activation, which allows us to quantify the contribution to photoprotection by those components. Due to its reduced complexity, our model can be easily applied to study similar behavioural changes in other species, which we demonstrate by adapting it to the shadow-tolerant plant Epipremnum aureum. Our results indicate that a basic mechanism of short-term light memory is preserved. The slow component, accumulation of zeaxanthin, accounts for the amount of memory remaining after relaxation in darkness, while the fast one, antenna protonation, increases quenching efficiency. With our combined theoretical and experimental approach we provide a unifying framework describing common principles of key photoprotective mechanisms across species in general, mathematical terms.

  3. Associations between fifth graders' gender atypical problem behavior and peer relationships: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, Karen P; Miller, Cindy Faith; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Ladd, Gary W; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2012-08-01

    An accruing body of evidence supports associations between self-perceived gender typicality and peer relationship difficulties; however, researchers have yet to evaluate peers' perceptions of problem behaviors to gain insight into the social correlates of gender typicality. A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate associations between gender atypical problem behavior and subsequent peer relational difficulties for 2,076 fifth graders (M age= 10.27; 53% female). Peer nomination methodology was used to assess participants' classroom peer relationships, problem behaviors, and social-emotional characteristics. Findings showed that youth characterized by gender atypical, compared to gender typical, problem behavior (withdrawn boys/aggressive girls vs. withdrawn girls/aggressive boys, respectively) evidenced higher levels of subsequent peer difficulties; moreover, participation in a mutual friendship was associated with decreased risk for peer relationship maladjustment, particularly among youth characterized by gender atypical problem behavior. Results further revealed that, compared to friendless youth, friended youth earned higher prosocial and peer liking scores and, for withdrawn youth, lower emotional sensitivity scores. The present research contributes to our understanding of the potential short-term consequences of youth's gender atypical problem behavior. Findings underscore the need for supplemental conceptualizations of gender typicality as well as multifaceted interventions designed to promote the acceptance of gender nonnormativity, support the development of adaptive peer relationships, and reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors.

  4. One Year Later: The Influence of Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences on Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Niehaus, Elizabeth K.

    2011-01-01

    Using transformational learning as a framework and a case study approach, this study explored how students make meaning of their experiences 1 year after a weeklong study abroad experience and examines how they integrate their study abroad experience into their lives. The findings include that students who had engaged in subsequent learning…

  5. Communication and cultural implications of short-term study-abroad experiences on engineering students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim M. Omachinski

    2013-01-01

    ...’ university experience. As programs of study become more rigorous and detailed, it is difficult for students to incorporate study abroad into their schedules, especially those in engineering programs...

  6. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  7. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  8. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  9. The Benefits of Short-Term Study Abroad as a Blended Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Durie, Christopher J.; Eisenberg, Jarin R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role blended learning plays in expanding study abroad opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: The approach utilized involves providing a synopsis of research dealing with study abroad and its benefits, particularly for student populations likely to comprise a significant portion of the…

  10. The Benefits of Short-Term Study Abroad as a Blended Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Durie, Christopher J.; Eisenberg, Jarin R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role blended learning plays in expanding study abroad opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: The approach utilized involves providing a synopsis of research dealing with study abroad and its benefits, particularly for student populations likely to comprise a significant portion of the…

  11. Exploratory study of plasma total homocysteine and its relationship to short-term outcome in acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awosanya Gbolahan O

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke, and may have a negative impact on the course of ischaemic stroke. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as it relates to stroke in Africans is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and short-term impact of hyperhomocysteinemia in Nigerians with acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that Hcy levels are significantly higher than in normal controls, worsen stroke severity, and increase short-term case fatality rates following acute ischaemic stroke. Methods The study employed both a case-control and prospective follow-up design to study hospitalized adults with first – ever acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 48 hours of onset. Clinical histories, neurological evaluation (including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores on admission were documented. Total plasma Hcy was determined on fasting samples drawn from controls and stroke cases (within 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome at 4 weeks was assessed in stroke patients using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Results We evaluated 155 persons (69 acute ischaemic stroke and 86 healthy controls. The mean age ± SD of the cases was 58.8 ± 9.8 years, comparable to that of controls which was 58.3 ± 9.9 years (T = 0.32; P = 0.75. The mean duration of stroke (SD prior to hospitalization was 43.5 ± 38.8 hours, and mean admission NIHSS score was 10.1 ± 7.7. Total fasting Hcy in stroke patients was 10.2 ± 4.6 umol/L and did not differ significantly from controls (10.1 ± 3.6 umol/L; P = 0.88. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by plasma Hcy levels > 90th percentile of controls (>14.2 umol/L in women and >14.6 umol/L in men, was present in 7 (10.1% stroke cases and 11 (12.8% controls (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.31 – 2.39; P > 0.05. In multiple regression analysis admission NIHSS score (but not plasma Hcy was a significant determinant of 4

  12. Non-inferiority of short-term urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barone Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A vaginal fistula is a devastating condition, affecting an estimated 2 million girls and women across Africa and Asia. There are numerous challenges associated with providing fistula repair services in developing countries, including limited availability of operating rooms, equipment, surgeons with specialized skills, and funding from local or international donors to support surgeries and subsequent post-operative care. Finding ways of providing services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner, without compromising surgical outcomes and the overall health of the patient, is paramount. Shortening the duration of urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery would increase treatment capacity, lower costs of services, and potentially lower risk of healthcare-associated infections among fistula patients. There is a lack of empirical evidence supporting any particular length of time for urethral catheterization following fistula repair surgery. This study will examine whether short-term (7 day urethral catheterization is not worse by more than a minimal relevant difference to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of incidence of fistula repair breakdown among women with simple fistula presenting at study sites for fistula repair service. Methods/Design This study is a facility-based, multicenter, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing the new proposed short-term (7 day urethral catheterization to longer-term (14 day urethral catheterization in terms of predicting fistula repair breakdown. The primary outcome is fistula repair breakdown up to three months following fistula repair surgery as assessed by a urinary dye test. Secondary outcomes will include repair breakdown one week following catheter removal, intermittent catheterization due to urinary retention and the occurrence of septic or febrile episodes, prolonged hospitalization for medical reasons, catheter blockage, and

  13. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2......) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. Results: The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66 – 71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85 – 89%). Thirty one...... % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29 – 33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28 – 36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died...

  14. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  15. Individual responses to completion of short-term and chronic interval training: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Astorino

    Full Text Available Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, heart rate (HR, and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of "non-responders" who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT, which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1, twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max=24.0 ± 4.6 yr and 42.8 ± 4.8 mL/kg/min performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT consisting of 4-6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2, 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max=23.7 ± 6.2 yr and 30.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60-90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95% and attenuated exercise HR (85% in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65% and exercise HR (55% via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60-65% across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training.

  16. Individual Responses to Completion of Short-Term and Chronic Interval Training: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A.; Schubert, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HR), and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of “non-responders” who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT), which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1), twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max = 24.0±4.6 yr and 42.8±4.8 mL/kg/min) performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT) consisting of 4–6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2), 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max = 23.7±6.2 yr and 30.0±4.9 mL/kg/min) performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60–90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95%) and attenuated exercise HR (85%) in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65%) and exercise HR (55%) via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60–65%) across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training. PMID:24847797

  17. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the 'hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P < 0.01). These findings indicated a significant inhibition of jaw-closing muscle activity during sleep along with a decrease of muscle soreness. This pilot study raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies.

  18. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P < 0.01). These findings indicated a significant inhibition of jaw-closing muscle activity during sleep along with a decrease of muscle soreness. This pilot study raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies. PMID:27025267

  19. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism-a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Na Zhou; Hai-Yang Fu; Yi-Fei Du; Jian-Hua Sun; Jing-Lu Zhang; Chen Wang; Peter Svensson; Ke-Lun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot’ of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P 5 0.04; P 5 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P,0.01). These findings indicated a significant inhibition of jaw-closing muscle activity during sleep along with a decrease of muscle soreness. This pilot study raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies.

  20. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  1. Problematising Short-Term Participant Observation and Multi-Method Ethnographic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of apprentices in England and Germany designed to explore young people's learner identities over time and in relation to particular learning environments. The research adopts a multi-method ethnographic approach, combining biographical interviews with multi-site participant observation. The article problematises the…

  2. Developmental Consequences of Poor Phonological Short-Term Memory Function in Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Tiffany, Claire; Briscoe, Josie; Thorn, Annabel

    2005-01-01

    Background: A longitudinal study investigated the cognitive skills and scholastic attainments at 8 years of age of children selected on the basis of poor phonological loop skills at 5 years. Methods: Children with low and average performance at 5 years were tested three years later on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary,…

  3. Jafari and Transformation: A Model to Enhance Short-Term Overseas Study Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy; Gray, Tonia; Downey, Greg; Sheringham, Colin; Jones, Benjamin; Power, Anne; Truong, Son

    2016-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on university internationalisation, global citizenship education and outbound mobility experiences (OMEs) has seen international study travel become a key staple of tertiary education. University students undertake learning experience for academic credit overseas for a period shorter than a semester under the guidance of an…

  4. Developing Short-Term Study Abroad Programs: Achieving Successful International Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, James; Luqmani, Mushtaq; Newell, Stephen; Quraeshi, Zahir; Wagner, Bret

    2013-01-01

    Most business schools in the U.S. are employing various initiatives to "internationalize" their curriculum in order to prepare students to participate more effectively in a globally interconnected business world. An integral part of these initiatives is to encourage more students to participate in study abroad programs. Though it maybe…

  5. Developing a Short-Term, Faculty-Led Sports Medicine Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Context: While sports medicine study abroad opportunities have recently increased, the literature regarding their development is non-existent in athletic training education literature and very limited in general education literature. Objective: The purpose of this manuscript is to draw upon my experience to describe the essential design elements…

  6. Prospective cohort study into post-disaster benzodiazepine use demonstrated only short-term increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, two complaints often reported after disasters. Benzodiazepines can cause mental or physical dependence, especially when taken for a long time. This study aims at evaluating benzodiazepine use in a disaster-stricken commun

  7. Expanding Student International Awareness Through Short-Term Study Abroad Courses With Substantial Engineering Technical Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Schubert, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of Compact International Experience (CIE) courses is assessed in this study. These courses were developed with the aim to raise student international awareness while retaining substantial engineering technical content. The courses were motivated by a strong student desire for engineering international studies as well as a drive by the home institution for internationalization of the curriculum. The experiences gained from delivering two distinct three-semester-unit engineering elective courses in three-week time frames in France and Australia are discussed. While the two courses, Topics in Fluid Mechanics and Advanced Electronic Circuit Design, focused on their technical content, the desire for student understanding of the cultural environment and the impact of engineering solutions from a global and societal viewpoint were strong driving factors for each. Assessment validates the hypothesis that CIE courses can successfully deliver substantial engineering technical content while providing an enriching international experience to students.

  8. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  9. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Skewes, Sally A.; Samson, Rachel A.; Simpson, Susan G.; van Vreeswijk, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group schema therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included c...

  10. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Ann Skewes; Rachel Anne Samson; Simpson, Susan G.; Michiel evan Vreeswijk

    2015-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included co...

  11. Associations between symptoms, clinical findings and the short-term prognosis among children with otitis media: A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg, Christina Trankjær; Søndergaard, Jens; Lous, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    -related factors influence the course of OM. The aim of this study was to analyze to what extent symptoms at the time of initial diagnosis are associated with the short-term course of otitis media. Methods: Cohort study in general practice comprising 747 children between 0 and 7 years with a new ear symptom....... At the first consultation the GPs registered symptoms, results of otoscopy and tympanometry, together with diagnosis and treatment. The children were followed up four weeks later. Results: Sleep problems at inclusion are statistically significant associated with having one or more symptom after four weeks...... and 7 years with a flat curve is 8.94 (CI: 4.18–19.11) when compared to children without a flat curve. Conclusion: Sleep problems at inclusion were the only symptom statistically significant associated with having one or more symptoms after four weeks in children between 0 and 2 years....

  12. Changing the dose metric for inhalation toxicity studies: short-term study in rats with engineered aerosolized amorphous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayes, Christie M; Reed, Kenneth L; Glover, Kyle P; Swain, Keith A; Ostraat, Michele L; Donner, E Maria; Warheit, David B

    2010-03-01

    Inhalation toxicity and exposure assessment studies for nonfibrous particulates have traditionally been conducted using particle mass measurements as the preferred dose metric (i.e., mg or microg/m(3)). However, currently there is a debate regarding the appropriate dose metric for nanoparticle exposure assessment studies in the workplace. The objectives of this study were to characterize aerosol exposures and toxicity in rats of freshly generated amorphous silica (AS) nanoparticles using particle number dose metrics (3.7 x 10(7) or 1.8 x 10(8) particles/cm(3)) for 1- or 3-day exposures. In addition, the role of particle size (d(50) = 37 or 83 nm) on pulmonary toxicity and genotoxicity endpoints was assessed at several postexposure time points. A nanoparticle reactor capable of producing, de novo synthesized, aerosolized amorphous silica nanoparticles for inhalation toxicity studies was developed for this study. SiO(2) aerosol nanoparticle synthesis occurred via thermal decomposition of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The reactor was designed to produce aerosolized nanoparticles at two different particle size ranges, namely d(50) = approximately 30 nm and d(50) = approximately 80 nm; at particle concentrations ranging from 10(7) to 10(8) particles/cm(3). AS particle aerosol concentrations were consistently generated by the reactor. One- or 3-day aerosol exposures produced no significant pulmonary inflammatory, genotoxic, or adverse lung histopathological effects in rats exposed to very high particle numbers corresponding to a range of mass concentrations (1.8 or 86 mg/m(3)). Although the present study was a short-term effort, the methodology described herein can be utilized for longer-term inhalation toxicity studies in rats such as 28-day or 90-day studies. The expansion of the concept to subchronic studies is practical, due, in part, to the consistency of the nanoparticle generation method.

  13. Short-term outcomes of community-based adolescent weight management: The Loozit® Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Michael R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Loozit® Study is a randomised controlled trial investigating extended support in a 24 month community-based weight management program for overweight to moderately obese, but otherwise healthy, 13 to 16 year olds. Methods This pre-post study examines the two month outcomes of the initial Loozit® group intervention received by both study arms. Adolescents (n = 151; 48% male and their parents separately attended seven weekly group sessions focused on lifestyle modification. At baseline and two months, adolescents' anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasted blood sample were assessed. Primary outcomes were two month changes in body mass index (BMI z-score and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR. Secondary outcomes included changes in metabolic profile, self-reported dietary intake/patterns, physical and sedentary activities, psychological characteristics and social status. Changes in outcome measures were assessed using paired samples t-tests for continuous variables or McNemar's test for dichotomous categorical variables. Results Of the 151 adolescents who enrolled, 130 (86% completed the two month program. Among these 130 adolescents (47% male, there was a statistically significant (P 2 [0.41, 0.13], BMI z-score (0.05 [0.06, 0.03], WHtR (0.02 [0.03, 0.01], total cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L [0.24, 0.05] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L [0.21, 0.04]. There were improvements in all psychological measures, the majority of the dietary intake measures, and some physical activities (P Conclusions The Loozit® program may be a promising option for stabilizing overweight and improving various metabolic factors, psychological functioning and lifestyle behaviors in overweight adolescents in a community setting. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRNO12606000175572

  14. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, G; Melillo, P; Stranges, S; De Pietro, G; Pecchia, L

    2015-01-01

    Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (± 4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing.

  15. IDENDIFY THE SHORT TERM ROAD IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS REQUIRED IN SALEM CITY, TAMILNADU - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Subramani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salem is the fifth largest city with a population of 7.54 lakhs (2011 in Tamil Nadu. Fast growth in population and vehicles in these centre have caused congestion in roads for movement of passengers and goods affecting economic development. Local Authorities faced with great difficulties to identify required various road improvement projects. Local authorities have inadequate funds to improve these road networks from all angles at any point of time. Repair or improvement works may have to be under taken on a basis which has to be decided based on socio-economic, administrative, technical, political factors etc., Serious considerations are required to be given to the transportation problem of urban centres, since they are growing very fast in population, area and putting great pressure on the limited transport infrastructure facilities An efficienttransportation network is the need of the present urban scenario to tackle the discussed problems. The identified road network selected for the study comprises 162 road links in Salem Corporation. Existing traffic condition, surface condition of carriageway, street lighting, footpath condition and drainage condition in the Salem Corporation area has been studied in detail. Traffic volume count survey was conducted on the idendified 162 road links in Salem Corporation to identify the type of transport facilities required for the road links. In Salem Corporation area 44 road links required removal of onstreet parking and encroachment, 52 road links required widening of carriageway , 23 road links required traffic management measures with extrawidening to carry the existing traffic flow efficiently.

  16. Short-term pilot study of the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Brandon S; Bellanger, Drake E; Geiselman, Paula J; Primeaux, Stefany D; Yu, Ying; Greenway, Frank L

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on food preference has not been examined in humans, but VSG decreases preference for fat and calorically dense foods in rodents. A validated Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) assessed food preference changes before and 6 weeks after VSG in humans. The FPQ was completed before and 43 ± 19 days (Mean ± SD) after VSG. Fifteen subjects (14 females) completed the study. Hedonic ratings decreased for foods high in fat and sugar (p = 0.002) and high in fat and complex carbohydrate (p = 0.007). Fat preference (p = 0.048) decreased, VSG reduced preference for calorically dense foods high in fat, sugar, and complex carbohydrate, and these changes may contribute to the weight loss with VSG.

  17. Bilateral Osteonecrosis of the Femoral and Humeral Heads after Short Term Corticosteroid Therapy. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Tarek Ahmed; El-Bakoury, Ahmed; Hawkins, Amanda; Ed AlTayeb Mussa, Moham; Er Ahmed Sweed, Tam; Eh Samir Ansara, Sam

    2016-03-23

    Steroid induced osteonecrosis is a devastating injury that usually requires rebuild of the joint, with the femoral and the humeral head being most commonly affected. Steroid therapy is the most common reported cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis. The Collaborative Osteonecrosis Group Study confirmed that steroids are the primary cause of multi-focal osteonecrosis in 91% of the cases. Osteonecrosis is considered multifocal when three or more joints are involved. We report a rare case of bilateral steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the proximal femora and humeri nine months after a short course of intravenous methylprednisolone for treatment of multiple myeloma. The relationship between development of osteonecrosis and corticosteroid treatment has been extensively investigated. Steroid therapy is the most common reported cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis. Multi-focal osteonecrosis should be highly suspected and thoroughly investigated in patients with persistent pain at typical sites after commencement of steroids.

  18. Short-term evolution of spinal cord damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion tensor MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theaudin, M.; Denier, C.; Adams, D. [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neurologie Adultes, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); INSERM, UMR788, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Saliou, G. [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neuroradiologie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Ducot, B. [INSERM, U1018, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Deiva, K. [Service de Neuropediatrie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Ducreux, D. [INSERM, UMR788, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service de Neuroradiologie, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2012-10-15

    The potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect spinal cord abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to apply DTI techniques to multiple sclerosis patients with a recently diagnosed spinal cord lesion, in order to demonstrate a correlation between variations of DTI parameters and clinical outcome, and to try to identify DTI parameters predictive of outcome. A prospective single-centre study of patients with spinal cord relapse treated by intravenous steroid therapy was made. Patients were assessed clinically and by conventional MRI with DTI sequences at baseline and at 3 months. Sixteen patients were recruited. At 3 months, 12 patients were clinically improved. All but one patient had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values than normal subjects in either inflammatory lesions or normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients who improved at 3 months presented a significant reduction in the radial diffusivity (p = 0.05) in lesions during the follow-up period. They also had a significant reduction in the mean ADC (p = 0.002), axial diffusivity (p = 0.02), radial diffusivity (p = 0.02) and a significant increase in FA values (p = 0.02) in normal-appearing spinal cord. Patients in whom the American Spinal Injury Association sensory score improved at 3 months showed a significantly higher FA (p = 0.009) and lower radial diffusivity (p = 0.04) in inflammatory lesion at baseline compared to patients with no improvement. DTI MRI detects more extensive abnormalities than conventional T2 MRI. A less marked decrease in FA value and more marked decreased in radial diffusivity inside the inflammatory lesion were associated with better outcome. (orig.)

  19. The relationship between social stressors and psychopathology: a short-term longitudinal study of moderating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eileen Saczawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : Problematic peer relationships in adolescence have long been linked with various psychological disorders, but there remain questions as to why adolescents with similar social experiences may suffer no psychological effects or why some respond with depression or anxiety while others become aggressive. Parenting style and level of chaos in the home environment have also been shown to have protective or detrimental effects in conjunction with social stressors. Adolescence is typified by substantial hormonal changes and maturation of both the pubertal and the stress systems. Ian Goodyer has suggested that atypical ratios of stress and pubertal hormones may be indicative of vulnerability for psychopathology. High cortisol and low DHEAS have been linked to depression, whereas the opposite has been found in those with aggression. This study is the first to examine the cortisol/DHEAS ratio as a moderator of peer stress in the development of psychopathology in adolescents. This investigation uses a biopsychosocial model to test the moderating role of parenting style, environmental chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios on the association between social stress and aggression or depression over a 1-year period. Methods : Participants were 156 young adolescents (50% f; M age = 11 years, SD = 0.7, ethnically diverse, and predominantly middle to lower SES. Depressive symptoms, aggression, social stress, and environmental chaos were assessed via survey and interview reports from mothers and children. Parenting characteristics were assessed via mother survey. Saliva and urine samples were collected on multiple mornings to measure cortisol and DHEAS, respectively. Results : Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate significant main effects of parenting style, chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios in predicting depressive symptoms and aggression and significant moderating effects on the relationship between social stressors and psychopathology

  20. [A short term study on the efficacies of intratympanic prednisolone and dexamethasone injection for subjective tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wandong; Dai, Yanhong; Du, Xiaoping; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Ping; Cui, Xinyan

    2008-10-01

    To study the efficacies of intratympanic prednisolone and dexamethasone injection for the subjective tinnitus. A prospective study was designed to compare the efficacies of intratympanic prednisolone injection, intratympanic dexamethasone injection and carbamazepine by oral administration for subjective tinnitus. Seventy-three cases (78 ears) with subjective tinnitus for more than one month and treated by conservative therapy (such as vasodilator agent, Vitamin B, etc. by oral intake. ) were involved. The patients were randomized into 3 groups. Thirty-four cases (35 ears) were included in prednisolone group, 18 cases (18 ears) in dexamethasone group with intratympanic injection of prednisolone or dexamethasone, and 21 cases (25 ears) in carbamazepine group as a control group with oral administration of carbamazepine. All of the cases in intratympanic perfusion group were injected twice in the first week, then once a week consecutively. The patients were acupunctured 4-5 times in the whole course of treatment. All of the cases accepted Betahistine Mesylate, Mecobalamin and Vitamin B1 by oral intake at the same time. Pure tone audiogram and tinnitus matching were tested before the treatment immediately after the course of treatment, and were tested again after half a year's following up. All of the cases accepted the whole treatment and were followed up for half a year successfully. The effective rate of the prednisolone group, dexamethasone group and the carbamazepine group was 48.6%, 33.3%, 44.0%, respectively; the control rate half a year after the treatment was 45.7%, 27.8%, 36.0%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the effective rate and control rate between intratympanic perfusion group and carbamazepine group. There is a statistically significant difference both in the effective rate and the control rate between the prednisolone group and the dexamethasone group. Prednisolone may be better than dexamethasone in intratympanic

  1. Sex effects on short-term complications after hip fracture: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekström W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilhelmina Ekström,1 Bodil Samuelsson,2 Sari Ponzer,3 Tommy Cederholm,4,5 Karl-Göran Thorngren,6 Margareta Hedström7 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, 3Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Orthopaedics, Karolinska Institutet, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, 4Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, 5Department of Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, 6Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Orthopaedics, Lund University, Lund, 7Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden Objectives: To evaluate potential sex differences and other factors associated with complications within 4 months after a hip fracture.Methods: A total of 1,915 patients ≥65 years (480 men with hip fracture were consecutively included in a prospective multicenter cohort study. A review of medical records and patient interviews according to a study protocol based on the Standardized Audit of Hip Fractures in Europe (SAHFE, RIKSHÖFT was performed. Sex differences in comorbidity according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists score and complications 4 months after a hip fracture were registered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to complications.Results: Male sex was associated with worse general health according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (P=0.005 and with more comorbidities (P<0.001. Male sex emerged as a risk factor for developing pneumonia (P<0.001, and additionally, 18% of the men suffered from cardiac complications compared with 13% of the females (P=0.018. Female sex was predisposed for urinary tract infections, 30% vs 23

  2. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Chinnappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare mutans streptococci levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free children in the age group of 12-14 years were selected and equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS counts after 1 hour in all the groups. However after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream and curd showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream and curd. The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and 7 days was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

  3. Short-term shoreline evolution trend assessment: A case study in Glefe, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Y. Amoani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing economic, social and ecological importance of coastal areas in Ghana has increased the challenges associated with sustainably managing the coastal resources. The coastal areas have become more prone and vulnerable to natural and human-made hazards such as coastal erosion. Shoreline retreat is recognised as a burgeoning threat because of global climate change and other anthropogenic activities that alter the natural processes sustaining beaches and coasts. This article describes an application of Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS technology and digitising of shorelines from orthophotos to detect and analyse the spatial changes as well as quantify the result of shoreline change at Glefe, a suburb of Accra in Ghana. Shoreline positions from a 2005 orthophoto and a 2011 RTK-GPS survey were overlaid in MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory and the average rate of change determined using the endpoint rate (EPR method. The shoreline change rate determined for Glefe between 2005 and 2011 was 1.2 m/a ± 1.3 m/a, indicating a relatively high rate of erosion. Outcomes of the case study can be used as a basis for a sustainable integrated management plan for the coastal area.

  4. Does marital conflict predict infants' physiological regulation? A short-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christin L; Dyer, W Justin

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has linked marital conflict to children's internalizing/externalizing disorders, insecure attachment, and poor emotional regulation (e.g., Cummings & Davies, 2010; Cummings, Iannotti, & Zahn-Waxler, 1985). Although investigators have examined the impact of marital discord on older children (e.g., Crockenberg & Langrock, 2001), few have explored direct links in infancy (e.g., Cowan & Cowan, 1999). This study extends earlier work by examining linkages between marital functioning (conflict and harmony) and infants' cardiac vagal tone and developmental status across 2 time points using a cross-lag approach. Differential findings were found for boys and girls, with concurrent linkages between marital love and vagal tone at 6 months for boys and girls but only for boys at 12 months. In addition, marital conflict at 6 months predicted lower cardiac vagal tone in girls at 12 months but not boys. Finally, infants' developmental status at 6 months was found to predict marital conflict at 12 months. Higher scores on the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) predicted greater marital conflict whereas higher scores on the Mental Development Index (MDI) predicted lower conflict. These findings are discussed in the context of the emotional security hypothesis and the spillover framework as well as differential susceptibilities to early developmental contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Photodynamic therapy in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: short term randomized clinical trial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Loskutova, E.; Libotte, F.; Kornblit, R.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to exposition to plaque and tartar. Conventional treatments consist of scaling and root planing (SRP) and antibiotics administration. Among them encouraging results have been obtained using alternative protocols, like the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Aim of the Study: Evaluation of PDT effects added to conventional methods. Materials and Methods: 11 patients (4M/7F, 37-67 years aged, non-smoking) affected by untreated chronic periodontal disease, with >3mm pockets in at least 4 teeth were divided in two groups, test and control group. Each patient had to made full-intraoral before and after the treatment. The test group received SRP+PDT, while the control group was subjected to SRP. The PDT was performed through the HELBO®TheraLite (Bredent Medical), diode laser battery powered 670nm with an output of 75mW/cm2. The Helbo Blue photosensitizer, containing methylene blue, was used. The exposure time to the laser effect was of 10'' for each site, for a total of 60'' at 3J/cm2. Results: Both groups had a significant improvement in the reduction of pocket depth (PD), above all in the test group. Statistical analysis was performed through the T-test, evaluating PD between the two groups p=0.96 (p> 0.05), resulting not statistically significant. Conclusion: PDT is a promising support to SRP, achieving a significant reduction in the pocket depth, but more cases are needed to confirm the validity of the used protocol.

  6. [Meta-analysis of the Italian studies on short-term effects of air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, A; Bellini, P; Terracini, B

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to review reports on the early effects of air pollution on health, measured through daily series of deaths and/or hospital admissions. A number of large planned meta-analyses (in which methods for data retrieval and processing are commonly planned a priori for all participating centers) are on going both in the US and in Europe. The National Mortality, Morbidity and Air Pollution Study included data from 90 US cities, whereas APHEA (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach) considers data from about 30 european cities. The present paper summarizes methods and findings of MISA, a meta-analysis of data from 8 Italian cities. It belongs to an ad hoc supplement of Epidemiologia & Prevenzione (Epidemiol Prev 2001; 25 (2) Suppl: 1-72), the official Journal of the Italian Association of Epidemiology, which contains a full description of the study. MISA was launched on March 2000, within the project "Statistics, Environment and Health" (GRASPA), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education. Additional support was given by the Authorities of the 8 participating cities (from North to South: Turin, Milan, Verona, Ravenna, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Palermo). DAILY HEALTH DATA: Deaths certificate and hospital admission data have been collected respectively from the Local Health Authority and regional files. The same programme for retrieval of data on selected hospital admissions for acute conditions was used in the 8 cities. Main data are summarized in Table 1. DAILY CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANTS: Most data were obtained from Regional Environmental Protection Agencies, which are responsible for environmental monitoring since 1993. Verona, Palermo and Milan (1990-94) data were obtained from local sources. Monitors with more than 25% of missing data were excluded. Meteorological data were collected by the same monitors and completed with data from monitors situated in the suburbs or (in Milan and Bologna) in the airport. The

  7. Repeated Short-term Spectral Softening in the Low/Hard State of the Galactic Black-Hole Candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tamagawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. The X-ray energy spectra during the softening periods can be reproduced with a model consisting of a multi-color disk blackbody and its Comptonized component. The fraction of the Comptonized component decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 when the spectrum became softer; meanwhile the inner disk temperature (Tin) increased from 0.2 to 0.45 keV. These results imply that the softening events are triggered by a short-term increase of the mass accretion rate. During the observed spectral softening events, the disk flux (F) and Tin did not obey the relation: F is proportional to Tin^4, suggesting that the inner disk radius does not reach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  8. Applications of fractal and non-linear time series analysis to the study of short-term cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Julián J; Pereda, Ernesto

    2004-04-01

    The short-term cardiovascular control system is reviewed from the analysis of the heart rate, respiration and blood pressure beat-to-beat variability signals. The present state of the art concerning fractal and non-linear techniques as applied to the cardiovascular system and the differences between both approaches are highlighted. We present results obtained in mammals from statistics, such as the fractal exponent, the correlation dimension or the maximal Lyapunov exponent and discuss the convenience of these indexes for characterizing the irregularity present in the signals. Finally, the interdependence between the systems involved in the cardiovascular control is addressed. Recent results obtained from interdependence indexes between the cardio, respiratory and vascular signals are discussed and their convenience in physiological studies and clinical applications are stressed.

  9. The Comparison Study of Short-Term Prediction Methods to Enhance the Model Predictive Controller Applied to Microgrid Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hernández-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting, optimal power system operation and energy management play key roles that can bring significant operational advantages to microgrids. This paper studies how methods based on time series and neural networks can be used to predict energy demand and production, allowing them to be combined with model predictive control. Comparisons of different prediction methods and different optimum energy distribution scenarios are provided, permitting us to determine when short-term energy prediction models should be used. The proposed prediction models in addition to the model predictive control strategy appear as a promising solution to energy management in microgrids. The controller has the task of performing the management of electricity purchase and sale to the power grid, maximizing the use of renewable energy sources and managing the use of the energy storage system. Simulations were performed with different weather conditions of solar irradiation. The obtained results are encouraging for future practical implementation.

  10. Regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and asymmetry in older adults: a study of short-term test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J; Hashemi, Ali; Sheng, Bruce; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Although regional alpha power and asymmetry measures have been widely used as indices of individual differences in emotional processing and affective style in younger populations, there have been relatively few studies that have examined these measures in older adults. Here, we examined the short-term test-retest reliability of resting regional alpha power (7.5-12.5 Hz) and asymmetry in a sample of 38 active, community-dwelling older adults (M age = 71.2, SD = 6.5 years). Resting electroencephalogram recordings were made before and after a perceptual computer task. Pearson and intra-class correlations indicated acceptable test-retest reliability for alpha power and asymmetry measures in all regions. Interestingly, alpha asymmetry appeared to be less affected by the task than was alpha power. Findings suggest that alpha asymmetry may reflect more enduring, "trait-like" characteristics, while alpha power may reflect more "state-like" processes in older adults.

  11. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  12. Clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission systolic blood pressure after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bi; Yang, Yanmin; Zhu, Jun; Liang,Yan; Tan, Huiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prognostic value of lower admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction has been confirmed, but the impact of elevated admission SBP on short-term outcomes has been evaluated only by a limited number of studies and they have reported conflicting results. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission SBP after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Design A population...

  13. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of one-stage full-mouth disinfection: a short-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Cortelli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients seem to adhere better to short-term periodontal treatment schemes. Besides, time-reduced treatments are more cost-effective. However, the degree of benefits related to this type of treatment still requires additional investigations. AIM: The present short-term study evaluated clinical and microbiological outcomes, from baseline to 3-months, of chronic periodontitis subjects treated by the one-stage full-mouth disinfection protocol. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixteen chronic periodontitis subjects (mean-age 49.87 ± 8.22 who met inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. A calibrated examiner measured whole-mouth plaque and gingival indices, periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level at baseline and at 3-months. Subgingival samples were also collected from the 5 most diseased periodontal sites to determine total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis and S. oralis by real time qPCR. Periodontal treatment consisted of full-mouth manual debridement plus wide intraoral use of chlorhexidine in gel and solution. Additionally, after debridement, individuals rinsed 0.12% chlorhexidine at home twice a day for the following 2 months. Data monitored were compared by paired Student-t test (p<0.05. RESULT: Statistical analysis revealed that, in general, one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment provided significant clinical and microbiological improvements at 3-months. Total bacterial load showed one of the most pronounced reductions from baseline to 3-months (p=0.0001. Also, subgingival levels P. gingivalis and S. oralis reduced overtime. CONCLUSION: After a short period of monitoring, chronic periodontitis subjects showed clinical and microbial improvements following one-stage full-mouth disinfection treatment.

  14. Short-Term Outcome of Neuropsychiatric Events in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus upon Enrollment into an International Inception Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Su, L.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Bae, S.C.; Gordon, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Isenberg, D.; Alarcón, G.S.; Merrill, J. T.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Dooley, M.A.; Fortin, P.R.; Gladman, D.; Steinsson, K.; Petri, M.; Bruce, I. N.; Manzi, S.; Khamashta, M.; Zoma, A.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Aranow, C.; Ginzler, E.; Nived, O.; Sturfelt, G.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Kalunian, K.; Douglas, J.; Qi, K. Qiufen; Farewell, V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the short-term outcome of neuropsychiatric (NP) events upon enrollment into an international, inception cohort of SLE patients. Methods The study was performed by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. Patients were enrolled within 15 months of diagnosis of SLE and NP events were characterized using the ACR case definitions. Decision rules were derived to identify NP events attributable to SLE. Physician outcome scores of NP events and patient derived mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores of the SF-36 were recorded. Results There were 890 patients (88.7% female) with a mean (± SD) age of 33.8 ± 13.4 years and mean disease duration of 5.3 ± 4.2 months. Within the enrollment window 271/890 (33. 5%) patients had at least 1 NP event encompassing 15 NP syndromes. NP events attributed to SLE varied from 16.5% – 33.9% using alternate attribution models and occurred in 6.0% – 11.5% of patients. Outcome scores for NP events attributed to SLE were significantly better than for NP events due to non-SLE causes. Higher global disease activity was associated with worse outcomes. MCS scores were lower in patients with NP events, regardless of attribution, and were also lower in patients with diffuse and central NP events. There was a significant association between physician outcome scores and patient MCS scores only for NP events attributed to SLE. Conclusion In SLE patients the short-term outcome of NP events is determined by both the characteristics and attribution of the events. PMID:18438902

  15. Study on Enterprise Short-term Financing Product Portfolios and Strategies%企业短期筹资产品组合及战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟俊达

    2012-01-01

    分析了我国短期负债融资的现状与市场规模,在对短期筹资战略理论和文献进行综合回顾的基础上,深入分析了短期筹资产品组合的重要性,并进一步探讨了短期筹资战略,以期为企业的短期筹资提供借鉴.%The paper analyzes the current status and size of the short-term debt financing market of China and comprehensively reviews the literatures and theories on the short-term financing strategies. At the end it studies the importance of the short-term financing product portfolios and further discusses the possible strategies for short-term fundraising.

  16. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl S; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed S

    2016-11-16

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0 ± 1.2 years, body mass 81.1 ± 3.4 kg, height 1.82± 0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as a repeated sprint ability test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 min of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; n=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. Demonstrated a significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (2=0.811) and CMJ (2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  17. Short-term efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Jiang, Qin; Reddy, Sujana; Musgnung, Jeff J; Guico-Pabia, Christine J

    2010-08-01

    The risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) increases during the menopausal transition. Nonetheless, no large, placebo-controlled studies have prospectively assessed the efficacy of antidepressants in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with DSM-IV-defined MDD. 387 depressed perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 70 years were randomly assigned to placebo or desvenlafaxine (100 or 200 mg/d at the discretion of the investigator) in an 8-week, flexible-dose trial conducted from September 2006 to June 2008. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS(17)) total score, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated-measures analysis. Safety data were collected throughout the trial. The reduction in adjusted HDRS17 total scores from baseline to week 8 (mean daily dose after titration, 162 to 176 mg/d) was significantly greater for desvenlafaxine (-12.64) compared with placebo (-8.33; P desvenlafaxine treatment (perimenopausal, P = .003; postmenopausal, P desvenlafaxine compared with placebo (31.6% [P desvenlafaxine-treated patients and 4/125 (3.2%) placebo-treated patients discontinued due to adverse events. Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 94/125 (75.2%) placebo-treated patients and 218/256 (85.2%) desvenlafaxine-treated patients. Short-term treatment with desvenlafaxine was effective and generally well tolerated in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with MDD. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00369343. Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Can biological components predict short-term evolution in Autism Spectrum Disorders? A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberti Gialloreti, Leonardo; Benvenuto, Arianna; Battan, Barbara; Benassi, Francesca; Curatolo, Paolo

    2016-07-22

    The clinical and pathogenetic heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) limits our ability to predict its short- and long-term evolution. Aim of this naturalistic study was to observe the clinical evolution of very young children with ASD for 12 months after first diagnosis, in order to identify those children who might develop a more positive trajectory and understand how a wide range of biological, clinical and familial factors can influence prognosis. Ninety-two children were characterized in terms of family history, prenatal and perinatal variables, and clinical conditions. The sample was divided into four subgroups based on the association of 22 biological, clinical and family history variables. Developmental Quotient (DQ), determined using the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R), and symptoms severity, measured by means of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after one year (T1), while receiving treatment as usual. Changes in DQ and ADOS between baseline and follow-up and differences in the short-term evolution of the four subgroups were analyzed. At T1, 55.4 % of the children demonstrated some gains either of autistic symptomatology or of developmental skills. Mean ADOS score was 13.63 ± 3.67 at T0 and 10.85 ± 4.10 at T1 and mean DQ was 0.64 ± 0.14 at T0 and 0.66 ± 0.15 at T1. At follow-up, 33.7 % of the children showed an improvement in DQ and 37 % presented a less severe symptomatology, measured by means of ADOS. Overall, 15.2 % of the sample displayed major improvements both on developmental quotient and ADOS severity score; these children presented less EEG abnormalities and familial psychiatric disorders. The four subgroups, based on biological, clinical and familial variables, showed differing trends in terms of evolution. Categorizing very young children with ASD in terms of biological, clinical and familial variables can be instrumental in predicting short-term

  19. Evaluation of NASA Foodbars as a Standard Diet for Use in Short-Term Rodent Space Flight Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, Richard; Barrett, Joyce; Dalton, Bonnie; Mandel, Adrian; Wade, Charles

    2003-01-01

    A standard rodent diet for space flight must meet the unique conditions imposed by the space environment and must be nutritionally adequate since diet can influence the outcome of experiments. This paper evaluates the use of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Foodbars as a standard space flight diet for rats. The Foodbar's semi-purified formulation permits criteria such as nutrient consistency, high nutrient bioavailability and flexibility of formulation to be met. Extrusion of the semi-purified diet produces Foodbars with the proper texture and a non-crumbing solid form for use in space. Treatment of Foodbar with 0.1% potassium sorbate prevents mold growth. Irradiation (15-25 kGy) prevents bacterial growth and in combination with sorbate-treatment provides added protection against mold for shelf-stability. However, during the development process, nutrient analyses indicated that extrusion and irradiation produced nutrient losses. Nutrients were adjusted accordingly to compensate for processing losses. Nutrient analysis of Foodbars continues to be performed routinely to monitor nutrient levels. It is important that the standard rodent diet provide nutrients that will prevent deficiency but also avoid excess that may mask physiological changes produced by space flight. All vitamins levels in the Foodbars, except for vitamin K conformed to or exceeded the current NRC (1995) recommendations. All indispensable amino acids in Foodbar conformed to or exceeded the NRC nutrient recommendation for mice growth and rat maintenance. However, some indispensable amino acids were slightly below recommendations for rat reproduction/growth. Short-term (18-20 d) animal feeding studies indicated that Foodbars were palatable, supported growth and maintained health in rats. Results indicated that NASA rodent Foodbars meet both the physical and nutritional criteria required to support rodents in the space environment and thus, may be used successfully as a

  20. The short-term effects of PMMA and RGP contact lens wear on keratometric behaviour: a pilot study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chetty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the preliminary findings of a larger study that included 24 subjects that were equally divided into three groups, namely, the PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate group, the RGP(rigid gas permeable group and the control group. The aim of this study was to establish the short term effects (if any of PMMA and RGP contact lens wear on keratometric behaviour. A controlsubject was also included in the study to establish a reference fornormal diurnal changes in keratometric behaviour. Fifty successive auto-keratometric measurements were taken before and immediately after three hours of rigid contact lens wear for the first subject in the PMMA group and the first subject in the RGP group (experimental samples. Fifty successive auto-keratometric measurements were also taken on the first subject of the control group before and immediately after three hours of no lens wear (control sample. Data collected were analysed using multivariate statistical methods that in the past have been used infrequently in this area of study. This investigation revealed that, at least in these two randomly selected subjects, rigid contact lens wear appears to  influence keratometric behaviour (PMMA contact lenses more so than RGP contact lenses. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(4 173-181

  1. Long-Term Learning in a Short-Term Study Abroad Program: "Are We Really Truly Helping the Community?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Penelope; Purtzer, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    To discover long-term learning outcomes in a short-term study abroad program. Students worked directly with community members to identify health issues, implement educational workshops addressing those issues, and evaluate health outcomes. This is a qualitative, descriptive study. Thematic analysis was conducted using a written questionnaire completed one or more years postimmersion. The sample was 41 nursing students who participated in a 10-day immersion experience in remote Honduras. Four themes emerged revealing evidence of long-term learning. Three of these themes, Embracing Other, Gaining Cultural Competencies, and Experiencing an Ethnocentric Shift, are supported in the literature. The fourth theme, Negotiating Ethical Dilemmas, offers a new finding. Although educators have questioned ethical consequences of study abroad programs, there is a paucity of literature indicating that students are the ones doing the questioning. Implications for educators and community members alike include facilitating dialog about collective worldviews related to global health ethics when designing study abroad programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF SHORT TERM MORBIDITY PATTERN IN PRETERM NEWBORNS DELIVERED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Harsha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the short term morbidity pattern in preterm new born babies delivered in a tertiary care hospital with level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III NICU betwee n November 2009 to July 2010 at Grant medical college and JJ Group of hospitals, Mumbai. All the in born preterm babies were assessed for morbidity pattern from the time of admission till discharge or death. RESULT: 156 preterm babies were included in the study. 83(54.21% were male and 73(46.79% were female. The major morbidities observed in the preterm neonates were hyperbilirubinemia in 50.54%, Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in25.64% and severe birth asphyxia in13.46%. Other common morbidities seen were retinopathy of prematurity in 12.17%, apnoea in 11.54% and anaemia in 10.9%. Preterm neonates also had in 9.62% culture proven sepsis, in 8.33% hypoglycaemia, in 7.05% Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and in 6.41% various congenital anomalies. CONCL USION: Hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndrome and severe birth asphyxia are major preterm morbidity

  4. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Akyol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25 were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON, oat β-glucan (B-GLU, dark chocolate (DARK or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  5. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H. Tanju

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. PMID:25251294

  6. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified.

  7. The impact of short term clinical placement in a developing country on nursing students: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvund, Ingeborg; Mordal, Elin

    2017-08-01

    Offering nursing students' international clinical placement during the educational program is one response to meet the need of cultural competence among nurses. This paper provides insight into the impact of clinical placement, in a developing country, on third year nursing students. In the study we investigated how short term international clinical placement impacted Norwegian nursing students' development of cultural competency. In this study we utilised a qualitative descriptive design and used individual interviews with eighteen Norwegian nursing students who had all participated in an international clinical placement. The data were analysed using the principles of systematic text condensation. In spite the international clinical placement only was four weeks, the findings suggested that real life experience culturally awakened the students and forced an ongoing process developing cultural competence. However, it is important to give students time to reflection. Although increased cultural awareness and a growing cultural competence was identified by the students undertaking international clinical placement, further research is required. It is important to investigate the best methods to support the students' reflection such that the experiences lead to learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of baroreceptor stimulation on performance of the Sternberg short-term memory task: a cardiac cycle time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelhas Martins, Amadeu; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Activation of arterial baroreceptors can affect cortical activity. Cardiac cycle time studies have established that natural variations in baroreceptor activation are associated with changes in basic sensorimotor function whereas few have investigated more complex cognitive function. Aiming to improve our understanding of this phenomenon, this study examined performance on the Sternberg memory task as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle. In each trial, participants were shown either two or six digits followed by a probe digit that either had or had not been presented previously and were required to press one of two response buttons to indicate a match and mismatch, respectively. Response latency per additional digit was greater for stimuli presented late compared to early in the cardiac cycle whereas the zero intercept was greatest at the start of the cardiac cycle and reduced as the cycle progressed. These findings provide evidence that natural baroreceptor stimulation can affect complex cognitive processes, such as serial-comparison in short-term memory, as well as basic sensorimotor processes.

  9. Study on optimization of the short-term operation of cascade hydropower stations by considering output error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Wang, Boquan; Zhang, Pu; Liu, Minghao; Li, Chuangang

    2017-06-01

    The study of reservoir deterministic optimal operation can improve the utilization rate of water resource and help the hydropower stations develop more reasonable power generation schedules. However, imprecise forecasting inflow may lead to output error and hinder implementation of power generation schedules. In this paper, output error generated by the uncertainty of the forecasting inflow was regarded as a variable to develop a short-term reservoir optimal operation model for reducing operation risk. To accomplish this, the concept of Value at Risk (VaR) was first applied to present the maximum possible loss of power generation schedules, and then an extreme value theory-genetic algorithm (EVT-GA) was proposed to solve the model. The cascade reservoirs of Yalong River Basin in China were selected as a case study to verify the model, according to the results, different assurance rates of schedules can be derived by the model which can present more flexible options for decision makers, and the highest assurance rate can reach 99%, which is much higher than that without considering output error, 48%. In addition, the model can greatly improve the power generation compared with the original reservoir operation scheme under the same confidence level and risk attitude. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper can significantly improve the effectiveness of power generation schedules and provide a more scientific reference for decision makers.

  10. A Comparison of the Development and Delivery of Two Short-Term Study-Abroad Thermal Sciences Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Short-term study-abroad engineering courses provide an opportunity to increase the international awareness and global competency of engineering students. Two different approaches have been taken in the past years in the development and delivery of two three-week long thermal sciences courses. A senior-level elective Topics in Fluid Mechanics course was taught twice in Marseille (France) in January 2010 and 2013. A sophomore-level Introduction to Thermal Sciences course was offered in London (United Kingdom) in July 2014. Both courses were developed due to a strong student desire for engineering study-abroad courses and an effort by the home institution to internationalize its curriculum. The common goals of the two courses are an effective teaching of their respective technical content combined with a meaningful international experience. The two courses differed in their respective settings: Topics in Fluid Mechanics was taught at Aix-Marseille University and included strong interactions with local faculty and students. Introduction to Thermal Sciences, however, was taught in a cluster of seven courses offered by the home institution in London. The courses were assessed using surveys, student reflection papers, course evaluations, and instructor observations.

  11. Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Patients with “Male Depression” Syndrome, Hopelessness, and Suicide Risk: A Pilot Study

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    Gloria Angeletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Methods. This was an observational study of the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP in a sample of 35 (30 women and 5 men patients with moderate-to-severe “male depression” (Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD ≥ 13 comorbid with unipolar mood disorder (dysthymia and major depression or anxiety disorder. Outcome measures were GSMD and BHS (Beck Hopelessness Scale score changes from baseline. Results. Patients had a strong response to STPP on the GSMD (estimated mean score change (± SE=−9.08 ± 2.74;P<0.01; partial eta squared  =0.50, but not on the BHS (estimated mean score change (± SE=−0.92 ± 1.55;P=0.57; partial eta squared  =0.03. BHS score changes were significantly associated with GSMD score changes (Pearson's r=0.56; P<0.001, even when controlling for the severity of hopelessness at the baseline (partial r=0.62; P<0.001. Conclusions. STPP proved to be effective in patients suffering from “male depression” although hopelessness was only marginally reduced by this treatment which points to the need to better understand how STPP can be involved in the reduction of suicide risk.

  12. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  13. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The combined effects of hospital and surgeon volume on short-term survival after hepatic resection in a population-based study.

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    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of different hospital and surgeon volumes on short-term survival after hepatic resection is not clearly clarified. By taking the known prognostic factors into account, the purpose of this study is to assess the combined effects of hospital and surgeon volume on short-term survival after hepatic resection. METHODS: 13,159 patients who underwent hepatic resection between 2002 and 2006 were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Data were extracted from it and short-term survivals were confirmed through 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between survival and different hospital, surgeon volume and caseload combinations. RESULTS: High-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals had the highest short-term survivals, following by high-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, low-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals and low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals. Based on Cox proportional hazard models, although high-volume hospitals and surgeons both showed significant lower risks of short-term mortality at hospital and surgeon level analysis, after combining hospital and surgeon volume into account, high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals had significantly better outcomes; the hazard ratio of other three caseload combinations ranging from 1.66 to 2.08 (p<0.001 in 3-month mortality, and 1.28 to 1.58 (p<0.01 in 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The combined effects of hospital and surgeon volume influenced the short-term survival after hepatic resection largely. After adjusting for the prognostic factors in the case mix, high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals had better short-term survivals. Centralization of hepatic resection to few surgeons and hospitals might improve patients' prognosis.

  15. Comparative study of extended versus short term thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective total hip and knee arthroplasty in Indian population

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    Velu Nair

    2013-01-01

    Results: In the prospective arm, only 1 patient developed symptomatic PTE compared to 26 (3.27% cases of VTE (20 cases of PTE and 6 cases of DVT in the retrospective group. Conclusion: Extended thromboprophylaxis (for 4 weeks was found to be more effective than short term thromboprophylaxis in minimizing the risk of postoperative VTE in patients who underwent THA/TKA.

  16. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The eff...

  17. Induced Versus Spontaneous Rehearsal in Short-Term Memory in Nursery School Children. Study M: Development of Selective Attention Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Phillip R.; Hagen, John W.

    Eighty nursery school children were randomly divided into four groups of 20 and given a serial short-term memory task in which difficult-to-label stimuli were used. Three experimental groups were provided with labels for the stimuli. Of these, one group overtly pronounced the labels and rehearsed them during the task, one group merely pronounced…

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of Aripiprazole in Short-term Treatment of Tic Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Naturalistic Study

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    Che-Sheng Ho

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Aripiprazole is effective for short-term treatment of TD, especially vocal tics, in children and adolescents with mild adverse effects. However, further double-blind trials against placebo or other medications are needed to verify the efficacy of aripiprazole in the pharmacotherapy of TD.

  19. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinham, Caroline L; Hitchen, Katie L; Youngman, Penelope J; Frost, Gary S; Robertson, M Denise

    2011-08-01

    While it has been proposed, based on epidemiological studies, that whole grains may be beneficial in weight regulation, possibly due to effects on satiety, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming this. The present cross-over study aimed to investigate the short-term effects on appetite and food intake of 48 g of whole-grain wheat (daily for 3 weeks) compared with refined grain (control). A total of fourteen healthy normal-weight adults consumed, within their habitual diets, either two whole-grain bread rolls (providing 48 g of whole grains over two rolls) or two control rolls daily for 3 weeks. Changes in food intake were assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Changes in subjective appetite ratings and food intake were also assessed at postprandial study visits. There were no significant differences between interventions in energy intake (assessed by the 7 d diet diaries and at the ad libitum test meal), subjective appetite ratings or anthropometric measurements. However, there was a significant difference between interventions for systolic blood pressure, which decreased during the whole-grain intervention and increased during the control intervention (-2 v. 4 mmHg; P = 0·015). The present study found no effect of whole grains on appetite or food intake in healthy individuals; however, 48 g of whole grain consumed daily for 3 weeks did have a beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure. The findings from the present study therefore do not support epidemiological evidence that whole grains are beneficial in weight regulation, although further investigation in other population groups (such as overweight and obese) would be required.

  20. Association study of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism and short-term antidepressant response in major depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Cheng Huang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugene Lin1,7, Po See Chen2,6,7, Lung-Cheng Huang3,4, Sen-Yen Hsu51Vita Genomics, Inc., Wugu Shiang, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital and College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Dou-liou Branch, Yunlin, Taiwan; 7These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be used in clinical association studies to determine the contribution of genes to drug efficacy. A common SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, a methionine (Met substitution for valine (Val at codon 66 (Val66Met, is a candidate SNP for influencing antidepressant treatment outcome. In this study, our goal was to determine the relationship between the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene and the rapid antidepressant response to venlafaxine in a Taiwanese population with MDD. Overall, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was found not to be associated with short-term venlafaxine treatment outcome. However, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism showed a trend to be associated with rapid venlafaxine treatment response in female patients. Future research with independent replication in large sample sizes is needed to confirm the role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism identified in this study.Keywords: antidepressant response, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, major depressive disorder, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, single nucleotide polymorphisms

  1. Folate bioavailability from foods rich in folates assessed in a short term human study using stable isotope dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Different sources of folate may have different bioavailability and hence may impact the standard definition of folate equivalents. In order to examine this, a short term human study was undertaken to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from spinach, Camembert cheese and wheat germs compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. The study had a single-centre, randomised, four-treatment, four-period, four-sequence, cross-over design, i.e. the four (food) items to be tested (referred to as treatments) were administered in sequences according to the Latin square, so that each experimental treatment occurred only once within each sequence and once within each study period. Each of the 24 subjects received the four experimental items separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase and received a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement for 14 days before the first testing and between the testings for saturation of body pools. Folates in test foods, plasma and urine samples were determined by stable isotope dilution assays, and in urine and plasma, the concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were evaluated. Standard non-compartmental methods were applied to determine the biokinetic parameters C(max), t(max) and AUC from baseline corrected 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations within the interval from 0 to 12 hours. The variability of AUC and C(max) was moderate for spinach and oral solution of pteroylmonoglutamic acid but high for Camembert cheese and very high for wheat germs. The median t(max) was lowest for spinach, though t(max) showed a high variability among all treatments. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and C(max) for the different test foods, highest bioavailability was found for spinach followed by that for wheat germs and Camembert cheese. The results underline the dependence of folate bioavailability on the type of food ingested. Therefore, the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of

  2. Feasibility and short-term impact of the "case study in-house group training program for family nursing" at medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Akemi; Tsumura, Akemi; Mine, Hiroko; Kimura, Chisato; Soeda, Akemi; Odatsu, Kazumi; Kiwado, Wataru

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of case study training in family nursing care targeting midlevel nursing professionals. The intervention group participated in four 90-minute case study training sessions over 6 months, while the control group participated in two 90-minute lectures. Using primary outcome variables as evaluation indexes, we measured the participants' total scores on the Family Importance in Nursing Care Scale and 4 subitems 3 times (before, immediately after and 1 month after training) from May 2014 to March 2015 and then conducted 2-way repeated-measure analysis of variance. We asked the participants and training planners/managers to provide feedback on their evaluation and then performed content analysis on their responses. Although the primary impact due to the different measurement times was significant, no significant difference was observed in the interaction between measurement time and training differences. Of the 4 subitems, significant interactions because of measurement time and training differences were observed only in Fam-B. Feedback data showed all participants felt that their understanding of the importance of family nursing care was strengthened, and participants in the intervention group specifically described how they were utilizing what they had learned from training in practice.

  3. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Nouchi Rui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total. The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on

  4. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2010-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but only few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO(2) may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO(2) were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO(2) on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 microg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO(2) corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyzes suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM(10) or O(3), the effect of SO(2) remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO(2) diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO(2) concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO(2) serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO(2) should be investigated further in this region. (c) 2010

  5. Osteonecrosis following short-term, low-dose oral corticosteroids: a population-based study of 24 million patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F

    2014-07-01

    Although the association between chronic, high-dose corticosteroid use and osteonecrosis is well known, the incidence of osteonecrosis following short-term, low-dose steroid taper packs has never been reported across a large population. The goal of this study was to report the incidence and risk of osteonecrosis after methylprednisolone taper pack (MTP) prescriptions in a multicenter electronic medical records database. A commercially available software platform was used to evaluate the records of 24,533,880 patients to determine the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had received single or multiple MTP over a 12-year period. This was compared with the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had never been prescribed an MTP. Patients with a history of osteonecrosis or prior corticosteroid use were excluded from the study. A total of 98,390 patients were identified who had received a single MTP. One hundred thirty (0.132%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.176%-0.283%) of these patients were subsequently diagnosed with osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had been prescribed 2 or more MTPs was 0.230% (95% CI, 0.176%-0.283%). Compared with the 0.083% incidence of osteonecrosis in the control group that had never been prescribed an MTP, the relative risk of osteonecrosis after the prescription of a single MTP or multiple MTPs was 1.591 and 2.763, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between cohorts (Posteonecrosis when compared with patients who have never been prescribed a steroid product.

  6. Centralising and optimising decentralised stroke care systems: a simulation study on short-term costs and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten M. H. Lahr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centralisation of thrombolysis may offer substantial benefits. The aim of this study was to assess short term costs and effects of centralisation of thrombolysis and optimised care in a decentralised system. Methods Using simulation modelling, three scenarios to improve decentralised settings in the North of Netherlands were compared from the perspective of the policy maker and compared to current decentralised care: (1 improving stroke care at nine separate hospitals, (2 centralising and improving thrombolysis treatment to four, and (3 two hospitals. Outcomes were annual mean and incremental costs per patient up to the treatment with thrombolysis, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (iCER per 1% increase in thrombolysis rate, and the proportion treated with thrombolysis. Results Compared to current decentralised care, improving stroke care at individual community hospitals led to mean annual costs per patient of $US 1,834 (95% CI, 1,823–1,843 whereas centralising to four and two hospitals led to $US 1,462 (95% CI, 1,451–1,473 and $US 1,317 (95% CI, 1,306–1,328, respectively (P < 0.001. The iCER of improving community hospitals was $US 113 (95% CI, 91–150 and $US 71 (95% CI, 59–94, $US 56 (95% CI, 44–74 when centralising to four and two hospitals, respectively. Thrombolysis rates decreased from 22.4 to 21.8% and 21.2% (P = 0.120 and P = 0.001 in case of increasing centralisation. Conclusions Centralising thrombolysis substantially lowers mean annual costs per patient compared to raising stroke care at community hospitals simultaneously. Small, but negative effects on thrombolysis rates may be expected.

  7. Short-term mortality after perforated or bleeding peptic ulcer among elderly patients: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Henrik T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality after perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer increases with age. Limited data exist on how the higher burden of comorbidity among elderly patients affects this association. We aimed to examine the association of age with short-term mortality after perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer and to determine the impact of comorbidity on this association. Methods In this population-based cohort study in three Danish counties between 1991 and 2003 we identified two cohorts of patients: those hospitalized with a first-time discharge diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer and those with bleeding peptic ulcer. The diagnoses were ascertained from hospital discharge registries and mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System. Information on comorbidity and use of ulcer-related drugs was obtained through administrative medical databases. We computed age-, gender- and comorbidity-standardized 30-day mortality rates and used Cox's regression to estimate adjusted 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRR for elderly compared with younger patients. Results Among 2,061 patients with perforated peptic ulcer, 743 (36% were 65–79 years old and 513 patients (25% were aged 80+ years. Standardized 30-day mortality was 8.9% among patients younger than 65 years rising to 44.6% among patients aged 80+ years, corresponding to an adjusted MRR of 5.3 (95% CI: 4.0–7.0. Among 7,232 patients with bleeding peptic ulcer 2,372 (33% were aged 80+ years. Standardized 30-day mortality among patients younger than 65 was 4.3% compared with 16.9% among patients aged 80+ years, corresponding to an adjusted MRR of 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9–4.7. Analyses stratified by comorbidity consistently showed high MRRs among elderly patients, regardless of comorbidity level. Conclusion Ageing is a strong predictor for a poor outcome after perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer independently of comorbidity.

  8. Results of short term radiotherapy followed by radical surgery for rectal cancer: A long-term unicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralegui, Yolanda; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Ciria, Juan Pablo; Osorio, Mikel; Lacasta, Adelaida; Elorza, Garazi; Garmendia, Maddi; Placer, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Short-term radiotherapy (STR) for rectal cancer (RC) has rarely been used in Spain. The aim of the present study is to describe oncological results after RTC and surgery for RC. This is a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients treated with STR and surgery for RC (1999-2012). Epidemiological data, staging, complications of STR, STR-surgery interval, surgical approach, rate of anastomotic/perineal wound dehiscence, and pathological data (regression degree and staging) were collected. Global survival, disease free survival, local recurrence rate and incidence of toxicity, response and complications of combined treatment are reported. Of 1229 patients treated, 209 patients received STR and surgery. The median follow-up was 6.2 years. Mean age was 68 years and 66% of the patients were men. A total of 88% were cT3-4 and 44% cN+17 (8.1%) patients had resectable synchronous metastases. Acute and chronic toxicity due to STR was 4 weeks. Seven patients (3.3%) presented complete response. Nine (4.3%) patients presented an local recurrence rate. Global survival at 5, 10 and 15 years was 67.8, 49.2 and 37.5%, respectively. Disease free survival at 5, 10 and 15 years was 66.1, 47.1 and 33%, respectively. The results compare favorably with multicentric historical series. STR offers certain advantages that could be increased by increasing the STR-surgery interval and/or interspersed with sequential chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of biochar addition on short-term N2O and CO2 emissions during repeated drying and wetting of an anthropogenic alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Lee, Xinqing; Theng, Benny K G; Wang, Bing; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Qian

    2016-06-07

    Agricultural soils are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Biochar application to such soils has the potential of mitigating global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Under irrigation, the topsoils in arid regions experience repeated drying and wetting during the crop growing season. Biochar incorporation into these soils would change the soil microbial environment and hence affect GHG emissions. Little information, however, is available regarding the effect of biochar addition on carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils undergoing repeated drying and wetting. Here, we report the results of a 49-day aerobic incubation experiment, incorporating biochar into an anthropogenic alluvial soil in an arid region of Xinjiang Province, China, and measuring CO2 and N2O emissions. Under both drying-wetting and constantly moist conditions, biochar amendment significantly increased cumulative CO2 emission. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (up to ~20 %) in cumulative N2O emission, indicating that the addition of biochar to irrigated agricultural soils may effectively slow down global warming in arid regions of China.

  10. Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: Prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luben Robert N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.

  11. The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Rodgers, Sarah E; Johnson, Rhodri; Lyons, Ronan A; Poortinga, Wouter

    2017-01-31

    Research suggests that living in fuel poverty and cold homes contributes to poor physical and mental health, and that interventions targeted at those living in poor quality housing may lead to health improvements. However, little is known about the socio-economic intermediaries and processes that contribute to better health. This study examined the relationship between energy efficiency investments to homes in low-income areas and mental and physical health of residents, as well as a number of psychosocial outcomes likely to be part of the complex relationship between energy efficiency measures and health outcomes. A quasi-experimental field study with a controlled pretest-posttest design was conducted (intervention n = 364; control n = 418) to investigate the short-term health and psychosocial impacts of a domestic energy efficiency programme that took place across Wales between 2013 and 2015. Survey data were collected in the winters before and after installation of energy efficiency measures, including external wall insulation. The study used a multilevel modelling repeated measures approach to analyse the data. The energy efficiency programme was not associated with improvements in physical and mental health (using the SF-12v2 physical and mental health composite scales) or reductions in self-reported respiratory and asthma symptoms. However, the programme was associated with improved subjective wellbeing (B = 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.65), as well as improvements in a number of psychosocial outcomes, including increased thermal satisfaction (OR = 3.83, 95% CI 2.40 to 5.90), reduced reports of putting up with feeling cold to save heating costs (OR = 0.49, CI = 0.25 to 0.94), fewer financial difficulties (B = -0.15, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.05), and reduced social isolation (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.77). The study showed that investing in energy efficiency in low-income communities does not lead to self-reported health improvements in the

  12. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional “value.” In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foo...

  13. The Romance and the Reality between Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about the Potential Benefits of a Short-Term Study Abroad Programme and Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Angela Choi Fung

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore Hong Kong pre-service teachers' beliefs about the potential benefits of a short-term study abroad programme and their practices. Pre- and post-programme semi-structured interviews and reflective journals were employed to collect data. The findings suggest that the transformation of beliefs into practices…

  14. Does Content Matter? Analyzing the Change in Global Awareness between Business- and Nonbusiness-Focused Short-Term Study Abroad Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Stephen B.; Kurt, Mark; Olitsky, Neal H.

    2015-01-01

    Business schools have long sought to increase students' global awareness. Short-term study abroad (STSA) experiences are becoming increasingly popular ways of generating awareness. While a handful of studies have found evidence of efficacy, none have specifically tested how courses with business content differ from other STSAs. Using a…

  15. I-States-as-Objects-Analysis (ISOA): Extensions of an Approach to Studying Short-Term Developmental Processes by Analyzing Typical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lars R.; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; von Eye, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA) is a person-oriented methodology for studying short-term developmental stability and change in patterns of variable values. ISOA is based on longitudinal data with the same set of variables measured at all measurement occasions. A key concept is the "i-state," defined as a person's pattern of variable…

  16. Evaluating a Short-Term, First-Year Study Abroad Program for Business and Engineering Undergraduates: Understanding the Student Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Josephine E.; Lalley, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a short-term study abroad program for business and engineering students at the end of their freshman year, and then present the results of a later survey of the participants as upperclassmen that was conducted to determine whether the program met its objectives. The primary objectives of this first-year program were to…

  17. Development of Short-term Molecular Thresholds to Predict Long-term Mouse Liver Tumor Outcomes: Phthalate Case StudyTo be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular Thresholds for Early Key Events in Liver Tumorgensis: PhthalateCase StudyTriangleShort-term changes in molecular profiles are a central component of strategies to model health effects of environmental chemicals such as phthalates, for which there is widespread human exp...

  18. The effects of short-term fasting on tolerance to (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients: a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S. de; Vreeswijk, M.P.; Welters, M.J.; Gravesteijn, G.; Boei, J.J.; Jochems, A.; Houtsma, D.; Putter, H.; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Nortier, J.W.; Pijl, H.; Kroep, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence shows that short-term fasting (STF) protects healthy cells against side effects of chemotherapy and makes cancer cells more vulnerable to it. This pilot study examines the feasibility of STF and its effects on tolerance of chemotherapy in a homogeneous patient group

  19. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis and Plasmodium falciparum anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion in a prospective cohort study of Dutch short-term travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderok, S.M.; Hoek, A.; Roeffen, W.F.; Sauerwein, R.; Sonder, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of short-term travelers assessing the incidence rate of anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion, adherence to chemoprophylaxis, symptoms of malaria during travel, and malaria treatment abroad. METHODS: Adults were recruited from the travel clinic

  20. Evaluation of the Xpa-Deficient Transgenic Mouse Model for Short-Term Carcinogenicity Testing: 9-Month Studies with Haloperidol, Reserpine, Phenacetin, and D-Mannitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Woutersen, R.A.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Benthem, J. van; Berg, J.A.H. van den; Monbaliu, J.; Thoolen, B.J.J.M.; Beems, R.B.; Kreijl, C.F. van

    2004-01-01

    As part of the international evaluation program coordinated by ILSI/HESI, the potential of DNA repair deficient Xpa-/- mice and the double knockout Xpa-/-.p53+/- mice for short term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated. For comparison also wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT) were included in these studies.

  1. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  2. Implementation of the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) in Belgium and verification of case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) is a probabilistic precipitation nowcasting scheme developed at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in collaboration with the UK Met Office. In order to account for the multiscaling nature of rainfall structures, the radar field is decomposed into an 8 levels multiplicative cascade using a Fast Fourier Transform. The cascade is advected using the velocity field estimated with optical flow and evolves stochastically according to a hierarchy of auto-regressive processes. This allows reproducing the empirical observation that the rate of temporal evolution of the small scales is faster than the large scales. The uncertainty in radar rainfall measurement and the unknown future development of the velocity field are also considered by stochastic modelling in order to reflect their typical spatial and temporal variability. Recently, a 4 years national research program has been initiated by the University of Leuven, the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium and 3 other partners: PLURISK ("forecasting and management of extreme rainfall induced risks in the urban environment"). The project deals with the nowcasting of rainfall and subsequent urban inundations, as well as socio-economic risk quantification, communication, warning and prevention. At the urban scale it is widely recognized that the uncertainty of hydrological and hydraulic models is largely driven by the input rainfall estimation and forecast uncertainty. In support to the PLURISK project the RMI aims at integrating STEPS in the current operational deterministic precipitation nowcasting system INCA-BE (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis). This contribution will illustrate examples of STEPS ensemble and probabilistic nowcasts for a few selected case studies of stratiform and convective rain in Belgium. The paper focuses on the development of STEPS products for potential hydrological users and a preliminary verification of the nowcasts

  3. Preliminary study of the short term response of soil properties to forest fire in the South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Donaire, V.; Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean environments, where they are favored by drought and high temperatures conditions that are common in summer. Wildfires affect dramatically to soil physical, chemical and biological properties, which changes the hydrological and erosive soil response. The removing of vegetation leads to erosive and degradation processes, very important immediately after the fire. The objectives of this study are: i) to compare the properties of soils affected by a recent wildfire to the properties of soils that were not; ii) to assess the effect of the vegetal cover in the short-term response of soil to wildfire. The experimental area is located in the South of Spain, 32 km western of the city of Málaga. In general, the area is characterized by a sub-humid Mediterranean climate (mean annual precipitation: 699 mm year-1; mean annual temperature: 17°C), with a substratum of alkaline metamorphic rocks. Vegetation cover consists on a mixed open wood of Quercus spp. and Pinus spp. with typical degraded Mediterranean scrub, where the dominant genus are Ulex spp. and Cistus spp. This area was partially affected by a wildfire on September 11th 2011 Three soil microenvironments were selected in burned and unburned soils: soil covered by shrubs, trees and bare soils. Unburned area was adjacent to the burned one and both of them had the same general conditions. On each microenvironment samples of the first 5 cm of soil were collected on September 19th 2011. The analyzed properties in the laboratory were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), texture, organic matter (OM), aggregate stability (AS), cationic exchange capacity and water repellency (WR). Likewise, unsaturated infiltration rate was calculated in field conditions on the sampling date. When we analyzed the samples without taking into account the vegetation cover, our results suggested that the fire affected mainly to pH (p0.05). When we performed the analyses dividing the samples

  4. A quasi-experimental study on a new service option for short-term residential care of older stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pui-hing Chau,1 Fannie Yeung,2 Tsz-wai Chan,1 Jean Woo2 1School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Abstract: We conducted a quasi-experimental study to compare the effectiveness of a new short-term residential care option for stroke rehabilitation with that of usual day hospital care. Primary data were collected from stroke patients and their caregivers from June 2009 to May 2012. New service option users and their caregivers were recruited for the intervention group, while users of usual public geriatric day hospital care and their caregivers were recruited for the control group. The primary outcome measures were Modified Barthel Index (MBI and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE scores. Trained research assistants assessed the outcome measures at the beginning of the rehabilitation program (baseline and at a 4-month follow-up. Sixty and 128 stroke patients were recruited for the intervention and control groups, respectively; 50 and 105 participants, respectively, completed the 4-month follow-up. At 4-month follow-up, the intervention group had an increased MBI score of 15.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8–19.8 and an MMSE score of 1.3 (95% CI 0.4–2.1. In comparison, the control group had an increased MBI score of 13.3 (95% CI 9.7–16.8 and an MMSE score of 1.1 (95% CI 0.4–1.9. Both groups showed a significant improvement in MBI and MMSE scores after 4 months, and there was no significant between-group difference. To conclude, the new service option and the usual care option showed similar improvement in rehabilitation outcomes at 4 months after baseline. Initiatives to provide alternative care options on a user-pay model should be encouraged to ensure a sustainable health care system. Keywords: rehabilitation, residential care, day hospital, stroke, elderly, Hong Kong

  5. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditcharles, Sébastien; Yiou, Eric; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Hamaoui, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. “Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude” (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22) performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before (“pre-manipulation” condition) and after (“post-manipulation” condition) a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9). Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11) or the HVLA group (n = 11).The spine range of motion (ROM) was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between the pre

  6. Altered strategy in short-term memory for pictures in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Yui; Imanaga, Hisako; Matsunaga, Mayumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sakai, Yasunari; Yoshida, Keiko; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-07-30

    Strategy in short-term memory for serially presented pictures shifts gradually from a non-phonological to a phonological method as memory ability increases during typical childhood development. However, little is known about the development of this strategic change in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To understand the neural basis of ADHD, we investigated short-term memory strategies using near-infrared spectroscopy. ADHD children aged from 6 to 12 years and age- and sex-matched control children were assessed in this study. Regional activity was monitored in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex to assess strategies used during short-term memory for visual or phonological objects. We examined the hypothesis that the strategic methods used would be correlated with memory ability. Higher memory ability and the phonological strategy were significantly correlated in the control group but not in the ADHD group. Intriguingly, ADHD children receiving methylphenidate treatment exhibited increased use of phonological strategy compared with those without. In conclusion, we found evidence of an altered strategy in short-term memory in ADHD children. The modulatory effect of methylphenidate indicates its therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delivery after previous cesarean: Short-term perinatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Jain, Lucky

    2010-01-01

    Women must often choose between a vaginal birth after prior cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery. Short-term risks of vaginal birth after cesarean can be potentially catastrophic in the setting of uterine rupture. Although randomized controlled trials comparing these two modes of delivery are lacking, observational studies suggest an increased risk of perinatal mortality and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in infants whose mothers undergo a trial of labor. These rare risks compete with more common, albeit less severe, short-term risks associated with elective repeat cesarean delivery with a particular emphasis on increased respiratory morbidities. Further studies are needed to identify potential strategies to improve perinatal outcomes and help guide physicians and patients in choosing optimal methods of delivery. PMID:20654778

  8. Exhaled volatile organic compounds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: cross sectional and nested short-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Diana; Carbognani, Paolo; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Balbi, Bruno; Bianchi, Luca; Rusca, Michele; Mutti, Antonio

    2005-07-14

    Non-invasive diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying biomarkers of lung cancer are of great interest for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to set up a new method for identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air of patients with non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC), by comparing the levels with those obtained from healthy smokers and non-smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The VOC collection and analyses were repeated three weeks after the NSCLC patients underwent lung surgery. The subjects' breath was collected in a Teflon bulb that traps the last portion of single slow vital capacity. The 13 VOCs selected for this study were concentrated using a solid phase microextraction technique and subsequently analysed by means of gas cromatography/mass spectrometry. The levels of the selected VOCs ranged from 10(-12) M for styrene to 10(-9) M for isoprene. None of VOCs alone discriminated the study groups, and so it was not possible to identify one single chemical compound as a specific lung cancer biomarker. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that VOC profile can correctly classify about 80% of cases. Only isoprene and decane levels significantly decreased after surgery. As the combination of the 13 VOCs allowed the correct classification of the cases into groups, together with conventional diagnostic approaches, VOC analysis could be used as a complementary test for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Its possible use in the follow-up of operated patients cannot be recommended on the basis of the results of our short-term nested study.

  9. Exhaled volatile organic compounds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: cross sectional and nested short-term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acampa Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying biomarkers of lung cancer are of great interest for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to set up a new method for identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in exhaled air of patients with non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC, by comparing the levels with those obtained from healthy smokers and non-smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The VOC collection and analyses were repeated three weeks after the NSCLC patients underwent lung surgery. Methods The subjects' breath was collected in a Teflon® bulb that traps the last portion of single slow vital capacity. The 13 VOCs selected for this study were concentrated using a solid phase microextraction technique and subsequently analysed by means of gas cromatography/mass spectrometry. Results The levels of the selected VOCs ranged from 10-12 M for styrene to 10-9 M for isoprene. None of VOCs alone discriminated the study groups, and so it was not possible to identify one single chemical compound as a specific lung cancer biomarker. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that VOC profile can correctly classify about 80 % of cases. Only isoprene and decane levels significantly decreased after surgery. Conclusion As the combination of the 13 VOCs allowed the correct classification of the cases into groups, together with conventional diagnostic approaches, VOC analysis could be used as a complementary test for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Its possible use in the follow-up of operated patients cannot be recommended on the basis of the results of our short-term nested study.

  10. Impact of short term yoga intervention on mental well being of medical students posted in community medicine: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High level of stress, anxiety and depression is seen among medical students. Aims: To assess the impact of brief structured yoga intervention on mental well being of MBBS students. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 82 MBBS students of 3 rd semester in the age group of 18-23 years. The students were assessed at baseline and at the end of one month of specific yoga intervention by using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Results: The students reported improvement in general and mental well being following the intervention and difference was found to be highly significant. Conclusion: A short term specific yoga intervention may be effective in improving general and mental well being in MBBS students. It is feasible and practical to include yoga practice in block postings of community medicine.

  11. Why do patients receive care from a short-term medical mission? Survey study from rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Micaela M; Chen, Joy C; Woo, Russell K; Siegler, Nora; Maldonado-Sifuentes, Francisco A; Carlos-Ochoa, Jehidy S; Cardona-Diaz, Andy R; Uribe-Leitz, Tarsicio; Siegler, Dennis; Weiser, Thomas G; Yang, George P

    2017-07-01

    Hospital de la Familia was established to serve the indigent population in the western highlands of Guatemala and has a full-time staff of Guatemalan primary care providers supplemented by short-term missions of surgical specialists. The reasons for patients seeking surgical care in this setting, as opposed to more consistent care from local institutions, are unclear. We sought to better understand motivations of patients seeking mission-based surgical care. Patients presenting to the obstetric and gynecologic, plastic, ophthalmologic, general, and pediatric surgical clinics at the Hospital de la Familia from July 27 to August 6, 2015 were surveyed. The surveys assessed patient demographics, surgical diagnosis, location of home, mode of travel, and reasons for seeking care at this facility. Of 252 patients surveyed, 144 (59.3%) were female. Most patients reported no other medical condition (67.9%, n = 169) and no consistent income (83.9%, n = 209). Almost half (44.9%, n = 109) traveled >50 km to receive care. The most common reasons for choosing care at this facility were reputation of high quality (51.8%, n = 130) and affordability (42.6%, n = 102); the least common reason was a lack of other options (6.4%, n = 16). Despite long travel distances and the availability of other options, reputation and affordability were primarily cited as the most common reasons for choosing to receive care at this short-term surgical mission site. Our results highlight that although other surgical options may be closer and more readily available, reputation and cost play a large role in choice of patients seeking care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Editorial on low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment and impact on short-term mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Lagler, Heimo

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript “Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bloodstream Infection: A propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study” published in Critical Care Medicine by Osthoff et al. reported an association of aspirin intake with a reduced short-term mortality. Direct anti-microbial effects of aspirin and its metabolite salicylate were suggested in preclinical studies. Especially intriguing is the inclusion of a control group with Escherichia coli (E. coli) blood stream infections in this study, in which aspirin was not associated with an improved outcome. However, as other observational studies also reported benefits of aspirin in critically ill patients, randomized trials are needed to confirm the effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:27294095

  13. A global pharmaceutical company initiative: an evidence-based approach to define the upper limit of body weight loss in short term toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Allais, Linda; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Ockert, Deborah; Nogues, Vicente; Palmer, Helen; Popovic, Marija; Roosen, Wendy; Schoenmakers, Ankie; Somers, Kevin; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Robinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    Short term toxicity studies are conducted in animals to provide information on major adverse effects typically at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies are important from a scientific and ethical perspective as they are used to make decisions on progression of potential candidate drugs, and to set dose levels for subsequent regulatory studies. The MTD is usually determined by parameters such as clinical signs, reductions in body weight and food consumption. However, these assessments are often subjective and there are no published criteria to guide the selection of an appropriate MTD. Even where an objective measurement exists, such as body weight loss (BWL), there is no agreement on what level constitutes an MTD. A global initiative including 15 companies, led by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), has shared data on BWL in toxicity studies to assess the impact on the animal and the study outcome. Information on 151 studies has been used to develop an alert/warning system for BWL in short term toxicity studies. The data analysis supports BWL limits for short term dosing (up to 7days) of 10% for rat and dog and 6% for non-human primates (NHPs).

  14. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr Richard Stevens for his comments (1) on our recent article that showed no increased risk of breast cancer following recent night shift work when compared with recent day shift work (2). This finding was based on linkage of day-by-day information on working hours and breast cancer...... if the mean age was 35.5 years - and many undoubtedly had been working (with and without night shifts) prior to 2008 - this population should be less affected by such selection bias, but we observed similar risk estimates as for the total study population. Taken together, we find that our study provides...... rather robust evidence of no short-term breast cancer risk following recent night shift work. It must, however, be stressed that data did not allow assessment of a possible long-term risk. Reference 1. Stevens R. Letter ref. Vitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk...

  15. Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and European airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Leyla P; Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret E; Pryor, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is standard treatment for airway clearance in the USA and has recently been introduced in the UK and Europe. There is little published research comparing HFCWO with airway clearance techniques (ACTs) frequently used in the UK and Europe. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of HFCWO with usual ACTs in patients with cystic fibrosis hospitalised with an infective pulmonary exacerbation. Methods A 4-day randomised cr...

  16. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  17. Association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected Japanese quail. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... This study was carried out to examine the effect of short-term selection for ...

  19. A numerical study on nonlinear propagation and short-term variability of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chunming; ZHANG Shaodong; YI Fan

    2005-01-01

    By using a three-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical model in spherical coordinates and taking the linear steady solutions of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in January from the Global-Scale Wave Model (GSWM) as the initial values, we simulate the linear and nonlinear propagations of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in the atmosphere from the ground to the lower thermosphere. A comparison of our simulations with the results of GSWM is also presented. The simulation results show that affected by the nonlinearity, the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides propagating in the middle and upper atmosphere exhibit evident short-term variability. The nonlinear interactions between the migrating tides and the background atmosphere can obviously alter the background wind and temperature fields, which suggests that the nonlinear propagations of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides impact significantly on the transient dynamical and thermal structures of the background middle and upper atmosphere and the nonlinear effect is an important cause of the difference between the results of GSWM and observations.

  20. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Ya-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  1. 短期电力负荷预测研究%Study on short term electric load forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许祎; 王世芳

    2015-01-01

    Power system load forecasting through the historical data analysis,forecast future demand. In this paper,we use wavelet clustering to load data.Then we use the classical genetic algorithm,Elman neural network,wavelet neural network and combined intelligent algorithm to build the forecasting model.By comparing the simulation results of several short-term power load forecasting models,the hybrid intelligent algorithm can greatly enhance the accuracy and reliability of the load forecasting results,and has good application prospect.%电力系统负荷预测通过对历史数据分析,预测未来需求。本文先用小波聚类对数据进行负荷分类,再分别用经典的遗传算法、Elman神经网络算法、小波-神经网络算法和组合智能算法建立预测模型。通过比较以上几种短期电力负荷预测模型的仿真结果,验证了混合智能算法可以大大增强负荷预测结果的准确性和可靠性,具有良好的应用前景。

  2. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  3. Long-Term Impacts of Short-Term Study Abroad: Teacher Perceptions of Preservice Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiveley, James; Misco, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, teacher education programs across the country have worked to increase the focus on global competency among the skills needed for a beginning teacher. For the purposes of this study, global competency is defined as, "a body of knowledge about the world regions, cultures, and global issues, and the skills and dispositions to…

  4. Does the stress response predict the ability of wild birds to adjust to short-term captivity? A study of the rock pigeon (Columbia livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Trouvé, Colette; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined environment. To ensure the success of conservation programmes, it appears crucial to better understand the proximate causes of interspecific and interindividual variability in the sensitivity to these first hours of captivity. In that respect, the study of stress hormones is relevant, because the hormonal stress response may help to assess whether specific individuals or species adjust, or not, to such captive conditions ('the stress response-adjustment to captivity hypothesis'). We tested this hypothesis in rock pigeons by measuring their corticosterone stress response and their ability to adjust to short-term captivity (body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels after a day of captivity). We showed that an increased corticosterone stress response is associated with a lower ability to adjust to short-term captivity (i.e. higher body mass loss and circulating corticosterone levels). Our study suggests, therefore, that a low physiological sensitivity to stress may be beneficial for adjusting to captivity. Future studies should now explore whether the stress response can be useful to predict the ability of individuals from different populations or species to not only adjust to short-term but also long-term captivity.

  5. The influence of acoustical and non-acoustical factors on short-term annoyance due to aircraft noise in the field - The COSMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susanne; Márki, Ferenc; Müller, Uwe

    2015-12-15

    Air traffic has increased for the past decades and is forecasted to continue to grow. Noise due to current airport operations can impair the physical and psychological well-being of airport residents. The field study investigated aircraft noise-induced short-term (i.e., within hourly intervals) annoyance in local residents near a busy airport. We aimed at examining the contribution of acoustical and non-acoustical factors to the annoyance rating. Across four days from getting up till going to bed, 55 residents near Cologne/Bonn Airport (M=46years, SD=14years, 34 female) rated their annoyance due to aircraft noise at hourly intervals. For each participant and each hour, 26 noise metrics from outdoor measurements and further 6 individualized metrics that took into account the sound attenuation due to each person's whereabouts in and around their homes were obtained. Non-acoustical variables were differentiated into situational factors (time of day, performed activity during past hour, day of the week) and personal factors (e.g., sensitivity to noise, attitudes, domestic noise insulation). Generalized Estimation Equations were applied for the development of a prediction model for annoyance. Acoustical factors explained only a small proportion (13.7%) of the variance in the annoyance ratings. The number of fly-overs predicted annoyance better than did equivalent and maximum sound pressure levels. The proportion of explained variance in annoyance rose considerably (to 27.6%) when individualized noise metrics as well as situational and personal variables were included in the prediction model. Consideration of noise metrics related to the number of fly-overs and individual adjustment of noise metrics can improve the prediction of short-term annoyance compared to models using equivalent outdoor levels only. Non-acoustical factors have remarkable impact not only on long-term annoyance as shown before but also on short-term annoyance judged in the home environment. Copyright

  6. TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM HIGH SENSITIVE C REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS SHORT TERM PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and is most often caused by thrombotic processes. The study was based on 50 patients with ischemic stroke; coming to SGDRIMSR, Amritsar. In this study the level of hsCRP was estimated which is one of the risk factors in cases of acute ischemic stroke and the relationship between its levels and the short term prognosis was evaluated. Patients with history of acute infection or injury in the past 10-14 days before admission, suffering from Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy/Nursing Mothers, with Acute Liver disease, with history of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis or malignancy, with history of skeletal muscle disease, with heart disease which could have led to embolism such as atrial fibrillation or Valvular disease, with thyroid or renal dysfunction were excluded from the study. It was concluded that acute ischemic stroke had higher circulating serum high sensitive CRP and the high sensitive CRP levels was maximum after 2 days of the stroke. Short term unfavorable prognosis seems to be associated with elevated serum high sensitive CRP levels in patients with ischemic stroke in our study

  7. Pilot study of the short-term effects of range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Nozomu; Ogi, Nobumi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ito, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a short-term exercise program combining range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants comprised 36 females with jaw trismus and moderate to severe functional pain. The range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint was performed at the first visit by the therapist, and the patients were instructed to perform self-traction therapy in the morning and during daily bathing until the next visit 2 weeks later. Maximum mouth opening distance and the visual analogue scale score were used to compare pain on motion and mastication as well as the impact of the program on daily activities at the first consultation and 2 weeks later. [Results] All symptoms were significantly improved after 2 weeks of treatment. [Conclusion] A program that combines exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy can improve range of motion at the joint in the short term and reduce pain and difficulty associated with daily activity in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. The results of this study suggest that such a program can serve as an effective conservative treatment.

  8. Arterial blood pressure responses to short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor sources - A randomized sham-controlled exposure study of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppa, Vanessa J; Schins, Roel P F; Hennig, Frauke; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Hellack, Bryan; Quass, Ulrich; Kaminski, Heinz; Sasse, Birgitta; Shinnawi, Samir; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before, during, directly, 2, 4 and 24h after exposure. We performed multiple mixed linear regression analyses of different particle metrics and BP. BP significantly increased with increasing PMC, PSC and PNC resulting from toasting bread. For example, an increase per 10µg/m(3) PM10 and PM2.5, systolic BP increased at all time points with largest changes 1h after exposure initiation of 1.5mmHg (95%-CI: 1.1; 1.9) and of 2.2mmHg (95%-CI: 1.3; 3.1), respectively. Our study suggests an association of short-term exposure to fine and ultrafine particles emitted from toasting bread with increases in BP. Particles emitted from frying sausages and candle burning did not consistently affect BP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Pilot study of the short-term effects of range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Nozomu; Ogi, Nobumi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ito, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a short-term exercise program combining range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants comprised 36 females with jaw trismus and moderate to severe functional pain. The range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint was performed at the first visit by the therapist, and the patients were instructed to perform self-traction therapy in the morning and during daily bathing until the next visit 2 weeks later. Maximum mouth opening distance and the visual analogue scale score were used to compare pain on motion and mastication as well as the impact of the program on daily activities at the first consultation and 2 weeks later. [Results] All symptoms were significantly improved after 2 weeks of treatment. [Conclusion] A program that combines exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy can improve range of motion at the joint in the short term and reduce pain and difficulty associated with daily activity in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. The results of this study suggest that such a program can serve as an effective conservative treatment. PMID:28265156

  10. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  11. Comparison of short-term outcomes between laparoscopically-assisted vs. transverse-incision open right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaraviputh Thawatchai

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopically-assisted right hemicolectomy (LRH is an acceptable alternative to open surgery for right-sided colon cancer which offers patients less pain and faster recovery. However, special equipment and substantial surgical experience are required. The aim of the study is to compare the short-term surgical outcomes of LRH and open right hemicolectomy through right transverse skin crease incision (ORHT for right-sided colon cancer. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 33 patients with right-sided colon cancer who underwent elective right hemicolectomy by laparoscopic or open approaches through right transverse skin crease incision between March 2004 and September 2006 at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Operative details, postoperative requirement of narcotics, recovery of bowel function, and oncological parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen patients underwent LRH and 20 patients underwent ORHT. Both approaches achieved adequate oncological resection of the tumor. The laparoscopic group were characterized by shorter average incision lengths (7.7 vs 10.3 cm; p Conclusion LRH and ORHT for right-sided colon cancer resulted in the same short-term surgical outcomes including postoperative bowel function, narcotics consumption and length of hospital stay. However, LRH required a significantly longer operating time.

  12. Basic study of effects on the smooth muscle cells' proliferation with novel short-term thermal angioplasty in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunio, M.; Shimazaki, N.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, T.; Arai, T.; Sakurada, M.

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the effect on smooth muscle cells' proliferation with stretch-fixing in both in vitro and in vivo porcine study to determine the optimum heat condition of novel short-term thermal angioplasty, Photo-thermo Dynamic Balloon Angioplasty (PTDBA). With PTDBA, we have obtained the sufficient arterial dilatation by short-term heating (< 15 s, < 70 °C) and low dilatation pressure (< 0.4 MPa) without excessive neo-intimal hyperplasia on chronic phase. The smooth muscle cells were found to be fixed with stretched shape in vascular wall after PTDBA in vivo. The deformation rate of smooth muscle cells' nuclei was 1.6 +/- 0.1 after PTDBA (15 s, 65 °C, 0.35 MPa). The smooth muscle cells, which were extracted from porcine arteries, were cultured on the specially designed equipment to give stretch-fixing stimulus in vitro. The cell proliferation was inhibited at 20 % stretching compared to 15 % stretching significantly (p < 0.05). The immunostaining specimens of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and its receptor FGFR-1 were made from the porcine arteries in vivo. We found that the expressions of bFGF and FGFR-1 in the media were not observed after PTDBA. We think that these results suggested the possibility for the inhibition of the excessive cell proliferation after PTDBA.

  13. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-08-01

    An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.

  14. The Value of Short-Term Study Abroad: An Increase in Students' Cultural and Pragmatic Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Case, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The effect of studying abroad on students' language production has been extensively researched. However, a question that has not been addressed is whether study abroad programs lasting six weeks or less offer sufficient time and contact for students to demonstrate measurable development in their command of the language. The current…

  15. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 (50.0 μg/m(3)) and O3 (53.0 μg/m(3)) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O3. Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM10 and O3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China.

  16. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Tic Frequency Decreases during Short-term Psychosocial Stress - An Experimental Study on Children with Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.

  18. Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet and type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled analysis of short-term intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata-Maury, C; Hernández-Triana, M; Ruiz-Álvarez, V; Díaz-Sánchez, M E; Fallucca, F; Bin, W; Baba-Abubakari, B; Pianesi, M

    2014-03-01

    The macrobiotic, Ma-Pi 2 diet (12% protein, 18% fat and 70% carbohydrate), has shown benefit in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pooled analysis aims to confirm results from four, 21-day intervention studies with the Ma-Pi 2 diet, carried out in Cuba, China, Ghana and Italy. Baseline and end of study biochemical, body composition and blood pressure data, were compared using multivariate statistical methods and assessment of the Cohen effect size (d). Results showed that all measured indicators demonstrated significant changes (p diet was Italy (1.96), China (1.79), Cuba (1.38) and Ghana (0.98). The magnitude of the individual effect on each variable by country, and the global effect by country, was independent of the sample size (p > 0.05). Similarly, glycemia and glycemic profiles in all four studies were independent of the sample size (p = 0.237). The Ma-Pi diet 2 significantly reduced glycemia, serum lipids, uremia and cardiovascular risk in adults with T2DM. These results suggest that the Ma-Pi 2 diet could be a valid alternative treatment for patients with T2DM and point to the need for further clinical studies. Mechanisms related to its benefits as a functional diet are discussed.

  19. Examining Intercultural Growth for Business Students in Short-Term Study Abroad Programs: Too Good to Be True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullekson, Nicole L.; Tucker, Mary L.; Coombs, Garth, Jr.; Wright, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, international awareness and activities were examined in business students participating in a 16-day consulting program abroad and compared to a control group of students at the home university. Anticipated changes in the study abroad students were found; however, when compared to…

  20. The Effect of Classroom Structure on Verbal and Physical Aggression among Peers: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsmann, Evelyn M.; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Teachers promote student learning and well-being in school by establishing a supportive classroom structure. The term "classroom structure" refers to how teachers design tasks, maintain authority, and evaluate student achievement. Although empirical studies have shown the relation of classroom structure to student motivation, achievement, and…

  1. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  2. Examining Intercultural Growth for Business Students in Short-Term Study Abroad Programs: Too Good to Be True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullekson, Nicole L.; Tucker, Mary L.; Coombs, Garth, Jr.; Wright, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, international awareness and activities were examined in business students participating in a 16-day consulting program abroad and compared to a control group of students at the home university. Anticipated changes in the study abroad students were found; however, when compared to…

  3. Instructor Influence on Student Intercultural Gains and Learning during Instructor-Led, Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine L.; Lorenz, Karl; White, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the United States post 9/11, there is increasing interest by the government and by institutions of higher education in educating students and citizens to more successfully navigate difference and interact in an increasingly connected world. This has led to a rise in the number of U.S. American students studying abroad especially on…

  4. The effect of classroom structure on verbal and physical aggression among peers: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsmann, Evelyn M; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Teachers promote student learning and well-being in school by establishing a supportive classroom structure. The term classroom structure refers to how teachers design tasks, maintain authority, and evaluate student achievement. Although empirical studies have shown the relation of classroom structure to student motivation, achievement, and well-being, no prior investigations have examined the influence of classroom structure on aggression among peers. The present study examined whether a supportive classroom structure has an impact on verbal and physical aggression. At two points in time, data were collected from 1680 students in Grades 5 to 7 using self-report questionnaires. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that a supportive classroom structure at Time 1 was associated with less perpetrated verbal aggression at Time 2, 9months later. This finding has practical relevance for teacher training as well as for aggression prevention and intervention among children.

  5. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22% had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined calculated 5-year CHD risk of 30, most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%, high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%, high waist measurement (68%, and raised triglycerides (52%. After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10% and triglycerides (26% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%. Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The main results of the study will be reported in

  6. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, D E; Frank, F R; Fowler, E H; Troup, C M; Milton, R M

    1987-01-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration (...

  7. A model study of the response of mesospheric ozone to short-term solar ultraviolet flux variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, M. E.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Strobel, D. F.; Zhu, Xun; Deland, M. T.; Allen, M.; Keating, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is conducted in order to determine the relative importance of several modeled processes in controlling the magnitude and phase of the mesospheric ozone response. A detailed one-dimensional modeling study of the mesospheric ozone response to solar UV flux variations is conducted to remove some of the deficiencies in previous studies. This study is also used to examine specifically the importance of solar zenith angle, self-consistent calculation of water vapor abundance, and temperature feedback with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium radiation model. The photochemical model is described, and the assumptions made for the purpose of comparing model results with the observed ozone response obtained from a statistical analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer data (Keating et al., 1987) are discussed. The numerical results for the theoretical ozone response are presented. The results of selected time-dependent calculations are considered to illustrate the degree to which a relatively simple model of the mesosphere is able to capture the major characteristics of the observed response.

  8. Frontal white matter alterations in short-term medicated panic disorder patients without comorbid conditions: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Kim

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex might play an important role in the fear network, and white matter (WM integrity could be related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. A few studies have investigated alterations of WM integrity in PD. The aim of this study was to determine frontal WM integrity differences between patients with PD without comorbid conditions and healthy control (HC subjects by using diffusion tensor imaging. Thirty-six patients with PD who had used medication within 1 week and 27 age- and sex-matched HC subjects participated in this study. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all participants. Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for image analysis. TBSS analysis showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in frontal WM and WM around the frontal lobe, including the corpus callosum of both hemispheres, in patients with PD compared to HC subjects. Moreover, voxel-wise correlation analysis revealed that the BAI scores for patients with PD were positively correlated with their FA values for regions showing group differences in the FA of frontal WM of both hemispheres. Altered integrity in frontal WM of patients with PD without comorbid conditions might represent the structural pathophysiology in these patients, and these changes could be related to clinical symptoms of PD.

  9. Self-efficacy in Prosthetics & Orthotics students who did and did not participate in short term study abroad programs - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Goeran; Kremer, Uta

    2017-04-01

    It is conventional knowledge that travel is educational and that a study stay in a foreign country contributes to a student's personality formation and well-roundedness. The benefit of such experiences on attitudes that shape professional aptitude and career success may, however, be debated. It could be argued that exposure to experiences that are irrelevant to a student's chosen profession may have no sizeable impact - thus not justifying the invested time and money - or, in an extreme case, may even be detrimental to career success if the wrong conclusions are drawn. Examples for such occurrences may include the adoption of inappropriate belief systems, educational priorities, or work habits. In this study, it was investigated how a short-term study stay abroad was reflected in the self-efficacy of students and graduates of a professional Master of Science program. A cohort of U.S. American students of Prosthetics and Orthotics who had participated in non-compulsory study excursions to Germany and a comparable cohort of their peers who had not participated in such trips were asked to state their confidence in mastering specific hypothetical situations of daily work life. About one half of the subjects of each group had already graduated and were in residence at the time of the survey, whereas the remaining half was still in their first year of the study program. Answers were compared using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis to investigate main and interaction effects of professional experience and short-term stay abroad. The results seem to support the hypothesis that the experience was beneficial, making the inclusion of respective course offerings recommendable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Short-term effects of phenylephrine on systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with septic shock: a crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Ertmer, Christian; Dünser, Martin; Rehberg, Sebastian; Bachetoni, Alessandra; D'Alessandro, Marladomenica; Van Aken, Hugo; Guarracino, Fabio; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Clinical studies evaluating the use of phenylephrine in septic shock are lacking. The present study was designed as a prospective, crossover pilot study to compare the effects of norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine on systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with catecholamine-dependent septic shock. In 15 septic shock patients, NE (0.82 +/- 0.689 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was replaced with phenylephrine (4.39 +/- 5.23 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) titrated to maintain MAP between 65 and 75 mmHg. After 8 h of phenylephrine infusion treatment was switched back to NE. Data from right heart catheterization, acid-base balance, thermo-dye dilution catheter, gastric tonometry, and renal function were obtained before, during, and after replacing NE with phenylephrine. Variables of systemic hemodynamics, global oxygen transport, and acid-base balance remained unchanged after replacing NE with phenylephrine except for a significant decrease in heart rate (phenylephrine, 89 +/- 18 vs. NE, 93 +/- 18 bpm; P < 0.05). However, plasma disappearance rate (phenylephrine, 13.5 +/- 7.1 vs. NE, 16.4 +/- 8.7% x min(-1)) and clearance of indocyanine green (phenylephrine, 330 +/- 197 vs. NE, 380 +/- 227 mL x min(-1) x m(-2)), as well as creatinine clearance (phenylephrine, 81.3 +/- 78.4 vs. NE, 94.3 +/- 93.5 mL x min(-1)) were significantly decreased by phenylephrine infusion (each P < 0.05). In addition, phenylephrine increased arterial lactate concentrations as compared with NE infusion (1.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.4 +/- 1.1 mM; P < 0.05). After switching back to NE, all variables returned to values obtained before phenylephrine infusion except creatinine clearance and gastric tonometry values. Our results suggest that for the same MAP, phenylephrine causes a more pronounced hepatosplanchnic vasoconstriction as compared with NE.

  11. Short-term incubation of bovine placentome sections as a tool to study xenobiotic mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Anna; Młynarczuk, Jarosław; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Studies on the effects of various factors, including xenobiotics, on the maternal-fetal connections in the placenta are restricted by the lack of a simple and inexpensive research model. We used placentomes collected at a slaughterhouse to in vitro study the bovine sections contained integral maternal-fetal connections. The placentomes from cows (n=4/experiment, 120-150 days post coitum) were cut using a razor blade into 60-80 mg sections and incubated in either DMEM/Ham's F-12 or M-199 supplemented with FCS (2%, 5% or 10%), amniotic fluid (AF or inactive AF, 10% or 20%) or both. The sections (n=4/supplement) were incubated for 24 or 48 h in a water bath at 37.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% O2. The structure and secretory activity of placentome sections were maintained when incubated in DMEM/Ham's F-12 with 2% FCS and 10% AF. M-199 was less acidified than DMEM/Ham's F-12 during incubation, and thus, this medium was better able to maintain the integrity of the placenta and the secretion of estradiol, progesterone and oxytocin for 48 h. Moreover, we detected a decrease in the expression of placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) mRNA (an indicator of trophoblast proliferation) and an increase in the levels of keratin 8 (KRT8; a marker of normal placental barrier function) and hypoxia induced factor 1α (HIF1α; a marker of hypoxia) mRNA. These results indicate the presence of adaptation and repair mechanisms and confirm the biological activity of the placentome sections. We propose the use of placentome sections as an in vitro model to study maternal-fetal connections in cows.

  12. The SHARP study: a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the short-term outcomes of housing and neighbourhood renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Phil

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SHARP study was set up to evaluate the short (1 year and longer-term (2 year effects on health and wellbeing of providing new social housing to tenants. This paper presents the study background, the design and methods, and the findings at one year. Methods Data were collected from social tenants who were rehoused into a new, general-purpose socially-rented home developed and let by a Scottish Registered Social Landlord (the "Intervention" group. These data were collected at three points in time: before moving (Wave 1, one year after moving (Wave 2 and two years after moving (Wave 3. Data were collected from a Comparison group using the same methods at Baseline (Wave 1 and after two years of follow-up (Wave 3. Qualitative data were also collected by means of individual interviews. This paper presents the quantitative and qualitative findings at 1 year (after Wave 2. Results 339 Intervention group interviews and 392 Comparison group interviews were completed. One year after moving to a new home there was a significant reduction in the proportion of Intervention group respondents reporting problems with the home, such as damp and noise. There was also a significant increase in neighbourhood satisfaction compared with Baseline (χ2 = 35.51, p Conclusion This study found that self-reported health changed little in the first year after moving. Nonetheless, the quantitative and qualitative data point to improvements in the quality of housing and of the local environment, as well as in tenant satisfaction and other related outcomes. Further analyses will explore whether these effects are sustained, and whether differences in health outcomes emerge at 2 years compared with the Comparison group.

  13. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Study and Its Application Using a Hybrid Model Optimized by Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The support vector regression (SVR and neural network (NN are both new tools from the artificial intelligence field, which have been successfully exploited to solve various problems especially for time series forecasting. However, traditional SVR and NN cannot accurately describe intricate time series with the characteristics of high volatility, nonstationarity, and nonlinearity, such as wind speed and electricity price time series. This study proposes an ensemble approach on the basis of 5-3 Hanning filter (5-3H and wavelet denoising (WD techniques, in conjunction with artificial intelligence optimization based SVR and NN model. So as to confirm the validity of the proposed model, two applicative case studies are conducted in terms of wind speed series from Gansu Province in China and electricity price from New South Wales in Australia. The computational results reveal that cuckoo search (CS outperforms both PSO and GA with respect to convergence and global searching capacity, and the proposed CS-based hybrid model is effective and feasible in generating more reliable and skillful forecasts.

  14. A Study on the Tritium Behavior in the Rice Plant after a Short-Term Exposure of HTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, D-S.; Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y-H.

    2002-02-26

    In many Asian countries including Korea, rice is a very important food crop. Its grain is consumed by humans and its straw is used to feed animals. In Korea, there are four CANDU type reactors that release relatively large amounts of tritium into the environment. Since 1997, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out the experimental studies to obtain domestic data on various parameters concerning the direct contamination of plant. In this study, the behavior of tritium in the rice plant is predicted and compared with the measurement performed at KAERI. Using the conceptual model of the soil-plant-atmosphere tritiated water transport system which was suggested by Charles E. Murphy, tritium concentrations in the soil and in leaves to time were derived. If the effect of tritium concentration in the soil is considered, the tritium concentration in leaves is described as a double exponential model. On the other hand if the tritium concentration in the soil is disregarded, the tritium concentration in leaves is described by a single exponential term as other models (e.g. Belot's or STAR-H3 model). Also concentration of organically bound tritium in the seed is predicted and compared with measurements. The results can be used to predict the tritium concentration in the rice plant at a field around the site and the ingestion dose following the release of tritium to the environment.

  15. Neuropsychological and Behavioural Short-Term Effects of Cognitive Remediation Therapy in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Betteke Maria; Kraus, Manuela Klara Aurelia; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to strengthen weak cognitive flexibility and central coherence in adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Currently, there are no studies in adolescents with AN that control for learning effects because of re-testing while evaluating CRT. Twenty in- and outpatients with AN aged 12 to 18 years received CRT. Assessment took place directly before and after the intervention. Performance was compared to 20 age-, gender-, IQ-, and test-retest interval matched healthy controls, which did not receive CRT. AN patients showed an improvement in flexibility on neuropsychological assessment directly after CRT, whereas HC did not improve over time. Self-report assessment of flexibility, as well as central coherence, did not show significant improvement after CRT. Results suggest that CRT may be beneficial for enhancing flexibility in adolescents with AN. However, randomized controlled studies are essential to determine the actual efficacy of this intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc balance, distribution, and turnover: short-term studies modeling chronic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Alterations in Zn metabolism have been reported in both tuberculous patients and experimental animals receiving ethambutol (d-2-2'-ethylenediimino-di-1-butanol dihydrochloride) (EMB), and these changes have been associated with ocular side effects of EMB. EMB has chelating properties but is not likely to chelate Zn at physiologic pH. However, its acid metabolite is a stronger chelator. This research addressed whether EMB affects the absorption and disposition of dietary Zn, and whether effects of EMB on Zn are modified by (a) marginal Zn intake of (b) drugs that may induce metabolism of EMB. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats fed an AIN-76A diet received daily by gavage either deionized water or EMB doses of 400-1600 mg/kg bw. in a preliminary, 15-day dose-response study and 400-600 mg/kg in three subsequent 15- to 30-day studies. Apparent absorption and biological turnover of Zn were measured by /sup 65/Zn balance and retention in rats fed adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) Zn. Effects of EMB were similar in both dietary groups. EMB treatment produced alopecia and reduced feed intake, feed efficiency, weight gain, and serum Zn, but showed no effect on hepatic, renal, or femoral Zn concentrations. Absorption, turnover, and urinary excretion of Zn were increased in rats fed EMB.

  17. Open-label study of the short-term effects of memantine on FDG-PET in frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow TW

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany W Chow1–6, Ariel Graff-Guerrero4,6, Nicolaas PLG Verhoeff2–4,7, Malcolm A Binns3,8, David F Tang-Wai5,9, Morris Freedman1,3,5, Mario Masellis5,10, Sandra E Black3,5,10, Alan A Wilson4,6, Sylvain Houle4,6, Bruce G Pollock4,61Division of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest; 4Departments of Psychiatry, 5Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto; 6Centre for Addiction and Mental Health PET Centre; 7Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest; 8Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto; 9University Health Network Memory Clinic; 10LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Department of Medicine (Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Memantine has shown effects on cortical metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD, and the mechanism of action may not be specific to AD alone. We hypothesized that participants with frontotemporal dementia taking memantine would show an increased cortical metabolic activity in frontal regions, temporal regions, or in salience network hubs.Methods: Sixteen participants with behavioral or language variant frontotemporal dementia syndromes (FTD were recruited from tertiary FTD clinics and treated with memantine hydrochloride 10 mg twice daily in this fixed-dose, open-label pilot study. The primary endpoint was enhancement of cortical metabolic activity after 7–8 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints were measures of mood and behavior disturbance, frontal executive function, and motor disturbance.Results: Voxel-wise parametric image analysis of positron emission tomography (PET data from seven behavioral variant FTD patients, eight semantic dementia patients, and one progressive nonfluent aphasia patient, of mean age 64.3 years, mean duration of illness 4.25 years, and baseline mean sum of boxes Clinical Dementia Rating score 6.59, revealed an increase in [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG normalized

  18. Utilizing an Adaptive Grey Model for Short-Term Time Series Forecasting: A Case Study of Wafer-Level Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Jung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wafer-level packaging process is an important technology used in semiconductor manufacturing, and how to effectively control this manufacturing system is thus an important issue for packaging firms. One way to aid in this process is to use a forecasting tool. However, the number of observations collected in the early stages of this process is usually too few to use with traditional forecasting techniques, and thus inaccurate results are obtained. One potential solution to this problem is the use of grey system theory, with its feature of small dataset modeling. This study thus uses the AGM(1,1 grey model to solve the problem of forecasting in the pilot run stage of the packaging process. The experimental results show that the grey approach is an appropriate and effective forecasting tool for use with small datasets and that it can be applied to improve the wafer-level packaging process.

  19. Integration of remote sensing and GIS for studying a short-term flashflood in the El Arish Catchment (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, M.

    2012-04-01

    Wadi El Arish is the largest drainage system in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The Wadi was subject to severe thunderstorms on 17 and 18 January 2010 followed by an extreme and violent flood that had not been known in Sinai since 1980. The flood claimed six victims, injured tens of people, and devastated vital infrastructure and hundreds of houses. Hydrologic characteristics of the Wadi are not fully understood due to substantial lack of the detailed hydro-meteorological information. Hence, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to provide better spatial understanding of rainfall characteristics and drainage basin response. The study was based on the analysis of the TRMM images and 6 hourly average HYDIS data of rainfall analyses. A hydrological model was constructed using ASTER DEMs. The empirical black box model was used depending on the curve number approach to predict stream runoff. Landcover and hydrological soil groups were identified from the Landsat ETM+ mosaic using multispectral supervised classification. The curve numbers were adjusted to ARC I (dry condition) as the total rain in a 5-day period preceding the storm were very low (≤5 mm). We found, that the Wadi received a total rain volume of 665.4 x 106 m3. Most of it fell on 17 January, when the rain intensity ranged between 4-8 mm/hr. The estimated total surface runoff Q was 123.3 x 103 mm and the total runoff volume was 124 x 106 m3 that constitutes 18.8 % of the total rain volume. The results are in agreement with the observed values in the Wadi and highly required for many applications related to water harvesting and flood protection studies.

  20. Trends in incidence and in short term survival following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in Scotland, 1986 - 2005: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine age and sex specific incidence and 30 day case fatality for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH in Scotland over a 20 year period. Methods A retrospective cohort study using routine hospital discharge data linked to death records. Results Between 1986 and 2005, 12,056 individuals experienced an incident SAH. Of these 10,113 (84% survived to reach hospital. Overall age-standardised incidence rates were greater in women than men and remained relatively stable over the study period. In 2005, incidence in women was 12.8 (95% CI 11.5 to 14.2 and in men 7.9 (95% CI 6.9 to 9.1. 30 day case fatality in individuals hospitalised with SAH declined substantially, falling from 30.0% in men and 33.9% in women in 1986-1990 to 24.5% in men and 29.1% in women in 2001-2005. For both men and women, the largest reductions were observed in those aged between 40 to 59 years. After adjustment for age, socio-economic status and co-morbidity, the odds of death at 30 days in 2005 compared to odds of death in 1986 was 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76, p Conclusions Incidence rates for SAH remained stable between 1986 and 2005 suggesting that a better understanding of SAH risk factors and their reduction is needed. 30 day case fatality rates have declined substantially, particularly in middle-age. However, they remain high and it is important to ensure that this is not due to under-diagnosis or under-treatment.

  1. Combined treatment with low-dose methotrexate and initial short-term superpotent topical steroids in bullous pemphigoid: an open, multicentre, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du-Thanh, A; Merlet, S; Maillard, H; Bernard, P; Joly, P; Estève, E; Richard, M A; Pauwels, C; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Guillot, B; Dereure, O

    2011-12-01

    The interest of long-term superpotent topical steroids (STS) in bullous pemphigoid (BP) has been supported by randomized controlled trials. However, inadequate compliance, poor cutaneous tolerance and nursing difficulties are potential drawbacks. Open-label studies on limited series of patients suggested that low-dose methotrexate (MTX) may be useful, permitting long-term maintenance of a clinical remission obtained by initial, short-term STS. Open, clinical records-based retrospective analysis of a multicentre series of patients receiving a combined regimen of initial, short-term STS and MTX followed by long-term MTX alone. The primary objective was evaluation of the clinical efficiency of this strategy based on initial clinical remission and subsequent clinical maintenance. The secondary objective was evaluation of the tolerance (type and rating of adverse events) of this combined regimen. Seventy patients with BP (mean age 82·7 years) were included. Treatment consisted of an initial combination of STS and MTX for a mean duration of 12·3 weeks followed by long-term MTX alone for a mean duration of 8·48 months with a mean and median MTX dosage of 10 mg per week. One hundred per cent of the patients showed an initial, complete clinical remission after a mean time interval of 21·9 days. The overall rate of long-term disease control was 76%, whereas 24% of patients experienced at least one relapse during subsequent treatment with MTX alone. Drug-related adverse effects were mainly haematological and gastrointestinal and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 11 patients (16%). Six patients (9%) died during the follow-up period with one death (1%) most likely to be related to treatment. Long-term low-dose MTX combined with short-term STS may result in protracted control of BP in carefully selected patients. These results should prompt randomized controlled trials comparing this treatment with the more usual regimen of long-term STS alone. © 2011 The Authors

  2. A short-term study of corneal collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in keratoconic corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Gu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the 3mo outcomes of collagen cross-linking (CXL with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas with the thinnest thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium. METHODS: Eight eyes in 6 patients with age 26.2±4.8y were included in the study. All patients underwent CXL using a hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution after its de-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction, the thinnest corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated before and 3mo after the procedure. RESULTS: The mean thinnest thickness of the cornea was 408.5±29.0 μm before treatment and reduced to 369.8±24.8 μm after the removal of epithelium. With the application of the hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution, the thickness increased to 445.0±26.5 μm before CXL and recover to 412.5±22.7 μm at 3mo after treatment, P=0.659. Before surgery, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 57.6±4.0 diopters, and slightly decreased (54.7±4.9 diopters after surgery (P=0.085. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.55±0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, and increased to 0.53±0.26 logarithm after surgery (P=0.879. The endothelial cell density was 2706.4±201.6 cells/mm2 before treatment, and slightly decreased (2641.2±218.2 cells/mm2 at last fellow up (P=0.002. CONCLUSION: Corneal collagen cross-linking with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising treatment. Further study should be done to evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL in thin corneas for the long-term.

  3. A short-term study of corneal collagen cross-linking with hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in keratoconic corneas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Feng; Gu; Zhao-Shan; Fan; Li-Hua; Wang; Xiang-Chen; Tao; Yong; Zhang; Chun-Qin; Wang; Ya; Wang; Guo-Ying; Mu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report the 3mo outcomes of collagen crosslinking(CXL) with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas with the thinnest thickness less than 400 μm without epithelium.METHODS: Eight eyes in 6 patients with age 26.2±4.8y were included in the study. All patients underwent CXL using a hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution after its de-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction, the thinnest corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated before and 3mo after the procedure.RESULTS: The mean thinnest thickness of the cornea was 408.5 ±29.0 μm before treatment and reduced to369.8 ±24.8 μm after the removal of epithelium. With the application of the hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution, the thickness increased to 445.0 ±26.5 μm before CXL and recover to 412.5 ±22.7 μm at 3mo after treatment, P =0.659). Before surgery, the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus corneas was 57.6 ±4.0 diopters, and slightly decreased(54.7±4.9 diopters) after surgery(P =0.085). Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.55 ±0.23 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, and increased to 0.53±0.26 logarithm after surgery(P =0.879).The endothelial cell density was 2706.4 ±201.6 cells/mm2 before treatment, and slightly decreased( 2641. 2 ±218.2 cells/mm2) at last fellow up(P =0.002).CONCLUSION: Corneal collagen cross-linking with a hypo-osmolar riboflavin in thin corneas seems to be a promising treatment. Further study should be done to evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL in thin corneas for the long-term.

  4. Does short-term whole-body vibration training affect arterial stiffness in chronic stroke? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Christie E; Stoner, Lee; Hodges, Lynette D; Cochrane, Darryl J

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have shown that stroke is associated with increased arterial stiffness that can be diminished by a program of physical activity. A novel exercise intervention, whole-body vibration (WBV), is reported to significantly improve arterial stiffness in healthy men and older sedentary adults. However, little is known about its efficacy in reducing arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Six participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of WBV training or control followed by cross-over after a 2-week washout period. WBV intervention consisted of 3 sessions of 5 min intermittent WBV per week for 4 weeks. Arterial stiffness (carotid arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity [PWV], pulse and wave analysis [PWA]) were measured before/after each intervention. [Results] No significant improvements were reported with respect to carotid arterial stiffness, PWV, and PWA between WBV and control. However, carotid arterial stiffness showed a decrease over time following WBV compared to control, but this was not significant. [Conclusion] Three days/week for 4 weeks of WBV seems too short to elicit appropriate changes in arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. However, no adverse effects were reported, indicating that WBV is a safe and acceptable exercise modality for people with chronic stroke.

  5. Maternal Depression, Parenting, and Youth Depressive Symptoms: Mediation and Moderation in a Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.

  6. Effects of short term water immersion on peripheral reflex excitability in hemiplegic and healthy individuals: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, N.J.; Valtonen, A.M.; Waller, B.; Pöyhönen, T.; Avela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reflex excitability is increased in hemiplegic patients compared to healthy controls. One challenge of stroke rehabilitation is to decrease the effects of hyperreflexia, which may be possible with water immersion. Methods/Aims: The present study examined the effects of acute water immersion on electrically-evoked Hmax:Mmax ratios (a measure of reflex excitability) in 7 hyperreflexive hemiplegic patients and 7 age-matched healthy people. Hmax:Mmax ratios were measured from soleus on dry land (L1), immediately after (W1) and 5 minutes after immersion (W5), and again after five minutes on land (L5). Results: Water immersion led to an acute increase in Hmax:Mmax ratio in both groups. However, after returning to dry land, there was a non-significant decrease in the Hmax:Mmax ratio of 8% in the hemiplegic group and 10% in healthy controls compared to pre-immersion values. Interpretation: A short period of water immersion can decrease peripheral reflex excitability after returning to dry land in both healthy controls and post-stroke patients, although longer immersion periods may be required for sustainable effects. Water immersion may offer promise as a low-risk, non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical method of decreasing hyperreflexivity, and could thus support aquatic rehabilitation following stroke. PMID:26944824

  7. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Frank, F.R.; Fowler, E.H.; Troup, C.M.; Milton, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration. MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC/sub 50/ tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC/sub 50/ (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented.

  8. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  9. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lu

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant straw in absence (BC0 and presence (BCN of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05, and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than DOC in biochar (1.75% and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05 increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+ bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G- bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  10. Short-Term Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality and Susceptibility Factors in 10 Italian Cities: The EpiAir Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Galassi, Claudia; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Bisanti, Luigi; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Pacelli, Barbara; Minerba, Sante; Simonato, Lorenzo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have shown an association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality. In Italy, the EpiAir multicentric study, "Air Pollution and Health: Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention," investigated short-term health effects of air pollution, including NO2. To study the individual susceptibility, we evaluated the association between NO2 and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual sociodemographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers. We considered 276,205 natural deaths of persons > 35 years of age, resident in 10 Italian cities, and deceased between 2001 and 2005. We chose a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to evaluate the short-term effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. For each subject, we collected information on sociodemographic features and hospital admissions in the previous 2 years. Fixed monitors provided daily concentrations of NO2, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and ozone (O3). We found statistically significant associations with a 10-μg/m3 increase of NO2 for natural mortality [2.09% for lag 0-5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-3.24], for cardiac mortality (2.63% for lag 0-5; 95% CI, 1.53-3.75), and for respiratory mortality (3.48% for lag 1-5; 95% CI, 0.75-6.29). These associations were independent from those of PM10 and O3. Stronger associations were estimated for subjects with at least one hospital admission in the 2 previous years and for subjects with three or more specific chronic conditions. Some cardiovascular conditions (i.e., ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation impairment, heart conduction disorders, heart failure) and diabetes appeared to confer a strong susceptibility to air pollution. Our results suggest significant and likely independent effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, and respiratory mortality, particularly among subjects with specific cardiovascular preexisting chronic

  11. A STUDY ON THE SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF GRID LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION AND COMBINATION TREATMENT (GRID LASER WITH INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC MACULAR OEDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the short term effect of grid laser photocoagulation in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema. As a comparison, the short term efficacy of combination treatment of grid laser photocoagulation along with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab was studied in the treatment of Diabetic Macular Oedema (DME. MATERIALS AND METHODS 74 eyes of 43 patients between the ages of 50-60 years with diabetic maculopathy were selected. These patients were then assigned to either groups of standalone photocoagulation therapy (Group I or combined therapy of photocoagulation with intravitreal Avastin (Group 2. Best Corrected Visual Acuity and Optical Coherence Tomography findings were done in all the patients during a follow-up done every four weeks up to twelve weeks. RESULTS In Group I, at the end of 12 weeks, overall 34% patients showed an improvement or stability in visual acuity. 66% of the patients had a decrease in visual acuity. The number of eyes with decline in visual acuity decreased during 4 to 12 weeks. 59.22% of the eyes showed improvement or stability in the visual acuity in Group 2. The mean central macular thickness remained stable or increased in 70.2% of the eyes, whereas the CMT decreased only in 29.8% eyes. But in Group 2, at the end of 12 weeks, 59.3% had a decrease in CMT. Total Macular Volume (TMV in Group I, decreased in 57.4% of the eyes. On the other hand, in Group 2 at 12 weeks, 59.3% showed a decrease in TMV, which is slightly better than in Group 1. CONCLUSION The patients with DME who underwent combined photocoagulation with intravitreal injection of Avastin showed significant improvement in visual acuity, central macular thickness and macular volume as compared to the patients who underwent standalone laser photocoagulation, though neither of the groups showed completely satisfactory improvement. Study with large number of patients and long term follow-up would be considered ideal.

  12. Challenges in integrating short-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Vermard, Youen; Ulrich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a fleet-based bioeconomic simulation model to the international mixed flatfish fishery in the North Sea. The model uses a Management Strategies Evaluation framework including a discrete choice model accounting for short-term temporal changes in effort allocation across fisheries....... A simplified random utility model was used based on the expected revenue (or economic attractiveness) and two tradition parameters related to short and long term historical fishing patterns. All three parameters were significant. Even though reactions and adaptations vary between fleets, the estimated...... conservative behaviour of the main fleets led to only marginal effect at the stock level. The importance of accounting for fleet behaviour was then evaluated using an elasticity analysis to explore how increased weight of economic attractiveness contributes to changes in the biological output and positive...

  13. Older patients with acute stroke in Denmark: quality of care and short-term mortality. A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnum, K.D.; Sorensen, H.T.; Ingeman, A.;

    2008-01-01

    care across age groups, as measured by admission to a specialised stroke unit, administration of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, examination with CT/MR scan, assessment by a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist, or assessment of nutritional risk. Further, we estimated 30- and 90-day......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: age may predict level of care and subsequent outcome among patients with stroke. We examined fulfilment of quality-of-care criteria according to age and the possible impact of any age-related differences on short-term mortality in a population-based nationwide follow......-up study in Denmark. METHODS: we identified 29,549 patients admitted with stroke between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Danish National Indicator Project (DNIP). Data on 30- and 90-day mortality were obtained from the Civil Registration System. We compared proportions of patients receiving adequate...

  14. Rapid regulatory effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on antioxidant enzyme activities in a fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short-term in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Oommen, O V

    2006-04-01

    The short-term action of thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) was studied in vivo and in vitro on antioxidant enzyme activities in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch). T3 injection in vivo (200 ng) in normal fish decreased the lipid peroxidation products and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities after 30 min. T3 in vitro (10(-6) M) increased the antioxidant activities of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), GPx and glutathione level after 15/30 min, except SOD, substantiating in vivo effects in normal fish. The results suggest a rapid regulatory effect of thyroid hormone in vivo and in vitro, in the removal of reactive oxygen species in A testudineus.

  15. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for 2 short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...... predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Results: Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline...

  16. Comorbidities and short-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of COPD: the EPOC en Servicios de medicina interna (ESMI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Pedro; Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Diez, Jesus; Boixeda, Ramon; Alonso Ortiz, M Belen; Murio, Cristina; Soriano, Joan B

    2012-11-01

    Comorbidities are frequent in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, but little is known about their relation with short-term mortality and hospital readmissions. Our hypothesis is that the frequency and type of comorbidities impair the prognosis within 12 weeks after discharge. A longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation with spirometric confirmation was performed. Comorbidity information was collected using the Charlson index and a questionnaire that included other common conditions not included in this index. Dyspnea, functional status, and previous hospitalization for COPD or other reasons among other variables were investigated. Information on mortality and readmissions for COPD or other causes was collected up to 3 months after discharge. We studied 606 patients, 594 men (89.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 72.6 (9.9) years and a postbronchodilator FEV1 of 43.2% (21.2). The mean Charlson index score was 3.1 (2.0). On admission, 63.4% of patients had arterial hypertension, 35.8% diabetes mellitus, 32.8% chronic heart failure, 20.8% ischemic heart disease, 19.3% anemia, and 34% dyslipemia. Twenty-seven patients (4.5%) died within 3 months. The Charlson index was an independent predictor of mortality (P < .003; OR,1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.40), even after adjustment for age, FEV1, and functional status measured with the Katz index. Comorbidity was also related with the need for hospitalization from the ED, length of stay, and hospital readmissions for COPD or other causes. Comorbidities are common in patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation, and they are related to short-term prognosis.

  17. Study of the footprints of short-term variation in XCO2 observed by TCCON sites using NIES and FLEXPART atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Dmitry A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Ganshin, Alexander; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Wunch, Debra; Feist, Dietrich G.; Morino, Isamu; Parker, Robert J.; Strong, Kimberly; Yoshida, Yukio; Bril, Andrey; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Boesch, Hartmut; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Griffith, David; Hewson, Will; Kivi, Rigel; Mendonca, Joseph; Notholt, Justus; Schneider, Matthias; Sussmann, Ralf; Velazco, Voltaire A.; Aoki, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) that record near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the sun. From these spectra, accurate and precise observations of CO2 column-averaged dry-air mole fractions (denoted XCO2) are retrieved. TCCON FTS observations have previously been used to validate satellite estimations of XCO2; however, our knowledge of the short-term spatial and temporal variations in XCO2 surrounding the TCCON sites is limited. In this work, we use the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Eulerian three-dimensional transport model and the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) to determine the footprints of short-term variations in XCO2 observed by operational, past, future and possible TCCON sites. We propose a footprint-based method for the collocation of satellite and TCCON XCO2 observations and estimate the performance of the method using the NIES model and five GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) XCO2 product data sets. Comparison of the proposed approach with a standard geographic method shows a higher number of collocation points and an average bias reduction up to 0.15 ppm for a subset of 16 stations for the period from January 2010 to January 2014. Case studies of the Darwin and Reunion Island sites reveal that when the footprint area is rather curved, non-uniform and significantly different from a geographical rectangular area, the differences between these approaches are more noticeable. This emphasises that the collocation is sensitive to local meteorological conditions and flux distributions.

  18. A randomly-controlled study on the cardiac function at the early stage of return to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiquan; Yang, Shengyue; Luo, Yongjun; Qi, Yushu; Yan, Ziqiang; Shi, Zifu; Fan, Yong

    2012-01-01

    High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m) and returned to the plains (1500 m) after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), cardiac function index (Tei index) were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitrogen oxide (NO), serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (8-iso PGF(2α)), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th) day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (PLDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.

  19. A randomly-controlled study on the cardiac function at the early stage of return to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiquan Zhou

    Full Text Available High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m and returned to the plains (1500 m after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, cardiac function index (Tei index were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, nitrogen oxide (NO, serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α (8-iso PGF(2α, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malonaldehyde (MDA were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (P<0.01. We also found that changes in Tei index was positively correlated with mPAP, ET-1, HIF-1α and 8-iso PGF(2α levels, and negatively correlated with the level of NO, LVEF, LVFS, CK-MB and LDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.

  20. Risk factors of short-term mortality after acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on dialysis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Yeh; Lee, Tsung-Chun; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Chertow, Glenn M; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2013-04-26

    Impaired kidney function is an established predictor of mortality after acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB); however, which factors are associated with mortality after ANVUGIB among patients undergoing dialysis is unknown. We examined the associations among demographic characteristics, dialysis-specific features, and comorbid conditions with short-term mortality after ANVUGIB among patients on dialysis. Retrospective cohort study. United States Renal Data System (USRDS), a nation-wide registry of patients with end-stage renal disease. All ANVUGIB episodes identified by validated algorithms in Medicare-covered patients between 2003 and 2007. Demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions from 1 year of billing claims prior to each bleeding event. We used logistic regression extended with generalized estimating equations methods to model the associations among risk factors and 30-day mortality following ANVUGIB events. From 2003 to 2007, we identified 40,016 eligible patients with 50,497 episodes of ANVUGIB. Overall 30-day mortality was 10.7% (95% CI: 10.4-11.0). Older age, white race, longer dialysis vintage, peritoneal dialysis (vs. hemodialysis), and hospitalized (vs. outpatient) episodes were independently associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. Most but not all comorbid conditions were associated with death after ANVUGIB. The joint ability of all factors captured to discriminate mortality was modest (c=0.68). We identified a profile of risk factors for 30-day mortality after ANVUGIB among patients on dialysis that was distinct from what had been reported in non-dialysis populations. Specifically, peritoneal dialysis and more years since initiation of dialysis were independently associated with short-term death after ANVUGIB.

  1. Do TETRA (Airwave) Base Station Signals Have a Short-Term Impact on Health and Well-Being? A Randomized Double-Blind Provocation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background “Airwave” is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. Objectives We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported “electrosensitivity” and of participants who served as controls. Methods Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. Results We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself. PMID:20075020

  2. Limited impact of ocean acidification on phytoplankton community structure and carbon export in an oligotrophic environment: Results from two short-term mesocosm studies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, F.; Sallon, A.; Pitta, P.; Tsiola, A.; Maugendre, L.; Giani, M.; Celussi, M.; Pedrotti, M. L.; Marro, S.; Guieu, C.

    2017-02-01

    Modifications in the strength of the biological pump as a consequence of ocean acidification, whether positive or negative, have the potential to impact atmospheric CO2 and therefore climate. So far, most plankton community perturbation studies have been performed in nutrient-rich areas although there are some indications that CO2-dependent growth could differ in nutrient-replete vs. -limited regions and with different community compositions. Two in situ mesocosm experiments were performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea during two seasons with contrasted environmental conditions: summer oligotrophic stratified waters in the Bay of Calvi vs. winter mesotrophic well-mixed waters in the Bay of Villefranche. Nine mesocosms were deployed for 20 and 12 d, respectively, and subjected to seven CO2 levels (3 controls, 6 elevated levels). Both phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by pico- and nano-phytoplankton cells. Although haptophyceae and dinoflagellates benefited from short-term CO2 enrichment in summer, their response remained small with no consequences on organic matter export due to strong environmental constraints (nutrient availability). In winter, most of the plankton growth and associated nutrient consumption occurred during the 4-day acidification period (before the experimental phase). During the remaining experimental period, characterized by low nutrient availability, plankton growth was minimal and no clear CO2-dependency was found for any of the tested parameters. While there is a strong confidence on the absence of significant effect of short-term CO2 addition under oligotrophic conditions, more investigations are needed to assess the response of plankton communities in winter when vertical mixing and weather conditions are major factors controlling plankton dynamics.

  3. 基于ANFIS模型的风功率超短期预测研究%Study of Ultra-Short-Term Forecasting Method for Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 尹少平; 王灵梅; 张志华

    2016-01-01

    提出一种基于自适应神经模糊推理系统(ANFIS)模型的风功率超短期预测方法。该方法以测风塔在层高70m测得的风向、风速和在层高20m测得的气温为输入,以风场的实际有功出力为输出,选取山西某风场的历史数据进行训练,建立了风功率超短期ANFIS预测模型。最后将ANFIS预测结果与基于BP神经网络的预测结果进行了对比分析,结果表明本文提出的预测方法预测精度较高。%An ultra-short-term forecasting method is proposed based on ANFIS for wind power. The wind direction, wind speed which are measured in height of 70m from anemometer tower and temperature which is measured in height of 20m from anemometer tower, take these data as input and actual active power of the wind farm as output. The ultra-short-term forecasting model is established on the basis of ANFIS for wind power by training the historical data of a wind farm in Shanxi. The experimental results are compared with that of BP neural networks. And result from the study shows that ANFIS may give a high precision.

  4. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from A Camembert Cheese reveals contradictory findings to recent results from a Human Short-term study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eMönch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities which may affect their nutritional value. In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analysed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax and AUC were determined in plasma within the interval of 0 to 12 hours. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and Cmax for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64% compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50 % bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism.

  5. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional "value." In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foods in a randomized cross-over design separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase. Folate body pools were saturated with a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement before the first testing and between the testings. Folates in test foods and blood plasma were analyzed by stable isotope dilution assays. The biokinetic parameters C max, t max, and area under the curve (AUC) were determined in plasma within the interval of 0-12 h. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and C max for the different Camembert cheeses, a higher bioavailability was found for the low-fat Camembert assessed in the present study (≥64%) compared to a different brand in our previous investigation (8.8%). It is suggested that these differences may arise from the different folate distribution in the soft dough and firm rind as well as differing individual folate vitamer proportions. The results clearly underline the importance of the food matrix, even within the same type of food product, in terms of folate bioavailability. Moreover, our findings add to the increasing number of studies questioning the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of folate equivalents. However, more research is needed to better understand the interactions between individual folate vitamers and other food components and the potential impact on folate bioavailability and metabolism.

  6. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Response to Dr Stevens' letter ref. Visitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Frydenberg, Morten; Christiansen, Peer; Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Bonde, Jens Peter E

    2017-01-01

    selection bias, but we observed similar risk estimates as for the total study population. Taken together, we find that our study provides rather robust evidence of no short-term breast cancer risk following recent night shift work. It must, however, be stressed that data did not allow assessment of a possible long-term risk. Reference 1. Stevens R. Letter ref. Vitisen et al: "Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data". Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43(1):95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3607 2. Vistisen HT, Garde AH, Frydenberg M, Christiansen P, Hansen AM, Hansen J, Bonde JP, Kolstad HA. Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: A cohort study of payroll data. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43(1):59-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3603. 3. Ijaz S, Verbeek J, Seidler A, Lindbohm ML, Ojajarvi A, Orsini N, Costa G, Neuvonen K. Night-shift work and breast cancer--a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013 Sep 1;39(5):431-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3371.

  8. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...... rate of 0.075mV per second with a 1pF hold capacitor. This is equivalent to a retention time of approximately 1½ minute with 10 bits accuracy, assuming a full scale of +/-3.5V. It is expected that this can be improved by more than an order of magnitude by improving the layout of the hold capacitor...

  9. What is Result: Short-term Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet Effective on
Postoperative Outcome in Lung Cancer Surgery? A Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na DU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that medium chain triglyceride (MCT diet was contribute to fast track recovery after surgery in patients with operation. In this study, the benefit of postoperative short term MCT diet support was investigated for non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection. Methods A prospective study was planned with the approval of our institutional review board. 117 lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection in a single medical group between December 2015 and March 2016 were randomized. 62 patients were applied a MCT diet. and 55 patients in the control group who were fed with only normal diet, and the serum albumin levels, anus exhaust time, chest drainage, chest drainage time, the hospitalization time of post operation, average hospital cost were analysed. Results The mean anus exhaust time in MCT group [(27.87±14.38 h] was significantly shorter than that in RDG group [(45.18±8.62 h] (P<0.001; The mean chest tube drainage time in MCT group [(75.40±48.41 h] were less than that in RDG group [(110.64±94.19 h] (P=0.025. The mean chest tube drainage volume in MCT group [395 mL] were less than that in RDG group [590 mL] (P=0.027. The hospitalization time of post operation was (5.26±2.96 d in MCT group against (6.73±3.99 d in RGD group (P=0.030. The serum albumin levels of postoperative in MCT group [(37.26±2.70 g/L] was significantly higher than that in RDG group [(35.92±3.12 g/L] (P=0.023. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that postoperative short term MCT diet is beneficial in postoperative gastrointestinal function fast recovered and shorten the hospitalization time in non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery.

  10. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  11. Effects of short-term Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Zbigniew Marcin; Skrobot, Wojciech; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Cesnaitiene, Vida Janina; Smaruj, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in women with osteoporosis. However, the impact of Nordic walking training on sarcopenia-related parameters in women with low bone mass remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 12 weeks of Nordic walking training on skeletal muscle index, muscle strength, functional mobility, and functional performance in women with low bone mass. Materials and methods The participants were 45 women, aged 63–79 years, with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, three times a week) or to a control group. Skeletal muscle mass and other body composition factors were measured with octapolar bioimpedance InBody 720 analyser. Knee extensor and flexor isometric muscle strength were measured using Biodex System 4 Pro™ dynamometers. This study also used a SAEHAN Digital Hand Dynamometer to measure handgrip muscle strength. The timed up-and-go test was used to measure functional mobility, and the 6-minute walk test was used to measure functional performance. Results Short-term Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.007), skeletal muscle index (P=0.007), strength index of the knee extensor (P=0.016), flexor (P<0.001), functional mobility (P<0.001), and functional performance (P<0.001) and a significant decrease in body mass (P=0<006), body mass index (P<0.001), and percent body fat (P<0.001) in participants. Regarding handgrip muscle strength, no improvement was registered (P=0.315). No significant changes in any of the analyzed parameters were observed in the control group. Conclusion Overall, short-term Nordic walking training induces positive changes in knee muscle strength and functional performance in women with low bone mass. This finding could be applied in clinical

  12. Decompression alone versus decompression with instrumented fusion for young patients with single-level lumbar disc herniation:a short-term prospective comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuoran; Li Weishi; Chen Zhongqiang; Guo Zhaoqing; Qi Qiang; Zeng Yan; Sun Chuiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background For young patients,the surgical method for lumbar disc herniation remains controversial.The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the short-term clinical outcome after surgery for young patients with lumbar disc herniation.Methods In this prospective comparative study between April 2010 and August 2011,a total of 80 patients underwent primary surgery at a single level for lumbar disc herniation.The patients were divided into two groups:decompression alone and decompression with instrumented fusion.An independent examiner clinically evaluated the patients at preoperation and at 1,3,6,and 12 months after surgery.The patients filled out the instruments for back and leg pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS),Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI),and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores.The differences between the two groups were analyzed.Results The mean age of all the patients at the time of surgery was 33.7 years.Of the 80 patients,38 patients underwent decompression alone and 42 patients underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion.Increasing complexity of surgery was associated with a longer surgery time,greater blood loss,and a longer hospital stay after surgery.Both methods of surgery independently improved outcomes compared with baseline status based on VAS,ODI,and JOA scores (P <0.05),and no significant differences were found between the two groups at most of the measuring points in time,although patients with decompression alone had a higher JOA score (P=0.016) and higher JOA recovery rate (P=0.010) at the 3-month follow-up.Conclusions The short-term results of our study showed that both methods of surgery obtained effective clinical outcomes,but decompression alone had some advantages (shorter surgery time,less blood loss,shorter hospital stay,and lower cost) compared with decompression with instrumented fusion.Young patients with decompression alone could achieve great physical function earlier.

  13. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and copeptin to predict short-term prognosis of COPD exacerbations: a multicenter prospective blinded study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dres, Martin; Hausfater, Pierre; Foissac, Frantz; Bernard, Maguy; Joly, Luc-Marie; Sebbane, Mustapha; Philippon, Anne-Laure; Gil-Jardiné, Cédric; Schmidt, Jeannot; Maignan, Maxime; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background Exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD) are a frequent cause of emergency room (ER) visits. Predictors of early outcome could help clinicians in orientation decisions. In the current study, we investigated whether mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and copeptin, in addition to clinical evaluation, could predict short-term outcomes. Patients and methods This prospective blinded observational study was conducted in 20 French centers. Patients admitted to the ER for an ECOPD were considered for inclusion. A clinical risk score was calculated, and MR-proADM and copeptin levels were determined from a venous blood sample. The composite primary end point comprised 30-day death or transfer to the intensive care unit or a new ER visit. Results A total of 379 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 277 were eventually investigated for the primary end point that occurred in 66 (24%) patients. In those patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) MR-proADM level was 1.02 nmol/L (0.77–1.48) versus 0.83 nmol/L (0.63–1.07) in patients who did not meet the primary end point (P=0.0009). In contrast, copeptin levels were similar in patients who met or did not meet the primary end point (P=0.23). MR-proADM levels increased with increasing clinical risk score category: 0.74 nmol/L (0.57–0.89), 0.83 nmol/L (0.62–1.12) and 0.95 nmol/L (0.75–1.29) for the low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories, respectively (P<0.001). MR-proADM was independently associated with the primary end point (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.48; P=0.015). MR-proADM predicted the occurrence of primary end point with a sensitivity of 46% (95% CI, 33%–58%) and a specificity of 79% (95% CI, 74–84). Conclusion MR-proADM but not copeptin was significantly associated with outcomes at 30 days, even after adjustment for clinical risk category. Overall, MR-proADM, alone or combined with the clinical risk score, was a moderate strong predictor of short-term

  14. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  15. Prospective, noncomparative, nonrandomized case study of short-term outcomes of 360° suture trabeculotomy ab interno in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Sato,1 Akira Hirata,2 Takanori Mizoguchi31Sato Eye Clinic, Arao City, Kumamoto, 2Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, 3Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: In this paper, we describe 360° suture trabeculotomy (360°LOT ab interno and the short-term course in patients who underwent this procedure.Methods: We prospectively studied 12 patients (12 eyes with open-angle glaucoma who underwent 360°LOT ab interno at the Sato Eye Clinic between February and July 2014. The surgical procedure involved making a 1.7 mm temporal corneal incision, exposing an approximately 15° opening in the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal (nasal side using a Trabectome with a gonioscope, and inserting a 5-0 nylon suture rounded at the tip into Schlemm’s canal opened via the anterior chamber. The suture was then threaded around Schlemm’s canal, and the tip of the suture that emerged on the other side was then advanced through the opening to make a circumferential incision. Intraocular pressure (IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications used, complications, and the surgery completion rate were prospectively studied.Results: Mean IOP, which was 19.4 mmHg at baseline, showed a significant decrease at each of the monthly observation points, reaching 13.8 mmHg at 6 months after surgery (P=0.0004, paired t-test. The mean number of anti-glaucoma medications decreased from 3.2 at baseline to 1.1 at 6 months after surgery. IOP spikes ≥30 mmHg were seen in 25% of patients, but there were no other serious complications and the surgery completion rate was 92%.Conclusion: The 360°LOT ab interno procedure preserves the conjunctiva and sclera, and has a high surgery completion rate when using the anterior chamber approach, and could therefore be an effective short-term treatment of open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: non-penetrating surgery, intraocular pressure, Schlemm’s canal, corneal incision, Trabectome

  16. Study on the short-term effects of increased alcohol and cigarette consumption in healthy young men’s seminal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Cruz, Daniel; Gomes, Mariana; Correia, Bárbara Regadas; Freitas, Maria João; Sousa, Luís; Silva, Vladimiro; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have reported a negative impact of lifestyle factors on testicular function, spermatozoa parameters and pituitary-gonadal axis. However, conclusions are difficult to draw, since studies in the general population are rare. In this study we intended to address the early and late short-term impact of acute lifestyle alterations on young men’s reproductive function. Thirty-six healthy male students, who attended the Portuguese academic festivities, provided semen samples and answered questionnaires at three time-points. The consumption of alcohol and cigarette increased more than 8 and 2 times, respectively, during the academic festivities and resulted in deleterious effects on semen quality: one week after the festivities, a decrease on semen volume, spermatozoa motility and normal morphology was observed, in parallel with an increase on immotile spermatozoa, head and midpiece defects and spermatozoa oxidative stress. Additionally, three months after the academic festivities, besides the detrimental effect on volume, motility and morphology, a negative impact on spermatozoa concentration was observed, along with a decrease on epididymal, seminal vesicles and prostate function. This study contributed to understanding the pathophysiology underlying semen quality degradation induced by acute lifestyle alterations, suggesting that high alcohol and cigarette consumption are associated with decreased semen quality in healthy young men. PMID:28367956

  17. Diet Quality Index as a predictor of short-term mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Calle, Eugenia E; Flagg, Elaine W; Coates, Ralph J; Ford, Earl S; Thun, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was developed to measure overall dietary patterns and to predict chronic disease risk. This study examined associations between DQI and short-term all-cause, all-circulatory-disease, and all-cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a cohort of US adults aged 50-79 years enrolled in a prospective study. After 4 years of follow-up (1992-1996), there were 869 deaths among 63,109 women and 1,736 deaths among 52,724 men. All study participants reported being disease free at baseline in 1992-1993. In age-adjusted Cox models, a higher DQI, which was indicative of a poorer quality diet, was positively related to all-cause and all-circulatory-disease mortality rates in both women and men and to cancer mortality in men only. However, in fully adjusted Cox models, only circulatory disease mortality was clearly positively related to DQI and only in women (medium-low-quality diet vs. highest-quality diet: rate ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.89). Although trend tests indicated significant positive relations between DQI and all-cause mortality, effects were small (rate ratios

  18. Comparison of short-term efficacy of iron sucrose with those of ferric chloride in hemodialysis patients: An open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Jen Hsiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is intriguing and imperative that the comparison of the iron preparations in hemodialysis (HD patients. This study aimed to observe the short-term efficacy of parenteral iron sucrose and ferric chloride in HD patients . Materials and Methods: This was a consecutive 10-week single-blind study in Taiwan. An intravenous iron supplement of 100 mg/week was administered as an infusion in 100 ml of normal saline, until a total dose of 1000 mg was achieved. The primary outcome was evaluated by the changes in serum hematocrit (Hct levels. The changes in serum Hct and iron indices were evaluated every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The results were collected from 21 April to 4 July 2013. Results: A total of 56 HD patients completed the study. Subjects were randomized into an iron sucrose group (26 patients and a ferric chloride group (30 patients. Between the two treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the change in serum Hct, ferritin, iron, or total iron binding capacity (P > 0.05. In the iron sucrose group, the increase in Hct levels was statistically significant at weeks 4, 8, and 10. In the ferric chloride group, the increase in Hct levels was statistically significant at week 8. No obvious major side effects were observed in both groups. Conclusion: In the study subjects, parenteral iron sucrose was as effective and safe as ferric chloride for treating anemia in HD patients.

  19. Prognostic indicators influencing short term outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic indicators influencing short term outcomes among operated head injury patients ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... indicators for short term outcomes in operated head injury patients at KCMC.

  20. Short-term growth in asthmatic children using fluticasone propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, MJ; van Aalderen, WMC; Elliott, BM; Odink, RJ; Brand, PLP

    1998-01-01

    Background: Inhaled corticosteroids may reduce short-term growth velocity in asthmatic children and knemometry is the most sensitive tool to detect this short-term growth suppression. Study objective: To compare lower leg growth velocity, as measured by knemometry, in asthmatic children during and a

  1. Comparison of Sugammadex and Neostigmine in Short Term Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (

  2. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re-search...

  3. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): a multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-09-01

    Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia.

  4. A short-term study to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of arsenic in Asian willow (Salix sp.) from arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcai; Zou, Xiaoli; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Owens, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Five Asian willow species (Salix jiangsuensis J172, Salix matsudana, Salix integra Yizhibi, Salix integra Weishanhu, and Salix mongolica) were evaluated for their potential for phytofiltration of arsenic (As) from synthetically contaminated waters. Arsenic accumulation, tolerance, uptake influx, and phytofiltration ability of the five willow species were examined under hydroponic conditions in a glasshouse. Short-term exposure (2 weeks) to solutions containing 80 μmol L(-1) arsenate (As(V)), resulted in significant accumulation of As in all willow species. Arsenic concentration in plant roots ranged from 322 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) for S. matsudana to 604 mg kg(-1) (DW) for S. integra Yizhibi. S. integra Yizhibi decreased As(V) concentration in water from 3.87 to 1.89 μmol L(-1) (290 to 142 μg L(-1)) over 168 h, which is 50 % of the total As(V) in the solution. The results suggested that even though Asian willow was not a traditional aquatic species, it still had significant potential for phytofiltration of As from contaminated waters. Of the five willow species studied, S. integra Yizhibi had the greatest capacity to remove As from As-contaminated waters. Thus, Asian willow has significant potential for the phytofiltration of As and may also be suitable for practical phytoremediation of As in highly water-logged areas.

  5. Systolic and diastolic short-term blood pressure variability and its determinants in patients with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengo, Martino F; Rossitto, Giacomo; Bisogni, Valeria; Piazza, Daniele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Pessina, Achille C; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2015-04-01

    Absolute blood pressure (BP) values are not the only causes of adverse cardiovascular consequences. BP variability (BPV) has also been demonstrated to be a predictor of mortality for cardiovascular events; however, its determinants are still unknown. This study considers 426 subjects with ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) measuring 24-h, diurnal and nocturnal absolute BP values and their standard deviations of the mean, along with nocturnal fall, age, sex and current treatment. Patients were divided in two subgroups, controlled and uncontrolled BP, and BPV of patients with "true" and "false" resistant hypertension was also analyzed. Nocturnal and 24-h BPV were higher in the group with uncontrolled hypertension. Multiple regression analysis showed that absolute BP, age, nocturnal fall, but not sex predicted BPV. Patients with "true" resistant hypertension had greater BPV than "false" resistant hypertension patients. Absolute BP resulted as the main determinant of 24-h and nocturnal BPV but not daytime BPV. Also nocturnal BP fall and age resulted as predictors of BPV in treated and untreated patients. Patients with "true" resistant hypertension have a higher BPV, suggesting a higher sympathetic activation. Evidence is still limited regarding the importance of short-term BPV as a prognostic factor and assessment of BPV cannot yet represent a parameter for routine use in clinical practice. Future prospective trials are necessary to define which targets of BPV can be achieved with antihypertensive drugs and whether treatment-induced reduction in BPV is accompanied by a corresponding reduction in cardiovascular events.

  6. Short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer: A multi-center retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Min; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guang Hui; Wei, Zhigang [Dept. of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan (China); Fan, Wei Jun [Imaging and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Kaixian [Dept. of Oncology, Teng Zhou Central People' s Hospital Affiliated with Jining Medical College, Tengzhou (China); Bi, Jing Wang [Dept. of Oncology, Jinan Military General Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Jinan (China)

    2016-11-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer.

  7. Assessment of Multiple Risk Outcomes, Strengths, and Change with the START:AV: A Short-Term Prospective Study with Adolescent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; Beneteau, Jennifer L.; Gulbransen, Erik; Brodersen, Etta; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Cruise, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV; Nicholls, Viljoen, Cruise, Desmarais, & Webster, 2010; Viljoen, Cruise, Nicholls, Desmarais, & Webster, in preparation) is a clinical guide designed to assist in the assessment and management of adolescents’ risk for adverse events (e.g., violence, general offending, suicide, victimization). In this initial validation study, START:AV assessments were conducted on 90 adolescent offenders (62 male, 28 female), who were prospectively followed for a 3-month period. START:AV assessments had good to excellent inter-rater reliability and strong concurrent validity with Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth assessments (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006). START:AV risk estimates and Vulnerability total scores predicted multiple adverse outcomes, including violence towards others, offending, victimization, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. In addition, Strength total scores inversely predicted violence, offending, and street drug use. During the 3-month follow-up, risk estimates changed in at least one domain for 92% of youth, and 27% of youth showed reliable changes in Strength and/or Vulnerability total scores (reliable change index, 90% confidence interval; Jacobsen & Truax, 1991). While these findings are promising, a strong need exists for further research on the START:AV, the measurement of change, and on the role of strengths in risk assessment and treatment-planning. PMID:23436983

  8. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  9. Short-Term Outcomes and Safety of Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Solitary Adrenal Metastasis from Lung Cancer: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Min; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Kaixian; Bi, Jingwang; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Results Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. PMID:27833402

  10. Comparison of the Short-Term Forecasting Accuracy on Battery Electric Vehicle between Modified Bass and Lotka-Volterra Model: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunxi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential demand of battery electric vehicle (BEV is the base of the decision-making to the government policy formulation, enterprise manufacture capacity expansion, and charging infrastructure construction. How to predict the future amount of BEV accurately is very important to the development of BEV both in practice and in theory. The present paper tries to compare the short-term accuracy of a proposed modified Bass model and Lotka-Volterra (LV model, by taking China’s BEV development as the case study. Using the statistics data of China’s BEV amount of 21 months from Jan 2015 to Sep 2016, we compare the simulation accuracy based on the value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and discuss the forecasting capacity of the two models according to China’s government expectation. According to the MAPE value, the two models have good prediction accuracy, but the Bass model is more accurate than LV model. Bass model has only one dimension and focuses on the diffusion trend, while LV model has two dimensions and mainly describes the relationship and competing process between the two populations. In future research, the forecasting advantages of Bass model and LV model should be combined to get more accurate predicting effect.

  11. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  12. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  13. Long short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-11-15

    Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient-based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. LSTM is local in space and time; its computational complexity per time step and weight is O(1). Our experiments with artificial data involve local, distributed, real-valued, and noisy pattern representations. In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms.

  14. A Study of the Effects of Variation of Short-Term Memory Load, Reading Response Length, and Processing Hierarchy on TOEFL Listening Comprehension Item Performance. Report 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Grant

    Criticisms of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) have included speculation that the listening test places too much burden on short-term memory as compared with comprehension, that a knowledge of reading is required to respond successfully, and that many items appear to require mere recall and matching rather than higher-order…

  15. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1 There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2 Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3 Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  16. A Case Study of Short-term Wave Forecasting Based on FIR Filter: Optimization of the Power Production for the Wavestar Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Short-term wave forecasting plays a crucial role for the control of a wave energy converter (WEC), in order to increase the energy harvest from the waves, as well as to increase its life time. In the paper it is shown how the surface elevation of the waves and the force acting on the WEC can be p...

  17. Adjunct modafinil for the short-term treatment of fatigue and sleepiness in patients with major depressive disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBattista, Charles; Doghramji, Karl; Menza, Matthew A; Rosenthal, Murray H; Fieve, Ronald R

    2003-09-01

    Fatigue and sleepiness are primary symptoms of depression that may not resolve with antidepressant therapy. Modafinil is a novel agent that has been shown to improve wakefulness and lessen fatigue in a variety of conditions. In this study, we examined the utility of modafinil as an adjunct therapy to treat fatigue and sleepiness in patients with major depression who are partial responders to antidepressants. Patients with partial response to anti-depressant therapy given for at least a 6-week period for a current major depressive episode (DSM-IV criteria) were enrolled in this 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study. Patients received once-daily doses (100-400 mg) of modafinil or matching placebo as adjunct treatment to ongoing antidepressant therapy. The effects of modafinil were evaluated using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. One hundred thirty-six patients were randomized to treatment, with 118 patients (87%) completing the study. Most patients (82%) were fatigued, and one half of patients (51%) were sleepy. Modafinil rapidly improved fatigue and daytime wakefulness, with significantly greater mean improvements from baseline than placebo in fatigue (FSS) scores at week 2 (p < .05) and sleepiness (ESS) scores at week 1 (p < .01); the differences between modafinil and placebo at week 6 were not statistically significant. Assessment of the augmentation effects of modafinil (HAM-D, CGI-C, and SF-36) did not significantly distinguish modafinil from placebo. Modafinil was well tolerated in combination with a variety of antidepressants. Modafinil may be a useful adjunct therapy for the short-term management of residual fatigue and sleepiness in patients who are

  18. The effect of aortic coarctation surgical repair on QTc and JTc dispersion in severe aortic coarctation newborns: a short-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, G; Russo, V; Rago, A; Papa, A A; Cioppa, N D; Scarpati, C; Palladino, T; Corcione, A; Sarubbi, B; Caianiello, G; Russo, M G

    2014-01-01

    Sudden death is a possible occurrence for newborns younger than 1 year with severe aortic coarctation (CoA) before surgical correction. In our previous study, we showed a significant increase of QTc-D and JTc-D in newborns with isolated severe aortic coarctation, electrocardiographic parameters that clinical and experimental studies have suggested could reflect the physiological variability of regional and ventricular repolarization and could provide a substrate for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of surgical repair of CoA on QTc-d, JTc-d in severe aortic coarctation newborns with no associated congenital cardiac malformations. The study included 30 newborns (18M; 70+/-12 h old) affected by severe congenital aortic coarctation, without associated cardiac malformations. All newborns underwent to classic extended end-to-end repair. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed in each patient 24 h before and 24 h after the interventional procedure and at the end of the follow-up period, 1 month after the surgical correction. All patients at baseline, 24 h and one month after CoA surgical repair did not significantly differ in terms of heart rate, weight, height, and echocardiographic parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in QTc-D (111.7+/-47.4 vs 111.9+/-63.8 ms vs 108.5+/-55.4 ms; P=0.4) and JTc-D (98.1+/-41.3 vs 111.4+/-47.5 vs 105.1+/-33.4 ms; P=0.3) before, 24 h and 1 month after CoA surgical correction. In conclusions, our study did not show a statistically significant decrease in QTc-D and JTc-D, suggesting the hypothesis that the acute left ventricular afterload reduction, related to successful CoA surgical correction, may not reduce the ventricular electrical instability in the short-term follow-up.

  19. Transfer of manualized Short Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP for social phobia into clinical practice: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leweke Frank

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychodynamic psychotherapy is frequently applied in the treatment of social phobia. Nevertheless, there has been a lack of studies on the transfer of manualized treatments to routine psychodynamic practice. Our study is the first one to examine the effects of additional training in a manualized Short Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (STPP procedure on outcome in routine psychotherapy for social phobia. This study is an extension to a large multi-site RCT (N = 512 comparing the efficacy of STPP to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT of Social Phobia. Methods/Design The manualized treatment is designed for a time limited approach with 25 individual sessions of STPP over 6 months. Private practitioners will be randomized to training in manualized STPP vs. treatment as usual without a specific training (control condition. We plan to enrol a total of 105 patients (84 completers. Assessments will be conducted before treatment starts, after 8 and 15 weeks, after 25 treatment sessions, at the end of treatment, 6 months and 12 months after termination of treatment. The primary outcome measure is the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Remission from social phobia is defined scoring with 30 or less points on this scale. Discussion We will investigate how the treatment can be transferred from a controlled trial into the less structured setting of routine clinical care. This question represents Phase IV of psychotherapy research. It combines the benefits of randomized controlled and naturalistic research. The study is genuinely designed to promote faster and more widespread dissemination of effective interventions. It will answer the questions whether manualized STPP can be implemented into routine outpatient care, whether the new methods improve treatment courses and outcomes and whether treatment effects reached in routine psychotherapeutic treatments are comparable to those of the controlled, strictly manualized treatment of the main study

  20. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units: Results of an Italian Multicenter Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting.

  1. Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Bosnes, Ole; Bosnes, Ingunn; Stordal, Eystein

    2017-05-09

    Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on income from employment and employment status: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Montgomery, Scott M; Bottai, Matteo; Heyman, Mats; Hovén, Emma I

    2017-04-01

    There is insufficient knowledge regarding the economic impact of childhood cancer on parents. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on mothers' and fathers' income from employment and employment status. The study sample consisted of the parents of children diagnosed with cancer from 2004 to 2009 in Sweden (3626 parents of 1899 children). Annual register data concerning income from employment and employment status (employed/not employed) were retrieved from the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labor Market Studies. Using generalized linear models, the mean income from employment and employment status were compared with a matched control cohort of 34,874 parents sampled from the general population. Parents' income was found to decrease significantly after the child's cancer diagnosis. The effect was most pronounced for mothers, whose income was reduced for 6 years after diagnosis, whereas fathers' income was similar to that of control fathers 3 years after the diagnosis. Mothers were more likely to stop working after a child's cancer diagnosis compared with controls. No association was found for fathers' employment status. Younger age of parents; lower level of education; and, among mothers, being born outside of Sweden were found to be associated with more adverse effects on income. Parents' income from employment and employment status appear to be adversely affected by having a child with cancer. Socioeconomic consequences are not distributed equally: the income of fathers appears to catch up after a few years, whereas mothers tend to be disadvantaged in their professional life for several years after a child's cancer diagnosis. Cancer 2017;123:1238-1248. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and European airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret E; Pryor, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is standard treatment for airway clearance in the USA and has recently been introduced in the UK and Europe. There is little published research comparing HFCWO with airway clearance techniques (ACTs) frequently used in the UK and Europe. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of HFCWO with usual ACTs in patients with cystic fibrosis hospitalised with an infective pulmonary exacerbation. Methods A 4-day randomised crossover design was used. Patients received either HFCWO on days 1 and 3 and usual ACTs on days 2 and 4 or vice versa. Wet weight of sputum, spirometry and oxygen saturation were measured. Perceived efficacy, comfort, incidence of urinary leakage and preference were assessed. Data were analysed by mixed model analysis. Results 29 patients (72% male) of mean (SD) age 29.4 (8.4) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) percentage predicted (FEV1%) 38 (16.7) completed the study. Significantly more sputum was expectorated during a single treatment session and over a 24 h period (mean difference 4.4 g and 6.9 g, respectively) with usual ACTs than with HFCWO (p<0.001). No statistically significant change in FEV1% or oxygen saturation was observed after either HFCWO or usual ACTs compared with baseline. 17 patients (55%) expressed a preference for their usual ACT. Conclusions During both a finite treatment period and over 24 h, less sputum was cleared using HFCWO than usual ACT. HFCWO does not appear to cause any adverse physiological effects and may influence adherence. PMID:19703826

  4. The PreViBOSS project: study the short term predictability of the visibility change during the Fog life cycle, from surface and satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Ramon, D.; Gomes, L.; Brunet, F.; Vrac, M.; Yiou, P.; Hello, G.; Petithomme, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fog prejudices major activities as transport and Earth observation, by critically reducing atmospheric visibility with no continuity in time and space. Fog is also an essential factor of air quality and climate as it modifies particle properties of the surface atmospheric layer. Complexity, diversity and the fine scale of processes make uncertain by current numerical weather prediction models, not only visibility diagnosis but also fog event prediction. Extensive measurements of atmospheric parameters are made on the SIRTA since 1997 to document physical processes over the atmospheric column, in the Paris suburb area, typical of an environment intermittently under oceanic influence and affected by urban and industrial pollution. The ParisFog field campaign hosted in SIRTA during 6-month in winter 2006-2007 resulted in the deployment of instrumentation specifically dedicated to study physical processes in the fog life cycle: thermodynamical, radiative, dynamical, microphysical processes. Analysis of the measurements provided a preliminary climatology of the episodes of reduced visibility, chronology of processes was delivered by examining time series of measured parameters and a closure study was performed on optical and microphysical properties of particles (aerosols to droplets) during the life cycle of a radiative fog, providing the relative contribution of several particle groups to extinction in clear-sky conditions, in haze and in fog. PreViBOSS is a 3-year project scheduled to start this year. The aim is to improve the short term prediction of changes in atmospheric visibility, at a local scale. It proposes an innovative approach: applying the Generalised Additive Model statistical method to the detailed and extended dataset acquired at SIRTA. This method offers the opportunity to explore non linear relationships between parameters, which are not yet integrated in current numerical models. Emphasis will be put on aerosols and their impact on the fog life

  5. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study

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    Byalakere R Chandrashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S and Plaque index (PI scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.

  6. Study on Very Short-Term Power Forecasting of Wind Farm%风电场超短期风功率预测问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易跃春; 马月; 王霁雪; 李桂敏; 秦潇; 陈文凯

    2013-01-01

    Taking a wind farm in Hebei Province as case study,the very short-term forecasting of wind power is studied by using artificial neural network method,in which,the historical output of wind turbine,actual wind speed and the wind speed and direction obtained from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) are taken as input factors.The results show that the difference between input factors has greater impact on wind power prediction,the impact of historical output of wind turbine on wind power prediction is gradually decreased with the increase of operation time,and the forecasting accuracy of wind power in next 3 h and more mainly depends on the accuracy of NWP data.%以河北省某实际风电场为例,选取风电机组历史功率数据、风速以及数值天气预报的风速和风向作为输入因子,采用人工神经网络法对风电场超短期功率预测问题进行研究.研究结果显示,输入因子的差异性对风功率预测结果影响较大.另外,风电机组历史数据对功率预测结果的影响随时间增加而减小,进行3h以上风电场功率预测时预测结果精度在很大程度上依赖数值天气预报数据精度.

  7. Effects of SO/sub 2/ or NOx on toxic and genotoxic properties of chemical carcinogens. II. Short term in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, B.L.; Brendler, S.; Klein, R.G.; Monarca, S.; Pasquini, R.; Schmezer, P.; Zeller, W.J.

    1988-07-01

    Short term in vivo studies were performed to study biological effects of the common air pollutants SO2 or NOx and their influence on the genotoxic activities of nitrosamines. Hepatocytes and lung cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats which had inhaled 50 p.p.m. of SO2 or NOx for 2 weeks. After incubating the cells for 1 h, genotoxicity was determined in hepatocytes by measuring DNA single-strand breaks induced by N-nitroso-acetoxymethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Parameters of toxicity (trypan blue exclusion and leakage of serum enzymes) were determined in both liver and lung cells also following 1 h incubation. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-D) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from lung and liver tissues. Finally, as a measure of overall toxicity, the activities of various serum enzymes were determined in the blood serum of the rats. It was found that the induction of DNA single-strand breaks by three nitrosamines was decreased in hepatocytes from SO2-treated animals. The viability of rat hepatocytes and of rat lung cells, as determined by trypan blue exclusion, was similar in all three treatment groups immediately after isolation, as well as after 1 h incubation with DMSO or with the nitrosamines. In contrast, the leakage of enzymes was different in hepatocytes of SO2-treated rats, since lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased. Leakage of enzymes from the lung cells did not differ from group to group, but was lower than from hepatocytes. Foreign compound metabolizing enzymes were mainly decreased in NOx-treated animals, namely AHH, NDMA-D and GST in liver and GST in the lung. For SO2-treated animals NDMA-D was increased in liver and GST was decreased in lung.

  8. Short-term effects of liraglutide on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, and food preference: a pilot study of obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Inoue Kana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI; 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire. Results Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index. Conclusions Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Short-term effects of three chest physiotherapy regimens in patients hospitalized for pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis: a cross-over randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggion, C; Cappelletti, L M; Cornacchia, M; Zanolla, L; Mastella, G

    1995-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the short-term efficacy of three different chest physiotherapy (CPT) regimens (PD, postural drainage; PEP, positive expiratory pressure physiotherapy; HFCC, high-frequency chest compression physiotherapy) on patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized for an acute pulmonary exacerbation. Sixteen patients with CF, 8 males, 8 females, aged 15-27 years (mean, 20.3 +/- 4), met the inclusion criteria: 1) age over 14 years; 2) mild or moderate airway obstruction; 3) sputum volume > 30 mL/day; 4) being proficient in PD and PEP CPT. Patients at admission had (mean +/- SD) forced volume in 1 second (FEV1) 52.2 +/- 21.9 percent predicted; Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score 65.1 +/- 11 points; Chrispin-Norman chest radiography score 18.6 +/- 4.3 points. The three CPT regimens and a control-treatment (CONT) were administered in a random sequence, each patient receiving each treatment twice a day (in 50 minute sessions) for 2 consecutive days. During CONT and for 30 minutes after each session only spontaneous coughing was allowed. Wet and dry weight of sputum were recorded during the 50-minute sessions and 30 minutes afterward. Lung function was measured before and 30 minutes after each session. For each treatment a score was given by the patient for efficacy, and by both the patient and the physiotherapist for tolerance. Wet and dry weights of sputum collected during the sessions were greater for all CPT regimens than for CONT (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). No significant differences between the three CPT regimens for both wet and dry weights were found when the number of coughs was taken into account.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  11. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis and Plasmodium falciparum anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion in a prospective cohort study of Dutch short-term travelers.

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    Sanne-Meike Belderok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of short-term travelers assessing the incidence rate of anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion, adherence to chemoprophylaxis, symptoms of malaria during travel, and malaria treatment abroad. METHODS: Adults were recruited from the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam. They kept a structured daily travel diary and donated blood samples before and after travel. Blood samples were serologically tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum anti-circumsporozoite antibodies. RESULTS: Overall, the incidence rate (IR of anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion was 0.8 per 100 person-months. Of 945 travelers, 620 (66% visited high-endemic areas and were advised about both chemoprophylaxis and preventive measures against mosquito bites. Most subjects (520/620 = 84% took at least 75% of recommended prophylaxis during travel. Travel to Africa, use of mefloquine, travel duration of 14-29 days in endemic areas, and concurrent use of DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide were associated with good adherence practices. Four travelers without fever seroconverted, becoming anti-circumsporozoite antibody-positive. All four had been adherent to chemoprophylaxis; two visited Africa, one Suriname, one India. Ten subjects with fever were tested for malaria while abroad and of these, three received treatment. All three were adherent to chemoprophylaxis and tested negative for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies. CONCLUSION: Travel to Africa, using mefloquine, travel duration of 14-29 days in endemic areas, and use of DEET were associated with good adherence to chemoprophylaxis. The combination of chemoprophylaxis and other preventive measures were sufficient to protect seroconverting travelers from clinical malaria. Travelers who were treated for malaria abroad did not seroconvert.

  12. Usefulness of magnifying endoscopy in post-endoscopic resection scar for early gastric neoplasm: A prospective short-term follow-up endoscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Hoon Lee; Il-Kwun Chung; Ji-Young Park; Chang Kyun Lee; Suck-Ho Lee; Hong Soo Kim; Sang-Heum Park; Sun-Joo Kim; Hyun-Deuk Cho; Young Hwangbo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between postendoscopic resection (ER) scars on magnifying endoscopy (ME) and the pathological diagnosis in order to validate the clinical significance of ME.METHODS: From January, 2007 to June, 2008, 124 patients with 129 post-ER scar lesions were enrolled. Mucosal pit patterns on ME were compared with conventional endoscopy (CE) findings and histological results obtained from targeted biopsies.RESULTS: CE findings showed nodular scars (53/129),erythematous scars (85/129), and ulcerative scars (4/129). The post-ER scars were classified into four pit patterns of sulci and ridges on ME: (Ⅰ) 47 round; (Ⅱ)54 short rod or tubular; (Ⅲ) 19 branched or gyrus-like;and (Ⅳ) 9 destroyed pits. Sensitivity and specificitywere 88.9% and 62.5%, respectively, by the presence of nodularity on CE. Erythematous lesions were high sensitivity (100%), but specificity was as low as 36.7%. The range of the positive predictive value (PPV) on CE was as low as 10.6%-25%. Nine type Ⅳpit patterns were diagnosed as tumor lesions, and 120cases of type Ⅰ-Ⅲ pit patterns revealed non-neoplastic lesions. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and the PPV of ME were 100%.CONCLUSION: ME findings can detect the presence of tumor in post-ER scar lesions, and make evident the biopsy target site in short-term follow-up. Further large-scale and long-term studies are needed to determine whether ME can replace endoscopic biopsy.

  13. MRI for short-term follow-up of acute pulmonary embolism. Assessment of thrombus appearance and pulmonary perfusion: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, Alexander; Gerriets, Tibo; Bachman, George [Kerckhoff Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Lange, Uwe [Kerckhoff Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Kerckhoff Heart Center, Department of Rheumatology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Tha aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI for short-term follow-up examinations in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and to assess temporal changes of pulmonary perfusion and thrombus characteristics that may be helpful in determining thrombus age. Thirty-three patients (15 female, 18 male, mean age 59.4 years) with acute PE were examined initially and 1 week later using both 16-row computed tomography (CT) and MRI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), real-time MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) pulmonary perfusion imaging. MRA and MR pulmonary perfusion used contrast-enhanced 3D flash sequences, and real-time MRI used true fast imaging with steady-state precession sequences (repetition time/echo time 3.1/1.5, bandwidth 975 Hz, 256 matrix size, acquisition time 0.4 s per image) in three orthogonal planes. Follow-up examinations were feasible for all patients. Diagnosis of PE was concordant between MRI and CT in all patients. The signal intensity of embolic material increased after 1 week for real-time MRI [132{+-}5 vs. 232{+-}22 (standard error of the mean), p<0.001], but not significantly for MRA. MR pulmonary perfusion of areas affected by PE increased (area under the curve initially 9.6{+-}7.4, at follow-up 40.7{+-}7.6, p<0.001). A decreasing time-to-peak in normal lung areas (15.7{+-}0.96 and 13.2{+-}0.55, respectively, p<0.05) indicated systemic circulatory effects of PE, and subsiding pulmonary artery obstruction improved arterial inflow for the entire lung. Follow-up examinations of patients with acute PE are feasible with MRI, and a relation between thrombus appearance and thrombus age can be implied. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of hearing results following the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses in stapes surgery: a retrospective controlled study reporting short-term postoperative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Péter; Szanyi, István; Ráth, Gábor; Bocskai, Tímea; Lujber, László; Piski, Zalán; Karosi, Tamás; Gerlinger, Imre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the 3-month postoperative hearing results following laser stapedotomy with the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses (31 and 39 patients, respectively). The operations were performed between September 2012 and September 2014, and between March 2006 and December 2012 regarding NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. Twenty of the consecutive 31 patients were female and 11 were male for NiTiBOND, while 11 were male and 28 were female for Nitinol. The mean age was 43.8 years (range 22-61) and 46.9 years (range 28-83) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. No significant cochlear trauma was documented postoperatively. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 3-month postoperative follow-up was 7.6 dB (SD 4.7), and 9.3 dB (SD 4.1) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. The differences between the mean pre- (p = 0.179), and postoperative (p = 0.059) ABG of the two groups were not significant. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.4 and 59 % for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively, the difference was not significant (p = 0.10). Two cases of delayed facial paralysis occurred, 1 with Nitinol and 1 with the NiTiBOND. All patients attained an ABG <20 dB following surgery. Laser stapedotomy with the application of either heat-memory piston prosthesis allowed an easy and minimally invasive approach with excellent short-term hearing results when the NiTiBOND prosthesis was applied. Laser application allowed manipulation in a bloodless environment and avoided manual crimping of the incus.

  15. Nitrogen assimilation and short term retention in a nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marsh – a whole ecosystem 15N enrichment study

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    B. Gribsholt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An intact tidal freshwater marsh system (3477 m2 was labelled by adding 15N-ammonium as a tracer to the flood water inundating the ecosystem. The appearance and retention of 15N-label in different marsh components (leaves, roots, sediment, leaf litter and invertebrate fauna was followed over 15 days. This allowed us to elucidate the direct assimilation and dependence on creek-water nitrogen on a relatively short term and provided an unbiased assessment of the relative importance of the various compartments within the ecosystem. Two separate experiments were conducted, one in spring/early summer (May 2002 when plants were young and building up biomass; the other in late summer (September 2003 when macrophytes were in a flowering or early senescent state. Nitrogen assimilation rate (per hour inundated was >3 times faster in May compared to September. On both occasions, however, the results clearly revealed that the less conspicuous compartments such as leaf litter and ruderal vegetations are more important in nitrogen uptake and retention than the prominent reed (Phragmites australis meadows. Moreover, short-term nitrogen retention in these nutrient rich marshes occurs mainly via microbial pathways associated with the litter and sediment. Rather than direct uptake by macrophytes, it is the large reactive surface area provided by the tidal freshwater marsh vegetation that is most crucial for nitrogen transformation, assimilation and short term retention in nutrient rich tidal freshwater marshes. Our results clearly revealed the dominant role of microbes in initial nitrogen retention in marsh ecosystems.

  16. Nitrogen assimilation and short term retention in a nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marsh - a whole ecosystem 15N enrichment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribsholt, B.; Struyf, E.; Tramper, A.; de Brabandere, L.; Brion, N.; van Damme, S.; Meire, P.; Dehairs, F.; Middelburg, J. J.; Boschker, H. T. S.

    2007-01-01

    An intact tidal freshwater marsh system (3477 m2) was labelled by adding 15N-ammonium as a tracer to the flood water inundating the ecosystem. The appearance and retention of 15N-label in different marsh components (leaves, roots, sediment, leaf litter and invertebrate fauna) was followed over 15 days. This allowed us to elucidate the direct assimilation and dependence on creek-water nitrogen on a relatively short term and provided an unbiased assessment of the relative importance of the various compartments within the ecosystem. Two separate experiments were conducted, one in spring/early summer (May 2002) when plants were young and building up biomass; the other in late summer (September 2003) when macrophytes were in a flowering or early senescent state. Nitrogen assimilation rate (per hour inundated) was >3 times faster in May compared to September. On both occasions, however, the results clearly revealed that the less conspicuous compartments such as leaf litter and ruderal vegetations are more important in nitrogen uptake and retention than the prominent reed (Phragmites australis) meadows. Moreover, short-term nitrogen retention in these nutrient rich marshes occurs mainly via microbial pathways associated with the litter and sediment. Rather than direct uptake by macrophytes, it is the large reactive surface area provided by the tidal freshwater marsh vegetation that is most crucial for nitrogen transformation, assimilation and short term retention in nutrient rich tidal freshwater marshes. Our results clearly revealed the dominant role of microbes in initial nitrogen retention in marsh ecosystems.

  17. Effect of short-term unloading on T2 relaxation time in the lumbar intervertebral disc—in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study at 3.0 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzeneder, David; Kovács, Balázs K.; Goed, Sabine; Welsch, Goetz H.; Hirschfeld, Clemens; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Friedrich, Klaus M.; Mamisch, Tallal C.; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Background context Diurnal changes in T2 values, indicative for changes in water content, have been reported in the lumbar intervertebral discs. However, data concerning short-term T2 changes are missing. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of unloading on T2 values in lumbar intervertebral discs in vivo. Study design Experimental study with repeated measurements of lumbar discs T2 relaxation time during a period of 38 minutes of supine posture. Patient sample Forty-one patients with acute or chronic low back pain (visual analog scale ≥3). Outcome measures T2 relaxation time in the intervertebral disc, lumbar lordosis angle, and intervertebral disc height. Methods Forty-one patients (mean age, 41.6 years) were investigated in the supine position using a 3-tesla magnetic resonance system. Sagittal T2 mapping was performed immediately after unloading and after a mean delay of 38 minutes. No patient movement was allowed between the measurements. One region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF) and three ROIs in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Results There was a statistically significant decrease in the anterior NP (−2.7 ms; p<.05) and an increase in T2 values in the posterior AF (+3.5 ms; p<.001). Discs with initially low T2 values in the NP showed minor increase in the posterior AF (+1.6 ms; p<.05), whereas a major increase in the posterior AF was found in discs with initially high T2 values in the NP (+6.8 ms; p=.001). Patients examined in the morning showed no differences, but those investigated in the afternoon showed a decrease in the anterior NP (−5.3 ms; p<.05) and an increase in the posterior AF (+7.8 ms; p=.002). No significant differences were observed in other regions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between the time of investigation and T2 changes in the posterior AF (r=0.46; p=.002). Conclusions A shift of water from the anterior to

  18. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/56e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary H Morland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators.

  19. Using closed plots to study runoff and soil loss after controlled-fire. Short-term response in South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Plots have been widely used to study runoff and soil loss worldwide in many different ecosystems and land uses. Also, this method have been applied in ecosystems affected by natural fires. Likewise, in some studies, plots with natural vegetation were burnt in controlled fires to evaluate their response in runoff generation and soil loss. It is well-known that fires generally reduce the soil organic matter content; increase the soil water repellency; reduce the infiltration rates; modify the soil structure; and disturb the soil aggregate stability. The removal of vegetation and the degradation of soil structure, results in an increase in soil erodibility. These changes mainly result in a reduction in soil infiltration rates and an increase in soil erosion, which have been reported throughout the different Mediterranean areas after forest fires. This study deals with the runoff generation and soil loss processes from closed plots after a controlled-fire at short-term. The El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover, and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011 May. After this, runoff and sediment were collected in every rainfall events using 200 litres collectors. The study period is from 2011 May to 2013 November. Also, a meteorological station and soil moisture probes (5, 10 and 25 cm depth) were installed in every closed-plot. After every rain event, runoff was measured in the collectors and an aliquot sample was taken to calculate the soil loss in laboratory by heating at 105 ºC. In summary, results indicate that runoff were generated during the same rain events in both set of plots. However mean runoff rate was higher in the burnt set (0.46 mm h-1) than in the control one (0.34 mm h-1). Differences in runoff generation between both of them were not observed for the extreme rainfall events

  20. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  1. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Michael; Sidler, Jan A; Lakatos, Botond; Frei, Reno; Dangel, Marc; Weisser, Maja; Battegay, Manuel; Widmer, Andreas F

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection is associated with considerable mortality. Experimental models suggest a direct antistaphylococcal effect of acetylsalicylic acid, but evidence from human studies is scarce. We aimed to estimate the effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid therapy on mortality in bloodstream infections caused by S. aureus compared with Escherichia coli. Retrospective cohort study based on observational data from 838 and 602 episodes of S. aureus and E. coli bloodstream infection, respectively. Swiss tertiary referral center. Adult patients with S. aureus and E. coli bloodstream infection, respectively, categorized according to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid therapy as outpatient or inpatient before bacteremia. None. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was analyzed in a total of 314 propensity score-matched S. aureus bloodstream infection and in 268 E. coli bloodstream infection patients, respectively (1:1 match of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid users and nonusers). S. aureus bloodstream infection cases and controls were equally matched for relevant confounders except treatment with statins, which was strongly associated with a low-dose acetylsalicylic acid use (p < 0.001). At day 30, 12.1% of cases and 27.4% of controls had died (hazard ratio, 0.40; p < 0.001). Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid use was associated with a reduced 30-day all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.69; p = 0.001) of matched patients and also of the entire cohort (n = 689) after adjustment for the propensity score (hazard ratio, 0.58, 95% CI, 0.34-0.98; p = 0.04). In contrast, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid use was not associated with the primary endpoint in patients with E. coli bloodstream infection (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.40-1.55; p = 0.8). Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid at the time of bloodstream infection was strongly associated with a reduced short-term mortality in patients with S. aureus bloodstream infection. Future

  2. Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    This is a summary of a 5-year short-term study that evolved into 28 years of long-term research on the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service's Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The study was begun in 1982 by Forest Service Research Scientists Thomas H. Nicholls and Frank G. Hawksworth to determine the importance of mammal and bird vectors in the long-...

  3. Does a single gait training session performed either overground or on a treadmill induce specific short-term effects on gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Zory, Raphael; Bensmail, Djamel; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Gait training for patients with hemiparesis is carried out independently overground or on a treadmill. Several studies have shown differences in hemiparetic gait parameters during overground versus treadmill walking. However, few studies have compared the effects of these 2 gait training conditions on gait parameters, and no study has compared the short-term effects of these techniques on all biomechanical gait parameters. To determine whether a gait training session performed overground or on a treadmill induces specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis. Twenty-six subjects with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to a single session of either overground or treadmill gait training. The short-term effects on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters were assessed using gait analysis before and immediately after the training and after a 20-minute rest. Speed, cadence, percentage of single support phase, peak knee extension, peak propulsion, and braking on the paretic side were significantly increased after the gait training session. However, there were no specific changes dependent on the type of gait training performed (overground or on a treadmill). A gait training session performed by subjects with hemiparesis overground or on a treadmill did not induce specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters. The increase in gait velocity that followed a gait training session seemed to reflect specific modifications of the paretic lower limb and adaptation of the nonparetic lower limb.

  4. Clarithromycin is absorbed by an intestinal uptake mechanism that is sensitive to major inhibition by rifampicin: results of a short-term drug interaction study in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jette; Eggers, Karen; Oswald, Stefan; Block, Wiebke; Lütjohann, Dieter; Lämmer, Marc; Venner, Monica; Siegmund, Werner

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary penetration of clarithromycin (CLR) in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALCs) can be influenced by CYP3A4, by P-glycoprotein, and, according to our hypothesis, by a member of the organic anion-transporting protein (OATP) family, for which rifampicin (RIF) is inhibiting in single doses but inducing after long-term coadministration. To assess the partial inhibitory effect, we measured absorption and pulmonary distribution of CLR after short-term (2.5-day) coadministration of RIF, after which up-regulation is not expected. The drug interaction study was performed with five doses (12-h interval) of CLR (7.5 mg/kg) and RIF (10 mg/kg) in nine healthy foals; horse transporters are very similar in protein sequence and transcriptional regulation to the human analogs. RIF was equally distributed in ELF but reached half the plasma levels in BALCs. The deacetylated metabolite accumulated 1.4- to 6-fold in ELF and 8- to 60-fold in BALCs. CLR did not significantly influence the distribution of RIF. CLR and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14OH-CLR) accumulated approximately 20- to 40-fold and 1.5- to 4.5-fold in ELF and 300- to 1800-fold and 25- to 90-fold in BALCs, respectively. With RIF, plasma levels of CLR decreased by more than 70% without changes in 14OH-CLR formation, the half-lives of CLR and 14OH-CLR, and the 4β-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio (a surrogate for CYP3A4 induction). CLR was an inhibitor of OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 9.50 ± 3.50 μM), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 46.0 ± 2.27 μM), OATP1A2 (IC(50) = 92.6 ± 1.49 μM), and OATP2B1 (IC(50) = 384 ± 5.30 μM) but was not a substrate for these transporters in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. In conclusion, despite having no significant inducing effects, RIF decreased plasma levels of CLR below the minimal inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of growth of pathogenic bacteria, most likely through inhibition of an unknown intestinal uptake transporter.

  5. Prognostic relevance of the interaction between short-term, metronome-paced heart rate variability, and inflammation: results from the population-based CARLA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel; Swenne, Cees A; Loppnow, Harald; Kors, Jan A; Pietzner, Diana; Tiller, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin H; Haerting, Johannes; Werdan, Karl; Kluttig, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To determine the interaction between HRV and inflammation and their association with cardiovascular/all-cause mortality in the general population. Subjects of the CARLA study (n = 1671; 778 women, 893 men, 45-83 years of age) were observed for an average follow-up period of 8.8 years (226 deaths, 70 cardiovascular deaths). Heart rate variability parameters were calculated from 5-min segments of 20-min resting electrocardiograms. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) were measured as inflammation parameters. The HRV parameters determined included the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), the root-mean-square of successive normal-interval differences (RMSSD), the low- and high-frequency (HF) power, the ratio of both, and non-linear parameters [Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2), short-term detrended fluctuation analysis]. We estimated hazard ratios by using covariate-adjusted Cox regression for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporating an interaction term of HRV/inflammation parameters. Relative excess risk due to interactions (RERIs) were computed. We found an interaction effect of sTNF-R1 with SDNN (RERI: 0.5; 99% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-1.0), and a weaker effect with RMSSD (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) and HF (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) with respect to cardiovascular mortality on an additive scale after covariate adjustment. Neither IL-6 nor hsCRP showed a significant interaction with the HRV parameters. A change in TNF-α levels or the autonomic nervous system influences the mortality risk through both entities simultaneously. Thus, TNF-α and HRV need to be considered when predicating mortality. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Nitrogen assimilation and short term retention in a nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marsh – a whole ecosystem 15N enrichment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brion

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two (May 2002 and September 2003 pulse additions of 15NH4+ to the flood water inundating a tidal freshwater marsh fringing the nutrient-rich Scheldt River (Belgium and traced the fate of ammonium in the intact ecosystem. Here we report in detail the 15N uptake into the various marsh components (leaves, roots, sediment, leaf litter and invertebrate fauna, and the 15N retention on a scale of 15 days. We particularly focus on the contributions of the rooted macrophytes and the microbial community in the sediment and on plant litter. Assimilation and short term retention of 15NH4+ was low on both occasions. Only 4–9% of the added 15N trace was assimilated, corresponding to 13–22% and 8–18% of the processed 15N (i.e. not exported as 15NH4+ in May and September, respectively. In May nitrogen assimilation rate (per hour inundated was >3 times faster than in September. Macrophytes (above- and below ground were of limited importance for short term 15N retention accounting for <6% of the total 15NH4+ processed by the marsh. The less dominant herbaceous species were more important (on an area basis than the dominant reed (Phragmites australis. The microbial community colonizing the sediment and litter surfaces were responsible for most nitrogen assimilation and short-term retention in the marsh. The large reactive surface area available for microbial colonization together with direct plant uptake, are the crucial components for nitrogen assimilation, retention and transformation in nutrient-rich tidal freshwater marshes.

  7. A Case Study of Short-term Wave Forecasting Based on FIR Filter: Optimization of the Power Production for the Wavestar Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Short-term wave forecasting plays a crucial role for the control of a wave energy converter (WEC), in order to increase the energy harvest from the waves, as well as to increase its life time. In the paper it is shown how the surface elevation of the waves and the force acting on the WEC can...... be predicted using FIR filter. The predictors have been validated in laboratory with unidirectional regular and irregular waves. Here a single point absorber, (1:20) scale of the Wavestar device, is used. The results show that it is possible to predict wave and forces acting on the device using a properly...

  8. Short-term managerial contracts facilitate cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how a series of commonly observed short-term CEO employment contracts improves cartel stability compared to a long-term contract. When a manager’s short-term appointment is renewed if and only if the firm hits a certain profit target, then (a) defection from collusion results in sup

  9. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  10. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...... and Cavanagh (2004) have raised the question that the capacity of VSTM is dependent on visual complexity rather than the number of objects. We hypothesise that VSTM capacity is dependent on both the objective and subjective complexity of visual stimuli. Contrary to Alvarez and Cavanagh, who argue for the role...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children learning...

  11. Effects of Hyponatremia Normalization on the Short-Term Mortality and Rehospitalizations in Patients with Recent Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchis, Renato; Di Maio, Marco; Di Biase, Giuseppina; Ariano, Carmelina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and death in patients with heart failure. In these studies, chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with persistent hyponatremia were compared only with CHF patients with a normal sodium level at hospital admission. Aims: In the present retrospective study, conducted in a cohort of patients with recent acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), all with hyponatremia ascertained at the time of hospital admission, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the normalization of serum sodium on the composite endpoint of short-term rehospitalization and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study centered on medical records of patients hospitalized for ADHF in the period April 2013 to April 2016 was performed. Data regarding serum sodium measurements had to be collected from medical records of cardiology wards of two hospitals, and were then processed for statistical analysis. As an inclusion criterion for enrollment, patients had to be suffering from heart failure that had required at least one hospitalization. Moreover, they had to be suffering from a state of hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mEq/L) at admission on the occasion of the index hospitalization. Patients with hyponatremia at admission were divided into two groups, one comprising patients with hyponatremia that persisted at the time of discharge (persistent hyponatremia) and a second including patients who had achieved normalization of their serum sodium levels (serum Na+ ≥ 135 mEq/L) during hospitalization until discharge. For both groups, the risk of mortality and rehospitalization during a 30-day follow-up was assessed. Results: One hundred and sixty CHF patients with various degrees of functional impairment were enrolled in the study. Among them, 56 (35%) had persistent hyponatremia over the course of hospitalization. At multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, the risk of having a 30

  12. Effects of Hyponatremia Normalization on the Short-Term Mortality and Rehospitalizations in Patients with Recent Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato De Vecchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and death in patients with heart failure. In these studies, chronic heart failure (CHF patients with persistent hyponatremia were compared only with CHF patients with a normal sodium level at hospital admission. Aims: In the present retrospective study, conducted in a cohort of patients with recent acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF, all with hyponatremia ascertained at the time of hospital admission, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the normalization of serum sodium on the composite endpoint of short-term rehospitalization and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study centered on medical records of patients hospitalized for ADHF in the period April 2013 to April 2016 was performed. Data regarding serum sodium measurements had to be collected from medical records of cardiology wards of two hospitals, and were then processed for statistical analysis. As an inclusion criterion for enrollment, patients had to be suffering from heart failure that had required at least one hospitalization. Moreover, they had to be suffering from a state of hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mEq/L at admission on the occasion of the index hospitalization. Patients with hyponatremia at admission were divided into two groups, one comprising patients with hyponatremia that persisted at the time of discharge (persistent hyponatremia and a second including patients who had achieved normalization of their serum sodium levels (serum Na+ ≥ 135 mEq/L during hospitalization until discharge. For both groups, the risk of mortality and rehospitalization during a 30-day follow-up was assessed. Results: One hundred and sixty CHF patients with various degrees of functional impairment were enrolled in the study. Among them, 56 (35% had persistent hyponatremia over the course of hospitalization. At multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, the risk of

  13. Short-term Outcomes following Concussion in the NFL: An 11-year Retrospective Study of Player Release Rate and Financial Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem; Navarro, Sergio Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to assess the short-term outcomes among National Football League (NFL) players following concussion in terms of: (1) DNP protocol activation, (2) release rate at one and three years, and (3) mean salary reduction. A secondary goal of the study was to stratify the post-concussive release rate by franchise and player position. Methods: NFL player transaction records and publicly available weekly injury reports from August 2005 to January 2016 for NFL players were analyzed. All players immediately sustaining recorded concussions were evaluated for a change to inactive or do-not-play (DNP) status. The one-year and three-year release rate following concussion was defined as any player transitioning to inactivation, retirement, free agency, or any failure to return for a successive season on the same team’s active roster after one or three years from the initial concussion. Student’s t-test was used to compare release rates between non-concussed and concussed players at one and three years. Mean salary reduction per year following concussion was calculated using publicly available player contracts. Additionally, franchise-level and position-based analyses of the release rate were performed. Results: Of the total 5,451 NFL players retrospectively analyzed over the 11-year period, 373 sustained publicly reported concussions resulting in DNP protocol activation. The release rate of the post-concussive versus non-concussive player was 26% vs. 20% at 1 year (p<0.01) and 31% vs. 19% at 3 years (p<0.01). After analyzing individual player contracts, the mean year-over-year change in contract value for concussed players after DNP protocol activation was an overall salary reduction of $760,000/year ± $2,380,000. Figure 1 depicts the tendency of each NFL franchise to release an athlete following concussion within one and three years. Table 1 reports a position-based analysis in terms of concussion rate, mean salary reduction, and

  14. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use by Breastfeeding HIV-Uninfected Women: A Prospective Short-Term Study of Antiretroviral Excretion in Breast Milk and Infant Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP becomes more widely used in heterosexual populations, an important consideration is its safety in infants who are breastfed by women taking PrEP. We investigated whether tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted into breast milk and then absorbed by the breastfeeding infant in clinically significant concentrations when used as PrEP by lactating women.We conducted a prospective short-term, open-label study of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate PrEP among 50 HIV-uninfected breastfeeding African mother-infant pairs between 1-24 wk postpartum (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02776748. The primary goal was to quantify the steady-state concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in infant plasma ingested via breastfeeding. PrEP was administered to women through daily directly observed therapy (DOT for ten consecutive days and then discontinued thereafter. Non-fasting peak and trough samples of maternal plasma and breast milk were obtained at drug concentration steady states on days 7 and 10, and a single infant plasma sample was obtained on day 7. Peak blood and breast milk samples were obtained 1-2 h after the maternal DOT PrEP dose, while maternal trough samples were obtained at the end of the PrEP dosing interval (i.e., 23 to 24 h after maternal DOT PrEP dose. Tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS assays. Of the 50 mother-infant pairs enrolled, 48% were ≤12 wk and 52% were 13-24 wk postpartum, and median maternal age was 25 y (interquartile range [IQR] 22-28. During study follow-up, the median (IQR daily reported frequency of infant breastfeeding was 15 times (12 to 18 overall, 16 (14 to 19 for the ≤12 weeks, and 14 (12 to 17 for the 13-24 wk infant age groups. Overall, median (IQR time-averaged peak concentrations in breast milk were 3.2 ng/mL (2.3 to 4.7 for tenofovir and 212.5 ng/mL (140.0 to 405.0 for

  15. [Arthroscopic transcapsular iliopsoas tenotomy from the peripheral versus the central compartment in internal snapping hip syndrome. Short-term results of a prospective randomised study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Cibulková, J; Kormunda, S; Koudela, K; Nepraš, P; Matějka, J

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective randomised study, the short-term results of arthroscopic transcapsular iliopsoas tenotomy approached from the peripheral versus the central compartment for internal snapping hip syndrome are presented. A group of 19 patients (15 women and four men; mean age, 24.3 years) who underwent arthroscopic transcapsular iliopsoas tenotomy for internal snapping hip syndrome in the period between September 2010 and December 2011 were prospectively evaluated. No injury, hip surgery or feeling of hip instability was recorded in their personal histories. Radiographs did not show any dysplasia, retroversion of the acetabulum or cam lesions. The patients were allocated to two groups using sealed envelope randomisation: Group 1 patients (n=10) were treated by tenotomy from the peripheral compartment and group 2 patients (n=9) underwent tenotomy from the central compartment during traction of the lower extremity. The evaluation included pre-operative 3T MRI findings, arthroscopically detected intra-articular lesions, duration of traction and post-operative complications. The pre-operative WOMAC scores were compared with those at one-year follow-up. In comparison of the two groups, the Mann-Whitney exact test was used for WOMAC scores and Fisher's exact test for post-operative complications. Statistical significance was set at a 0.05 level. In comparing post-operative complications, a significant difference (p=0.0468) between the groups was found only for genital paresthesia, which did not occur in group 1. The other differences were not statistically significant. The pre-operative WOMAC scores did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.79). The post-operative WOMAC scores were significantly higher in group 1 (p=0.02). In each group the change in WOMAC scores was different and was statistically significant in group 1 (p=0.0014). Associated intra-articular hip pathologies, most frequently synovitis of the peripheral compartment, acetabular chondropathy, or

  16. Can the Gulf Stream induce coherent short-term fluctuations in sea level along the US East Coast? A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal

    2016-02-01

    Much attention has been given in recent years to observations and models that show that variations in the transport of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and in the Gulf Stream (GS) can contribute to interannual, decadal, and multi-decadal variations in coastal sea level (CSL) along the US East Coast. However, less is known about the impact of short-term (time scales of days to weeks) fluctuations in the GS and their impact on CSL anomalies. Some observations suggest that these anomalies can cause unpredictable minor tidal flooding in low-lying areas when the GS suddenly weakens. Can these short-term CSL variations be attributed to changes in the transport of the GS? An idealized numerical model of the GS has been set up to test this proposition. The regional model uses a 1/12° grid with a simplified coastline to eliminate impacts from estuaries and small-scale coastal features and thus isolate the GS impact. The GS in the model is driven by inflows/outflows, representing the Florida Current (FC), the Slope Current (SC), and the Sargasso Sea (SS) flows. Forcing the model with an oscillatory FC transport with a period of 2, 5, and 10 days produced coherent CSL variations from Florida to the Gulf of Maine with similar periods. However, when imposing variations in the transports of the SC or the SS, they induce CSL variations only north of Cape Hatteras. The suggested mechanism is that variations in GS transport produce variations in sea level gradient across the entire GS length and this large-scale signal is then transmitted into the shelf by the generation of coastal-trapped waves (CTW). In this idealized model, the CSL variations induced by variations of ˜10 Sv in the transport of the GS are found to resemble CSL variations induced by ˜5 m s-1 zonal wind fluctuations, though the mechanisms of wind-driven and GS-driven sea level are quite different. Better understanding of the relation between variations in offshore currents and CSL will help

  17. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  19. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  20. Fine-scale refuges can buffer demographic and genetic processes against short-term climatic variation and disturbance: a 22-year case study of an arboreal marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lorin, Thibault; Shaw, Robyn E; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J; Smith, Annabel L; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-08-01

    Ecological disturbance and climate are key drivers of temporal dynamics in the demography and genetic diversity of natural populations. Microscale refuges are known to buffer species' persistence against environmental change, but the effects of such refuges on demographic and genetic patterns in response to short-term environmental variation are poorly understood. We quantified demographic and genetic responses of mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami) to rainfall variability (1992-2013) and to a major wildfire. We hypothesized that there would be underlying differences in demographic and genetic processes between an unburnt mesic refuge and a topographically exposed zone that was burnt in 2009. Fire caused a 2-year decrease in survival in the burnt zone, but the population grew after the fire due to immigration, leading to increased expected heterozygosity. We documented a fire-related behavioural shift, where the rate of movement by individuals in the unburnt refuge to the burnt zone decreased after fire. Irrespective of the fire, there were long-term differences in demographic and genetic parameters between the mesic/unburnt refuge and the nonmesic/burnt zone. Survival was high and unaffected by rainfall in the refuge, but lower and rainfall-dependent in the nonmesic zone. Net movement of individuals was directional, from the mesic refuge to the nonmesic zone, suggesting fine-scale source-sink dynamics. There were higher expected heterozygosity (HE ) and temporal genetic stability in the refuge, but lower HE and marked temporal genetic structure in the exposed habitat, consistent with reduced generational overlap caused by elevated mortality and immigration. Thus, fine-scale refuges can mediate the short-term demographic and genetic effects of climate and ecological disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analyzing Short-Term Disability Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houff, James N.; Wiatrowski, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau of Labour Statistics has combined data on sick leave and sickness and accident insurance. Results show that short-term disability benefits vary by length of service and between the private and public sectors. (Author)

  2. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program for Reducing Selected Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Individuals Living in Rural Appalachia: A Pilot Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Drozek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Western chronic diseases are closely tied to lifestyle behaviors, and many are preventable. Despite the well-distributed knowledge of these detrimental behaviors, effective efforts in disease prevention have been lacking. Many of these chronic diseases are related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, which have doubled in incidence during the last 35 years. The Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP is a community-based, comprehensive lifestyle modification approach to health that has shown success in addressing this problem. This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of CHIP in an underserved, rural, and vulnerable Appalachian population. Two hundred fourteen participants in CHIP collectively demonstrated significant reductions in body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose. If these results can be repeated in other at-risk populations, CHIP has the potential to help reduce the burden of preventable and treatable chronic diseases efficiently and cost-effectively.

  3. Region-time-length algorithm and its application to the study of intermediate-short term earthquake precursor in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海昆; 侯海峰; 周焕鹏; 周翠英

    2004-01-01

    The Region-Time-Length Algorithm (RTL algorithm) is introduced and improved in the paper. Compared with the original definition, the influence of rupture length on RTL function is emphasized and the weights of epicentral distance function, time function, and rupture length function are ensured to be equal. The retrospective examinations of RTL algorithm in North China have indicated that the anomalies obtained by the improved RTL algorithm show the short or intermediate-short term precursory features in most cases. There are two types of RTL anomalous patterns before the main shock. For the Ⅰ-type, the variation pattern of the VRTL, numerical values of the VRTL(x,y, z, t) function, is complete and most of them have shown the changing pattern of "rising from 0 → turning →dropping" or "dropping from 0 → turning → rising". For the Ⅱ-type, the variation pattern of VRTL is not complete,which increases or decreases quickly from 0 and there is no evident turning, the main shock generally occurs in the short period around the peak VRTL. The rising of VRTL indicates an increase of seismic activity relative to the background level, which means the enhancement of seismic activity, while the dropping of VRTL indicates the decrease of seismic activity relative to the background level, which represents the seismic quiescence to a certain extent.According to statistical examination results of RTL algorithm in North China, the methods to distinguish the intermediate and short-term anomalies and to estimate the occurrence time of the coming main shock are given in the paper. For both Ⅰ and Ⅱ-type RTL anomalies, the R-value, i.e., the forecasting score, is about 0.6 and 0.3 for the 3months forecasting period and about 0.7 and 0.4 for the 6 months forecasting period. The preliminary discussion is also made for the influences of characteristic time-span to, characteristic distance r0, and threshold magnitude Mo on computation of VRTL, as well as some other significant

  4. Short-Term Vitreoretinal Tamponade with Heavy Liquid Following Surgery for Giant Retinal Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiger-Moscovich, Maya; Gershoni, Assaf; Axer-Siegel, Ruth; Weinberger, Dov; Ehrlich, Rita

    2017-07-01

    To study the efficacy and outcomes of short-term postoperative vitreoretinal tamponade with perfluorocarbon heavy liquid in patients with giant retinal tear. The study group consisted of 13 consecutive patients (13 eyes) who presented with giant retinal tear at a tertiary medical center in 2011-2015 and were treated with vitrectomy followed by short-term tamponade with perfluorocarbon heavy liquid. A minimum of 3 months' follow-up was required for inclusion. The medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, procedural specifics, anatomical attachment rates, pre- and postoperative visual acuity, and postoperative complications. The duration of perfluorocarbon tamponade ranged from 6 to 13 days (mean ± SD 10 ± 2 days). Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 44 months (mean ± SD 11 ± 11 months). Retinal reattachment was achieved intraoperatively in all patients. Repeated detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy occurred in one patient (8%), who underwent repeated vitrectomies. At the last follow-up visit, the retina was attached in all patients. Best-corrected visual acuity improved postoperatively compared with preoperatively in all three patients with macula-off retinal detachment (100%) and was equal to or better than the initial best-corrected visual acuity in 6 (60%) of the 10 patients with macula-on retinal detachment. Complications included increased intraocular pressure, cataract, and cystoid macular edema. Perfluorocarbon heavy liquid is a safe and effective material for short-term vitreoretinal tamponade following vitrectomy for giant retinal tear.

  5. Effects of estrogen on low density lipoprotein metabolism in males. Short-term and long-term studies during hormonal treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M.; Berglund, L.; Rudling, M.; Henriksson, P.; Angelin, B. (Karolinska Institute, Huddinge (Sweden))

    1989-09-01

    To characterize the effects of estrogen treatment on the metabolism of LDL we studied six males with metastatic prostatic carcinoma before and during the initiation of therapy; a repeated study was performed in five participants after 3-6 mo of treatment. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of autologous {sup 125}I-LDL was calculated both from elimination curves of plasma radioactivity and from urine/plasma (U/P) radioactivity ratios. Within 1-2 d of onset of estrogen therapy a more rapid decay of plasma radioactivity occurred, and FCR measured from U/P ratios increased by 20%. Concomitantly, LDL cholesterol levels decreased by 16%. After 3-6 mo of treatment FCR determined by both techniques was almost doubled, and LDL cholesterol was reduced by 34%. This occurred despite a 29% increase in the calculated synthesis rate of LDL. Tissue culture studies demonstrated that the receptor affinity of LDL isolated from patients on long-term estrogen therapy was reduced. We conclude that a profound increase in LDL catabolism is induced through administration of pharmacological doses of estrogen in males, and hypothesize that this is the consequence of an increased expression of hepatic LDL receptors. This enhanced catabolism of LDL leaves LDL particles in plasma with lower affinity for the LDL receptor.

  6. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger Susanne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA and computer addiction (CA in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. Methods/design This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA. The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. Discussion A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589

  7. Study of the short-term release of the ionic fraction of heavy metals from dental amalgam into synthetic saliva, using anodic stripping voltammetry with microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Gavino; Pilo, Maria I; Piu, Paola C; Spano, Nadia; Tapparo, Andrea; Campus, Guglielmo G; Seeber, Renato

    2002-11-12

    The present paper describes a fast and reproducible procedure, employing differential pulse stripping analysis technique with graphite microelectrodes, for the quantitative evaluation of the ionic fraction of heavy metals (namely Hg, Cu, and Zn) released from dental amalgams into synthetic saliva during 6-90 h contact between amalgam and saliva, after completion of the dental restoration (short-term release). The Zn(2+) concentration was evaluated by linear calibration, whereas Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) contents were estimated by the standard additions method. While the concentration of Zn(2+) ion does not increase significantly anymore after a 6-h contact (values from 288+/-12 to 346+/-12 mugdm(-3) at time of contact from 6 to 90 h, respectively), in the same time interval the concentration of both Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) ions progressively increases (from 38+/-6 to 197+/-4 mugdm(-3) and from 15+/-3 to 101+/-2 mugdm(-3), respectively). The results of the release tests reveal that Hg concentration is at the highest level of risk (HBM III), as identified by the three human biomonitoring categories suggested by the Institut für Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene des Umweltbundesamtes (Germany) for the estimation of potential harmful effects on health due to exposure to heavy metals.

  8. Short-term clinical outcomes of laser supported periodontal treatment concept using Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm): a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor, Alin A.; Violant, Deborah; Badea, Victoria; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Backgrounds: Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers can be used adjacent to the conventional periodontal treatment as minimally invasive non-surgical devices. Aim: To describe the short-term clinical outcomes by combining Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode 940 nm lasers in non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients with periodontal disease (mild, moderate, severe) - 233 teeth and 677 periodontal pockets ranging from 4 mm to 12 mm - were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers in adjunct to manual and piezoelectric scaling and root planning (SRP). Periodontal parameters such as mean probing depth (PD), mean clinical attachment level (CAL) and mean bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after the laser treatment using an electronic periodontal chart. Results: At baseline, the mean PD was 4.06 ± 1.06 mm, mean CAL was 4.56 ± 1.43 mm, and mean BOP was 43.8 ± 23.84 %. At 6 months after the laser supported periodontal treatments the mean PD was 2.6 ± 0.58 mm (p periodontal clinical parameters such as PD, CAL and BOP. Keywords: Laser supported periodontal treatment concept, Er,Cr:YSGG and diode 940nm lasers, Scaling and root planning, Minimally invasive non-surgical device

  9. Effects of Liraglutide Combined with Short-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weijian; Liu, Liehua; Liu, Juan; Chen, Ailing; Deng, Wanping; Zhang, Pengyuan; Cao, Xiaopei; Liao, Zhihong; Xiao, Haipeng; Liu, Jianbin; Li, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of liraglutide in combination with short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy on glycemic control and beta cell function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirty-nine eligible newly diagnosed T2DM patients were recruited and randomized to receive either of two therapies: short-term CSII alone (CSII alone group) or CSII in combination with liraglutide (CSII + Lira group) for 12 weeks. Blood glucose control, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices, and acute insulin response (AIR) were compared between the two groups. The patients in CSII + Lira group achieved euglycemia with equivalent insulin dosage in shorter time (1 (0) versus 2 (3) days, P = 0.039). HbA1c at the end of study was comparable between two groups (6.3 ± 0.7% versus 6.0 ± 0.5%, for CSII alone group and CSII + Lira group, resp., P = 0.325). The increment of AIR was higher in CSII + Lira group (177.58 (351.57) μU · min/mL versus 58.15 (51.30) μU · min/mL, P < 0.001). However, after stopping liraglutide, its effect on beta cell function disappeared completely. Liraglutide combined with short-term CSII was effective in further improving beta cell function, but the beneficial effects did not sustain after suspension of the therapy.

  10. The Effect of a Short-Term High-Intensity Circuit Training Program on Work Capacity, Body Composition, and Blood Profiles in Sedentary Obese Men: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26% males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants’ heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW, and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P<0.05. Data analyses revealed significant (P<0.05 improvements in resting HR (16% decrease, systolic BP (5.5% decrease, TW (50.7%, fat tissue percentage (3.6%, lean muscle tissue percentage (2%, cholesterol (13%, triacylglycerol (37%, and insulin (18% levels from before to after HICT program. Overall, sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise.

  11. The effect of a short-term high-intensity circuit training program on work capacity, body composition, and blood profiles in sedentary obese men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew B; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Cahill, Farrell; McCarthy, Heather; Stratton, Shane B D; Noftall, Jennifer C; Buckle, Steven; Basset, Fabien A; Sun, Guang; Button, Duane C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT) program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26%) males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants' heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW), and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise.

  12. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  13. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  14. An experimental study on short-term changes in the anaerobic oxidation of methane in response to varying methane and sulfate fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wegener

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A major role in regulation of global methane fluxes has been attributed to the process of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM, which is performed by consortia of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria. An important question remains how these energy limited, slow growing microorganisms with generation times of 3–7 months respond to rapid natural variations in methane fluxes at cold seeps. We used an experimental flow-through column system filled with cold seep sediments naturally enriched in methanotrophic communities, to test their responses to short-term variations in methane and sulfate fluxes. At stable methane and sulfate concentrations of ~2 mM and 28 mM, respectively, we measured constant rates of AOM and sulfate reduction (SR for up to 160 days of incubation. When percolated with methane-free medium, the anaerobic methanotrophs ceased to produce sulfide. After a starvation phase of 40 days, the addition of methane restored former AOM and SR rates immediately. At methane concentrations between 0–2.3 mM we measured a linear correlation between methane availability, AOM and SR. At constant fluid flow velocities of 30 m yr−1, ca. 50% of the methane was consumed by the anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME population at all concentrations tested. Reducing the sulfate concentration from 28 to 1 mM, a decrease in AOM and SR by 50% was observed, and 45% of the methane was consumed. Hence, the marine anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME are capable of oxidizing substantial amounts of methane over a wide and variable range of fluxes of the reaction educts.

  15. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  16. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......-linkage cohort study. All cancer patients, diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 from a 470 000 large population, were followed individually from diagnosis to death or until 31 December 2008. Long-term survivors lived five years or more after the time of the cancer diagnosis (TOCD). Short-term survivors died less than...... five years after TOCD. Results. The cohort comprised 24 162 incident cancer patients with 41% long-term survivors (N = 9813). Seventy percent of the cohort was 60 + years at TOCD. The 14 349 short-term survivors' median survival was 0.6 year, and 78% died less than two years after TOCD. A 12 years...

  17. Short-term and working memory impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the potential short-term atmospheric and biospheric influence of Gamma Ray Bursts on the Earth. We focus in the ultraviolet flash at the planet's surface, which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the $\\gamma$ radiation through the atmosphere. This would be the only important short-term effect on life. We mostly consider Archean and Proterozoic eons, and for completeness we also comment on the Phanerozoic. Therefore, in our study we consider atm...

  19. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16......,404 Danish workers in the reinforced plastics industry who were hired between 1978 and 1985 and were followed to the end of 1988. Preemployment hospitalization histories for 1977-1984 were ascertained and were related to length of employment between 1978 and 1988. Workers who had been hospitalized prior...... to employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...

  20. Altered Activation in Cerebellum Contralateral to Unilateral Thalamotomy May Mediate Tremor Suppression in Parkinson’s Disease: A Short-Term Regional Homogeneity fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jielan; Dai, Jiankun; Lin, Fuchun; Wu, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Background Ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease tremor. However, its mechanism is still unclear. Purpose We used resting-state fMRI to investigate short-term ReHo changes after unilateral thalamotomy in tremor-dominant PD, and to speculate about its possible mechanism on tremor suppression. Methods 26 patients and 31 healthy subjects (HS) were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to right- (rPD) and left-side (lPD) thalamotomy. Tremor was assessed using the 7-item scale from the Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale motor score (mUPDRS). Patients were scanned using resting state fMRI after 12h withdrawal of medication, both preoperatively (PDpre) and 7- day postoperatively (PDpost), whereas healthy subjects were scanned once. The regions associated with tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation were examined. Results The impact of unilateral VIM thalamotomy was characterized in the frontal, parietal, temporal regions, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Compared with PDpre, significantly reduced ReHo was found in the left cerebellum in patients with rPDpost, and slightly decreased ReHo in the cerebellum vermis in patients with lPDpost, which was significantly higher than HS. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the ReHo values in the cerebellum (in rPD, peak coordinate [-12, -54, -21], R = 0.64, P = 0.0025, and peak coordinate [-9, -54, -18], R = 0.71, P = 0.0025; in lPD, peak coordinate [3, -45, -15], R = 0.71, P = 0.004) in the pre-surgical condition, changes of ReHo induced by thalamotomy (in rPD, R = 0.63, P = 0.021, R = 0.6, P = 0.009; in lPD, R = 0.58, P = 0.028) and tremor scores contralateral to the surgical side, respectively. Conclusion The specific area that may be associated with PD tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation is the cerebellum. The neural basis underlying thalamotomy is complex; cerebellum involvement is far beyond cerebello

  1. Altered Activation in Cerebellum Contralateral to Unilateral Thalamotomy May Mediate Tremor Suppression in Parkinson's Disease: A Short-Term Regional Homogeneity fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wen

    Full Text Available Ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease tremor. However, its mechanism is still unclear.We used resting-state fMRI to investigate short-term ReHo changes after unilateral thalamotomy in tremor-dominant PD, and to speculate about its possible mechanism on tremor suppression.26 patients and 31 healthy subjects (HS were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to right- (rPD and left-side (lPD thalamotomy. Tremor was assessed using the 7-item scale from the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor score (mUPDRS. Patients were scanned using resting state fMRI after 12h withdrawal of medication, both preoperatively (PDpre and 7- day postoperatively (PDpost, whereas healthy subjects were scanned once. The regions associated with tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation were examined.The impact of unilateral VIM thalamotomy was characterized in the frontal, parietal, temporal regions, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Compared with PDpre, significantly reduced ReHo was found in the left cerebellum in patients with rPDpost, and slightly decreased ReHo in the cerebellum vermis in patients with lPDpost, which was significantly higher than HS. We demonstrated a positive correlation between the ReHo values in the cerebellum (in rPD, peak coordinate [-12, -54, -21], R = 0.64, P = 0.0025, and peak coordinate [-9, -54, -18], R = 0.71, P = 0.0025; in lPD, peak coordinate [3, -45, -15], R = 0.71, P = 0.004 in the pre-surgical condition, changes of ReHo induced by thalamotomy (in rPD, R = 0.63, P = 0.021, R = 0.6, P = 0.009; in lPD, R = 0.58, P = 0.028 and tremor scores contralateral to the surgical side, respectively.The specific area that may be associated with PD tremor and altered ReHo due to thalamic ablation is the cerebellum. The neural basis underlying thalamotomy is complex; cerebellum involvement is far beyond cerebello-thalamic tract breakage.

  2. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  3. AR-based Algorithms for Short Term Load Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairi Baharudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecast plays an important role in planning and operation of power systems. The accuracy of the forecast value is necessary for economically efficient operation and effective control of the plant. This study describes the methods of Autoregressive (AR Burg’s and Modified Covariance (MCOV in solving the short term load forecast. Both algorithms are tested with power load data from Malaysian grid and New South Wales, Australia. The forecast accuracy is assessed in terms of their errors. For the comparison the algorithms are tested and benchmark with the previous successful proposed methods.

  4. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  5. LIFE with Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón

    This chapter considers an extension to the standard framework of cellular automata in which, cells are endowed with memory of their previous state values. The effect of short-term memory, i.e., memory of only the latest states, in the (formally unaltered) Life rule is described in this work.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  7. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V. (, - Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  8. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  9. Efficacy of Short-Term High-Dose Statin Pretreatment in Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Updated Study-Level Meta-Analysis of 13 Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Joo Myung Lee; Jonghanne Park; Ki-Hyun Jeon; Ji-Hyun Jung; Sang Eun Lee; Jung-Kyu Han; Hack-Lyoung Kim; Han-Mo Yang; Kyung Woo Park; Hyun-Jae Kang; Bon-Kwon Koo; Sang-Ho Jo; Hyo-Soo Kim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting results across the trials that evaluated prophylactic efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pre-treatment for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date meta-analysis regarding the efficacy of high-dose statin pre-treatment in preventing CIAKI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized-controlled trials comparing high-dose statin versus low-dose ...

  10. A prospective case-control study of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) of the rectum versus conventional laparoscopic and open abdominoperineal excision: comparative analysis of short-term outcomes and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Cheung, T; Knight, J S; Nichols, P H; Pilkington, S A; Mirnezami, A H

    2012-10-01

    Conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE) of the rectum is associated with higher circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, increased local recurrence, and reduced survival compared to anterior resection. A more radical extralevator APE (ELAPE) technique may improve oncological outcome. However, this technique may confer additional morbidity, and little comparative data on short-term outcomes have been reported. This study compares short-term outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after open and laparoscopic ELAPE, laparoscopic APE (LAPE), and open APE (OAPE). Data on all ELAPE and 10 consecutive LAPE and OAPE were extracted from a prospective database. Perioperative care and follow-up were standardized. QOL was assessed using EORTC questionnaires. Sixteen ELAPE (14 laparoscopic), 10 LAPE, and 10 OAPE were included. Demographics, tumour stage, and neoadjuvant therapy use were comparable. Operative time was higher with ELAPE than LAPE and OAPE (295, 207.5, and 157.5 min, respectively, p = 0.01). A porcine collagen perineal mesh was used in 9 patients undergoing ELAPE but in no LAPE or OAPE patients. No difference in 30-day complications, re-admission, or length of stay was noted. ELAPE and LAPE were associated with earlier removal of urinary catheter (p = 0.02), yet other enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) parameters were equivalent. All ELAPE resections were R0 with no positive CRM identified. One LAPE and 2 OAPE were R1 resections. Analysis revealed no deterioration in QOL with ELAPE, with equivalent global health status. The results of this study suggest that ELAPE is not associated with deterioration in short-term outcomes or QOL when compared with LAPE or OAPE.

  11. Experimental Study on the Effects of Exercise on Short-term Memory%体育锻炼对短时记忆力影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 李芬芬

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between physical exercise and short-term memory, a random sample of Xi’an East Second ten high students In order to explore the relationship between physical exercise and short-term memory, a random sample of Xi’an East Second ten high students as the research object, using literature data method, mathematical statistics and experimental method for physical exercise of experiments have been carried out to study the effects of short-term memory. By use of statistical software spss19.0 on experimental data, this paper compares and analyzes two research conclusions: As the research object, using literature data method, mathematical statistics and experimental method for physical exercise of experiments have been carried out to study the effects of short-term memory. By use of statistical software spss19.0 on experimental data, this paper compares and analyzes two research conclusions: Short-term memory of ten students before and after training was very significant difference; physical exercise has a positive effect on short-term memory. Of memory available in the case of a memory word length is constant, the time of memory is significant decrease; Students two tests the memory word length and memory span data has a very significant change, the memory word length per capita increased 1 value, per capita increased the memory span the value of 0.85.%为了探究体育锻炼与短时记忆力之间的关系,随机抽取西安市远东二中10名高一学生作为研究对象,运用文献资料法、数理统计法、实验法等方法针对体育锻炼对短时记忆力的影响进行了实验研究。运用统计学软件spss19.0对两次实验数据进行对比分析,得出研究结论:训练前后10名学生的短时记忆力变化有非常显著性差异,体育锻炼对短时记忆力产生了积极的影响。其中记忆用时在记忆字长不变的情况下,记忆用时明显降低;学生两次测试的记忆

  12. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  13. Confined placental mosaicism in short term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of fetal chromosomal mosaicism complicates genetic counseling, as well as pregnancy management. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of confined placental mosaicism in short term culture of chorionic villous samples. We conducted a retrospective review of karyotype analysis results obtained after chorionic villous sampling (CVS in two years period. A 420 samples of chorionic villi were taken transabdominally and obtained by a semidirect method (overnight incubating culture. All fetuses with CVS mosaicism were under the intensive perinatal care. In all cases of chromosome mosaicism the additional karyotyping was performed from fetal blood samples after 22nd gestational week in order to exclude true fetal mosaicism. After delivery newborns were examined by experienced pediatrician. From 420 analyzed samples in 11 (2,6% cases we found placental mosaicism. No anomalies were seen in genetic sonogram of this fetuses and mosaicism was confirmed only in one case. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM was found in 2,1% (9/420 of all analyzed cases, and it made 90% of all placental mosaicism. In 60% (6/10 of placental mosaicism cases we found mosaicism with single aberrant cell. Trisomy 21 mosaicism was the most frequent aberration found in 30% of cases. Finding of mosaicism in chorionic villi sample is at special importance for genetic counseling, because every case has to be reveled individually regarding the type and level of mosaicism. Anyway, in every case of placental mosaicism intensive antenatal monitoring is necessary, with additional chromosome analysis from different tissue in consideration of previous findings.

  14. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  15. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  16. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  17. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  18. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  19. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts using Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerman, Beth

    With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked. Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

  20. Assessing the short-term and long-term integrity of top seals in feasibility studies of geological CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The geomechanical effects of past hydrocarbon production and subsequent CO2 injection in depleted gas reservoirs were evaluated as a part of several recently accomplished feasibility studies of CO2 storage in the Netherlands. The objectives of geomechanical studies were to assess the mechanical

  1. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse s...

  2. The Role of Individual Differences in the Study Abroad Context: Cognitive Capacity and Language Development during Short-Term Intensive Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Sarah; Cox, Jessica G.; Serafini, Ellen J.; Sanz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests that study abroad (SA) benefits second language (L2) oral fluency, its benefits for other domains are less clear, especially for shorterterm programs, which are becoming more common. Additionally, studies investigating the relationship between cognitive capacity and benefits of SA report inconsistent patterns. In light of…

  3. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse s...

  4. Learning on-Location: Evaluating the Instructional Design for Just-in-Time Learning in Interdisciplinary Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    In the current era of global society, adults need to cultivate cognitive and affective capabilities for interacting in a wide variety of work and living situations. Studying abroad can provide unique learning opportunities toward this end. Good intentions in offering study abroad experiences do not, however, always produce the kind of learning,…

  5. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Classroom Quality and Child Language and Academic Outcomes in a State-Funded Prekindergarten Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googe, Heather Smith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to evaluate the relationship between classroom process quality and child language and academic outcomes from the beginning of the pre-kindergarten year to the beginning of the kindergarten year for one cohort of children participating in a state-funded pre-kindergarten program in South Carolina. Data for my study were…

  6. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  7. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid...... profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo...

  8. Impact of Crown-Implant Ratio of Single Restorations Supported by 6-mm Implants : A Short-Term Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guljé, Felix L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Erkens, Ward Al; Meijer, Henny Ja

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High crown-implant ratios might affect the biologic and technical performance of a reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess whether a higher crown-implant ratio of single restorations on 6-mm implants resulted in more peri-implant bone loss and more prosthetic complications durin

  9. The association of clinical and microbiologic parameters with histologic observations in relatively healthy peri-implant conditions- a preliminary short-term in vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, R. van; Meijer, G.J.; Putter, C. de; Verhoeven, J.W.; Jansen, J.; Cune, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether clinical findings-bleeding on probing, pocket depth, recession, and bacterial sampling-correlate with histologic outcomes in relatively healthy peri-implant soft tissues in people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 20

  10. Reformulating and Testing the Perfectionism Model of Binge Eating among Undergraduate Women: A Short-Term, Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P.; Sherry, Simon B.; Graham, Aislin R.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Dayna L.; Allen, Stephanie L.; Fitzpatrick, Skye; McGrath, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive…

  11. Perfectionism, Stress, and Social (Dis)Connection: A Short-Term Study of Hopelessness, Depression, and Academic Adjustment among Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Christopher, John; Porter, J. Diane

    2006-01-01

    This study tested models of perfectionism predicting psychological distress and academic adjustment and moderators and mediators of those associations in 2 successive cohorts of high-achieving university honors students (N = 499). Participants completed measures earl and late in the semester. Adaptive (high standards) and maladaptive…

  12. [A controlled study of the short-term and long-term effects of a "train the trainers" course--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, S.; Mortensen, L.; Ringsted, C.;

    2008-01-01

    This is an intervention-study discussing the long-term effects of a 3-day "Train the trainers course" (TTC). In the intervention (I) group 98.4% of doctors participated in a TTC, both specialists and trainees. Knowledge about teaching skills increased in the I group by 25% after the TTC; a result...

  13. Application of a [13CO2] breath test to study short-term amino acid catabolism during the postprandial phase of a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujko, J.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Nolles, J.A.; Verreijen, A.M.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    A [13CO2] breath test was applied as a non-invasive method to study the catabolism of ingested amino acids shortly after a meal. This test requires the ingestion of a [1-13C]-labelled amino acid and the analysis of expired air for [13C] enrichment and CO2. The recovery of label as [13CO2] reflects

  14. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, J.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal resea

  15. Initial antibiotic treatment for acute simple appendicitis in children is safe: Short-term results from a multicenter, prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.R.; Lee, J.H. van der; Cense, H.A.; Kneepkens, C.M.; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.; Hof, K.H. In 't; Offringa, M.; Heij, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initial antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis has been shown to be safe in adults; so far, not much is known about the safety and efficacy of this treatment in children. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating ini

  16. Effect of fertilization history on short-term emission of CO2 and N2O after the application of different N fertilizers - a laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, N.; Duffner, A.; Ludwig, B.; Flessa, H.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing organic carbon (OC) stocks in soils reduce atmospheric CO2, but may also cause enhanced N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in N2O and CO2 emissions from sandy arable soils with different soil OC and total nitrogen stocks due to th

  17. Evaluation of a Short-Term Computer-Assisted Training Programme for the Remediation of Attentional Deficits after Brain Injury: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauggel, S.; Niemann, T.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated a computer-assisted training program used by four patients (ages 40 to 53) who had attentional deficits caused by cerebrovascular accident and closed head injury. Patients demonstrated improvements in training tasks, attention, and visual memory, but no improvements in two verbal memory tests and a general intelligence test.…

  18. Reformulating and Testing the Perfectionism Model of Binge Eating among Undergraduate Women: A Short-Term, Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P.; Sherry, Simon B.; Graham, Aislin R.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Dayna L.; Allen, Stephanie L.; Fitzpatrick, Skye; McGrath, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive…

  19. Short-term stability studies of ampicillin and cephalexin in aqueous solution and human plasma: Application of least squares method in Arrhenius equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Basílio Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira

    2013-01-25

    A limited number of studies with application of the Arrhenius equation have been reported to drugs and biopharmaceuticals in biological fluids at frozen temperatures. This paper describes stability studies of ampicillin and cephalexin in aqueous solution and human plasma applying the Arrhenius law for determination of adequate temperature and time of storage of these drugs using appropriate statistical analysis. Stability studies of the beta-lactams in human plasma were conducted at temperatures of 20°C, 2°C, -20°C and also during four cycles of freeze-thawing. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Shimpak C(18) column, acetonitrile as organic modifier and detection at 215nm. LC-UV-MS/MS was used to demonstrate the conversion of ampicillin into two diastereomeric forms of ampicilloic acid. Stability studies demonstrated degradation greater than 10% for ampicillin in human plasma at 20°C, 2°C and -20°C after 15h, 2.7days, 11days and for cephalexin at the same temperatures after 14h, 3.4days and 19days, respectively, and after the fourth cycle of freezing-thawing. The Arrhenius plot showed good prediction for the ideal temperature and time of storage for ampicillin (52days) and cephalexin (151days) at a temperature of -40°C, but statistical analysis (least squares method) must be applied to avoid incorrect extrapolations and estimated values out uncertainty limits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  1. Assessing the Impact of a Short-Term Service-Learning Clinical Experience on the Development of Professional Behaviors of Student Physical Therapists: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeannette R.; Taylor, Leslie F.; Gahimer, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    As with most health care provider education programs, physical therapy programs seek ways to develop professional behaviors of students. This study describes the integration of a one-week service-learning experience into an existing clinical internship. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed between groups of students who participated in…

  2. Perfectionism, Stress, and Social (Dis)Connection: A Short-Term Study of Hopelessness, Depression, and Academic Adjustment among Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Christopher, John; Porter, J. Diane

    2006-01-01

    This study tested models of perfectionism predicting psychological distress and academic adjustment and moderators and mediators of those associations in 2 successive cohorts of high-achieving university honors students (N = 499). Participants completed measures earl and late in the semester. Adaptive (high standards) and maladaptive…

  3. Serving Youth Who Are Serving Time: A Study of the Special Education Services for Incarcerated Youth in a Short-Term Care Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the communication between sending court and community schools of a County Office of Education's (COE) Alternative Education program and the receiving juvenile detention facility of a county in a Western state and how the communication between the two facilities affected the level of special education services provided to…

  4. Immediate loading of mandibular overdentures supported by one-piece, direct metal laser sintering mini-implants: a short-term prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Francesco G; Caprioglio, Alberto; Levrini, Luca; Farronato, Davide; Zecca, Piero A; Mangano, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    Only a few studies have dealt with immediately loaded, unsplinted mini-implants supporting ball attachment-retained mandibular overdentures (ODs). The aim of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes of ball attachment-retained mandibular ODs supported by one-piece, unsplinted, immediately loaded, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) mini-implants. Over a 4-year period (2009 to 2012), all patients referred to the Dental Clinic, University of Varese, and to a private practice for treatment with mandibular ODs were considered for inclusion in this study. Each patient received three or four DMLS mini-implants. Immediately after implant placement, a mandibular OD was connected to the implants. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed, including the following outcome measures: 1) implant failures; 2) peri-implant marginal bone loss; and 3) complications. Statistical analysis was conducted using a life-table analysis. A total of 231 one-piece DMLS mini-implants were inserted in 62 patients. After 4 years of loading, six implants failed, giving an overall cumulative survival rate of 96.9%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact was 0.38 ± 0.25 and 0.62 ± 0.20 mm at the 1- and 4-year follow-up examinations, respectively. An incidence of 6.0% of biologic complications was reported; prosthetic complications were more frequent (12.9%). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the immediate loading of one-piece, unsplinted, DMLS titanium mini-implants by means of ball attachment-supported mandibular ODs is a successful treatment procedure. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm these results.

  5. A short-term longitudinal study of growth of relational aggression during middle childhood: associations with gender, friendship intimacy, and internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M; Crick, Nicki R

    2007-01-01

    Trajectories of relational aggression were examined in a large, diverse sample of fourth-grade students. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine relational aggression over 1 calendar year. The results indicated that relational aggression increased in a linear fashion for girls over the course of the study. In addition, increases in friend intimate exchange were associated with time-dependent increases in relational aggression among girls only. Relational aggression and internalizing "tracked" together across the course of the study. Overall, the findings suggest relational aggression becomes increasingly common among elementary school girls, and girls' close, dyadic relationships may fuel relationally aggressive behavior in some contexts. Finally, the results indicate that relational aggression trajectories are dynamically associated with maladjustment.

  6. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  7. Climatological Study of the Short-Term Variation of the 0 C, -10 C, AND -20 C Altitude Levels Over the Florida Spaceport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa; Maier, Launa; Smith, Kristin; Roeder, William P.; McAleenan, Mike; Winters, Katherine A.; Godoy, Laura M.; Hinkley, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    For evaluation of the potential of cloud electrification, it is necessary to know the altitude of the 0, -10 and -20 degree Celsius levels. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station has recorded balloon launch data back to 1989. In support of rocket launches, often multiple balloons are launched within minutes of each other in the 4-6 hours leading up to launch. In the past, temperature data from sondes was typically available every hour or so through the launch countdown, allowing for frequent updates of these critical temperature thresholds. Recently, launch customers are relying on jimsphere and wind profiler data that do not have a thermodynamic component in the latter 4-6 hours of a countdown. This study compares the altitude differences of the 0, -10 and -20 degree Celsius levels from GPS-tracked consecutive balloon pairs not to exceed 6 hours apart. The analysis uses 3,198 soundings from 2001 to 2013. Approximately 20, 17, and 13 percent of the time the altitude of the temperature level in question (0, -10, -20 degrees C respectively), varies by more than 500 feet (operationally significant threshold) within 6 hours. This study analyzes the altitude variability as a function of several meteorological parameters, such as dew point depression and solar zenith angle. Additionally, the study concludes with impacts to launch operations.

  8. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant, to a det......The most important risk factor for occupational contact dermatitis in hospital personnel is the exposure to irritants such as water, detergents and alcohol-based solutions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term effects of repeated exposure to an alcohol-based disinfectant......, to a detergent and to an alcohol-based disinfectant/detergent alternately. The hardening effect in preirritated skin after a 4-week interval was also evaluated. Detergent, disinfectant and disinfectant/detergent alternately were applied daily every 15 min for 6 h for 2 days to the flexor upper arms and forearms...... caused more redness of the skin than both disinfectant applied alone and disinfectant/detergent alternately at D3 and D8, P disinfectant alone and disinfectant/detergent was confirmed by TEWL and colour...

  9. Physiological and Psychological Predictors of Short-Term Disability in Workers with a History of Low Back Pain: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Cantin, Vincent; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Despite an elusive pathophysiology, common characteristics are often observed in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). These include psychological symptoms, altered pain perception, altered pain modulation and altered muscle activation. These factors have been explored as possible determinants of disability, either separately or in cross-sectional studies, but were never assessed in a single longitudinal study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the relative contribution of psychological and neurophysiological factors to future disability in individuals with past LBP. The study included two experimental sessions (baseline and six months later) to assess cutaneous heat pain and pain tolerance thresholds, pain inhibition, as well as trunk muscle activation. Both sessions included the completion of validated questionnaires to determine clinical pain, disability, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain vigilance. One hundred workers with a history of LBP and 19 healthy individuals took part in the first experimental session. The second experimental session was exclusively conducted on workers with a history of LBP (77/100). Correlation analyses between initial measures and disability at six months were conducted, and measures significantly associated with disability were used in multiple regression analyses. A first regression analysis showed that psychological symptoms contributed unique variance to future disability (R2 = 0.093, p = .009). To control for the fluctuating nature of LBP, a hierarchical regression was conducted while controlling for clinical pain at six months (R2 = 0.213, p < .001) where pain inhibition contributed unique variance in the second step of the regression (R2 change = 0.094, p = .005). These results indicate that pain inhibition processes may constitute potential targets for treatment to alleviate future disability in individuals with past or present LBP. Then again, the link between psychological symptoms and

  10. Stock culture heterogeneity rather than new mutational variation complicates short-term cell physiology studies of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahku, Ranno; Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2011-09-01

    Nutrient-limited continuous cultures in chemostats have been used to study microbial cell physiology for over 60 years. Genome instability and genetic heterogeneity are possible uncontrolled factors in continuous cultivation experiments. We investigated these issues by using high-throughput (HT) DNA sequencing to characterize samples from different phases of a glucose-limited accelerostat (A-stat) experiment with Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and a duration regularly used in cell physiology studies (20 generations of continuous cultivation). Seven consensus mutations from the reference sequence and five subpopulations characterized by different mutations were detected in the HT-sequenced samples. This genetic heterogeneity was confirmed to result from the stock culture by Sanger sequencing. All the subpopulations in which allele frequencies increased (betA, cspG/cspH, glyA) during the experiment were also present at the end of replicate A-stats, indicating that no new subpopulations emerged during our experiments. The fact that ~31 % of the cells in our initial cultures obtained directly from a culture stock centre were mutants raises concerns that even if cultivations are started from single colonies, there is a significant chance of picking a mutant clone with an altered phenotype. Our results show that current HT DNA sequencing technology allows accurate subpopulation analysis and demonstrates that a glucose-limited E. coli K-12 MG1655 A-stat experiment with a duration of tens of generations is suitable for studying cell physiology and collecting quantitative data for metabolic modelling without interference from new mutations.

  11. A longitudinal study investigating the role of decisional conflicts and regret and short-term psychological adjustment after IVF treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Celia Hoi Yan; Lau, Hi Po Bobo; Tam, Michelle Yi Jun; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2016-12-01

    What is the relationship between decisional conflict, decisional regret and psychological well-being in women following unsuccessful IVF cycles? The mediating effect of decisional regret on the relationship between decisional conflict and fertility-related quality of life (FRQOL) has been found to be moderated by the availability (versus absence) of frozen embryos after an unsuccessful IVF cycle. Infertility treatment is marked by its open-ended nature. Stresses in treatment decision-making could be aggravated by a culture which honours families through procreation. While studies have investigated treatment-related decision-making among infertile women, little is known about the mental health consequences of decisional conflict and decisional regret following an unsuccessful IVF cycle. A study was conducted over a 3-month period with infertile women who had recently experienced a failed IVF cycle (T0). Decisional conflict when they decided on terminating or continuing treatment (T1) and decisional regret 3 months later (T2) were measured. Participants reported their levels of depression, anxiety and FRQOL at three time points. A total of 151 participants completed all time points (attrition rate: 39%). The average age of participants was 37.2 years, and they had had 1.1 cycles (range: 0-8) on average at the time of study intake. The duration of the study was 2 years. Participants were infertile women who were not pregnant following an IVF cycle recruited from a university-affiliated assisted reproduction centre. Following the notification of a negative pregnancy result, patients were invited to complete measures of FRQOL, depression and anxiety across three time points and decisional conflict and decisional regret at T1 and T2 respectively. Decisional regret partially mediated the effect of decisional conflict on overall and treatment-specific FRQOL (P interest. HKU Clinical Trials Registry (Trial registration number: HKUCTR-1680). © The Author 2016. Published by

  12. Chambers versus Relaxed Eddy Accumulation: an intercomparison study of two methods for short-term measurements of biogenic CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Chmura, Lukasz; Necki, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    The presented work is a part of comprehensive study aimed at thorough characterization of carbon cycle in the urban environment of Krakow, southern Poland. In the framework of this study two independent methods were employed to quantify biogenic CO2 flux in the city: (i) closed chambers, and (ii) Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA). The results of a three-day intensive intercomparison campaign performed in July 2013 and utilizing both measurement methods are reported here. The chamber method is a widely used approach for measurements of gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The system implemented in this study consisted of a single chamber operating in a closed-dynamic mode, combined with Vaisala CarboCAP infrared CO2 sensor in a mobile setup. An alternative flux measurement method, covering larger area is represented by REA, which is a modification of the eddy covariance method. It consists of a 3D anemometer (Gill Windmaster Pro) and the system collecting updraft and downdraft samples to 5-litre Tedlar bags. The CO2 mixing ratios in the collected samples are measured by Picarro G2101i analyzer. The setup consists of two sets of bags so that the sampling can be performed continuously with 15-min temporal resolution. A 48-hectares open meadow located close the city center was chosen as a test site for comparison of the two methods of CO2 flux measurements outlined above. In the middle of the meadow a 3-metre high tripod was installed with the anemometer and REA inlet system. For a period of 46 hours the system was measuring net CO2 flux from the surrounding area. A meteorological conditions and intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also recorded. In the same time, CO2 flux from several points around the REA inlet was measured with the chamber system, resulting in 93 values for both respiration and net CO2 flux. Chamber results show rather homogenous distribution of the soil CO2 flux (the mean value equal to 40.9 ± 2.2 mmol/m2h), with

  13. Short-term impact of a classical ketogenic diet on gut microbiota in GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome: A 3-month prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Uggeri, Francesca; Trentani, Claudia; Bertoli, Simona; de Giorgis, Valentina; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Elli, Marina

    2017-02-01

    The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet. RT - PCR analysis was performed in order to quantify Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium cluster XIV, Desulfovibrio spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Compared with baseline, there were no statistically significant differences at 3 months in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However fecal microbial profiles revealed a statistically significant increase in Desulfovibrio spp. (p = 0.025), a bacterial group supposed to be involved in the exacerbation of the inflammatory condition of the gut mucosa associated to the consumption of fats of animal origin. A future prospective study on the changes in gut microbiota of all children with epilepsy started on a KD is warranted. In patients with dysbiosis demonstrated by fecal samples, it my be reasonable to consider an empiric trial of pre or probiotics to potentially restore the «ecological balance» of intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose-dependent short-term study of di-n-butyl phthalate on the testicular antioxidant system of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a xenobiotic, is widely used in industries as a softener for polyvinyl chloride resins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DBP induces oxidative stress in testes of Wistar rats. DBP at doses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg b.wt. (doses below LD50) was given orally for 7 days. After 24 hrs from the last dose, the animals were killed under ether anesthesia. Nonsignificant increase in testicular weight was observed. Histological studies indicated a dose-related degeneration of germinal, Leydig and Sertoli cells along with loss of spermatozoa in the lumen. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and trace elements-zinc and copper increased while concentrations of total protein, lipid soluble antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, glutathione, total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu-ZnSOD, MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and metallothionein decreased at all the dose levels. The data suggests that the cellular functions were adversely affected due to impairment of spermatogenesis indicative of oxidative stress as evident by altered antioxidative defense system which appears to mediate through hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The spectrum of changes in testes reflects its susceptibility to phthalate even at low dose with the potential to interfere with critical reproductive function.

  15. Different mechanisms for the short-term effects of real versus sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Jan; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; Oostendorp, Rob A; Crul, Ben J

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has existed since the early 1970s. However, randomized placebo controlled studies show inconclusive results in the treatment of chronic pain. These results could be explained by assuming that TENS elicits a placebo response. However, in animal research TENS has been found to decrease hyperalgesia, which contradicts this assumption. The aim of this study is to use quantitative sensory testing to explore changes in pain processing during sham versus real TENS in patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain (N = 20) were randomly allocated to real TENS or sham TENS application. Electrical pain thresholds (EPTs) were determined inside and outside the segment stimulated, before and after the first 20 minutes of the intervention, and after a period of 10 days of daily real/sham TENS application. Pain relief did not differ significantly for real versus sham TENS. However, by comparing time courses of EPTs, it was found that EPT values outside the segment of stimulation increased for sham TENS, whereas for real TENS these values decreased. There were, however, no differences for EPT measurements inside the segment stimulated. These results illustrate the importance of including mechanism-reflecting parameters in addition to symptoms when conducting pain research.

  16. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on emergency room visits for cardiac arrhythmias: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particles (PM₂.₅) levels and number of emergency room (ER) visits for cardiac arrhythmias in Taipei, Taiwan. ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk (RR) of ER visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased numbers of ER cardiac arrhythmia visits were significantly associated with PM₂.₅ on both warm days (>23°C) and cool days (arrhythmias, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM₂.₅ levels remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) or ozone (O₃) on both warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅ increase the risk of number of ER visits for cardiac arrhythmias.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  20. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Effects of stress on heart rate complexity--a comparison between short-term and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, C; Lambertz, M; Nelesen, R A; Bardwell, W; Choi, J-B; Dimsdale, J E

    2009-03-01

    This study examined chronic and short-term stress effects on heart rate variability (HRV), comparing time, frequency and phase domain (complexity) measures in 50 healthy adults. The hassles frequency subscale of the combined hassles and uplifts scale (CHUS) was used to measure chronic stress. Short-term stressor reactivity was assessed with a speech task. HRV measures were determined via surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Because respiration rate decreased during the speech task (prate changes on the effects of interest. A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment revealed that short-term stress decreased HR D2 (calculated via the pointwise correlation dimension PD2) (pshort-term stress. Partial correlation adjusting for respiration rate showed that HR D2 was associated with chronic stress (r=-.35, p=.019). Differential effects of chronic and short-term stress were observed on several HRV measures. HR D2 decreased under both stress conditions reflecting lowered functionality of the cardiac pacemaker. The results confirm the importance of complexity metrics in modern stress research on HRV.

  2. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection for Dupuytren contracture: short-term results from 2 open-label studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthaut, Jörg; Jones, Graeme; Skrepnik, Nebojsa; Kushner, Harvey; Houston, Anthony; Lindau, Tommy R

    2013-01-01

    The JOINT I (United States) and JOINT II (Australia and Europe) studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. Both studies used identical open-label protocols. Patients with fixed-flexion contractures of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) (20° to 100°) or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints (20° to 80°) could receive up to three 0.58-mg CCH injections per cord (up to 5 total injections per patient). We performed standardized finger extension procedures to disrupt injected cords the next day, with follow-up 1, 2, 6, and 9 months thereafter. The primary end point (clinical success) was reduction in contracture to within 0° to 5° of full extension 30 days after the last injection. Clinical improvement was defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline contracture. Dupuytren cords affecting 879 joints (531 MCP and 348 PIP) in 587 patients were administered CCH injections at 14 U.S. and 20 Australian/European sites, with similar outcomes in both studies. Clinical success was achieved in 497 (57%) of treated joints using 1.2 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) CCH injections per cord. More MCP than PIP joints achieved clinical success (70% and 37%, respectively) or clinical improvement (89% and 58%, respectively). Less severely contracted joints responded better than those more severely contracted. Mean change in contracture was 55° for MCP joints and 25° for PIP joints. With average contracture reductions of 73% and improvements in range of motion by 30°, most patients (92%) were "very satisfied" (71%) or "quite satisfied" (21%) with treatment. Physicians rated change from baseline as "very much improved" (47%) or "much improved" (35%). The CCH injections were well tolerated, causing no tendon ruptures or systemic reactions. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was an effective, minimally invasive option for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture of a broad range of severities. Most

  3. Short-Term Efficacy of an Innovative Mobile Phone Technology-Based Intervention for Weight Management for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Guedes, Claudia M; Cooper, Bruce A; Lung, Audrey E

    2017-08-02

    In the United States, approximately one-third of adolescents are now overweight or obese, and one in six is obese. This financial cost and the larger nonfinancial costs of obesity make obesity prevention and management for adolescents imperative for the health of the nation. However, primary care visits are typically brief, and primary care providers may lack adequate resources to help overweight or obese adolescents to manage weight issues. To augment the efficacy of primary care visits for adolescent weight management, mobile phone technology can be used as an adjunct treatment that provides additional opportunities for encouraging improvement in lifestyle, attainment, and maintenance of healthy weight. The purposes of this study were to (1) measure effects of an innovative mobile phone technology-based intervention for overweight and obese adolescents and to (2) examine the intervention's feasibility for use in primary care clinics. The mobile phone-based intervention had three components: use of the Fitbit Flex, participation in an online educational program, and receipt of biweekly text messages during the maintenance phase. A randomized controlled study design was utilized. Data regarding anthropometrics (body mass index [BMI] and waist-to-hip ratio), blood pressure, levels of physical and sedentary activity, diet, and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and diet were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the baseline assessment. A total of 40 adolescents participated in the study. At the 6-month follow-up visit, compared to participants in the control group, the mobile phone-based intervention participants had significant improvement in BMI (z=-4.37, P=.001), diastolic blood pressure (z=-3.23, P=.001), physical activity days per week (z=2.58, P=.01), TV and computer time (z=-3.34, P=.001), servings of fruits and vegetables per day (z=2.74, P=.006), servings of soda and sweetened drinks (z=-3.19, P=.001), physical activity self-efficacy (z=2

  4. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  5. COMPARISON OF UNIPOLAR (MOORE’S PROSTHESIS AND BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY IN FRACTURE NECK OF FEMUR IN THE ELDERLY- A SHORT-TERM PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Bendale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral neck fractures are common in postmenopausal elderly females as a result of osteoporosis due to trivial trauma or in the young due to high energy trauma. The goal of the surgeon is to return the patient to his/her prefracture functional status. Femoral neck fracture could be impacted and undisplaced or displaced. Femoral neck fractures are also considered “fractures of necessity”, best treated surgically irrespective of displacement. Surgery permits early patient mobilisation and minimises the complications of prolonged recumbence. The bipolar prosthesis has advantage over the unipolar in having two bearings for the movements to occur. This study intends to compare the functional outcome of unipolar Moore’s hemi-replacement and fixed bipolar replacement in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur. In this scenario, the null hypothesis would be that there is no significant difference in the results between the patients treated with Moore’s prosthesis and those treated with bipolar prosthesis. The aim of the study is to compare the results of unipolar and bipolar hemi-arthroplasty for fracture neck of femur in the elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 elderly postmenopausal women with fracture neck femur were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups and were operated upon by using unipolar and bipolar implants respectively after thorough investigation. The functional outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score (HHS. RESULTS Femoral neck fractures belonged to 53.3% with type III fracture and 46.7 had type IV fractures. Fifteen patients had replacement with Austin Moore prosthesis and fifteen patients with bipolar prosthesis. The average HHS at 6 weeks for unipolar and bipolar groups was 65.2 and 66.0, respectively. The average HHS at 12 months for unipolar and bipolar group was 81.0 and 83.6, respectively. 19 (65.5% patients had good HHS at the end of one year. Corrected chi-square value is 2

  6. Effects of a short-term differently dosed aerobic exercise on maximum aerobic capacity in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdareski Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Regular physical activity and exercise improves quality of life and possibly reduces risk of disease relapse and prolongs survival in breast cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training, on aerobic capacity (VO2max in breast cancer survivors. Methods. A prospective, randomized clinical study included 18 female breast cancer survivors in stage I-IIIA, in which the primary treatment was accomplished at least 3 months before the study inclusion. In all the patients VO2max was estimated using the Astrand’s protocol on a bicycle-ergometer (before and after 3 weeks of training, while subjective assessment of exertion during training were estimated by the Category-Ratio RPE Scale. Each workout lasted 21 minutes: 3 minutes for warmup and cool-down each and 15 min of full training, 2 times a week. The workload in the group E1 was predefined at the level of 45% to 65% of individual VO2max, and in the group E2 it was based on subjective evaluation of exertion, at the level marked 4-6. Data on the subjective feeling of exertion were collected after each training course in both groups. Results. We recorded a statistically significant improvement in VO2max in both groups (E1 - 11.86%; E2 - 17.72%, with no significant differences between the groups. The workload level, determined by the percent of VO2max, was different between the groups E1 and E2 (50.47 ± 7.02% vs 55.58 ± 9.58%, as well as subjective perception of exertion (in the groups E1 and E2, 11.6% and 41.6% of training, respectively, was graded in the mark 6. Conclusion. In our group of breast cancer survivors, a 3-week moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved the level of VO2max.

  7. Short-term study of the uptake of PrPSc by the Peyer’s patches in hamsters after oral exposure to scrapie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Ann-Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2006-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been detected in the ileal Peyer's patches of lambs as early as one week after oral exposure to scrapie. In hamsters, the earliest reported time of PrPSc detection in the Peyer's patches after oral exposure to scrapie is 69 days post......-infection. To evaluate the acute uptake of inoculum and to investigate whether the Peyer's patches constitute the primary site of entry for scrapie after oral exposure, hamsters were each exposed orally to 1 ml of a 10% brain homogenate from hamsters in the terminal stage of infection with the 263 K strain...... of the scrapie agent. PrPSc was demonstrated in the Peyer's patches only a few days after exposure, i.e., much earlier than previously reported. This study Supports the view that the Peyer's patches constitute at least one of the primary entry sites of PrPSc after oral exposure to scrapie....

  8. A preliminary study on the short-term efficacy of chairside computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing- generated posterior lithium disilicate crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Sven; Fischer, Sören; Sobotta, Bernhard; Klapper, Horst-Uwe; Gozdowski, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the clinical performance of chairside-generated crowns over a preliminary time period of 24 months. Forty-one posterior crowns made of a machinable lithium disilicate ceramic for full-contour crowns were inserted in 34 patients using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technique. The crowns were evaluated at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months according to modified United States Public Health Service criteria. After 2 years, all reexamined crowns (n = 39) were in situ; one abutment exhibited secondary caries and two abutments received root canal treatment. Within the limited observation period, the crowns revealed clinically satisfying results.

  9. Predictors of short-term mortality, cognitive and physical decline in older adults in northwest Russia: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turusheva, Anna; Frolova, Elena; Hegendoerfer, Eralda; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The classical phenotype, accumulated deficit model and self-report approach of frailty were found not useful in older adults in northwest Russia. More research is needed to identify predictors of adverse outcomes in this population. The aim of this study is to identify predictors of mortality, autonomy and cognitive decline in a population that is characterized by a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate. A population-based prospective cohort study of 611 community-dwelling individuals 65+. Anthropometry, medical history nutritional status were recorded. An evaluation of cognitive, physical and autonomy function, spirometry, and laboratory tests were performed. The total follow-up was 5 years. Multiple imputation, backward stepwise Cox regression analysis, C-statistic, risk reclassification analysis and the bootstrapping techniques were used to analyze the data. We found that the combination of increasing age, male sex, low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s and anemia was associated with mortality for people 65+. The substitution of anemia with anemia + high level of C-reactive protein (hCRP) and the addition of high brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) levels improved the classification of older persons at risk for mortality. The combination of low physical function, low mid-arm muscle area, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s, anemia with hCRP levels and hBNP identified older persons at a higher risk for mortality. These predictors may be used for the development of a prediction model to detect older people who are at risk for adverse health outcomes in northwest Russia.

  10. Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Afshani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Keshvari, M; Taheri, M; Jahanian, E; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Malekian, F; Sarrafzadegan, N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a prevalence of about one billion people worldwide. It has been shown that adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps in decreasing blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate the effect of raw beet juice (RBJ) and cooked beet (CB) on BP of hypertensive subjects. In this randomized crossover study, 24 hypertensive subjects aged 25-68 years old were divided into two groups. One group took RBJ for 2 weeks and the other group took CB. After 2 weeks of treatment, both groups had a washout for 2 weeks then switched to the alternate treatment. Each participant consumed 250 ml day(-1) of RBJ or 250 g day(-1) of CB each for a period of 2 weeks. Body weight, BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), lipid profile and inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and after each period. According to the results, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly lower and FMD was significantly higher after treatment with RBJ compared with CB (P<0.05). FMD was significantly (P<0.05) increased, but systolic and diastolic BP, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), hs-CRP, interleukin-6, E-selectin and TNF-α were significantly (P<0.05) decreased with RBJ or CB. Total antioxidant capacity was increased and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) were decreased with RBJ but not with CB. Although both forms of beetroot were effective in improving BP, endothelial function and systemic inflammation, the raw beetroot juice had greater antihypertensive effects. Also more improvement was observed in endothelial function and systemic inflammation with RBJ compared with CB.

  11. Effect of Hypovitaminosis D on Postoperative Pain Outcomes and Short-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Chan, Simon Kin Cheong; Samy, Winnie; Chiu, Chun Hung; Gin, Tony

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D may have an important role in pain perception. Inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with suboptimal recovery after surgery. However, the effects of hypovitaminosis D on postoperative pain-related outcomes and its impact on health-related quality of life after surgery are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hypovitaminosis D on postoperative pain-related outcomes and health-related quality of life at 3 months after knee arthroplasty.This was a longitudinal cohort study of 191 consecutive Hong Kong Chinese patients who were given patient-controlled morphine analgesia for up to 72 hours after 214 knee arthroplasties. Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain intensity at rest scores (0-72 h), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index (pain, stiffness and function), and moderate-to-severe persistent pain (transformed WOMAC pain score of 0-75 at 3 months after knee arthroplasty; 0, extreme pain; 100, no pain). Group differences were analyzed using generalized estimating equation models and a logistic regression model.The prevalence of preoperative hypovitaminosis D (25-OHD hypovitaminosis D (25-OHD Hypovitaminosis D increased the risk of moderate-to-severe persistent pain (adjusted odds ratio 2.64, 95% CI: 1.03-6.77).Preoperative hypovitaminosis D had subtle effects on pain intensity scores in the early postoperative period and is a risk factor for moderate-to-severe persistent pain after knee arthroplasty. Hypovitaminosis D was not associated with worse health-related quality of life at 3 months after knee arthroplasty.

  12. Home-based exercise therapy in ankylosing spondylitis: short-term prospective study in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Semra; Sahin, Zerrin; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Aytac, Deniz Hatun

    2013-01-01

    The importance of exercise and regular physiotherapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) under treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFα inhibitors) was reported in some studies, but the literature on this topic is still scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of home-based exercise therapy on functional capacity, disease activity, spinal mobility, quality of life, emotional state and fatigue in patients with AS receiving TNFα inhibitors. Forty-two AS patients were trained on the disease, and home-based exercise program was demonstrated to all the patients. At baseline and at the end of 10 week, we evaluated Bath AS Disease Activity Index, Bath AS Functional Index, Bath AS Metrology Index, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Short-Form 36. Patients following home-based exercise program five times a week at least 30 min per session (exercise group) were compared with those exercising less than five times a week (control group). At baseline, exercise and control group had similar demographic features. After 10 weeks, all outcome parameters showed statistically significant improvements in exercise group. There were significant differences in all the parameters except social functioning subscale of Short-Form 36 between groups in favor of exercise group at 10th week (P exercise program is an effective therapy in increasing functional capacity and joint mobility, decreasing disease activity, improving emotional state, fatigue and quality of life for AS patient receiving TNFα inhibitors. We need to find out new ways to provide continuity of AS patients with it.

  13. Targeted delivery of erythropoietin by transcranial focused ultrasound for neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury: a long-term and short-term study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO is a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced brain injury. However, its crossing of blood-brain barrier is limited. Focused ultrasound (FUS sonication with microbubbles (MBs can effectively open blood-brain barrier to boost the vascular permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of MBs/FUS on extending the therapeutic time window of EPO and its neuroprotective effects in both acute and chronic phases. Male Wistar rats were firstly subjected to two common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery occlusion (three vessels occlusion, 3VO for 50 min, and then the rats were treated with hEPO (human recombinant EPO, 5000 IU/kg with or without MBs/FUS at 5 h after occlusion/reperfusion. Acute phase investigation (I/R, I/R+MBs/FUS, I/R+hEPO, and I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS was performed 24 h after I/R; chronic tests including cylinder test and gait analysis were performed one month after I/R. The experimental results showed that MBs/FUS significantly increased the cerebral content of EPO by bettering vascular permeability. In acute phase, both significant improvement of neurological score and reduction of infarct volume were found in the I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS group, as compared with I/R and I/R+hEPO groups. In chronic phase, long-term behavioral recovery and neuronal loss in brain cortex after I/R injury was significantly improved in the I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS group. This study indicates that hEPO administration with MBs/FUS sonication even at 5 h after occlusion/reperfusion can produce a significant neuroprotection.

  14. Short term culture of breast cancer tissues to study the activity of the anticancer drug taxol in an intact tumor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Wolfgang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of breast tumors to anticancer drugs depends upon dynamic interactions between epithelial tumor cells and their microenvironment including stromal cells and extracellular matrix. To study drug-sensitivity within different compartments of an individual tumor ex vivo, culture models directly established from fresh tumor tissues are absolutely essential. Methods We prepared 0.2 mm thick tissue slices from freshly excised tumor samples and cultivated them individually in the presence or absence of taxol for 4 days. To visualize viability, cell death, and expression of surface molecules in different compartments of non-fixed primary breast cancer tissues we established a method based on confocal imaging using mitochondria- and DNA-selective dyes and fluorescent-conjugated antibodies. Proliferation and apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry in sections from paraffin-embedded slices. Overall viability was also analyzed in homogenized tissue slices by a combined ATP/DNA quantification assay. Results We obtained a mean of 49 tissue slices from 22 breast cancer specimens allowing a wide range of experiments in each individual tumor. In our culture system, cells remained viable and proliferated for at least 4 days within their tissue environment. Viability of tissue slices decreased significantly in the presence of taxol in a dose-dependent manner. A three-color fluorescence viability assay enabled a rapid and authentic estimation of cell viability in the different tumor compartments within non-fixed tissue slices. Conclusion We describe a tissue culture method combined with a novel read out system for both tissue cultivation and rapid assessment of drug efficacy together with the simultaneous identification of different cell types within non-fixed breast cancer tissues. This method has potential significance for studying tumor responses to anticancer drugs in the complex environment of a primary cancer tissue.

  15. Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD34-Positive Cells as Predictors of the Incidence and Short-Term Outcome of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Eldin, Mohamed Hassan; Amer, Hanaa A.; Abdelhamid, Adel E.; El Houssinie, Moustafa; Ibrahim, Abir

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of neurological handicap in developing countries. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34-positive (CD34+) stem cells exhibit the potential for neural repair. We tested the hypothesis that hUCB CD34+ stem cells and other cell types [leukocytes and nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs)] that are up-regulated during the acute stage of perinatal asphyxia (PA) could play a role in the early prediction of the occurrence, severity, and mortality of HIE. Methods This case-control pilot study investigated consecutive neonates exposed to PA. The hUCB CD34+ cell count in mononuclear layers was assayed using a flow cytometer. Twenty full-term neonates with PA and 25 healthy neonates were enrolled in the study. Results The absolute CD34+ cell count (p=0.02) and the relative CD34+ cell count (CD34+%) (p<0.001) in hUCB were higher in the HIE patients (n=20) than the healthy controls. The hUCB absolute CD34+ cell count (p=0.04), CD34+% (p<0.01), and Hobel risk scores (p=0.04) were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe HIE (n=9) than in those with mild HIE (n=11). The absolute CD34+ cell count was strongly correlated with CD34+% (p<0.001), Hobel risk score (p=0.04), total leukocyte count (TLC) (p<0.001), and NRBC count (p=0.01). CD34+% was correlated with TLC (p=0.02). Conclusions hUCB CD34+ cells can be used to predict the occurrence, severity, and mortality of neonatal HIE after PA. PMID:28079317

  16. Short term effects of kinesio taping on pain and functional disability in young females with menstrual low back pain: A randomised control trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Aminianfar, Atefeh; Sheikhian, Sajedeh; Akbarzadeh, Zeinab

    2016-11-21

    Menstrual low back pain (LBP) in young females can reduce daily activity and cause functional disability, while the progressive application of kinesio-taping (KT) on pain reduction and functional correction has been stated. This study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of the lumbar vertebral column KT in young female with menstrual LBP. Thirty-two young females with menstrual LBP participated in this crossover study and were assigned randomly in two separate groups. The first group received KT during their first menstrual cycle and No-KT in their next menstrual, while the other group had no KT during the first mentrual cycle and received KT during the next menstrual cycle. The primary outcome measurements included the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, Oswestry disability index and McGill pain questionnaire score which were planned to collect at the end of the third day of the menstrual cycle. Comparing pain and disability between two conditions, of menstrual cycle with KT and menstrual cycle without KT, revealed significant reduction in VAS (mean change = 1.7; 95%CI = 0.6 to 2.8; P= 0.005), McGill pain score (mean change = 20.1; 95%CI = 8.7 to 31.3; P= 0.001) and functional disability (mean change = 12.3; 95%CI = 7.2 to 17.5; Pmenstrual cycle. Results showed that KT may effectively reduce pain and disability. The findings may support the clinical application of kinesiotaping in young females with menstrual LBP.

  17. Short-term administration of uridine increases brain membrane phospholipids precursors in healthy adults: a 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 4T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Sung, Young-Hoon; Jensen, J Eric; daCunha, Grace; Harper, David; Olson, David; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Altered metabolism of membrane phospholipids has been implicated in bipolar disorder. In humans, uridine is an important precursor of cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline, which plays a critical role in phospholipid synthesis and is currently being evaluated as a potential treatment for bipolar depression. Methods A total of 17 healthy males (mean age ± SD: 32.73 ± 7.2 years; range: 21.8- 46.4 years) were enrolled in this study. Subjects underwent a 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) acquisition at baseline and then again after seven days of either 2 g of uridine or placebo administration. A two-dimensional chemical shift imaging 31P-MRS acquisition collected spectral data from a 4 × 4 cluster of voxels acquired in the axial plane encompassing the subcortical structures as well as frontaltemporal cortical gray and white matter. The slab thickness was 3 cm and the approximate total volume of brain sampled was 432 cm3. The spectra obtained were analyzed using a fully automated in-house fitting algorithm. A population-averaged generalized estimating equation was used to evaluate changes both in phosphomonoesters (PME) [phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn)] and phosphodiesters (PDE) [glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) and glycerophosphethanolamine (GPEtn)]. Metabolite ratios were reported with respect to the total integrated 31P resonance area. Results The uridine group had significantly increased total PME and PEtn levels over the one-week period [6.32% and 7.17% for PME and PEtn, respectively (p 0.05). Conclusions This is the first study to report a direct effect of uridine on membrane phospholipid precursors in healthy adults using 31P-MRS. Sustained administration of uridine appears to increase PME in healthy subjects. Further investigation is required to clarify the effects of uridine in disorders with altered phospholipid metabolism such as bipolar disorder. PMID:21176029

  18. Effects of Pre-Injury Anti-Platelet Agents on Short-Term Outcome of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Farsi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of pre-injury consumption of anti-platelet agents on the 30-day outcomes of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at three general hospitals in Tehran, Iran between July 2013 and July 2014. The study population included all patients with mild TBI aged over 18 years that medicated with aspirin or clopidogrel before occurring trauma. Within hospitalization, all patients were assessed with respect to in-hospital conditions especially complications and adverse events. After discharge, the individuals were followed for 30 days by telephone to assess mortality and disability using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS. Results: Of 1140 patients with mild TBI, only 135 had previously received aspirin and/or clopidogrel. The mean age was dramatically higher in those who were taking aspirin or clopidogrel (p<0.001. The patients with previously use of anti-platelets were more transferred by ambulance when compared to another group (p=0.006. The patients on anti-platelets had significantly lower GCS on admission when compared to others (p<0.001. Length of hospitalization was significantly longer in those receiving anti-platelets (p=0.003. In follow-up, 30-day mortality and disability was revealed in 2.8% of patients that received only aspirin and 7.5% in aspirin with clopidogrel and in 1.6 % of those who did not receive drugs without any significant difference between aspirin and control group (p=0.208 and significant difference in aspirin with clopidogrel group (p<0.001. Conclusion: The premedication by anti-platelets (aspirin and/or clopidogrel in patients with mild TBI leads to prolonged hospital stay, and increase rate of disability. Age and on admission GCS are the independent risk factors for predicting the outcome in patients with mild TBI receiving anti-platelet agents.

  19. The connection between long-term and short-term risk management strategies: examples from land-use planning and emergency management in four European case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenger-Berninghoff, K.; Cortes, V. J.; Sprague, T.; Aye, Z. C.; Greiving, S.; Głowacki, W.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-04-01

    The need for continuous adaptation to complex and unforeseen events requires enhancing the links between planning and preparedness phases to reduce future risks in the most efficient way. In this context, the legal-administrative and cultural context has to be taken into account. This is why four case study areas of the CHANGES1 project (Nehoiu Valley in Romania, Ubaye Valley in France, Val Canale in Italy, and Wieprzówka catchment in Poland) serve as examples to highlight currently implemented risk management strategies for land-use planning and emergency preparedness. The strategies described in this paper were identified by means of exploratory and informal interviews in each study site. Results reveal that a dearth or, in very few cases, a weak link exists between spatial planners and emergency managers. Management strategies could benefit from formally intensifying coordination and cooperation between emergency services and spatial planning authorities. Moreover, limited financial funds urge for a more efficient use of resources and better coordination towards long-term activities. The research indicates potential benefits to establishing or, in some cases, strengthening this link and provides suggestions for further development in the form of information and decision support systems as a key connection point. Aside from the existent information systems for emergency management, it was found that a common platform, which integrates involvement of these and other relevant actors could enhance this connection and address expressed stakeholder needs. 1 Marie Curie ITN CHANGES - Changing Hydro-meteorological Risks as Analyzed by a New Generation of European Scientists.

  20. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  1. Short-term effects of manual therapy on heart rate variability, mood state, and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Velasco, Cristina; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Barrero-Hernández, Francisco J

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of head-neck massage on heart rate variability (HRV), mood states, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Eleven patients (8 females), between 20 and 68 years old, with CTTH participated in this crossover study. Patients received either the experimental treatment (massage protocol) or a placebo intervention (detuned ultrasound). Holter electrocardiogram recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval, square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals, index HRV, low-frequency component, and high-frequency component), PPT over both temporalis muscles, and Profile of Mood States questionnaire (tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, confusion) were obtained preintervention, immediately after intervention, and 24 hours postintervention. Self-reported head pain was also collected preintervention and 24 hours postintervention. Separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed with each dependent variable. The hypothesis of interest was group x time interaction. The ANCOVA showed a significant group x time interaction for index HRV (F = 4.5, P = .04), but not for standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (F = 1.1, P = .3), square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (F = 0.9, P = .3), low-frequency component (F = 0.03, P = .8), or high-frequency component (F = 0.4, P = .5) domains. Pairwise comparisons found that after the manual therapy intervention, patients showed an increase in the index HRV (P = .01) domain, whereas no changes were found after the placebo intervention (P = .7). The ANCOVA also found a significant group x time interaction for tension-anxiety (F = 5.3, P = .03) and anger-hostility (F = 4.6, P = .04) subscales. Pairwise comparisons found that after the manual therapy intervention, patients showed a decrease in tension-anxiety (P

  2. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Sickle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. METHODS: Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM (ACT, to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. RESULTS: Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years; 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35 at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60 at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66; however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18 for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04 and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44; no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26 was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location and triggers, and improved

  3. Predictors of mortality and short-term physical and cognitive dependence in critically ill persons 75 years and older: a prospective cohort study

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    Ramakers Michel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of 3-month mortality in critically ill older persons under medical care and to assess the clinical impact of an ICU stay on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status in survivors. Methods We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all older persons 75 years and older consecutively admitted into ICU during a one-year period, except those admitted after cardiac arrest, All patients were followed for 3 months or until death. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson index and physical dependence was evaluated using the Katz index of Activity of Daily Living (ADL. Cognitive dependence was determined by a score based on the individual components of the Lawton index of Daily Living and subjective health status was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP score. Results One hundred patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 79.3 ± 3.4 years. The median Charlson index was 6 [IQR, 4 to 7] and the mean ADL and cognitive scores were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.4, respectively, corresponding to a population with a high level of comorbidities but low physical and cognitive dependence. Mortality was 61/100 (61% at 3 months. In multivariate analysis only comorbidities assessed by the Charlson index [Adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; p p p = 0.04, and cognitive (p = 0.62 dependence in survivors had changed very little at 3 months. In addition, the mean NHP score was 213.1 ± 132.8 at 3 months, suggesting an acceptable perception of their quality of life. Conclusions In a selected population of non surgical patients 75 years and older, admission into the ICU is associated with a 3-month survival rate of 38% with little impact on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status. Nevertheless, a high comorbidity level (ie, Charlson index, multi-organ failure, and the need for extra-renal support at the

  4. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, David; Magzamen, Sheryl; Truelove, Shaun; Morrison, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM) (ACT), to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years); 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35) at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60) at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66); however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18) for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04) and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44); no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26) was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location) and triggers, and improved preventive practices. Weekly email reports and

  5. Smoking Cessation Carries a Short-Term Rising Risk for Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Independently of Weight Gain: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effects of smoking on human metabolism are complex. Although smoking increases risk for diabetes mellitus, smoking cessation was also reported to be associated with weight gain and incident diabetes mellitus. We therefore conducted this study to clarify the association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods. An analysis was done using the data of a mass health examination performed annually in an industrial park from 2007 to 2013. The association between smoking status and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus was analyzed with adjustment for weight gain and other potential confounders. Results. Compared with never-smokers, not only current smokers but also ex-smokers in their first two years of abstinence had higher odds ratios (ORs for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (never-smokers 3.6%, OR as 1; current smokers 5.5%, OR = 1.499, 95% CI = 1.147–1.960, and p=0.003; ex-smokers in their first year of abstinence 7.5%, OR = 1.829, 95% CI = 0.906–3.694, and p=0.092; and ex-smokers in their second year of abstinence 9.0%, OR = 2.020, 95% CI = 1.031–3.955, and p=0.040. Conclusion. Smoking cessation generally decreased risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. However, increased odds were seen within the first 2 years of abstinence independently of weight gain.

  6. Ajoene in the topical short-term treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis in humans. Randomized comparative study with terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, E; López, J C; Marin, P; Romero, H; Ferrara, G; De Sousa, L; Jorquera, A; Apitz Castro, R

    1999-06-01

    Ajoene (CAS 92284-99-6), an organic trisulphur originally isolated from garlic, has an antimycotic activity which has been widely demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this work was to compare the safety and effectiveness of ajoene (0.6%, gel) with terbinafine (CAS 91161-71-6) (1%, cream) for the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris. The patients selected were 60 soldiers with clinical and mycological diagnosis of either dermatophytosis. They were distributed at random in two treatment groups, one treated with ajoene at 0.6% and the other with terbinafine at 1%. All patients were evaluated clinically and mycologically 30 and 60 days after completion of the treatment, which was considered effective when clinical signs and symptoms had disappeared and the mycological cultures were negative. Thirty days after treatment, the percent healing rate was 77 and 75 for the groups treated with ajoene and terbinafine, respectively. Sixty days after treatment, the healing rate 73% and 71% for the groups treated with ajoene and terbinafine, respectively. These results and those obtained in previous studies confirm that ajoene is a new agent for the topic treatment of superficial mycoses, and for the first time show the therapeutic usefulness of an inhibitor of phospholipids biosynthesis in eukaryotes.

  7. Short-term response of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to hyperosmotic stress caused by inoculation in grape must: RT-qPCR study and metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Olta; Vaudano, Enrico; Pessione, Enrica; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    During the winemaking process, glycerol synthesis represents the first adaption response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stress after inoculation in grape must. We have implemented an RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcription-quantitative PCR) methodology with a preventive evaluation of candidate reference genes, to study six target genes related to glycerol synthesis (GPD1, GPD2, GPP2 and GPP1) and flux (STL1 and FPS1), and three ALD genes coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in redox equilibrium via acetate production. The mRNA level in three strains, characterized by different metabolite production, was monitored in the first 120 min from inoculation into natural grape must. Expression analysis shows a transient response of genes GPD1, GPD2, GPP2, GPP1 and STL1 with differences among strains in term of mRNA abundance, while FPS1 was expressed constitutively. The transient response and different expression intensity among strains, in relation to the intracellular glycerol accumulation pattern, prove the negative feedback control via the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) signalling pathway in S. cerevisiae wine strains under winery conditions. Among the ALD genes, only ALD6 was moderately induced in the hyperosmotic environment but not in all strains tested, while ALD3 and ALD4 were drastically glucose repressed. The intensity of transcription of ALD6 and ALD3 seems to be related to different acetate production found among the strains.

  8. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Nusca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome.

  9. A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn; Mann, Neil; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Roper, Jessica; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George

    2008-06-01

    Observational evidence suggests that dietary glycemic load may be one environmental factor contributing to the variation in acne prevalence worldwide. To investigate the effect of a low glycemic load (LGL) diet on endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris, 12 male acne sufferers (17.0 +/- 0.4 years) completed a parallel, controlled feeding trial involving a 7-day admission to a housing facility. Subjects consumed either an LGL diet (n = 7; 25% energy from protein and 45% from carbohydrates) or a high glycemic load (HGL) diet (n = 5; 15% energy from protein, 55% energy from carbohydrate). Study outcomes included changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding proteins (IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3). Changes in HOMA-IR were significantly different between groups at day 7 (-0.57 for LGL vs. 0.14 for HGL, p = 0.03). SHBG levels decreased significantly from baseline in the HGL group (p = 0.03), while IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3 significantly increased (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively) in the LGL group. These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development.

  10. Investigating the state-like and trait-like characters of social cognition in schizophrenia: a short term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Nóra; Egerházi, Anikó; Berecz, Roland; Csukly, Gábor

    2014-11-01

    Controversial findings exist in the literature regarding the state- and trait-like characters of social cognition in schizophrenia. In order to explore the relationship of social cognition with symptom severity in the present study, Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition were tested in an acute phase and later in a clinically stable phase in patients. ToM and emotion recognition abilities were examined by using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the Ekman 60 Faces Test (FEEST) in 43 patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Research diagnoses were based on SCID interviews. Symptom severity in patients was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). ToM and emotion recognition deficits improved in the clinically stable phase compared to relapse, but were still found to be impaired compared to healthy controls. Negative symptom severity showed strong correlation with emotion recognition and ToM at both visits. Both ToM and emotion recognition fluctuated together with symptom severity, which confirmed the "state-like" component of these abilities. Our results, taken together with the findings of previous investigations show that social cognition deficits in schizophrenia have both state-like and trait-like components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of yoga on short-term heart rate variability measure as a stress index in subjunior cyclists: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish G; Mullur, Lata M; Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha R

    2013-01-01

    Subjunior athletes experience mental stress due to pressure from the coach, teachers and parents for better performance. Stress, if remains for longer period and not managed appropriately can leads to negative physical, mental and cognitive impact on children. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of integrated yoga module on heart rate variability (HRV) measure as a stress index in subjunior cyclists. Fast furrier transform technique of frequency domain method was used for the analysis of HRV. We have found a significant increase in high frequency (HF) component by 14.64% (P yoga group. In the control group, there was decrease in the HF component and, no significant difference in the LF component of HRV spectrum and LF/HF ratio. The results show that yoga practice decreases sympathetic activity and causes a shift in the autonomic balance towards parasympathetic dominance indicating a reduction in stress. In conclusion, yoga practice helps to reduce stress by optimizing the autonomic functions. So, it is suggested to incorporate yoga module as a regular feature to keep subjunior athletes both mentally and physically fit.

  12. Assessment of tissue perfusion changes in port wine stains after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy: a short-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Li, Pengcheng; Zhao, Hongyou; Chen, Defu; Zhen, Jie; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yucheng; Gu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    The occlusion effect of vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) for malformed vessels in port wine stains (PWS) often last for some time after the treatment. A relatively longer period after V-PDT is needed to accurately assess the final response of PWS microcirculation to the treatment. In this study, we intended to use laser speckle imaging (LSI) to assess the tissue perfusion changes of PWS at follow-up after V-PDT and preliminarily analyze the relationship between perfusion change and color bleaching. Seventeen patients with 40 PWS lesions were scanned by LSI before and 3-6 months after they received V-PDT. The speckle flow indices of PWS lesions and normal skin before and at follow-up after V-PDT were recorded. We also performed analyses on the correlation between perfusion changes and color bleaching. Before V-PDT, the 40 PWS lesions showed higher perfusion than the normal skin (1,421 ± 463 and 1,115 ± 386 perfusion unit (PU), respectively, P perfusion level compared to the preoperative values (1,282 ± 460 and 1,421 ± 463 PU, respectively, P perfusion change rates coincide well with the color bleaching rates (correlation coefficient, 0.73). In conclusion, the LSI system is capable of imaging PWS perfusion precisely, and it has shown promising results in assessing the changes of tissue perfusion of V-PDT for PWS, with objective and quantitative data, real-time images, and a shorter detection time. It may also provide an effectiveness assessment method for the treatment of PWS.

  13. A study on the short-term effect of cafeteria diet and pioglitazone on insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G; Bazzo, M L; Nogueira, C L; Colombo, M D H P; Schiavon, L L; d'Acampora, A J

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between ghrelin and adiponectin is still controversial. We investigated the effect of cafeteria diet and pioglitazone on body weight, insulin resistance, and adiponectin/ghrelin levels in an experimental study on male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups of 6 rats each, and received balanced chow with saline (CHOW-O) or pioglitazone (CHOW-P), or a cafeteria diet with saline (CAFE-O) or pioglitazone (CAFE-P). The chow/cafeteria diets were administered for 35 days, and saline/pioglitazone (10 mg · kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) was added in the last 14 days prior to euthanasia. CAFE-O animals had a higher mean final weight (372.5 ± 21.01 g) than CHOW-O (317.66 ± 25.11 g, P = 0.017) and CHOW-P (322.66 ± 28.42 g, P = 0.035) animals. Serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in CHOW-P (55.91 ± 20.62 ng/mL) than in CHOW-O (30.52 ± 6.97 ng/mL, P = 0.014) and CAFE-O (32.54 ± 9.03 ng/mL, P = 0.027) but not in CAFE-P. Higher total serum ghrelin levels were observed in CAFE-P compared to CHOW-P animals (1.65 ± 0.69 vs 0.65 ± 0.36 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Likewise, acylated ghrelin levels were higher in CAFE-P (471.52 ± 195.09 pg/mL) than in CHOW-P (193.01 ± 87.61 pg/mL, P = 0.009) and CAFE-O (259.44 ± 86.36 pg/mL, P = 0.047) animals. In conclusion, a cafeteria diet can lead to a significant weight gain. Although CAFE-P animals exhibited higher ghrelin levels, this was probably related to food deprivation rather than to a direct pharmacological effect, possibly attenuating the increase in adiponectin levels.

  14. Partitioning of carbon sources among functional pools to investigate short-term priming effects of biochar in soil: A {sup 13}C study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerré, Bart [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C., E-mail: m.hernandezsoriano@uq.edu.au [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); The University of Queensland, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Smolders, Erik [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    Biochar sequesters carbon (C) in soils because of its prolonged residence time, ranging from several years to millennia. In addition, biochar can promote indirect C-sequestration by increasing crop yield while, potentially, reducing C-mineralization. This laboratory study was set up to evaluate effects of biochar on C-mineralization with due attention to source appointment by using {sup 13}C isotope signatures. An arable soil (S) (7.9 g organic C, OC kg{sup −1}) was amended (single dose of 10 g kg{sup −1} soil) with dried, grinded maize stover (leaves and stalks), either natural (R) or {sup 13}C enriched (R*), and/or biochar (B/B*) prepared from the maize stover residues (450 °C). Accordingly, seven different combinations were set up (S, SR, SB, SR*, SB*, SRB*, SR*B) to trace the source of C in CO{sub 2} (180 days), dissolved organic-C (115 days) and OC in soil aggregate fractions (90 days). The application of biochar to soil reduced the mineralization of native soil organic C but the effect on maize stover-C mineralization was not consistent. Biochar application decreased the mineralization of the non-enriched maize stover after 90 days, this being consistent with a significant reduction of dissolved organic C concentration from 45 to 18 mg L{sup −1}. However, no significant effect was observed for the enriched maize stover, presumably due to differences between the natural and enriched materials. The combined addition of biochar and enriched maize stover significantly increased (twofold) the presence of native soil organic C or maize derived C in the free microaggregate fraction relative to soil added only with stover. Although consistent effects among C sources and biochar materials remains elusive, our outcomes indicate that some biochar products can reduce mineralization and solubilization of other sources of C while promoting their physical protection in soil particles. - Highlights: • Biochar can reduce native soil organic carbon mineralization.

  15. Comparative study of open and arthroscopic coracoid transfer for shoulder anterior instability (Latarjet)-clinical results at short term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordasiewicz, Bartłomiej; Małachowski, Konrad; Kicinski, Maciej; Chaberek, Sławomir; Pomianowski, Stanisław

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early clinical results after open and arthroscopic Latarjet stabilisation in anterior shoulder instability. Our hypothesis was the results of arthroscopic stabilisation were comparable with the results of open procedure. The clinical results of the patients after primary Latarjet procedure were analysed. Patients operated on between 2006 and 2011 using an open technique composed the OPEN group and patients operated on arthroscopically between 2011 and 2013 composed the ARTHRO group; 48 out of 55 shoulders (87%) in OPEN and 62 out of 64 shoulders (97%) in ARTHRO were available to follow-up. The average age at surgery was 28 years in OPEN and 26 years in ARTHRO. The mean follow-up was 54.2 months in OPEN and 23.4 months in ARTHRO. Intra-operative data were analysed regarding time of surgery, concomitant lesions and complications. Patient results were assessed with Walch-Duplay, Rowe, VAS scores and subjective self-evaluation of satisfaction and shoulder function. Computed tomography scan evaluation was used to assess the graft healing. Average time of surgery was significantly shorter in ARTHRO than OPEN: respectively 110 and 120 minutes. The number of intra-operative complications was six (12.5%) in OPEN and five (8.1%) in ARTHRO. The results were comparable in both groups, with no significant difference between OPEN and ARTHRO group: satisfaction rate - 96.8% and 91.9%, shoulder function - 92.2% and 90%, Walch-Duplay score - 83.9 and 76.7 respecively. A significant difference was reported in Rowe score: 87.8 in OPEN and 78.9 in ARTHRO. Another significant difference was found in the presence of "subjective apprehension"-a term referring to the subjective perception of instability with no signs of instability at clinical examination - 28.7% in OPEN and 50% in ARTHRO. Range of motion in both groups were comparable, however patients in OPEN had significantly lower loss of external rotation in adduction to the side comparing to the

  16. Short-term Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, Osmel; Cárdenas, Rolando; Horváth, J E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the potential short-term atmospheric and biospheric influence of Gamma Ray Bursts on the Earth. We focus in the ultraviolet flash at the planet's surface, which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the $\\gamma$ radiation through the atmosphere. This would be the only important short-term effect on life. We mostly consider Archean and Proterozoic eons, and for completeness we also comment on the Phanerozoic. Therefore, in our study we consider atmospheres with oxygen levels ranging from $10^{-5}$ to 1% of the present atmospheric level, representing different moments in the oxygen rise history. Ecological consequences and some strategies to estimate their importance are outlined.

  17. Short-term geomorphological evolution of proglacial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Heckmann, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Proglacial systems are amongst the most rapidly changing landscapes on Earth, as glacier mass loss, permafrost degradation and more episodes of intense rainfall progress with climate change. This review addresses the urgent need to quantitatively define proglacial systems not only in terms of spatial extent but also in terms of functional processes. It firstly provides a critical appraisal of prevailing conceptual models of proglacial systems, and uses this to justify compiling data on rates of landform change in terms of planform, horizontal motion, elevation changes and sediment budgets. These data permit us to produce novel summary conceptual diagrams that consider proglacial landscape evolution in terms of a balance of longitudinal and lateral water and sediment fluxes. Throughout, we give examples of newly emerging datasets and data processing methods because these have the potential to assist with the issues of: (i) a lack of knowledge of proglacial systems within high-mountain, arctic and polar regions, (ii) considerable inter- and intra-catchment variability in the geomorphology and functioning of proglacial systems, (iii) problems with the magnitude of short-term geomorphological changes being at the threshold of detection, (iv) separating short-term variability from longer-term trends, and (v) of the representativeness of plot-scale field measurements for regionalisation and for upscaling. We consider that understanding of future climate change effects on proglacial systems requires holistic process-based modelling to explicitly consider feedbacks and linkages, especially between hillslope and valley-floor components. Such modelling must be informed by a new generation of repeated distributed topographic surveys to detect and quantify short-term geomorphological changes.

  18. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle L Simoens

    Full Text Available Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  19. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  20. Long and short term pump testing for landfill gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Fleming, I.R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate vertical well designs drilled into existing landfills as part of a landfill gas collection retrofitting project. Well designs and construction techniques were compared in relation to pneumatic efficiency and the capacity of each well. The aim of the study was to devise a method of evaluating well efficiency and long-term performance. Short-term, single well step-drawdown tests were conducted. Long-term pumping from the entire well field was conducted using different flow rate control approaches. Flow rates were measured at several different system pressures. Data were then compared with drawdown flow rate data from the short-term tests. The study proved that the single well short-term tests accurately predicted the long-term performance of the well field. The study also demonstrated that there was no apparent relationship between well productivity and the length of the screened zone, the diameter of the well, or the diameter of the borehole. No relationship was observed between well performance and the capital costs of individual wells.

  1. The psychotomimetic effects of short-term sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J; Brady, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    People experiencing sensory deprivation often report perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, especially over extended periods of time. However, there is little evidence concerning short-term sensory deprivation and whether its effects differ depending on the individual concerned, and in particular their proneness to psychosis. This study explored whether perceptual disturbances could be elicited by a brief period of complete isolation from sound and vision in both highly hallucination prone and nonhallucination prone groups. Greater psychotomimetic experiences taking the form of perceptual disturbances, paranoia, and anhedonia were found across both groups when under sensory deprivation. In addition, hallucination-prone individuals experienced more perceptual disturbances when placed in short-term sensory deprivation than nonprone individuals. This result is discussed in terms of difficulties in source monitoring as a possible mechanism involved in proneness to hallucinations.

  2. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re......-search of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset....... The conferred results show that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the computation time is reduced....

  3. IPSe.max CAD全瓷冠修复的短期临床评价%Clinical study of short-term restorative effects of IPS e. max CAD ceramic crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟家彬; 黄丽娟; 俞青

    2015-01-01

    目的:对IPS e. max CAD 全瓷冠近期修复效果进行观察和评价。方法共选取469例542颗前、后牙IPS e. max CAD 全瓷冠修复体,修复3~12个月后,按照美国加州牙科协会(CDA)制定的全瓷修复临床评定标准进行修复体评估。结果97.2%的修复体保持完整,未出现破裂、崩瓷、脱落、基牙冠折等并发症,患者满意度较高。结论 IPS e. max CAD 全瓷修复体的近期修复效果良好。%Objective To study and evaluate the short-term restorative effects of IPS e. max CAD ceramic crown. Methods 469 patients with 542 restorations were selected and the satisfactory degree of the patients was investigated. The restorative effect was evalua-ted after 3-12 months. Result The satisfactory rate of IPS e. max CAD full ceramic restorations was 97. 2%,without porcelain frac-ture,loss of crown or abutment broken. Conclusion The short-term clinical behavior of IPS e. max CAD all ceramic restorations is en-couraging.

  4. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations. The Southern Study Area, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M. [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Manobianco, John [MESO, Inc., Troy, NY (United States); Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). National Wind Inst.; Ancell, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Atmospheric Science Group; Brewster, Keith [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms; Basu, Sukanta [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences; Banunarayanan, Venkat [ICF International (United States); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Isabel [Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This Final Report presents a comprehensive description, findings, and conclusions for the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) -- Southern Study Area (SSA) work led by AWS Truepower (AWST). This multi-year effort, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), focused on improving short-term (15-minute - 6 hour) wind power production forecasts through the deployment of an enhanced observation network of surface and remote sensing instrumentation and the use of a state-of-the-art forecast modeling system. Key findings from the SSA modeling and forecast effort include: 1. The AWST WFIP modeling system produced an overall 10 - 20% improvement in wind power production forecasts over the existing Baseline system, especially during the first three forecast hours; 2. Improvements in ramp forecast skill, particularly for larger up and down ramps; 3. The AWST WFIP data denial experiments showed mixed results in the forecasts incorporating the experimental network instrumentation; however, ramp forecasts showed significant benefit from the additional observations, indicating that the enhanced observations were key to the model systems’ ability to capture phenomena responsible for producing large short-term excursions in power production; 4. The OU CAPS ARPS simulations showed that the additional WFIP instrument data had a small impact on their 3-km forecasts that lasted for the first 5-6 hours, and increasing the vertical model resolution in the boundary layer had a greater impact, also in the first 5 hours; and 5. The TTU simulations were inconclusive as to which assimilation scheme (3DVAR versus EnKF) provided better forecasts, and the additional observations resulted in some improvement to the forecasts in the first 1 - 3 hours.

  5. The impact of DMARD and anti-TNF therapy on functional characterization of short-term T-cell activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis--a follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Szalay

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic dysfunction of T-cells. In this study we tested the impact of DMARD and anti-TNF agents on short-term activation characteristics of T-cells. We enrolled 12 patients with newly diagnosed RA (naïve RA who were treated with methothrexate (MTX and glucocorticsteroid (GCS and 22 patients with established RA non responding to conventional DMARD therapy who were treated with different anti-TNF agents. Nine healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples were taken at baseline, then at 4th and 8th week of therapy. The characteristics of several intracellular activation processes during short-term activation of T-cells including cytoplasmic Ca(2+ level, mitochondrial Ca(2+ level, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation were determined by a novel flow-cytometry technique. At baseline, the tested processes were comparable to controls in naïve RA. During GCS therapy, cytoplasmic Ca(2+ level and ROS generation decreased. After the addition of MTX to GCS cytoplasmic Ca(2+ level became comparable to controls, while ROS generation decreased further. In DMARD non responders, cytoplasmic Ca(2+ level was higher than controls at baseline. The cytoplasmic Ca(2+ level became comparable to controls and ROS generation decreased during each of the three anti-TNF-α agent therapies. Mitochondrial Ca(2+ level and NO generation were unaltered in all of the patient groups. These results indicate that intracellular machinery is affected in T-cells of RA patients. This may alter the behavior of T-cells during activation. Different therapeutic approaches may modulate the abnormal T-cell functions.

  6. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  7. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panouillères, Muriel T N; Tofaris, George K; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and