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Sample records for repeated sensory stimulation

  1. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD.

  2. Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.

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    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy

    2014-03-28

    Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety.

  3. Electromechanical tactile stimulation system for sensory vision substitution

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    Zalevsky, Zeev; Elani, Gal; Azoulay, Eli; Ilani, Dan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Belkin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A sensory substitution device is developed in which nonretinal stimulus is used to generate input to the brain of blind people to substitute for damage or loss of retinal input. Although the final realization of this technology (direct stimulation of the corneal nerve endings) was not addressed, a device consisting of a contact lens delivering point mechanical or electrical stimulating of the corneal nerves and a camera mounted on a spectacles frame which wirelessly transmit processed image to the contact lens, translating the visual information into tactile sensation is expected to be constructed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the constructed image, the camera will also time multiplex, compress and encode the captured image before transmitting it to the stimulating contact lens. Preliminary devices performing tactile stimulation of the fingers and of the tongue by applying point electrical stimulations, were constructed and tested. Subjects were taught to "see" using the mechanical and the electrical tactile sensory.

  4. Finite Element Modeling of Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation for Sensory Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Si; CHAI Guo-hong; SUI Xiao-hong; LAN Ning

    2014-01-01

    It is currently difficult for the amputee to perceive environmental information such as tactile pressure on the fingertip of the present upper limb prostheses. Sensory feedback induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation can be used to transmit tactile information from hand prostheses to sensory nerve of intact upper arm, thus producing the corresponding perceptions in human brain. In order to have a deeper understanding on the distribution of stimulation current within the limb, and find a better placement of the stimulating and reference electrodes, we constructed a three-dimensional upper-limb model to systematically study the effect of electrode placement on current distribution based on finite element analysis. In these simulations, the reference electrode is positioned at four different locations around and on the axial direction of the arm. The results show that with the increase of distance between reference electrode and stimulating electrode, the current density increases in the skin layer of the upper limb. When the reference electrode is on the opposite side of stimulating electrode around the arm, the current is more concentrated in the skin layer, which is in line with recent findings in psychophysiological experiments. But better spatial selectivity could be achieved when the reference electrode is closer to the stimulating electrode around the arm, and it is more obvious in comparison with that on the axial direction. These findings will provide insights for the design of electrode array used for evoking cutaneous sensory afferents.

  5. Sensory Stimulation Prior to Spinal Cord Injury Induces Post-Injury Dysesthesia in Mice

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    Hoschouer, Emily L.; Finseth, Taylor; Flinn, Sharon; Basso, D. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI. PMID:20121420

  6. Role of Sensory Stimulation in Amelioration of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Mak Adam Daulatzai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, characterized by recurrent upper airway (UA collapse during sleep, is associated with significant morbidity and disorders. Polysomnogram is employed in the evaluation of OSA and apnea-hypopnea number per hour reflects severity. For normal breathing, it is essential that the collapsible UA is patent. However, obstruction of the UA is quite common in adults and infants. Normally, important reflex mechanisms defend against the UA collapse. The muscle activity of UA dilators, including the genioglossus, tensor palatini (TP, and pharyngeal constrictors, is due to the integrated mechanism of afferent sensory input → to motor function. Snoring is harsh breathing to prevent UA obstruction. Unfortunately, snoring vibrations, pharyngeal suction collapse, negative pressure, and hypoxia cause pathological perturbations including dysfunctional UA afferent sensory activity. The current paper posits that peripheral sensory stimulation paradigm, which has been shown to be efficacious in improving several neurological conditions, could be an important therapeutic strategy in OSA also.

  7. Brain connectivity and sensory stimulation in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores brain connectivity and sensory stimulation in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). These are serious conditions where massive brain damage can lead to a dissociation between arousal and awareness (e.g., UWS and MCS). Part I explores brain connectivity. We highlight that brain function and structure are intimately related to each other, and to consciousness. The decrease in brain function can be used to distinguish between the clinically indicated states of ...

  8. Effects of complexity and intensity on sensory specific satiety and food acceptance after repeated consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (1) to study the effects of complexity and intensity of foods on sensory specific satiety (SSS) and their acceptance after repeated consumption, and (2) to determine the predictive value of SSS for acceptance over repeated consumption. Two studies were

  9. Sensory stimulation (TENS): effects of parameter manipulation on mechanical pain thresholds in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, Linda S; Barlas, Panos; Foster, Nadine E; Lundeberg, Thomas; Wright, Christine C; Baxter, G David

    2002-09-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular form of electrostimulation. Despite an extensive research base, there remains no consensus regarding the parameter selection required to achieve maximal hypoalgesic effects. The aim of this double blind, sham-controlled study was to investigate the relative hypoalgesic effects of different TENS parameters (frequency, intensity and stimulation site) upon experimentally induced mechanical pain. Two hundred and forty participants were recruited in order to provide statistical analysis with 80% power at alpha = 0.05. Subjects were randomised to one of the six TENS groups, a control, and a sham TENS group (n = 30, 15 males, 15 females, per group). TENS groups differed in their combinations of stimulation; frequency (4 or 110 Hz), intensity ('to tolerance' or 'strong but comfortable') and stimulation site (segmental--over the distribution of the radial nerve or, extrasegmental--over acupuncture point 'gall bladder 34', or a combination of both segmental and extrasegmental). Pulse duration was fixed at 200 micros. Stimulation was delivered for 30 min and subjects were then monitored for a further 30 min. Mechanical pain threshold (MPT) was measured using a pressure algometer and taken from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant hand, ipsilateral to the stimulation site. MPT measures were taken, at baseline, and at 10-min intervals for 60 min. Difference scores were analysed using repeated measures and one-way ANOVA and relevant post hoc tests. Low frequency, high intensity, extrasegmental stimulation produced a rapid onset hypoalgesic effect, which increased during the stimulation period (P < 0.0005 control and sham) and was sustained for 30 min post-stimulation (P < 0.0005(control), P = 0.024(sham)). Whilst high frequency, 'strong but comfortable' intensity, segmental stimulation produced comparable hypoalgesic levels during stimulation, this effect was not sustained post-stimulation

  10. Improved Acuity and Dexterity but Unchanged Touch and Pain Thresholds following Repetitive Sensory Stimulation of the Fingers

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    Rebecca Kowalewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity underlies the brain’s ability to alter perception and behavior through training, practice, or simply exposure to sensory stimulation. Improvement of tactile discrimination has been repeatedly demonstrated after repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS of the fingers; however, it remains unknown if such protocols also affect hand dexterity or pain thresholds. We therefore stimulated the thumb and index finger of young adults to investigate, besides testing tactile discrimination, the impact of rSS on dexterity, pain, and touch thresholds. We observed an improvement in the pegboard task where subjects used the thumb and index finger only. Accordingly, stimulating 2 fingers simultaneously potentiates the efficacy of rSS. In fact, we observed a higher gain of discrimination performance as compared to a single-finger rSS. In contrast, pain and touch thresholds remained unaffected. Our data suggest that selecting particular fingers modulates the efficacy of rSS, thereby affecting processes controlling sensorimotor integration.

  11. Atypical perinatal sensory stimulation and early perceptual development: insights from developmental psychobiology.

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    Lickliter, R

    2000-12-01

    Comparative studies utilizing avian and mammalian embryos and neonates have proven particularly useful in exploring how alterations in sensory experience during the perinatal period can affect subsequent development. This article reviews research drawn from comparative developmental psychobiology and concludes that the effects of modified sensory stimulation on perceptual and behavioral development depend on several related factors, including the timing of stimulation relative to the developmental stage of the young organism, the overall amount of sensory stimulation provided or denied, and the type of sensory stimulation presented. Directions for future research on the care of the high-risk infant are discussed.

  12. CAG repeat size correlates to electrophysiological motor and sensory phenotypes in SBMA.

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    Suzuki, Keisuke; Katsuno, Masahisa; Banno, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Yu; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Mizuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Yamashita, Fumitada; Hori, Norio; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2008-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, lower motor neuron disease caused by an aberrant elongation of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The main symptoms are weakness and atrophy of bulbar, facial and limb muscles, but sensory disturbances are frequently found in SBMA patients. Motor symptoms have been attributed to the accumulation of mutant AR in the nucleus of lower motor neurons, which is more profound in patients with a longer CAG repeat. We examined nerve conduction properties including F-waves in a total of 106 patients with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age at data collection = 53.8 years; range = 31-75 years) and 85 control subjects. Motor conduction velocities (MCV), compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), sensory conduction velocities (SCV) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were significantly decreased in all nerves examined in the SBMA patients compared with that in the normal controls, indicating that axonal degeneration is the primary process in both motor and sensory nerves. More profound abnormalities were observed in the nerves of the upper limbs than in those of the lower limbs. F-waves in the median nerve were absent in 30 of 106 cases (28.3%), but no cases of absent F-waves were observed in the tibial nerve. From an analysis of the relationship between CMAPs and SNAPs, patients were identified with different electrophysiological phenotypes: motor-dominant, sensory-dominant and non-dominant phenotypes. The CAG repeat size and the age at onset were significantly different among the patients with motor- and sensory-dominant phenotypes, indicating that a longer CAG repeat is more closely linked to the motor-dominant phenotype and a shorter CAG repeat is more closely linked to the sensory-dominant phenotype. Furthermore, when we classified the patients by CAG repeat size, CMAP values showed a tendency to be decreased in patients with a longer CAG repeat (> or =47), while SNAPs were significantly

  13. Frequency-dependent entrainment of neocortical slow oscillation to repeated optogenetic stimulation in the anesthetized rat.

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    Kuki, Toshinobu; Ohshiro, Tomokazu; Ito, Shin; Ji, Zhi-Gang; Fukazawa, Yugo; Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Yawo, Hiromu; Mushiake, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) slow oscillation (entrained to repeated external sensory stimuli. To better understand the neural mechanism underlying slow-oscillation generation and its entrainment to external stimuli, we delivered optical stimulation to the cortex of anesthetized rats that exogenously expressed the light-sensitive cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and simultaneously monitored LFPs across cortical layers. We found that the LFPs could be effectively entrained to repeated optical stimulation at 1Hz in deep layers. A stimulus-triggered current-source density (CSD) analysis showed that the evoked oscillation had the same depth and temporal profile as the slow oscillations, indicating that both oscillations have the same neural mechanism. Optical stimulation primarily induced the transition from the cortical up to down state. These results suggest that the anesthetized rat cortex has an intrinsic mechanism that leads to oscillation near 1Hz; effective entrainment to the 1Hz stimulation reflects the resonated state of the cortex to that stimulus. Our study is the first to demonstrate optogenetic manipulation of cortical slow oscillation and provides a mechanistic explanation for slow-oscillation entrainment.

  14. Effect of a Structured Sensory Stimulation Program on the Sensory Function of Patients with Stroke-induced Disorder of Consciousness

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    Khadijeh Sargolzaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 50% of stroke patients suffer from the disorder of consciousness with such adverse effects as sensory deprivation. The provision of a care program consisting of simple and safe stimulations can prevent sensory deprivation and improve the patient’s sensory function. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of structured sensory stimulation program on the sensory function of the patients with stroke-induced disorder of consciousness. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with stroke-induced disorder of consciousness admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of control and intervention. The patients in the intervention group were subjected to a sensory stimulation program consisting of auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, and motor stimulations for 14 consecutive days. The sensory function was measured every day before and after the intervention using the Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART instrument. On the other hand, the control group received the routine care. The data were analyzed in the SPSS version 11.5 using the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. Results: According to the results, the patients in the intervention and control groups had the mean ages of 66.2±8.9 and 63.8±10.8, respectively. The pre-intervention SMART scores of the two groups were homogenous (P=0.23. However, the independent t-test showed that the final SMART score was significantly higher (P

  15. 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the ipsilesional sensory cortex enhances motor learning after stroke

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    Sonia M Brodie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is critical for motor learning, and thus to neurorehabilitation after stroke. Whether enhancing sensory feedback by applying excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the ipsilesional primary sensory cortex (IL-S1 might enhance motor learning in chronic stroke has yet to be investigated. The present study investigated the effects of 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 paired with skilled motor practice on motor learning, hemiparetic cutaneous somatosensation, and motor function. Individuals with unilateral chronic stroke were pseudo-randomly divided into either Active or Sham 5 Hz rTMS groups (n=11/group. Following stimulation, both groups practiced a Serial Tracking Task (STT with the hemiparetic arm; this was repeated for 5 days. Performance on the STT was quantified by response time, peak velocity, and cumulative distance tracked at baseline, during the 5 days of practice, and at a no-rTMS retention test. Cutaneous somatosensation was measured using two-point discrimination. Standardized sensorimotor tests were performed to assess whether the effects might generalize to impact hemiparetic arm function. The active 5Hz rTMS + training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in STT performance [response time (F1,286.04=13.016, p< 0.0005, peak velocity (F1,285.95=4.111, p=0.044, and cumulative distance (F1,285.92=4.076, p=0.044] and cutaneous somatosensation (F1,21.15=8.793, p=0.007 across all sessions compared to the sham rTMS + training group. Measures of upper extremity motor function were not significantly different for either group. Our preliminary results suggest that, when paired with motor practice, 5Hz rTMS over IL-S1 enhances motor learning related change in individuals with chronic stroke, potentially as a consequence of improved cutaneous somatosensation, however no improvement in general upper extremity function was observed.

  16. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults.

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    O'Connor, Kathryn W; Loughlin, Patrick J; Redfern, Mark S; Sparto, Patrick J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: (1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), (2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and (3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (P(vel)) was calculated for consecutive 5s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the P(vel). P(vel) was greater in older adults in all conditions (phabituation. P(vel) of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between Trials 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in P(vel) following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization.

  17. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

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    Wise, Nan J.; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the ‘reward system’. In addition

  18. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

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    Nan J. Wise

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design: Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74 participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results: Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region, and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion: The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the

  19. Sensorimotor integration in dyslexic children under different sensory stimulations.

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    André R Viana

    Full Text Available Dyslexic children, besides difficulties in mastering literacy, also show poor postural control that might be related to how sensory cues coming from different sensory channels are integrated into proper motor activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sensory information and body sway, with visual and somatosensory information manipulated independent and concurrently, in dyslexic children. Thirty dyslexic and 30 non-dyslexic children were asked to stand as still as possible inside of a moving room either with eyes closed or open and either lightly touching a moveable surface or not for 60 seconds under five experimental conditions: (1 no vision and no touch; (2 moving room; (3 moving bar; (4 moving room and stationary touch; and (5 stationary room and moving bar. Body sway magnitude and the relationship between room/bar movement and body sway were examined. Results showed that dyslexic children swayed more than non-dyslexic children in all sensory condition. Moreover, in those trials with conflicting vision and touch manipulation, dyslexic children swayed less coherent with the stimulus manipulation compared to non-dyslexic children. Finally, dyslexic children showed higher body sway variability and applied higher force while touching the bar compared to non-dyslexic children. Based upon these results, we can suggest that dyslexic children are able to use visual and somatosensory information to control their posture and use the same underlying neural control processes as non-dyslexic children. However, dyslexic children show poorer performance and more variability while relating visual and somatosensory information and motor action even during a task that does not require an active cognitive and motor involvement. Further, in sensory conflict conditions, dyslexic children showed less coherent and more variable body sway. These results suggest that dyslexic children have difficulties in multisensory

  20. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, A.M.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a; van der Smagt, M.J.; van der Stigchel, S.; van Ee, R.; Nijboer, T.C.W.

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered

  1. Expectation of sensory stimulation modulates brain activation during visual motion stimulation.

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    Brandt, Thomas; Deutschländer, Angela; Glasauer, Stefan; Nolte, Annina; Brückmann, Hartmut; Dieterich, Marianne; Stephan, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The differential effects of visual hemifield motion stimulation during fixation of a stationary target were compared under two conditions: fixation straight ahead without any further instructions and fixation straight ahead with attention shifted to the "dark hemifield." Data from nine right-handed volunteers revealed that striate and extrastriate right hemispheric visual areas exhibited larger activations during left hemifield motion stimulation when attention was shifted to the right dark hemifield. Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates (26, -98, -4) of the additional clusters activated in the latter condition corresponded best to the kinetic occipital region, which is known to process both shape and motion information, and to parts of area V3 posterior to V3A, which has been shown repeatedly to mediate motion perception. A simple computational model of transhemispheric visuovisual interaction is proposed. The basic mechanism of this model is a central predictor formed by a feedback loop that detects a mismatch between input to the two hemispheres. Predicted stimulation is then compared with the actual input. If the sensed motion of a visual hemifield is larger than the predicted net motion in the model, activation of the respective neural population is increased; conversely, a smaller actual motion causes less activation.

  2. Impact of model fat emulsions on sensory perception using repeated spoon to spoon ingestion.

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    Appelqvist, I A M; Poelman, A A M; Cochet-Broch, M; Delahunty, C M

    2016-06-01

    Eating is a dynamic behaviour, in which food interacts with the mechanical and physiological environment of the mouth. This dynamic interaction changes the oral surfaces leaving particles of food and building up a film on the oral surfaces, which may impact on the temporal perception during the eating experience. The effect of repeated spoon to spoon ingestion of oil in water emulsion products (2%-50% w/w oil) was evaluated using descriptive in-mouth and after swallowing sensory attributes. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that fatty mouthfeel and afterfeel perception (measured post swallowing) increased with the number of spoonfuls for emulsions containing 50% fat. This effect is likely due to the build-up of oil droplet layers deposited on the mouth surfaces. There was an enhancement of fatty afterfeel intensity for 50% fat emulsions containing the more lipophilic aroma ethylhexanoate compared to ethyl butanoate, indicating a cross-modal interaction. No increase in these attributes from spoon to spoon was observed for the low oil emulsions; since most of the oil in the emulsion was swallowed and very little oil was likely to be left in the mouth. Sweetness perception increased as fat level increased in the emulsion due to an increase in the effective concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. However, the sweetness perceived did not change from spoon to spoon, suggesting that any oil-droplets deposited on the oral surfaces did not form a complete barrier, restricting access of the sucrose to the taste buds. This study highlights the importance of measuring the dynamic nature of eating and demonstrated change in sensory perception occurring with repeated ingestion of model emulsions, which was likely due to a change in mouth environment.

  3. Sensory electrical stimulation for suppression of postural tremor in patients with essential tremor.

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    Heo, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Lee, Sang-Ki; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Kwon, Do-Young; Lee, Chan-Nyeong; Park, Kun-Woo; Manto, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Essential tremor is an involuntary trembling of body limbs in people without tremor-related disease. In previous study, suppression of tremor by sensory electrical stimulation was confirmed on the index finger. This study investigates the effect of sensory stimulation on multiple segments and joints of the upper limb. It denotes the observation regarding the effect's continuity after halting the stimulation. 18 patients with essential tremor (8 men and 10 women) participated in this study. The task, "arms stretched forward", was performed and sensory electrical stimulation was applied on four muscles of the upper limb (Flexor Carpi Radialis, Extensor Carpi Radialis, Biceps Brachii, and Triceps Brachii) for 15 seconds. Three 3-D gyro sensors were used to measure the angular velocities of segments (finger, hand, and forearm) and joints (metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints) for three phases of pre-stimulation (Pre), during-stimulation (On), and 5 minute post-stimulation (P5). Three characteristic variables of root-mean-squared angular velocity, peak power, and peak power frequency were derived from the vector sum of the sensor signals. At On phase, RMS velocity was reduced from Pre in all segments and joints while peak power was reduced from Pre in all segments and joints except for forearm segment. Sensory stimulation showed no effect on peak power frequency. All variables at P5 were similar to those at On at all segments and joints. The decrease of peak power of the index finger was noted by 90% during stimulation from that of On phase, which was maintained even after 5 min. The results indicate that sensory stimulation may be an effective clinical method to treat the essential tremor.

  4. Comparison of skin sensory thresholds using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

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    Kang, Jong Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensory thresholds of healthy subjects using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects] Ninety healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to pre-programmed or single-frequency stimulation groups, each consisting of 45 participants. [Methods] Sensory thresholds were measured in the participants' forearms using von Frey filaments before and after pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and the result in values were analyzed. [Results] Significant increases in sensory threshold after stimulation were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in sensory thresholds after stimulation or in the magnitude of threshold increases following stimulation. [Conclusion] Our results show that there are no differences between sensory threshold increases induced by pre-programmed and single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  5. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

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    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  6. Psychostimulant and sensory stimulation interventions that target the reading and math deficits of students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S; Tom-Wright, Kinsey; Lee, Jiyeon

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to summarize the following: (1) academic deficits in math and reading, (2) possible theoretical contributors to these deficits, and (3) psychostimulant interventions that target math and reading, as well as, parallel interventions involving sensory stimulation. A comprehensive examination of the literature was conducted on children with ADHD with and without co-occurring disabilities, summarizing their reading and math achievement and the effects of psychostimulant and sensory stimulant interventions on these academic areas. Students without co-occurring disabilities (ADHD-) had fewer deficits in reading than in math and than students with co-occurring disabilities (ADHD+). Furthermore, students with ADHD+ demonstrated greater responsiveness to psychostimulants through improved reading recognition and math calculations, with limited gains in literal reading comprehension. Added sensory stimulation produced differential gains for both groups in reading recognition and comprehension and in math calculations and problem solving. The efficacy of psychostimulants was documented on specific areas of achievement for the ADHD+ group, but this review did not support the administration of psychostimulants for students with ADHD-. For both groups of students, differential gains, losses, and habituation were documented in response to sensory stimulation for both subareas within reading and math, which were interpreted as support for the optimal stimulation theory.

  7. Real-time control of stepper motors for mechano-sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Carlos; Levi, Rafael; Benkrid, Meriem; Rodríguez, Francisco B; Varona, Pablo

    2008-07-15

    Mechanical stimulation is widely used to study sensory encoding in the nervous system of living organisms. The stimulation of mechano-receptor neurons is achieved through a large variety of devices that generate movement or vibration. In many situations, a hard real-time (RT) control of the device (in the millisecond time scale) is needed to produce realistic mechanical stimuli. The real-time control can be required to achieve the desired precision in the device or to implement activity-dependent stimulation protocols that imply the detection of physiological events to drive the stimulus in real time. In this paper we show that real-time software technology can be used to control stepper motors for mechano-receptor stimulation, and to implement artificial closed-loops to address the sensory-motor transformation. We illustrate this using as an example the control of a stepper motor to precisely move gravimetric organs in in vitro preparations.

  8. Does sensory stimulation threshold affect lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation outcomes? A prospective clinical correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven P; Strassels, Scott A; Kurihara, Connie; Lesnick, Ivan K; Hanling, Steven R; Griffith, Scott R; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Nguyen, Conner

    2011-11-01

    Radiofrequency facet denervation is one of the most frequently performed procedures for chronic low back pain. Although sensory stimulation is generally used as a surrogate measure to denote sufficient proximity of the electrode to the nerve, no study has examined whether stimulation threshold influences outcome. We prospectively recorded data in 61 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation who experienced significant pain relief after medial branch blocks. For each nerve lesioned, multiple attempts were made to maximize sensory stimulation threshold (SST). Mean SST was calculated on the basis of the lowest stimulation perceived at 0.1-V increments for each medial branch. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥50% reduction in back pain coupled with a positive satisfaction score lasting ≥3 months. The relationship between mean SST and denervation outcomes was evaluated via a receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and stratifying outcomes on the basis of various cutoff values. No correlation was noted between mean SST and pain relief at rest (Pearson's r=-0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.24 to 0.23, P=0.97), with activity (r=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.07, P=0.20), or a successful outcome. No optimal SST could be identified. There is no significant relationship between mean SST during lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and treatment outcome, which may be due to differences in general sensory perception. Because stimulation threshold was optimized for each patient, these data cannot be interpreted to suggest that sensory testing should not be performed, or that high sensory stimulation thresholds obtained on the first attempt should be deemed acceptable.

  9. Gyroscopic stimulation of the semicircular canals during sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.; Brady, J. F.; Stumm, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A static object revolving at a constant velocity is stationary with respect to that environment. When the object is rotated outside the plane of spin, a gyroscopic or cross-coupled acceleration is produced orthogonal to the two planes of rotation. In this situation, a man feels himself moving in a direction other than that which his visual or proprioceptive sensors perceive. The conflict in spatial orientation is the cross-coupled acceleration imposed on the semicircular canals. This perceptual conflict and the thresholds involved were studied by partial isolation of the physiological stimuli through sensory deprivation. Subjects weighted to neutral buoyancy were submerged in 94 F water in the dark. The subjects were then rotated while being revolved about a displaced axis. Thresholds for detection of angular acceleration were higher than those reported in the literature for detection of acceleration of a single plane. This discrepancy may be attributable to the length of time the stimuli are imposed to each of the canals and the cupular response periods.

  10. Effect of surgery on sensory threshold and somatosensory evoked potentials after skin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of surgical injury on cutaneous sensitivity and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to dermatomal electrical stimulation in 10 patients undergoing hysterectomy. Forty-eight hours after surgery, sensory threshold increased from 2.2 (SEM 0.3) mA to 4.4 (1.1) mA (P less...

  11. Multi-sensory stimulation in 24-hour dementia care: effects of snoezelen on residents and caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.; van Dulmen, S.; Bensing, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dementia among nursing home residents is oftenaccompanied by behavioural disturbances and high caredependency. Multi-Sensory Stimulation or snoezelen,integrated in 24-h dementia care, is an approach thatmight improve mood and behaviour of demented elderlyas well as the quality of working life of dem

  12. Multi-sensory stimulation in 24-hour dementia care: effects of snoezelen on residents and caregivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J. van; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dementia among nursing home residents is oftenaccompanied by behavioural disturbances and high caredependency. Multi-Sensory Stimulation or snoezelen,integrated in 24-h dementia care, is an approach thatmight improve mood and behaviour of demented elderlyas well as the quality of working life of dem

  13. Autonomic Dysregulation during Sensory Stimulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Sendecki, Jocelyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during sensory stimulation was measured in 59 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 6-9 in comparison to 30 typically developing controls. Multivariate comparisons revealed significant differences between groups in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic measure) vector of means across…

  14. Sensory handedness is not reflected in cortical responses after basic nerve stimulation: a MEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.C.N.; Theuvenet, P.J.; de Munck, J.C.; Peters, M.J.; van Ree, J.M.; Lopes da Silva, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor dominance is well established, but sensory dominance is much less clear. We therefore studied the cortical evoked magnetic fields using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a group of 20 healthy right handed subjects in order to examine whether standard electrical stimulation of the median and ulna

  15. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juic...

  16. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dilda

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  17. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both pthreshold of after discharge production and disease duration. Using the CES parameters at a stimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral optogenetic stimulation induces whisker movement and sensory perception in head-fixed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmee; Bandi, Akhil; Lee, Christian R; Margolis, David J

    2016-06-08

    We discovered that optical stimulation of the mystacial pad in Emx1-Cre;Ai27D transgenic mice induces whisker movements due to activation of ChR2 expressed in muscles controlling retraction and protraction. Using high-speed videography in anesthetized mice, we characterize the amplitude of whisker protractions evoked by varying the intensity, duration, and frequency of optogenetic stimulation. Recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in anesthetized mice indicated that optogenetic whisker pad stimulation evokes robust yet longer latency responses than mechanical whisker stimulation. In head-fixed mice trained to report optogenetic whisker pad stimulation, psychometric curves showed similar dependence on stimulus duration as evoked whisker movements and S1 activity. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of S1 in expert mice was sufficient to substitute for peripheral stimulation. We conclude that whisker protractions evoked by optogenetic activation of whisker pad muscles results in cortical activity and sensory perception, consistent with the coding of evoked whisker movements by reafferent sensory input.

  19. Clinical functional MRI of sensorimotor cortex using passive motor and sensory stimulation at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatow, Maria; Reinhardt, Julia; Riffel, Katharina; Nennig, Ernst; Wengenroth, Martina; Stippich, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    To establish a passive motor paradigm for clinical functional MRI (fMRI) that could be beneficial for patients with motor or attention deficits who are not able to perform active motor tasks. A novel standardized sensorimotor fMRI protocol was applied in 16 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla (T) using active and passive motor tasks as well as sensory stimulation of hands and feet. Data analysis was carried out individually using a dynamic thresholding routine. Active motor tasks yielded time efficient and robust blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in primary motor cortex. Noteworthy, it was possible to achieve equal activation levels within identical anatomical localization for passive and active motor tasks with these paradigms. Patients unable to perform active movements can benefit from paradigms with passive motor and sensory stimulation. Therefore, we recommend these paradigms for functional somatotopic mapping of the central region at 3T in clinical routine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Calcium Imaging of Living Astrocytes in the Mouse Spinal Cord following Sensory Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cirillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics have been extensively studied in ex vivo models; however, the recent development of two-photon microscopy and astrocyte-specific labeling has allowed the study of Ca2+ signaling in living central nervous system. Ca2+ waves in astrocytes have been described in cultured cells and slice preparations, but evidence for astrocytic activation during sensory activity is lacking. There are currently few methods to image living spinal cord: breathing and heart-beating artifacts have impeded the widespread application of this technique. We here imaged the living spinal cord by two-photon microscopy in C57BL6/J mice. Through pressurized injection, we specifically loaded spinal astrocytes using the red fluorescent dye sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 and imaged astrocytic Ca2+ levels with Oregon-Green BAPTA-1 (OGB. Then, we studied astrocytic Ca2+ levels at rest and after right electrical hind paw stimulation. Sensory stimulation significantly increased astrocytic Ca2+ levels within the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to rest. In conclusion, in vivo morphofunctional imaging of living astrocytes in spinal cord revealed that astrocytes actively participate to sensory stimulation.

  1. Alpha-band rhythms in visual task performance: phase-locking by rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A de Graaf

    Full Text Available Oscillations are an important aspect of neuronal activity. Interestingly, oscillatory patterns are also observed in behaviour, such as in visual performance measures after the presentation of a brief sensory event in the visual or another modality. These oscillations in visual performance cycle at the typical frequencies of brain rhythms, suggesting that perception may be closely linked to brain oscillations. We here investigated this link for a prominent rhythm of the visual system (the alpha-rhythm, 8-12 Hz by applying rhythmic visual stimulation at alpha-frequency (10.6 Hz, known to lead to a resonance response in visual areas, and testing its effects on subsequent visual target discrimination. Our data show that rhythmic visual stimulation at 10.6 Hz: 1 has specific behavioral consequences, relative to stimulation at control frequencies (3.9 Hz, 7.1 Hz, 14.2 Hz, and 2 leads to alpha-band oscillations in visual performance measures, that 3 correlate in precise frequency across individuals with resting alpha-rhythms recorded over parieto-occipital areas. The most parsimonious explanation for these three findings is entrainment (phase-locking of ongoing perceptually relevant alpha-band brain oscillations by rhythmic sensory events. These findings are in line with occipital alpha-oscillations underlying periodicity in visual performance, and suggest that rhythmic stimulation at frequencies of intrinsic brain-rhythms can be used to reveal influences of these rhythms on task performance to study their functional roles.

  2. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Observation of two distinct spatial-temporal BOLD clusters during sensory stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelman, Gadi; Pelled, Galit; Dodd, Steve; Koretsky, Alan

    2007-02-01

    Neuronal activity evokes changes in local CBF and CBV, whose spatial differences are not fully known. We use the Radial Correlation Contrast (RCC) analysis method with high spatial resolution 100 x 100 x 1000 microm3 data collected with an 11.7 T magnet to differentiate two spatial-temporal BOLD clusters during sensory rat forepaw stimulation and hypothesize that each corresponds to either the CBF or the CBV processes. One cluster, obtained during the time segment of stimulation onset, is characterized by a high positive BOLD signal whereas the other, obtained during the simulation decline time segment, is characterized by a lower positive signal and strong post stimulus undershoot. The average volume of stimulation onset clusters is embedded in the stimulation decline clusters with the latter significantly larger and shifted towards deeper cortical layers. Comparison of amplitude-RCC and cross-correlation analyses performed on equivalent time segments (30 s, 40 images) revealed no differences in cluster size or location, demonstrating that temporal locality is more important than spatial locality in distinguishing between stimulation onset and stimulation decline clusters. We hypothesize that clusters characterized by stimulation onset are highly weighted by local changes in CBF whereas clusters characterized by stimulation decline are more CBV weighted. Moreover, the data suggest that the locations of the highest CBF changes are distinct from the locations of the highest CBV changes. While the former located within stimulation decline clusters and its weight is gradually reduced towards cluster's periphery (mainly ventrally), the highest changes in CBV occur in the cluster's periphery with only modest changes towards its center.

  4. HyVE: hybrid vibro-electrotactile stimulation for sensory feedback and substitution in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Farina, Dario

    2014-03-01

    Electro- or vibro-tactile stimulations were used in the past to provide sensory information in many different applications ranging from human manual control to prosthetics. The two modalities were used separately in the past, and we hypothesized that a hybrid vibro-electrotactile (HyVE) stimulation could provide two afferent streams that are independently perceived by a subject, although delivered in parallel and through the same skin location. We conducted psychophysical experiments where healthy subjects were asked to recognize the intensities of electroand vibro-tactile stimuli during hybrid and single modality stimulations. The results demonstrated that the subjects were able to discriminate the features of the two modalities within the hybrid stimulus, and that the cross-modality interaction was limited enough to allow better transmission of discrete information (messages) using hybrid versus singlemodality coding. The percentages of successful recognitions (mean ± standard deviation) for nine messages were 56 ± 11 % and 72 ± 8 % for two hybrid coding schemes, compared to 29 ±7 % for vibrotactile and 44 ± 4 % for electrotactile coding. The HyVE can be therefore an attractivesolution in numerous application for providing sensory feedbackin prostheses and rehabilitation, and it could be used to increase the resolution of a single variable or to simultaneously feedback two different variables.

  5. Design of therapeutic clothing for sensory stimulation of children with psychomotor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ângela; Miguel, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This research work was based on an experimental concept of functional clothing for children with psychomotor development limitations. No matter the analyzed pathology, all these children need sensorial stimulation because of their psychomotor difficulties, especially at fine motor skills level. The main objective was to develop functional and comfortable clothing with sensorial stimulation elements (colours, textures, fragrances, sounds, etc.). It is intended, on the one hand, to increase the autonomy of the children in what concerns the act of dressing/undressing and, on the other hand, to stimulate their learning, coordination and self-esteem. A study about the specific needs of these children concerning clothing was worked out, which consisted in inquiring their parents and therapists. Based on the inquiries results, bibliographic revision in the area of therapeutic/ interactive clothing and analysis of didactic and therapeutic material catalogues we developed a clothing prototype (sweat-shirt). The prototype was then tested by the children of the study sample and the test results were, once again, explained by the parents through the fulfilling of a prototype evaluation inquiry. This study supplied some important conclusions, more directed to the confirmation of the theme significance and to the definition of a methodology to be used in future research.

  6. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  7. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  8. Analysis of the effect of repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming point on electroencephalograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Lingdi Fu; Yuehua Geng; Xiang Zhai; Yanhua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we administered repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to healthy people at the left Guangming (GB37) and a mock point, and calculated the sample entropy of electroencephalo-gram signals using nonlinear dynamics. Additionally, we compared electroencephalogram sample entropy of signals in response to visual stimulation before, during, and after repeated-pulse tran-scranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming. Results showed that electroencephalogram sample entropy at left (F3) and right (FP2) frontal electrodes were significantly different depending on where the magnetic stimulation was administered. Additionally, compared with the mock point, electroencephalogram sample entropy was higher after stimulating the Guangming point. When visual stimulation at Guangming was given before repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimula-tion, signiifcant differences in sample entropy were found at ifve electrodes (C3, Cz, C4, P3, T8) in parietal cortex, the central gyrus, and the right temporal region compared with when it was given after repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, indicating that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at Guangming can affect visual function. Analysis of electroencephalogram revealed that when visual stimulation preceded repeated pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, sample entropy values were higher at the C3, C4, and P3 electrodes and lower at the Cz and T8 electrodes than visual stimulation followed preceded repeated pulse transcranial magnetic stimula-tion. The ifndings indicate that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming evokes different patterns of electroencephalogram signals than repeated-pulse transcranial mag-netic stimulation at other nearby points on the body surface, and that repeated-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at the Guangming is associated with changes in the complexity of visually evoked electroencephalogram signals in parietal regions, central gyrus

  9. Cutaneous sensory impairment in rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation assessed quantitatively by electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolanen, G

    1987-01-01

    Thresholds for cutaneous perception and pain in 27 rheumatoid patients were investigated by electrical stimulation. Patients with atlanto-axial subluxation showed impaired sensibility over the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Patients with vertical atlanto-axial subluxation showed in addition to a pronounced decrease in the sensibility over the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, also sensory disturbances over cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels. The mandibular division was never affected. The trigeminal sensibility seems to be affected early in the rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation and progresses with the severity of the subluxation, possibly due to bony compression of the trigeminal spinal tract at C 1 level.

  10. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  11. Mild sensory stimulation completely protects the adult rodent cortex from ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Lay

    Full Text Available Despite progress in reducing ischemic stroke damage, complete protection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that, after permanent occlusion of a major cortical artery (middle cerebral artery; MCA, single whisker stimulation can induce complete protection of the adult rat cortex, but only if administered within a critical time window. Animals that receive early treatment are histologically and behaviorally equivalent to healthy controls and have normal neuronal function. Protection of the cortex clearly requires reperfusion to the ischemic area despite permanent occlusion. Using blood flow imaging and other techniques we found evidence of reversed blood flow into MCA branches from an alternate arterial source via collateral vessels (inter-arterial connections, a potential mechanism for reperfusion. These findings suggest that the cortex is capable of extensive blood flow reorganization and more importantly that mild sensory stimulation can provide complete protection from impending stroke given early intervention. Such non-invasive, non-pharmacological intervention has clear translational potential.

  12. Organometallic macromolecules with piano stool coordination repeating units: chain configuration and stimulated solution behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Ward, Jonathan; Amos, Ryan C; Jeong, Moon Gon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Gauthier, Mario; Foucher, Daniel; Wang, Xiaosong

    2014-09-11

    Theoretical calculations illustrate that organometallic macromolecules with piano stool coordination repeating units (Fe-acyl complex) adopt linear chain configuration with a P-Fe-C backbone surrounded by aromatic groups. The macromolecules show molecular weight-dependent and temperature stimulated solution behaviour in DMSO.

  13. Evidence for perceptual learning with repeated stimulation after partial and total cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Ceri T; Urquhart, James; Ward, Richard; Gentleman, Douglas; Sahraie, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Lesions of occipital cortex result in loss of sight in the corresponding regions of visual fields. The traditional view that, apart from some spontaneous recovery in the acute phase, field defects remain permanently and irreversibly blind, has been challenged. In patients with partial field loss, a range of residual visual abilities in the absence of conscious perception (blindsight) has been demonstrated (Weiskrantz, 1986). Recent findings (Sahraie et al., 2006, 2010) have also demonstrated increased visual sensitivity in the field defect following repeated stimulation. We aimed to extend these findings by systematically exploring whether repeated stimulation can also lead to increased visual sensitivity in two cases with total (bilateral) cortical blindness. In addition, for a case of partial blindness, we examined the extent of the recovery as a function of stimulated region of the visual field, over extended periods of visual training. Positive auditory feedback was provided during the training task for correct detection of a spatial grating pattern presented at specific retinotopic locations using a temporal two alternative forced-choice paradigm (Neuro-Eye Therapy). All three cases showed improved visual sensitivity with repeated stimulation. The findings indicate that perceptual learning can occur through systematic visual field stimulation even in cases of bilateral cortical blindness.

  14. Changes in sensory hand representation and pain thresholds induced by motor cortex stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Bérengère; Bradley, Claire; Magnin, Michel; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Shrinking of deafferented somatosensory regions after neural damage is thought to participate to the emergence of neuropathic pain, and pain-relieving procedures have been reported to induce the normalization of altered cortical maps. While repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex can lessen neuropathic pain, no evidence has been provided that this is concomitant to changes in sensory maps. Here, we assessed in healthy volunteers the ability of 2 modes of motor cortex rTMS commonly used in pain patients to induce changes in pain thresholds and plastic phenomena in the S1 cortex. Twenty minutes of high-frequency (20 Hz) rTMS significantly increased pain thresholds in the contralateral hand, and this was associated with the expansion of the cortical representation of the hand on high-density electroencephalogram source analysis. Neither of these effects were observed after sham rTMS, nor following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). The superiority of 20-Hz rTMS over iTBS to induce sensory plasticity may reflect its better match with intrinsic cortical motor frequencies, which oscillate at around 20 Hz. rTMS-induced changes might partly counterbalance the plasticity induced by a nerve lesion, and thus substantiate the use of rTMS to treat human pain. However, a mechanistic relation between S1 plasticity and pain-relieving effects is far from being established.

  15. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders.

  16. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel W.; Schiefer, Matthew A.; Keith, Michael W.; Anderson, J. Robert; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Approach. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Main results. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. Significance. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  17. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36. Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  18. Functional and histologic changes after repeated transcranial direct current stimulation in rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Byeong Kwon; Ko, Young Jin; Bang, Moon Suk; Kim, Man Ho; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2010-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is associated with enhancement or weakening of the NMDA receptor activity and change of the cortical blood flow. Therefore, repeated tDCS of the brain with cerebrovascular injury will induce the functional and histologic changes. Sixty-one Sprague-Dawley rats with cerebrovascular injury were used. Twenty rats died during the experimental course. The 41 rats that survived were allocated to the exercise group, the anodal stimulation group, the cathodal stimulation group, or the control group according to the initial motor function. Two-week treatment schedules started from 2 days postoperatively. Garcia, modified foot fault, and rota-rod performance scores were checked at 2, 9, and 16 days postoperatively. After the experiments, rats were sacrificed for the evaluation of histologic changes (changes of the white matter axon and infarct volume). The anodal stimulation and exercise groups showed improvement of Garcia's and modified foot fault scores at 16 days postoperatively. No significant change of the infarct volume happened after exercise and tDCS. Neuronal axons at the internal capsule of infarct hemispheres showed better preserved axons in the anodal stimulation group. From these results, repeated tDCS might have a neuroprotective effect on neuronal axons in rat stroke model.

  19. Peripheral tactile sensory perception of older adults improved using subsensory electrical noise stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; Serrador, Jorge M; O'Tuathail, Claire; Quinlan, Leo R; McIntosh, Caroline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-08-01

    Loss of tactile sensory function is common with aging and can lead to numbness and difficulty with balance and gait. In previous work we found that subsensory electrical noise stimulation (SENS) applied to the tibial nerve improved tactile perception in the soles of the feet of healthy adults. In this work we aimed to determine if SENS remained effective in an older adult population with significant levels of sensory loss. Older adult subjects (N=8, female = 4, aged 65-80) had SENS applied via surface electrodes placed proximally to the medial and lateral malleoli. Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed in six conditions, two control conditions (no SENS) and four SENS conditions (zero mean ±15µA, 30µA, 45µA and 60µA SD). VPT was assessed at three sites on the plantar aspect of the foot. Vibration perception was significantly improved in the presence of ±30µA SENS and by 16.2±2.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) when optimised for each subject. The improvement in perception was similar across all VPT test sites.

  20. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

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    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola, E-mail: ola.hammarsten@clinchem.gu.se

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  1. The sensory response to capsaicin during repeated topical exposures: differential effects on sensations of itching and pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G; Shaffer, G S

    1993-06-01

    Changes in sensory irritation were measured during repeated topical exposures to capsaicin over 2 days. The perceived intensities of itching and pungent sensations, predominantly burning and stinging/pricking, were assessed every 60 sec during 5 applications of capsaicin at inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) of 90 min (Exp. 1) or 15 min (Exp. 2) and in follow-up tests 24 h later. Psychophysical measurements were obtained with a hand-held dynamometer in conjunction with the method of magnitude production. When the ISI was 90 min, itching and pungency were both significantly reduced (i.e., desensitization occurred) by the fifth exposure; however, the reduction occurred more rapidly and dramatically for itching. After 24 h, desensitization remained significant only for itching. When the ISI was 15 min, the sensations on day 1 first intensified in a manner consistent with sensitization, then declined in a manner consistent with desensitization; compared to pungency, itch exhibited less sensitization and more desensitization. On day 2, overall intensity was less for both categories of sensation, primarily because of a reduction in sensitization. Marked individual differences were observed in the overall sensitivity to capsaicin, the time course of sensation, the susceptibility to capsaicin-induced itch, and the rate and duration of sensitization and desensitization. The results are discussed in terms of current hypotheses about the sensory mechanisms that underlie chemically induced itch and the use of capsaicin as a topical analgesic and antipruritic.

  2. Towards a functional topography of sensory gating areas: invasive P50 recording and electrical stimulation mapping in epilepsy surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthen, Martin; Trautner, Peter; Rosburg, Timm; Grunwald, Thomas; Dietl, Thomas; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Schaller, Carlo; Elger, Christian E; Urbach, Horst; Elisevich, Kost; Boutros, Nash N

    2007-07-15

    The filtering of sensory information, also referred to as "sensory gating", is impaired in various neuropsychiatric diseases. In the auditory domain, sensory gating is investigated mainly as a response decrease of the auditory evoked potential component P50 from one click to the second in a double-click paradigm. In order to relate deficient sensory gating to anatomy, it is essential to identify the cortical structures involved in the generation of P50. However, the exact cerebral topography of P50 gating remains largely unknown. In a group of 17 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, P50 was recorded invasively via subdural electrodes, and the topography of functionally indispensable ("eloquent") cortices was obtained by electrical stimulation mapping. These eloquent areas were involved in language, motor, and sensory functions. P50 could be identified in 13 patients in either temporal (n=8) or midfrontal sites (n=5). There were six occurrences (in five patients) of overlap of sites with maximal P50 responses and eloquent areas. Those were auditory (n=1), supplementary sensorimotor (n=3), primary motor (n=1), and supplementary negative motor (n=1). Results suggest that the early stage of sensory gating already involves a top-down modulation of sensory input by frontal areas.

  3. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  4. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  5. Interhemispheric Inhibition Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Primary Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yasuyuki; Jono, Yasutomo; Mizusawa, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI) is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS) without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1) contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP), whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI. In order to give the TMS over the S1 without eliciting the MEP, the intensity of the S1-TMS was adjusted to be the sub-motor-threshold level and the trials with the MEP response elicited by the S1-TMS were discarded online. The LIHI was induced by the S1-TMS given 40 ms before the test TMS in the participants with the attenuation of the tactile perception of the digit stimulation (TPDS) induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the LIHI is induced by the S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the M1 contributing to the contralateral MEP in the participants in which the pathways mediating the TPDS is sensitive to the S1-TMS. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was positively correlated with the attenuation of the TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the effect of the S1-TMS on the pathways mediating the TPDS at the S1. In another experiment, the effect of the digit stimulation given before the conditioning TMS on the S1- or M1-TMS-induced LIHI was examined. The digit stimulation produces tactile input to the S1 causing change in the status of the S1. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was enhanced when the S1-TMS was given in the period in which the tactile afferent volley produced by the digit stimulation just arrived at the S1, while the LIHI induced by above-motor-threshold TMS over the contralateral M1 was not enhanced by the tactile input. Thus, the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1

  6. Interhemispheric inhibition induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary sensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Iwata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1 contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP, whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI. In order to give the TMS over the S1 without eliciting the MEP, the intensity of the S1-TMS was adjusted to be the sub-motor-threshold level and the trials with the MEP response elicited by the S1-TMS were discarded online. The LIHI was induced by the S1-TMS given 40 ms before the test TMS in the participants with the attenuation of the tactile perception of the digit stimulation (TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the LIHI is induced by the S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the M1 contributing to the contralateral MEP in the participants in which the pathways mediating the TPDS is sensitive to the S1-TMS. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was positively correlated with the attenuation of the TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the effect of the S1-TMS on the pathways mediating the TPDS at the S1. In another experiment, the effect of the digit stimulation given before the conditioning TMS on the S1- or M1-TMS-induced LIHI was examined. The digit stimulation produces tactile input to the S1 causing change in the status of the S1. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was enhanced when the S1-TMS was given in the period in which the tactile afferent volley produced by the digit stimulation just arrived at the S1, while the LIHI induced by above-motor-threshold TMS over the contralateral M1 was not enhanced by the tactile input. Thus, the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the

  7. Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eUvnäs-Moberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a hypothalamic nonapeptide, is linked to increased levels of social interaction, well-being and anti-stress effects. The effects of oxytocin that is released by sensory stimulation during different kinds of interactive behaviors are often underestimated or even forgotten. In fact, many of the positive effects caused during interaction, such a wellbeing, stress reduction and even health promotion, are indeed linked to oxytocin released in response to activation of various types of sensory nerves. Oxytocin is released in response to activation of sensory nerves during labor, breastfeeding and sexual activity. In addition oxytocin is released in response to low intensity stimulation of the skin, e.g. in response to touch, stroking, warm temperature etc . Consequently oxytocin is not only released during interaction between mothers and infants, but also during positive interaction between adult or between humans and animals. Finally oxytocin is also released in response to suckling and food intake. Oxytocin released in the brain in response to sensory stimulation as a consequence of these types of interactive behaviors, contributes to every day wellbeing and ability to handle stress. Food intake or sex may be used or even abused to achieve oxytocin-linked wellbeing and stress relief to compensate for lack of good relationships or when the levels of anxiety are high. The present review article will summarize the role played by oxytocin released by sensory (in particular somatosensory stimulation, during various kinds of interactive behaviors. Also the fact that the anti-stress effects of oxytocin are particularly strong when oxytocin is released in response to low intensity stimulation of the skin will be highlighted.

  8. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations.

  9. Balance control enhancement using sub-sensory stimulation and visual-auditory biofeedback strategies for amputee subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Yih; Lin, Chih-Feng; Soon, Kok-Soon

    2007-12-01

    Sub-sensory electrical or mechanical stimulation can enhance the sensitivity of the human somatosensory system to improve the balance control capabilities of elderly. In addition, clinical studies suggest that visual-auditory biofeedback can improve sensory compensation for the elderly. This study hypothesizes that the static balance and gait performance of single leg quiet standing and treadmill walking could be improved for providing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation using sub-sensory stimulation and visual-auditory biofeedback in amputee subjects. To test this, a computerized foot pressure biofeedback sensory compensation system using sub-threshold low-level electrical stimulation combined with visual-auditory biofeedback was developed. Seven unilateral trans-tibial amputees who wore prostheses over 2 years were recruited. The subjects performed multiple single leg quiet standing trials with sub-sensory electrical stimulation applied at the quadriceps muscle during half of the trials. Static balance performance was characterized by using a Zebris motion analysis system to measure the sway distance and duration of the centre of mass on the second sacral (S2) of the subjects. In addition, multiple treadmill ambulatory trials with or without visual-auditory biofeedback was performed. Dynamic gait performance was characterized with a Zebris instrumented insole to measure the temporal responses of foot pressure sensors. Experimental results showed an improvement in three balance performance indices (Holding Time Index, HTI, Maximum Sway Distance Index, MSDI, and Average Sway Distance Index, ASDI) during single leg quiet standing by applying sub-sensory stimulation. The improvement ratio of these balance performance indices across subjects for single leg quiet standing tests resulted in 132.34% in HTI, 44.61% in MSDI, and 61.45% in ASDI. With visual-auditory biofeedback as a cue for heel contact and toe push-off condition during treadmill ambulation, the

  10. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sherin T; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improves task performance in individuals with upper limb loss using a myoelectric prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Matthew; Tan, Daniel; Sidek, Steven M.; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. Approach. Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory feedback with intensity proportional to forces on the thumb, index, and middle fingers of their prosthetic hand during object manipulation. Both subjects perceived the sensation on their phantom hand at locations corresponding to the locations of the forces on the prosthetic hand. A bend sensor measured prosthetic hand span. Hand span modulated the intensity of sensory feedback perceived on the thenar eminence for subject 1 and the middle finger for subject 2. We performed three functional tests with the blindfolded subjects. First, the subject tried to determine whether or not a wooden block had been placed in his prosthetic hand. Second, the subject had to locate and remove magnetic blocks from a metal table. Third, the subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP). We also measured the subject’s sense of embodiment with a survey and his self-confidence. Main results. Blindfolded performance with sensory feedback was similar to sighted performance in the wooden block and magnetic block tasks. Performance on the SHAP, a measure of hand mechanical function and control, was similar with and without sensory feedback. An embodiment survey showed an improved sense of integration of the prosthesis in self body image with sensory feedback. Significance. Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improved object discrimination and manipulation, embodiment, and confidence. With both forms of feedback, the blindfolded subjects tended toward results obtained with visual feedback.

  12. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Gulbinaite, Rasa

    2017-02-15

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differential projection of neural activity to multiple electrodes or sensors. Our approach is a combination and extension of existing multivariate source separation methods. We demonstrate that RESS performs well on both simulated and empirical data, and outperforms conventional SSEP analysis methods based on selecting electrodes with the strongest SSEP response, as well as several other linear spatial filters. We also discuss the potential confound of overfitting, whereby the filter captures noise in absence of a signal. Matlab scripts are available to replicate and extend our simulations and methods. We conclude with some practical advice for optimizing SSEP data analyses and interpreting the results.

  13. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes.

  14. Schizophrenia-like disruptions of sensory gating by serotonin receptor stimulation in rats: effect of MDMA, DOI and 8-OH-DPAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Shane J; Gogos, Andrea; Van den Buuse, Maarten

    2013-11-01

    Schizophrenia pathophysiology is associated with alterations in several neurotransmitter systems, particularly dopamine, glutamate and serotonin (5-HT). Schizophrenia patients also have disruptions in sensory gating, a brain information filtering mechanism in response to repeated sensory stimuli. Dopamine and glutamate have been implicated in sensory gating; however, little is known about the contribution of serotonin. We therefore investigated the effects of several psychoactive compounds that alter serotonergic neuronal activity on event-related potentials (ERP) to paired auditory pulses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with cortical surface electrodes to measure ERPs to 150 presentations of two 85 dB bursts of white noise, 500 ms apart (S1 and S2). Saline-treated animals suppressed the response to S2 to less than 50% of S1. In contrast, treatment with the serotonin releaser, MDMA (ecstasy; 2.0mg/kg), the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, DOI (0.5mg/kg), or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg), caused an increase in S2/S1 ratios. Analysis of waveform components suggested that the S2/S1 ratio disruption by MDMA was due to subtle effects on the ERPs to S1 and S2; DOI caused the disruption primarily by reducing the ERP to S1; 8-OH-DPAT-induced disruptions were due to an increase in the ERP to S2. These results show that 5-HT receptor stimulation alters S2/S1 ERP ratios in rats. These results may help to elucidate the sensory gating deficits observed in schizophrenia patients.

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates lipid mobilization during repeated bouts of endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cédric; Polak, Jan; Hejnova, Jindra; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, François; Stich, Vladimir; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2006-05-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) controls lipolysis in human adipocytes. Lipid mobilization is increased during repeated bouts of exercise, but the underlying mechanisms involved in this process have not yet been delineated. The relative involvement of catecholamine- and ANP-dependent pathways in the control of lipid mobilization during repeated bouts of exercise was thus investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) by microdialysis. The study was performed in healthy males. Subjects performed two 45-min exercise bouts (E1 and E2) at 50% of their maximal oxygen uptake separated by a 60-min rest period. Extracellular glycerol concentration (EGC), reflecting SCAT lipolysis, was measured in a control probe perfused with Ringer solution and in two other probes perfused with either Ringer plus phentolamine (alpha(1/2)-AR antagonist) or Ringer plus both phentolamine and propranolol (beta-AR antagonist). Plasma epinephrine, plasma glycerol, and EGC were 1.7-, 1.6-, and 1.2-fold higher in E2 than in E1, respectively. Phentolamine potentiated exercise-induced EGC increase during E2 only. Propranolol reduced the lipolytic rate during both E1 and E2 compared with the probe with phentolamine. Plasma ANP concentration increased more during E2 than during E1 and was correlated with the increase in EGC in the probe containing phentolamine plus propranolol. The results suggest that ANP is involved in the control of lipolysis during exercise and that it contributes to stimulation of lipolysis during repeated bouts of exercise.

  16. Repeated intranasal TLR7 stimulation reduces allergen responsiveness in allergic rhinitis

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    Greiff Lennart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Th1 and Th2 immune responses are of importance to the onset and development of allergic disorders. A Toll-like receptor 7 agonist such as AZD8848 may have potential as a treatment for allergic airway disease by skewing the immune system away from a Th2 profile. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal AZD8848. Methods In a placebo-controlled single ascending dose study, AZD8848 (0.3-600 μg was given intranasally to 48 healthy subjects and 12 patients with allergic rhinitis (NCT00688779. In a placebo-controlled repeat challenge/treatment study, AZD8848 (30 and 60 μg was given once weekly for five weeks to 74 patients with allergic rhinitis out of season: starting 24 hours after the final dose, daily allergen challenges were given for seven days (NCT00770003. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers were monitored. During the allergen challenge series, nasal symptoms and lavage fluid levels of tryptase and α2-macroglobulin, reflecting mast cell activity and plasma exudation, were monitored. Results AZD8848 produced reversible blood lymphocyte reductions and dose-dependent flu-like symptoms: 30–100 μg produced consistent yet tolerable effects. Plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was elevated after administration of AZD8848, reflecting interferon production secondary to TLR7 stimulation. At repeat challenge/treatment, AZD8848 reduced nasal symptoms recorded ten minutes after allergen challenge up to eight days after the final dose. Tryptase and α2-macroglobulin were also reduced by AZD8848. Conclusions Repeated intranasal stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 by AZD8848 was safe and produced a sustained reduction in the responsiveness to allergen in allergic rhinitis. Trial registration NCT00688779 and NCT00770003 as indicated above.

  17. Repeated Microneedle Stimulation Induces Enhanced Hair Growth in a Murine Model

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    Kim, Yoon Seob; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. Methods A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks. First, to identify the optimal length and cycle, microneedles of lengths of 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm and cycles of 3, 6, 10, and 13 cycles were applied. Second, the effect of hair growth and hair-growth-related genes such as Wnt3a, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Wnt10b was observed using optimized microneedle. Outcomes were observed using visual inspection, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that the optimal length and cycle of microneedle treatment on hair growth was 0.25 mm/10 cycles and 0.5 mm/10 cycles. Repeated microneedle stimulation promoted hair growth, and it also induced the enhanced expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, and Wnt10b. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that microneedle stimulation can induce hair growth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF. Combined with the drug delivery effect, we believe that microneedle stimulation could lead to new approaches for alopecia. PMID:27746638

  18. Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstin eUvnäs-Moberg; Linda eHandlin; Maria ePetersson

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin, a hypothalamic nonapeptide, is linked to increased levels of social interaction, well-being and anti-stress effects. The effects of oxytocin that is released by sensory stimulation during different kinds of interactive behaviors are often underestimated or even forgotten. In fact, many of the positive effects caused during interaction, such a wellbeing, stress reduction and even health promotion, are indeed linked to oxytocin released in response to activation of various types of se...

  19. DNA tandem repeat instability in the Escherichia coli chromosome is stimulated by mismatch repair at an adjacent CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, John K.; Okely, Ewa A.; Zahra, Rabaab; Eykelenboom, John K.; Leach, David R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half the human genome is composed of repetitive DNA sequences classified into microsatellites, minisatellites, tandem repeats, and dispersed repeats. These repetitive sequences have coevolved within the genome but little is known about their potential interactions. Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are a subclass of microsatellites that are implicated in human disease. Expansion of CAG·CTG TNRs is responsible for Huntington disease, myotonic dystrophy, and a number of spinocerebellar ataxias. In yeast DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation has been proposed to be associated with instability and chromosome fragility at these sites and replication fork reversal (RFR) to be involved either in promoting or in preventing instability. However, the molecular basis for chromosome fragility of repetitive DNA remains poorly understood. Here we show that a CAG·CTG TNR array stimulates instability at a 275-bp tandem repeat located 6.3 kb away on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Remarkably, this stimulation is independent of both DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) and RFR but is dependent on a functional mismatch repair (MMR) system. Our results provide a demonstration, in a simple model system, that MMR at one type of repetitive DNA has the potential to influence the stability of another. Furthermore, the mechanism of this stimulation places a limit on the universality of DSBR or RFR models of instability and chromosome fragility at CAG·CTG TNR sequences. Instead, our data suggest that explanations of chromosome fragility should encompass the possibility of chromosome gaps formed during MMR. PMID:21149728

  20. Effects of thermal agents on electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance when applied prior to neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Güney, Ömer Faruk; Aydın, Yasemin; Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of thermal agents on electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance when applied prior to neuromuscular electrical stimulation. In this single-blind and cross-over trial, electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance of 24 healthy volunteers were evaluated by using biphasic symmetrical pulses (240 μsec, 50 pps), before and after thermal agent (cold pack, hot pack and ultrasound) applications. Electrical sensory threshold increased after cold-pack, and current tolerance reduced after hot-pack applications (p< 0.05). Inter-agent comparisons of pre and post-application differences of the investigated parameters revealed that the most obvious effects were caused by application of hot pack. Hot pack application prior to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may reduce current tolerance and limit to reach the desired current intensity for strengthening the electrically induced contractions. Results are considered to be valuable for physiotherapists, who apply thermal agents and NMES consecutively, in their treatment programs.

  1. HyVE-hybrid vibro-electrotactile stimulation-is an efficient approach to multi-channel sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    An important reason for the abandonment of commercial actuated hand prostheses by the users is the lack of sensory feedback. Wearable afferent interfaces capable of providing electro- or vibro-tactile stimulation have high potential to restore the missing tactile and/or proprioceptive information to the user. By definition, these devices can elicit single modality (i.e., either vibrotactile or electrotactile) substitute sensations. In a recent research we have presented a novel approach comprising hybrid vibro-electrotactile (HyVE) combined stimulation, in order to provide multimodal sensory feedback. An important advantage of this approach is in the size of the design: the HyVE interface is much more compact than two separated single-modality interfaces, since electro- and vibro-tactile stimulators are placed one on top of the other. The HyVE approach has been previously tested in healthy subjects and has shown to provide a range of hybrid stimuli that could be properly discriminated. However, this approach has never been assessed as a method to provide multi-channel stimuli, i.e., stimuli from a variety of stimulators, mapping information from a multitude of sensors on a prosthesis. In this study, the ability of ten healthy subjects to discriminate stimuli and patterns of stimuli from four different five-channel interfaces applied on their forearms was evaluated. We showed that multiple HyVE units could be used to provide multi-channel sensory information with equivalent performance (∼95 percent for single stimuli and ∼80 percent for pattern) to single modality interfaces (vibro- or electro-tactile) larger in size and with better performance than vibrotactile interfaces (i.e., 73 percent for single stimuli and 69 percent for pattern) with the same size. These results are promising in relation to the current availability of multi-functional prostheses with multiple sensors.

  2. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  3. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

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    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy∗incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day∗energy∗incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings.

  5. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

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    Maartje S Spetter

    Full Text Available During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention, naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients, or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure. Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This

  6. Effects of combining 2 weeks of passive sensory stimulation with active hand motor training in healthy adults.

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    Aija Marie Ladda

    Full Text Available The gold standard to acquire motor skills is through intensive training and practicing. Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral gains can also be acquired by mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation to drive the plasticity processes. Single application of repetitive electric stimulation (rES of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception in young adults as well as sensorimotor performance in healthy elderly individuals. The combination of repetitive motor training with a preceding rES has not been reported yet. In addition, the impact of such a training on somatosensory tactile and spatial sensitivity as well as on somatosensory cortical activation remains elusive. Therefore, we tested 15 right-handed participants who underwent repetitive electric stimulation of all finger tips of the left hand for 20 minutes prior to one hour of motor training of the left hand over the period of two weeks. Overall, participants substantially improved the motor performance of the left trained hand by 34%, but also showed a relevant transfer to the untrained right hand by 24%. Baseline ipsilateral activation fMRI-magnitude in BA 1 to sensory index finger stimulation predicted training outcome for somatosensory guided movements: those who showed higher ipsilateral activation were those who did profit less from training. Improvement of spatial tactile discrimination was positively associated with gains in pinch grip velocity. Overall, a combination of priming rES and repetitive motor training is capable to induce motor and somatosensory performance increase and representation changes in BA1 in healthy young subjects.

  7. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2016-01-21

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for "closing the loop" is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm.

  8. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for “closing the loop” is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm. PMID:26790614

  9. Fluoxetine stimulates anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine production and attenuates sensory deficits in a rat model of decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; de Maistre, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Abraini, Jacques; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Despite "gold standard" hyperbaric oxygen treatment, 30% of patients suffering from neurological decompression sickness still exhibit incomplete recovery, including sensory impairments. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory effects in the setting of cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the assessment of sensory neurological deficits and measurement of circulating cytokines after decompression in rats treated or not with fluoxetine. Seventy-eight rats were divided into a clinical (n = 38) and a cytokine (n = 40) group. In both groups, the rats were treated with fluoxetine (30 mg/kg po, 6 h beforehand) or with a saccharine solution. All of the rats were exposed to 90 m seawater for 45 min before staged decompression. In the clinical group, paw withdrawal force after mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latency after thermal stimulation were evaluated before and 1 and 48 h after surfacing. At 48 h, a dynamic weight-bearing device was used to assess postural stability, depending on the time spent on three or four paws. For cytokine analysis, blood samples were collected from the vena cava 1 h after surfacing. Paw withdrawal force and latency were increased after surfacing in the controls, but not in the fluoxetine group. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment highlighted a better stability on three paws for the fluoxetine group. IL-10 levels were significantly decreased after decompression in the controls, but maintained at baseline level with fluoxetine. This study suggests that fluoxetine has a beneficial effect on sensory neurological recovery. We hypothesize that the observed effect is mediated through maintained anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production.

  10. Possible stimulation of anti-tumor immunity using repeated cold stress: a hypothesis

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    Radoja Sasa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of hormesis, whereby small amounts of seemingly harmful or stressful agents can be beneficial for the health and lifespan of laboratory animals has been reported in literature. In particular, there is accumulating evidence that daily brief cold stress can increase both numbers and activity of peripheral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, the major effectors of adaptive and innate tumor immunity, respectively. This type of regimen (for 8 days has been shown to improve survival of mice infected with intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which would also be consistent with enhanced cell-mediated immunity. Presentation of the hypothesis This paper hypothesizes that brief cold-water stress repeated daily over many months could enhance anti-tumor immunity and improve survival rate of a non-lymphoid cancer. The possible mechanism of the non-specific stimulation of cellular immunity by repeated cold stress appears to involve transient activation of the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as described in more detail in the text. Daily moderate cold hydrotherapy is known to reduce pain and does not appear to have noticeable adverse effects on normal test subjects, although some studies have shown that it can cause transient arrhythmias in patients with heart problems and can also inhibit humoral immunity. Sudden immersion in ice-cold water can cause transient pulmonary edema and increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thereby increasing mortality of neurovirulent infections. Testing the hypothesis The proposed procedure is an adapted cold swim (5–7 minutes at 20 degrees Celsius, includes gradual adaptation to be tested on a mouse tumor model. Mortality, tumor size, and measurements of cellular immunity (numbers and activity of peripheral CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer cells of the cold-exposed group would be compared to

  11. Transitory FGF treatment results in the long-lasting suppression of the proliferative response to repeated FGF stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ashleigh; Knowland, Nicholas; Cooper, Emily; Cole, Rebecca; Wang, Hongchuan; Booth, Lucas; Kacer, Doreen; Tarantini, Francesca; Friesel, Robert; Prudovsky, Igor

    2014-05-01

    FGF applied as a single growth factor to quiescent mouse fibroblasts induces a round of DNA replication, however continuous stimulation results in arrest in the G1 phase of the next cell cycle. We hypothesized that FGF stimulation induces the establishment of cell memory, which prevents the proliferative response to repeated or continuous FGF application. When a 2-5 days quiescence period was introduced between primary and repeated FGF treatments, fibroblasts failed to efficiently replicate in response to secondary FGF application. The establishment of "FGF memory" during the first FGF stimulation did not require DNA synthesis, but was dependent on the activity of FGF receptors, MEK, p38 MAPK and NFκB signaling, and protein synthesis. While secondary stimulation resulted in strongly decreased replication rate, we did not observe any attenuation of morphological changes, Erk1/2 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 induction. However, secondary FGF stimulation failed to induce the expression of cyclin A, which is critical for the progression from G1 to S phase. Treatment of cells with a broad range histone deacetylase inhibitor during the primary FGF stimulation rescued the proliferative response to the secondary FGF treatment suggesting that the establishment of "FGF memory" may be based on epigenetic changes. We suggest that "FGF memory" can prevent the hyperplastic response to cell damage and inflammation, which are associated with an enhanced FGF production and secretion. "FGF memory" may present a natural obstacle to the efficient application of recombinant FGFs for the treatment of ulcers, ischemias, and wounds.

  12. Sub-threshold cross-modal sensory interaction in the thalamus: lemniscal auditory response in the medial geniculate nucleus is modulated by somatosensory stimulation.

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    Donishi, T; Kimura, A; Imbe, H; Yokoi, I; Kaneoke, Y

    2011-02-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cross-modal sensory modulations in the primary sensory areas in the cortex, suggesting that cross-modal sensory interactions occur at early stages in the hierarchy of sensory processing. Multi-modal sensory inputs from non-lemniscal thalamic nuclei and cortical inputs from the secondary sensory and association areas are considered responsible for the modulations. On the other hand, there is little evidence of cross-sensory modal sensitivities in lemniscal thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we were interested in a possibility that somatosensory stimulation may affect auditory response in the ventral division (MGV) of the medial geniculate nucleus (MG), a lemniscal thalamic nucleus that is considered to be dedicated to auditory uni-modal processing. Experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the hindpaw, which is thought to evoke nociception and seems unrelated to auditory processing, modulated unit discharges in response to auditory stimulation (noise bursts). The modulation was observed in the MGV and non-lemniscal auditory thalamic nuclei such as the dorsal and medial divisions of the MG. The major effect of somatosensory stimulation was suppression. The most robust suppression was induced by electrical stimuli given simultaneously with noise bursts or preceding noise bursts by 10 to 20 ms. The results indicate that the lemniscal (MGV) and non-lemniscal auditory nuclei are subject to somatosensory influence. In everyday experience intense somatosensory stimuli such as pain interrupt our ongoing hearing or interfere with clear recognition of sound. The modulation of lemniscal auditory response by somatosensory stimulation may underlie such cross-modal disturbance of auditory perception as a form of cross-modal switching of attention. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  14. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

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    Hossein KARIMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.Keywords:Down syndrome, Motor development, Occupational therapy, Sensory stimulation.

  15. Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeborg, Inger; McAllister, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography (EPG) in the treatment of a case with severe developmental verbal dyspraxia. A multiple-baseline design was used. The treatment duration was 11 months and started when the subject was 5 years old. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by calculations of percentage of correctly articulated words, percentage of consonants correct, percentage of phonemes correct and percentage of words correct. Intelligibility assessments were conducted by both naïve and expert listeners. The experts also assessed visual deviances in articulatory gestures from video recordings. Qualitative analysis of EPG data was made. The subject's speech was significantly improved by the treatment in all aspects. The results and their generalization to other cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia are discussed.

  16. Repeated sensory contact with aggressive mice rapidly leads to an anticipatory increase in core body temperature and physical activity that precedes the onset of aversive responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Marie-Christine; Kendall, David A; Pérez-Diaz, Fernando; Duxon, Mark S; Marsden, Charles A

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated whether the 'psychological threat' induced by sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific would be a sufficient factor in inducing behavioural and physiological disturbances. Repeated sensory contact with an aggressive mouse (social threat) in a partitioned cage was compared with repeated exposure to a novel partitioned cage in male NMRI mice. We first examined parameters of stress responsiveness (body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, frequency of self-grooming and defecation). The temperature and physical activity responses to stress were also recorded during and after the 4 weeks of stress using radiotelemetry. Finally, cognitivo-emotional performance was assessed after acute stress and 2 and 4 weeks of stress by measuring decision making, sequential alternation performance and behaviour in the elevated T-maze. Social threat had a greater impact than novel cage exposure on most parameters of stress responsiveness, although mice did not habituate to either stressor. Social threat rapidly led to an anticipatory rise in core body temperature and physical activity before the scheduled stress sessions. Such anticipation developed within the first week and persisted for 9 days after ending the stress procedure. Some memory impairment in the sequential alternation test was found in stressed mice, independent of the stressor. After 4 weeks of stress, inhibitory avoidance in the elevated T-maze was enhanced in socially stressed mice and reduced in novel cage mice. The sustained anticipation of stress in the social threat group preceded aversive responding. It remains to be established whether anticipation contributes to the development of aversive responses.

  17. Sensory-motor responses to mechanical stimulation of the esophagus after sensitization with acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asbj(ф)rn Mlohr Drewes; Hariprasad Reddy; Camilla Staahl; Jan Pedersen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Hans Gregersen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Sensitization most likely plays an important role in chronic pain disorders, and such sensitization can be mimicked by experimental acid perfusion of the esophagus.The current study systematically investigated the sensory and motor responses of the esophagus to controlled mechanical stimuli before and after sensitization.METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were included.Distension of the distal esophagus with a balloon was performed before and after perfusion with 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 30 min. An impedance planimetry system was used to measure cross-sectional area,volume, pressure, and tension during the distensions. A new model allowed evaluation of the phasic contractions by the tension during contractions as a function of the initial muscle length before the contraction (comparable to the Frank-Starling law for the heart). Length-tension diagrams were used to evaluate the muscle tone before and after relaxation of the smooth muscle with butylscopolamine.RESULTS: The sensitization resulted in allodynia and hyperalgesia to the distension volumes, and the degree of sensitization was related to the infused volume of acid. Furthermore, a nearly 50% increase in the evoked referred pain was seen after sensitization. The mechanical analysis demonstrated hyper-reactivity of the esophagus following acid perfusion, with an increased number and force of the phasic contractions, but the muscle tone did not change.CONCLUSION: Acid perfusion of the esophagus sensitizes the sensory pathways and facilitates secondary contractions.The new model can be used to study abnormal sensorymotor mechanisms in visceral organs.

  18. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of randomized controlled trials of sensory stimulation interventions for sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou TD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana-Danai Dimitriou,1 Magdalini Tsolaki2 1Neuroscience Department, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2Third Department of Neurology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece Objective: The current review aims to evaluate the sensory stimulation interventions in terms of reducing sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia. The nonpharmacological interventions seem to be an efficient, inexpensive, and easy tool for family caregivers. Moreover, sleeping disorders increase caregivers’ distress and may lead to hospitalization.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials have been found. Among these eleven trials, one referred to massage therapy and acupuncture, and the other ten studies referred to bright light therapy.Results: The results demonstrated that there are no relevant randomized controlled trials of music therapy, aromatherapy, and multisensory environment/Snoezelen referring to sleeping disturbances. Several studies have been conducted about the effect of the bright light therapy, and there is also another study that combines massage therapy and acupuncture therapy.Conclusion: Sensory stimulation interventions are inexpensive and practical for dementia caregivers; however, only bright light therapy seems to be useful to reduce sleeping problems in dementia. The other sensory stimulation interventions lack evidence, and there is a strong need for further research. Keywords: sensory stimulation interventions, nonpharmacological interventions, sleeping disturbances, dementia, randomized controlled trials, review

  20. Short-distance sensory stimulation technique in the early diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Betül Çevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Normal results obtained from nerve conduction studies do not exclude the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We intended to increase diagnostic sensitivity of nerve conduction studies in the early stage CTS by stimulating shorter palm-wrist segment, and excluding distal region outside the entrapment site of the median nerve which is unaffected from pathologic changes. Methods. In this prospective study, 41 patients (66 hands with clinically diagnosed CTS with normal conventional electrophysiologic examinations were stimulated with electrodes placed at 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 cm from the distal wrist crease (DWC on the palm-wrist segment, and the conduction velocities, latencies, and the differential latencies (conduction delay were compared with those of 34 patients (68 hands in the control group. Results. Conduction delay recorded between 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8 cm. away from DWC of both groups was statistically insignificant (p>0.1, while the conduction velocities and the latencies obtained from the electrodes placed on 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 cm away from DWC differed statistically significantly between two groups (p<0.001. Conclusion. In electrophysiologic examinations performed to confirm the diagnosis of CTS, assessment of shorter palm-wrist segment, and stimulation of a predetermined location 4 or 5 cm distal to DWC are sufficient to detect a slight and localized conduction delay in the carpal tunnel. This method eliminated slowing-down effect of distal segment on normal nerve conduction velocities yielding higher degrees of (up to 92.4 % sensitivity.

  1. [Multi-sensory interaction in tinnitus: visual evoked potentials and somatosensory stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, C; Hernández-Calvín, F J; Plaza, G; Toledano, A; De los Santos, G

    2003-05-01

    Anomalous cross-modal interactions along the audiovestibular, visual and soma-tosensorial pathways could be the responsible for aberrant signals, clinically expressed as phantom perceptions. This results in tinnitus that can be modified by gaze movements or somatosensorial stimulation through skin, orofacial (jaw) and cervical movements. This phenomenon has also been described in some patients with acute unilateral deafferentation of the auditory peripheral system as a result of surgery to remove a tumour in the posterior fossal. Neuroimaging preliminary studies (PET, f-MRI) describe multisensorial interactions and cortical reorganisation processes in chronic tinnitus. Treatment approaches are still unknown although counselling regarding the benignity of the process and the high percentage of habituation to the symptom is the most effective framework. We present our experience in four cases.

  2. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery.

  3. Repeated cognitive stimulation alleviates memory impairments in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Yeung, Stephen T; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; LaFerla, Frank M

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with progressive memory and cognitive decline. Previous studies have identified the benefits of cognitive enrichment on reducing disease pathology. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical data suggest that repeated exercise, and cognitive and social enrichment, can improve and/or delay the cognitive deficiencies associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, 3xTg-AD mice were exposed to a rigorous training routine beginning at 3 months of age, which consisted of repeated training in the Morris water maze spatial recognition task every 3 months, ending at 18 months of age. At the conclusion of the final Morris water maze training session, animals subsequently underwent testing in another hippocampus-dependent spatial task, the Barnes maze task, and on the more cortical-dependent novel object recognition memory task. Our data show that periodic cognitive enrichment throughout aging, via multiple learning episodes in the Morris water maze task, can improve the memory performance of aged 3xTg-AD mice in a separate spatial recognition task, and in a preference memory task, when compared to naïve aged matched 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, we observed that the cognitive enrichment properties of Morris water maze exposer, was detectable in repeatedly trained animals as early as 6 months of age. These findings suggest early repeated cognitive enrichment can mitigate the diverse cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Repeater F waves: a comparison of sensitivity with sensory antidromic wrist-to-palm latency and distal motor latency in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, W N

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-five thousand six hundred supramaximal shocks were applied to 209 healthy and 147 entrapped median nerves (carpal tunnel syndrome--CTS) to characterize the backfiring behavior of the alpha motor neuron pool of abductor pollicis brevis in health and the modifying effect of a compressive neuropathy. A contraction of the normal subpopulation of active F-wave generators was found in CTS, while active neurons backfired at higher than normal frequencies (p less than 0.001). These modifications in spinal behavior are reflected in the % Repeater F-wave value, whose sensitivity in the detection of CTS approaches that of sensory wrist-to-palm latency estimation. This technique offers an alternative to latency measurement in the diagnosis of CTS. An economical strategy for the electrodiagnosis of CTS is proposed.

  5. Sensory Stimulation as a Precondition for the Learning of a Language Task by Fourth and Sixth Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Lester William

    This study was designed to explore learning behavior of children following four specific preconditioning experiences: sensory deprivation, sensory bombardment, routine worksheet exercises, and a sensory awareness game. The study occurred in three parts: preconditioning of the subjects, teaching of a language skill, and performance of a task…

  6. Pressure pain threshold changes after repeated mechano-nociceptive stimulation of the trapezius muscle: possible influence of previous pain experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Persson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relation between repeated noxious pressure over the trapezius muscle and changes in pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in a before-after trial design. A conditioning series of 30 mechano-nociceptive stimuli was applied manually with a handheld algometer probe, and PPTs were measured...... who had given birth to 1 or several children (Ptested at a second session, a clear correlation of PPT reactions (r=0.527; Pmuscle in healthy females evokes moderate and temporary...... over 1 trapezius muscle (skin anaesthetized) in 27 healthy women before and after the intervention. With a mean stimulation rate of 0.40 Hz and a mean nociceptive stimulation intensity of 1.78 x Threshold, subjects were found to systematically react with a change in PPT, either a decrease...

  7. FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE SPINAL CORD DURING SENSORY STIMULATION IN DIABETIC RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Jones, Cheryl; Gruwel, Marco L.H.; Foreman, Derek; Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if differences exist between control and diabetic rats in functional MRI activity of the spinal cord and if fMRI can provide a means of early detection of diabetic neuropathy. Materials and Methods fMRI of the spinal cord, using noxious electrical stimulation (15 V (~8 mA), 0.3 ms, 3 Hz) of the hind paw, was performed in groups of control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Results Diabetic rats were lighter, hyperglycemic and had lower blood pH than controls. FMRI activity at the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord was identified in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to stimulus of all animals. Signal intensity changes across the lumbar spinal cord during periods of activity were not significantly different between control and diabetic rats, with a trend towards greater signal changes in controls. When specific regions of the spinal cord were analyzed, control rats exhibited significantly increased BOLD fMRI activity in both ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal horn compared to diabetic rats. Conclusion The results of this study are consistent with reports that primary afferent input to the spinal cord is diminished by diabetes, and suggest that BOLD fMRI may be useful in early detection of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:19629995

  8. Formation and reverberation of sequential neural activity patterns evoked by sensory stimulation are enhanced during cortical desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez Contreras, Edgar J; Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Muhammad, Arif; Bartho, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L; Kolb, Bryan; Gruber, Aaron J; Luczak, Artur

    2013-08-07

    Memory formation is hypothesized to involve the generation of event-specific neural activity patterns during learning and the subsequent spontaneous reactivation of these patterns. Here, we present evidence that these processes can also be observed in urethane-anesthetized rats and are enhanced by desynchronized brain state evoked by tail pinch, subcortical carbachol infusion, or systemic amphetamine administration. During desynchronization, we found that repeated tactile or auditory stimulation evoked unique sequential patterns of neural firing in somatosensory and auditory cortex and that these patterns then reoccurred during subsequent spontaneous activity, similar to what we have observed in awake animals. Furthermore, the formation of these patterns was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, suggesting that the phenomenon depends on synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that anesthetized animals with a desynchronized brain state could serve as a convenient model for studying stimulus-induced plasticity to improve our understanding of memory formation and replay in the brain.

  9. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Samuel Grummett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  10. Dores lombossacrais: efeitos da auto-estimulação sensorial cutânea Low-back-pain: effects of self sensorial cutaneous stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Souza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo testou a eficácia de um método de auto-estimulação sensorial cutânea (AESC com a utilização de um instrumento composto de uma esponja vegetal acoplada com alças, em pacientes em tratamento fisioterapêutico para dores lombossacrais. Materiais e Métodos: 21 mulheres foram divididas, por sorteio, em 2 grupos. O controle foi submetido a dez minutos de termoterapia por calor superficial e dez minutos de massoterapia na região lombossacral. O grupo experimental recebeu metade do tempo de massoterapia e foi instruído a praticar a AESC. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram: questionário sobre intensidade e frequência da dor, Escala Análogovisual de dor e dolorímetro para avaliação do limiar de dor em seis pontos gatilho (PG. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos não foram estatisticamente significativos em todos os instrumentos para o grupo controle. No entanto, demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas no pós-teste, para o grupo experimental, em: intensidade e frequência da dor nas regiões lombar (p=0,018, p=0,011, glútea (p=0,012, p=0,040, glúteos e pernas (p=0,007, p=0,011; Escala de Dor (p=0,032; PG1 (p=0,032, PG2 (p=0,050, PG3 (p=0,021, PG4 (p=0,044, PG5 (p=0,005 e PG6 (p=0,021. Na análise intergrupos houve redução da intensidade (p=0,043 e frequência (p=0,029 da dor na região glútea. Os dados referentes à aplicação do dolorímetro demonstraram diferenças significativas nos músculos glúteo médio PG5 (p=0,010 e glúteo máximo à direita PG6 (p=0,036 para o grupo experimental. Conclusão: Sugere-se que a AESC possa ser um instrumento eficaz para a diminuição da intensidade e da frequência das dores lombossacrais, em especial na região glútea.Objective: This study aimed at testing the accuracy of a Sensorial Cutaneous Self-Stimulation (SCSS method with the use of an instrument composed of a sponge plant coupled with handles, in patients undergoing physiotherapeutic

  11. Feasibility, repeatability, and safety of ultrasound-guided stimulation of the first cervical nerve at the alar foramen in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mespoulhès-Rivière, Céline; Brandenberger, Olivier; Rossignol, Fabrice; Robert, Céline; Perkins, Justin D; Marie, Jean-Paul; Ducharme, Norm

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the feasibility, repeatability, and safety of an ultrasound-guided technique to stimulate the first cervical nerve (FCN) at the level of the alar foramen of the atlas of horses. ANIMALS 4 equine cadavers and 6 clinically normal Standardbreds. PROCEDURES In each cadaver, the FCN pathway was determined by dissection, and any anastomosis between the first and second cervical nerves was identified. Subsequently, each of 6 live horses underwent a bilateral ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen 3 times at 3-week intervals. After each procedure, horses were examined daily for 5 days. RESULTS In each cadaver, the FCN passed through the alar foramen; a communicating branch between the FCN and the accessory nerve and anastomoses between the ventral branches of the FCN and second cervical nerve were identified. The anastomoses were located in the upper third of the FCN pathway between the wing of the atlas and the nerve's entry in the omohyoideus muscle. Successful ultrasound-guided electrical stimulation was confirmed by twitching of the ipsilateral omohyoideus muscle in all 6 live horses; this finding was observed bilaterally during each of the 3 experimental sessions. No complications developed at the site of stimulation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen appears to be a safe and straightforward procedure in horses. The procedure may have potential for use in horses with naturally occurring recurrent laryngeal neuropathy to assess reinnervation after FCN transplantation or nerve-muscle pedicle implantation in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle.

  12. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation prevents kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A; Semnanian, S; Janahmadi, M; Moradi-Chameh, H; Firoozabadi, S M; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, J

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rTMS applied during rapid amygdala kindling on some electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Male Wistar rats were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala in a semi-rapid manner (12 stimulations/day) until they achieved stage-5 seizure. One group (kindled+rTMS (KrTMS)) of animals received rTMS (1Hz for 4min) 5min after termination of daily kindling stimulations. Twenty four hours following the last kindling stimulation electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Amygdala kindling significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential and increased the input resistance, spontaneous firing activity, number of evoked spikes and half-width of the first evoked spike. Kindling also decreased the first-spike latency and amplitude significantly. Application of rTMS during kindling somehow prevented the development of seizures and protected CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus against deleterious effect of kindling on both passive and active neuronal electrophysiological properties. Interestingly, application of rTMS alone enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons significantly. Based on the results of our study, it may be suggested that rTMS exerts its anticonvulsant effect, in part, through preventing the amygdala kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It seems that rTMS exerts protective effects on the neural circuits involved in spreading the seizures from the focus to other parts of the brain.

  13. Modulation of specific sensory cortical areas by segregated basal forebrain cholinergic neurons demonstrated by neuronal tracing and optogenetic stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eChaves-Coira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-gold and Fast Blue fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1 and primary auditory (A1 cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT. Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  14. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  15. Repeated stress-induced stimulation of catecholamine response is not followed by altered immune cell redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Tibenska, Elena; Koska, Juraj; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kvetnansky, Richard; Bergendiova-Sedlackova, Katarina; Blazicek, Pavol; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    Stress response is considered an important factor in the modulation of immune function. Neuroendocrine hormones, including catecholamines, affect the process of immune cell redistribution, important for cell-mediated immunity. This longitudinal investigation was aimed at evaluating the effect of repeated stress-induced elevation of catecholamines on immune cell redistribution and expression of adhesive molecules. We assessed the responses of epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, changes in lymphocytes subpopulations, and percentages of CD11a+, CD11b+, and CD62L+ lymphocytes to a 20-min treadmill exercise of an intensity equal to 80% of the individual's Vo(2)max. The exercise was performed before and after 6 weeks of endurance training consisting of a 1-h run 4 times a week (ET) and after 5 days of bed rest (HDBR) in 10 healthy males. We did not observe any significant changes in the basal levels of EPI, NE, and cortisol in the plasma, nor in the immune parameters after ET and HDBR. The exercise test led to a significant (P <.001) elevation of EPI and NE levels after both ET and HDBR, a significant elevation (P <.01) of cortisol after HDBR, an increase in the absolute numbers of leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ lymphocytes, percentage of CD11a+ and CD11b+ lymphocytes, and to a decrease of CD62L1 before, after ET, and after HDBR. We found comparable changes in all measured immune parameters after ET and HDBR. In conclusion, repeated stress-induced elevation of EPI and NE was not associated with an alteration in immune cell redistribution found in response to the single bout of exercise.

  16. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  17. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of randomized controlled trials of sensory stimulation interventions for sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Tatiana-Danai; Tsolaki, Magdalini

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current review aims to evaluate the sensory stimulation interventions in terms of reducing sleeping disturbances in patients with dementia. The nonpharmacological interventions seem to be an efficient, inexpensive, and easy tool for family caregivers. Moreover, sleeping disorders increase caregivers’ distress and may lead to hospitalization. Methods A systematic literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials have been found. Among these eleven trials, one referred to massage therapy and acupuncture, and the other ten studies referred to bright light therapy. Results The results demonstrated that there are no relevant randomized controlled trials of music therapy, aromatherapy, and multisensory environment/Snoezelen referring to sleeping disturbances. Several studies have been conducted about the effect of the bright light therapy, and there is also another study that combines massage therapy and acupuncture therapy. Conclusion Sensory stimulation interventions are inexpensive and practical for dementia caregivers; however, only bright light therapy seems to be useful to reduce sleeping problems in dementia. The other sensory stimulation interventions lack evidence, and there is a strong need for further research. PMID:28360513

  19. Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation evaluation on fatigue and daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forogh, Bijan; Rafiei, Maryam; Arbabi, Amin; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Sajadi, Simin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson is a common and disabling disease that affects patient's and career's quality of life. Unfortunately, medications, such as dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic drugs, as an effective treatment have unwilling side effects. Recently, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in conjunction with medication becomes popular as a complementary safe treatment and several studies have proved its effectiveness on controlling motor and specially non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease. In this randomized double-blind parallel study, 23 patients with Parkinson's disease divided into two groups of real tDCS plus occupational therapy and sham tDCS plus occupational therapy and the effects of therapeutic sessions (eight sessions tDCS with 0.06 mA/cm(2) current, 20 min on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were evaluated on fatigue and daytime sleepiness just after therapeutic course and in 3-month follow-up. tDCS had a significant effect on fatigue and no effect on daytime sleepiness reduction in patients with Parkinson's disease. tDCS is an effective and safe complementary treatment on fatigue reduction in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Characterization of three different sensory fibers by use of neonatal capsaicin treatment, spinal antagonism and a novel electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion test

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    Yamaguchi Asuka

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we first report an in vivo characterization of flexor responses induced by three distinct sine-wave stimuli in the electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion (EPF test in mice. The fixed sine-wave electric stimulations of 5 Hz (C-fiber, 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber to the hind paw of mice induced a paw-flexion response and vocalization. The average threshold for paw flexor responses by sine-wave stimulations was much lower than that for vocalization. Neonatally (P3 pretreatment with capsaicin to degenerate polymodal substance P-ergic C-fiber neurons increased the threshold to 5 Hz (C-fiber stimuli, but not to 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber. The flexor responses to 5 Hz stimuli were significantly blocked by intrathecal (i.t. pretreatment with both CP-99994 and MK-801, an NK1 and NMDA receptor antagonist, respectively, but not by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the flexor responses induced by 250 Hz stimuli were blocked by MK-801 (i.t. but not by CP-99994 or CNQX. In contrast, flexor responses induced by 2000 Hz stimuli were only blocked by CNQX treatment. These data suggest that we have identified three pharmacologically different categories of responses mediated through different primary afferent fibers. Furthermore, we also carried out characterization of the in vivo functional sensitivity of each of the sensory fiber types in nerve-injured mice using the EPF test, and found that the threshold to both 250 Hz and 2000 Hz stimulations were markedly decreased, whereas the threshold to 5 Hz stimulations was significantly increased. Thus we found opposing effects on specific sensory fiber-mediated responses as a result of nerve injury in mice. These results also suggest that the EPF analysis is useful for the evaluation of plasticity in sensory functions in animal disease models.

  1. COMPARISON THE EFFECT OF SIMULTANEOUS SENSORY STIMULATION AND CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY APPROACHES ON MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFANTS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

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    Masoud KARIMLOO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveNeuromuscular characteristics in Down syndrome result in generalized muscular hypotonia, developmental delays and sensory integration deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of simultaneous sensory stimulations and current occupational therapy approaches on motor functions development of infants with Down syndrome.Materials & MethodsEighteen infants with Down syndrome, aged 6 -18 months, were evaluated in two groups: intervention group (simultaneous sensory stimulation and occupational therapy and control group (occupational therapy alone. They attended the program 3 times a week for 6 months and each session lasted 45 minutes. Motor functions were assessed before, during, and after intervention in the two groups, using GMFM test.ResultsMean motor function increased in both groups according to the GMFM test (P = 0.000. Comparison of the changes showed that although the mean difference of this variable was higher in the intervention group, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.576.Mean motor deficit reduced in both groups during the period of the study,which was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Comparison of the difference in mean motor deficit in the first and last evaluations showed that this difference was more in the intervention group but statistically insignificant (P = 0.617ConclusionEarly use of simultaneous sensory stimulations can improve the quality of motor skills in Down syndrome infants. It is suggested that it may be used as an early intervention in association with other methods in the rehabilitation of these patients. However, more studies in this regard are warranted.

  2. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Mesin, Luca; Ortu, Eleonora; Giannoni, Mario; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation) and long after (recovery period) sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired modulation of the

  3. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation and long after (recovery period sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired

  4. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  5. Long-term sensory stimulation therapy improves hand function and restores cortical responsiveness in patients with chronic cerebral lesions. Three single case studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph eKattenstroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of sensorimotor impairment resulting from cerebral lesion (CL utilizes task specific training and massed practice to drive reorganization and sensorimotor improvement due to induction of neuroplasticity mechanisms. Loss of sensory abilities often complicates recovery, and thus the individual’s ability to use the affected body part for functional tasks. Therefore, the development of additional and alternative approaches that supplement, enhance, or even replace conventional training procedures would be advantageous. Repetitive sensory stimulation protocols (rSS have been shown to evoke sensorimotor improvements of the affected limb in patients with chronic stroke. However, the possible impact of long-term rSS on sensorimotor performance of patients with CL, where the incident dated back many years remains unclear. The particular advantage of rSS is its passive nature, which does not require active participation of the subjects. Therefore, rSS can be applied parallel to other occupations, making the intervention easier to implement and more acceptable to the individual. Here we report the effects of applying rSS for 8, 36 and 76 weeks on the paretic hand of 3 long-term patients with different types of CL. Different behavioral tests were used to assess sensory and/or sensorimotor performance of the upper extremities prior, after, and during the intervention. In one patient, the impact of long-term rSS on restoration of cortical activation was investigated by recording somatosensory evoked potentials. After long-term rSS all three patients showed considerable improvements of their sensory and motor abilities. In addition, almost normal evoked potentials could be recorded after rSS in one patient. Our data show that long-term rSS applied to patients with chronic CL can improve tactile and sensorimotor functions, which, however, developed in some cases only after many weeks of stimulation, and continued to further improve on a time

  6. The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention

  7. The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention

  8. Mapping the motor and sensory cortices: a historical look and a current case study in sensorimotor localization and direct cortical motor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Justin

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of cortical mapping during craniotomies for epilepsy and brain tumor resection is extremely important. Cortical mapping can guide the surgical team intraoperatively with regards to the layout of important anatomical structures and their function to prevent post-operative deficits. Electroneurophysiological methods employed include sensorimotor localization recorded directly from the surface of the brain when stimulated from a peripheral nerve and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the motor cortex to elicit a distal muscle response. This paper presents a case, in which a paradigm of neurophysiological modalities is utilized to assist the surgeon in creating a topographic map of the motor cortex and with localizing the sensory and motor cortices, in addition to a historical review of functional localization.

  9. Dores lombossacrais: efeitos da auto-estimulação sensorial cutânea = Low-back-pain: effects of self sensorial cutaneous stimulation

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    Fernandes, Ivan Dávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo testou a eficácia de um método de auto-estimulação sensorial cutânea (AESC com a utilização de um instrumento composto de uma esponja vegetal acoplada com alças, em pacientes em tratamento fisioterapêutico para dores lombossacrais. Materiais e Métodos: 21 mulheres foram divididas, por sorteio, em 2 grupos. O controle foi submetido a dez minutos de termoterapia por calor superficial e dez minutos de massoterapia na região lombossacral. O grupo experimental recebeu metade do tempo de massoterapia e foi instruído a praticar a AESC. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram: questionário sobre intensidade e frequência da dor, Escala Análogovisual de dor e dolorímetro para avaliação do limiar de dor em seis pontos gatilho (PG. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos não foram estatisticamente significativos em todos os instrumentos para o grupo controle. No entanto, demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas no pós-teste, para o grupo experimental, em: intensidade e frequência da dor nas regiões lombar (p=0,018, p=0,011, glútea (p=0,012, p=0,040, glúteos e pernas (p=0,007, p=0,011; Escala de Dor (p=0,032; PG1 (p=0,032, PG2 (p=0,050, PG3 (p=0,021, PG4 (p=0,044, PG5 (p=0,005 e PG6 (p=0,021. Na análise intergrupos houve redução da intensidade (p=0,043 e frequência (p=0,029 da dor na região glútea. Os dados referentes à aplicação do dolorímetro demonstraram diferenças significativas nos músculos glúteo médio PG5 (p=0,010 e glúteo máximo à direita PG6 (p=0,036 para o grupo experimental. Conclusão: Sugere-se que a AESC possa ser um instrumento eficaz para a diminuição da intensidade e da frequência das dores lombossacrais, em especial na região glútea

  10. Vibratory stimulation increase the electro-cutaneous sensory detection and pain thresholds in women but not in men

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    Lundeberg Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibratory stimulation is a potential method for the treatment of pain. Methods The effect of vibration on the forearm on detection (DT and pain thresholds (PT induced by electro-cutaneous stimulation were investigated in healthy male and female volunteers. Results Women have lower baseline detection and pain thresholds as compared to men. Furthermore, women but not men report increased detection and pain thresholds after vibratory stimulation. Conclusion Our findings indicate the potential usefulness of vibratory stimulation for pain treatment, and that gender differences should be considered in future evaluation of the method.

  11. Line scanning fMRI reveals earlier onset of optogenetically evoked BOLD response in rat somatosensory cortex as compared to sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Franziska; Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Faber, Cornelius

    2016-12-21

    The combination of optogenetic control and fMRI readout in the brain is increasingly used to assess neuronal networks and underlying signal processing. However, how exactly optogenetic activation or inhibition reproduces normal physiological input has not been fully unraveled. To assess details of temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response, temporal resolution in rodent fMRI is often not sufficient. Recent advances in human fMRI using faster acquisition schemes cannot be easily translated to small animals due to smaller dimensions, fast physiological motion, and higher sensitivity to artefacts. Here, we applied a one dimensional line scanning acquisition with 50ms temporal resolution in rat somatosensory cortex. We observed that optogenetic activation reproduces the hemodynamic response upon sensory stimulation, but shows a 160 to 340ms earlier onset of the response. This difference is explained by direct activation of all opsin-expressing and illuminated cortical layers, while hemodynamic response to sensory stimulation is delayed during intracortical transmission between cortical layers. Our results confirm that optogenetic activation is a valid model for physiological neuronal input, and that differences in temporal behavior of only a few hundred milliseconds can be resolved in rodent fMRI.

  12. Changes in pericytic expression of NG2 and PDGFRB and vascular permeability in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse by osmotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shoko; Hourai, Atsushi; Miyata, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a barrier that prevents free access of blood-derived substances to the brain through the tight junctions and maintains a specialized brain environment. Circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the typical BBB. The fenestrated vasculature of the sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP), allows parenchyma cells to sense a variety of blood-derived information, including osmotic ones. In the present study, we utilized immunohistochemistry to examine changes in the expression of NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) in the OVLT, SFO and AP of adult mice during chronic osmotic stimulation. The expression of NG2 and PDGFRB was remarkably prominent in pericytes, although these angiogenesis-associated proteins are highly expressed at pericytes of developing immature vasculature. The chronic salt loading prominently increased the expression of NG2 in the OVLT and SFO and that of PDGFRB in the OVLT, SFO and AP. The vascular permeability of low-molecular-mass tracer fluorescein isothiocyanate was increased significantly by chronic salt loading in the OVLT and SFO but not AP. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates changes in pericyte expression of NG2 and PDGFRB and vascular permeability in the sensory CVOs by chronic osmotic stimulation, indicating active participation of the vascular system in osmotic homeostasis.

  13. The effect of sensory level electrical stimulation of the masseter muscle in early stroke patients with dysphagia: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umay, Ebru K; Yaylaci, Atilay; Saylam, Guleser; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Gurcay, Eda; Akcapinar, Dehen; Kirac, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. As the first study in literature, we aimed to evaluate the effects of sensory-level electrical stimulation (SES) to bilateral masseter muscles in early stroke patients with dysphagia. This study was conducted at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic of our hospital between 2013 and 2015. Ninety-eight patients with dysphagia within the first month after ischemic stroke were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by bedside screening tests (Bedside Dysphagia Score, Neurological Examination Dysphagia Score, Total Dysphagia Score, and Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability test) and by flexible fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) methods. All patients were included in a traditional swallowing therapy. Patients were divided into two groups, namely the "stimulation group" and "sham group." SES was applied to bilateral masseter muscles. Evaluation parameters were compared between the groups before and after therapy. The Friedman test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher exact test were used in this study. There was a significant improvement in dysphagia severity scores evaluated by bedside screening tests and FEES in cognitive and total functionality levels except in motor functional independence level in the stimulation group. In the sham group, there were no significant changes in the evaluation parameters. SES applied to bilateral masseter muscles may provide an effective treatment for both dysphagia and cognitive function in early stroke patients.

  14. Neuro-fuzzy decoding of sensory information from ensembles of simultaneously recorded dorsal root ganglion neurons for functional electrical stimulation applications

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    Rigosa, J.; Weber, D. J.; Prochazka, A.; Stein, R. B.; Micera, S.

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.

  15. Early and moderate sensory stimulation exerts a protective effect on perilesion representations of somatosensory cortex after focal ischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Christian; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intensive training within an early critical time window after focal cortical ischemia increases the area of damaged tissue and is detrimental to behavioral recovery. We postulated that moderate stimulation initiated soon after the lesion could have protective effects on peri-infarct cortical somatotopic representations. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of mild cutaneous stimulation delivered in an attention-demanding behavioral context on the functional organization of the perilesion somatosensory cortex using high-density electrophysiological mapping. We compared the effects of 6-day training initiated on the 3rd day postlesion (early training; ET) to those of same-duration training started on the 8th day (delayed training; DT). Our findings confirm previous work showing that the absence of training aggravates representational loss in the perilesion zone. In addition, ET was found to be sufficient to limit expansion of the ischemic lesion and reduce tissue loss, and substantially maintain the neuronal responsiveness to tactile stimulation, thereby preserving somatotopic map arrangement in the peri-infarct cortical territories. By contrast, DT did not prevent tissue loss and only partially reinstated lost representations in a use-dependent manner within the spared peri-infarct cortical area. This study differentiates the effects of early versus delayed training on perilesion tissue and cortical map reorganization, and underscores the neuroprotective influence of mild rehabilitative stimulation on neuronal response properties in the peri-infarct cortex during an early critical period.

  16. Impact of spinal cord stimulation on sensory characteristics in complex regional pain syndrome type I - A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, MA; Reulen, JPH; Barendse, GAM; van Kleef, M; de Vet, HCW; van den Wildenberg, FAJM

    2001-01-01

    Background: A randomized trial was performed to assess the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on detection and pain thresholds for pressure, warmth, and cold and on the extent of mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I. Methods: Fifty-four chronic

  17. Repeated cocaine enhances ventral hippocampal-stimulated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and alters ventral hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeffrey L; Forster, Gina L; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2014-08-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens is important for various reward-related cognitive processes including reinforcement learning. Repeated cocaine enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and phasic elevations of accumbal dopamine evoked by unconditioned stimuli are dependent on impulse flow from the ventral hippocampus. Therefore, sensitized hippocampal activity may be one mechanism by which drugs of abuse enhance limbic dopaminergic activity. In this study, in vivo microdialysis in freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to investigate the effect of repeated cocaine on ventral hippocampus-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens. Following seven daily injections of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip), unilateral infusion of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 0.5 μg) into the ventral hippocampus transiently increased both motoric activity and ipsilateral dopamine efflux in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and this effect was greater in rats that received repeated cocaine compared to controls that received repeated saline. In addition, repeated cocaine altered NMDA receptor subunit expression in the ventral hippocampus, reducing the NR2A : NR2B subunit ratio. Together, these results suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine produces maladaptive ventral hippocampal-nucleus accumbens communication, in part through changes in glutamate receptor composition. A behaviorally sensitizing regimen of cocaine (20 mg/kg, ip 7 days) also sensitized ventral hippocampus (hipp)-mediated dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Nac) to NMDA stimulation (bolts). This was associated with reduced ventral hippocampal NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio, suggesting that repeated exposure to cocaine produces changes in hippocampal NMDA receptor composition that lead to enhanced ventral hippocampus-nucleus accumbens communication.

  18. Muscular Strength Gains and Sensory Perception Changes: A Comparison of Electrical and Combined Electrical/Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-10

    Trentin and Visentin applied low-amplitude (200 to 600 gauss) magnetic stimulation to patients suffering from rheumatoid and osteoarthritis with mixed...results. The osteoarthritis group had pain and range of motion changes they classified as "good", but were limited to only four months. 64 Binder and co...muscle. Physiotherapy Canada. 1979;31:265-267. 5. Johnson DH, ThurstonP, Ashcroft PJ. The Russian techique of faradism in the treatment of chondromalacia

  19. Co-release of noradrenaline and dopamine in the cerebral cortex elicited by single train and repeated train stimulation of the locus coeruleus

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    Saba Pierluigi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by our group suggest that extracellular dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA may be co-released from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the cerebral cortex. We recently demonstrated that the concomitant release of DA and NA could be elicited in the cerebral cortex by electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC. This study analyses the effect of both single train and repeated electrical stimulation of LC on NA and DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, occipital cortex (Occ, and caudate nucleus. To rule out possible stressful effects of electrical stimulation, experiments were performed on chloral hydrate anaesthetised rats. Results Twenty min electrical stimulation of the LC, with burst type pattern of pulses, increased NA and DA both in the mPFC and in the Occ. NA in both cortices and DA in the mPFC returned to baseline within 20 min after the end of the stimulation period, while DA in the Occ reached a maximum increase during 20 min post-stimulation and remained higher than baseline values at 220 min post-stimulation. Local perfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM markedly reduced baseline NA and DA in the mPFC and Occ and totally suppressed the effect of electrical stimulation in both areas. A sequence of five 20 min stimulations at 20 min intervals were delivered to the LC. Each stimulus increased NA to the same extent and duration as the first stimulus, whereas DA remained elevated at the time next stimulus was delivered, so that baseline DA progressively increased in the mPFC and Occ to reach about 130 and 200% the initial level, respectively. In the presence of the NA transport (NAT blocker desipramine (DMI, 100 μM, multiple LC stimulation still increased extracellular NA and DA levels. Electrical stimulation of the LC increased NA levels in the homolateral caudate nucleus, but failed to modify DA level. Conclusion The results confirm and extend that LC stimulation induces a concomitant

  20. Contributions of structural connectivity and cerebrovascular parameters to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mice at rest and during sensory paw stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Aileen; Grandjean, Joanes; Schlegel, Felix; Saab, Bechara J; Rudin, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Previously, we reported widespread bilateral increases in stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in mouse brain to unilateral sensory paw stimulation. We attributed the pattern to arousal-related cardiovascular changes overruling cerebral autoregulation thereby masking specific signal changes elicited by local neuronal activity. To rule out the possibility that interhemispheric neuronal communication might contribute to bilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging responses, we compared stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to unilateral hindpaw stimulation in acallosal I/LnJ, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice. We found bilateral blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal changes in all three strains, ruling out a dominant contribution of transcallosal communication as reason for bilaterality. Analysis of functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, revealed that bilateral cortical functional connectivity is largely abolished in I/LnJ animals. Cortical functional connectivity in all strains correlated with structural connectivity in corpus callosum as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Given the profound influence of systemic hemodynamics on stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, we evaluated whether functional connectivity data might be affected by cerebrovascular parameters, i.e. baseline cerebral blood volume, vascular reactivity, and reserve. We found that effects of cerebral hemodynamics on functional connectivity are largely outweighed by dominating contributions of structural connectivity. In contrast, contributions of transcallosal interhemispheric communication to the occurrence of ipsilateral functional magnetic resonance imaging response of equal amplitude to unilateral stimuli seem negligible.

  1. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmela; Vinet, Jonathan; Curia, Giulia; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  2. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  3. Somatosympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes in human spinal cord injury: responses to innocuous and noxious sensory stimulation below lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan G Macefield

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the sudden increases in blood pressure associated with autonomic dysreflexia in people with spinal cord injury (SCI is due to a spinally-mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Apart from visceral inputs, such as those originating from a distended bladder, there is a prevailing opinion that autonomic dysreflexia can be triggered by noxious stimulation below the lesion. However, do noxious inputs really cause an increase in blood pressure in SCI? Using microelectrodes inserted into a peripheral nerve to record sympathetic nerve activity we had previously shown that selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin, induced by bolus injection of hypertonic saline into the tibialis anterior muscle or the overlying skin, evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow. We postulated that these sympathetic responses would be exaggerated in SCI, with a purely noxious stimulus causing long-lasting increases in blood pressure and long-lasting decreases in skin blood flow. Surprisingly, though, we found that intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline into the leg caused negligible changes in these parameters. Conversely, weak electrical stimulation over the abdominal wall, which in able-bodied subjects is not painful and activates large-diameter cutaneous afferents, caused a marked increase in blood pressure in SCI but not in able-bodied subjects. This suggests that it is activation of large-diameter somatic afferents, not small-diameter afferents, that triggers increases in sympathetic outflow in SCI. Whether the responses to activation of large-diameter afferents reflect plastic changes in the spinal cord in SCI is unknown.

  4. [Neurofunctional differences in the P300 frequency for multi-sensory stimulation in kids with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Claros, Angélica M; Serrano, Isabel; Serra, Anahi; Félix, Miriam; Quintero, Javier; Ortiz, Tomás

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) se caracteriza por falta de atencion, hiperactividad motora, impulsividad o una combinacion de todas. La P300 es una prueba neurofisiologica no invasiva que ha mostrado su eficacia para detectar diferencias entre sujetos con TDAH, pero los resultados todavia no son concluyentes. Objetivo. Evaluar el procesamiento cerebral de la informacion mediante el componente P300, en modalidad auditiva, visual y tactil, en ninos con TDAH. Sujetos y metodos. Se registraron los componentes P300 auditivo, visual y tactil a 17 ninos con TDAH (10 combinados y siete inatentos) y a 15 ninos control de edades comprendidas entre 7 y 10 anos de ambos sexos. Resultados. En los tiempos de reaccion de respuesta, se hallo una tendencia mas acentuada en el tiempo auditivo y visual, pero no estadisticamente significativo en ninguna de las tres respuestas; en el porcentaje de errores, un incremento en los ninos con TDAH respecto al grupo control. Los ninos con TDAH presentaban un aumento significativo de la latencia de la onda P300 visual, mientras que existia una disminucion no significativa en la P300 tactil y auditiva. Se encontro un aumento de las areas corticales en el componente P300 en los ninos con TDAH durante la prueba visual y auditiva, pero no en la tactil. Conclusiones. Los resultados apoyan la hipotesis de la existencia de aumento de areas cerebrales funcionales durante el procesamiento sensorial auditivo y visual en el grupo con TDAH, excepto durante la estimulacion tactil, en que sucede lo contrario.

  5. Rho-independent stimulation of axon outgrowth and activation of the ERK and Akt signaling pathways by C3 transferase in sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAuer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury triggers the activation of RhoA in spinal motor and peripheral sensory neurons. RhoA activates a number of effector proteins including the Rho-associated kinase, ROCK, which targets the cytoskeleton and leads to inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Blockade of the Rho/ROCK pathway by pharmacological means improves axon regeneration after experimental injury. C3bot transferase, an exoenzyme produced by Clostridium botulinum, inactivates RhoA by ADP-ribosylation. Up to now it was not investigated thoroughly whether C3bot exerts positive effects on peripheral axon regeneration as well. In the present study, recombinant membrane permeable C3bot produced a small, but significant, axon outgrowth effect on peripheral sensory neurons dissociated from adult dorsal root ganglia of the rat. Neuronal overexpression of C3, however, did not enhance axonal growth. Moreover, transfection of plasmids encoding dominant negative RhoA or RhoA specific shRNAs failed to increase axonal growth. Furthermore, we show that the C3bot mutant, C3E174Q, which lacks RhoA inhibitory activity, still stimulates axonal growth. When analyzing possible signaling mechanisms we found that ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt are activated by C3bot and ERK is induced by the C3E174Q mutant. Upregulation of kinase activities by C3bot occurs significantly faster than inactivation of RhoA indicating a RhoA-independent pathway of action by C3bot. The induction of ERK signaling by C3bot was detected in embryonic hippocampal neurons, too. Taken together, although RhoA plays a central role for inhibition of axon outgrowth by myelin-derived inhibitors, it does not interfere with axonal growth of sensory neurons on a permissive substrate in vitro. C3bot blocks neuronal RhoA activity, but its positive effects on axon elongation and branching appear to be mediated by Rho independent mechanisms involving activation of axon growth promoting ERK and Akt kinases.

  6. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals.

  7. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Pfascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (Pfascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bedside functional brain imaging in critically-ill children using high-density EEG source modeling and multi-modal sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury is a common cause of death and critical illness in children and young adults. Fundamental management focuses on early characterization of the extent of injury and optimizing recovery by preventing secondary damage during the days following the primary injury. Currently, bedside technology for measuring neurological function is mainly limited to using electroencephalography (EEG for detection of seizures and encephalopathic features, and evoked potentials. We present a proof of concept study in patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care setting, featuring a bedside functional imaging set-up designed to map cortical brain activation patterns by combining high density EEG recordings, multi-modal sensory stimulation (auditory, visual, and somatosensory, and EEG source modeling. Use of source-modeling allows for examination of spatiotemporal activation patterns at the cortical region level as opposed to the traditional scalp potential maps. The application of this system in both healthy and brain-injured participants is demonstrated with modality-specific source-reconstructed cortical activation patterns. By combining stimulation obtained with different modalities, most of the cortical surface can be monitored for changes in functional activation without having to physically transport the subject to an imaging suite. The results in patients in an intensive care setting with anatomically well-defined brain lesions suggest a topographic association between their injuries and activation patterns. Moreover, we report the reproducible application of a protocol examining a higher-level cortical processing with an auditory oddball paradigm involving presentation of the patient's own name. This study reports the first successful application of a bedside functional brain mapping tool in the intensive care setting. This application has the potential to provide clinicians with an additional dimension of information to manage

  9. Super-resolution imaging of ciliary microdomains in isolated olfactory sensory neurons using a custom two-color stimulated emission depletion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Potcoava, Mariana; Salcedo, Ernesto; Restrepo, Diego; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    We performed stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging of isolated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) using a custom-built microscope. The STED microscope uses a single pulsed laser to excite two separate fluorophores, Atto 590 and Atto 647N. A gated timing circuit combined with temporal interleaving of the different color excitation/STED laser pulses filters the two channel detection and greatly minimizes crosstalk. We quantified the instrument resolution to be ˜81 and ˜44 nm, for the Atto 590 and Atto 647N channels. The spatial separation between the two channels was measured to be under 10 nm, well below the resolution limit. The custom-STED microscope is incorporated onto a commercial research microscope allowing brightfield, differential interference contrast, and epifluorescence imaging on the same field of view. We performed immunolabeling of OSNs in mice to image localization of ciliary membrane proteins involved in olfactory transduction. We imaged Ca2+-permeable cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel (Atto 594) and adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) (Atto 647N) in distinct cilia. STED imaging resolved well-separated subdiffraction limited clusters for each protein. We quantified the size of each cluster to have a mean value of 88±48 nm and 124±43 nm, for CNG and ACIII, respectively. STED imaging showed separated clusters that were not resolvable in confocal images.

  10. Fos protein-like immunoreactive neurons induced by electrical stimulation in the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of rats with chronically injured peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Naoko; Terayama, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Omura, Shinji; Yamashiro, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2012-06-01

    The rat trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) was examined for Fos protein-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) neurons induced by electrical stimulation (ES) of the lingual nerve (LN) at 2 weeks after injury to the LN or the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). Intensity-dependent increase in the number of Fos-LI neurons was observed in the subnucleus oralis (Vo) and caudalis (Vc) of the spinal trigeminal tract nucleus irrespective of nerve injury. The number of Fos-LI neurons induced by ES of the chronically injured LN at A-fiber intensity (0.1 mA) was significantly increased in the Vo but not the Vc. On the other hand, in rats with chronically injured IAN, the number of Fos-LI neurons induced by ES of the LN at C-fiber intensity (10 mA) was significantly increased in the Vc but not the Vo. These results indicated that injury of a nerve innervating intraoral structures increased the c-Fos response of Vo neurons to A-fiber intensity ES of the injured nerve. A similar nerve injury enhanced the c-Fos response of Vc neurons to C-fiber intensity ES of a spared uninjured nerve innervating an intraoral territory neighboring that of the injured nerve. The present result show that nerve injury causes differential effects on c-Fos expression in the Vo and Vc, which may explain complexity of neuropathic pain symptoms in clinical cases.

  11. Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, David J; Lütcke, Henry; Schulz, Kristina; Haiss, Florent; Weber, Bruno; Kügler, Sebastian; Hasan, Mazahir T; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2012-11-01

    Sensory maps are reshaped by experience. It is unknown how map plasticity occurs in vivo in functionally diverse neuronal populations because activity of the same cells has not been tracked over long time periods. Here we used repeated two-photon imaging of a genetic calcium indicator to measure whisker-evoked responsiveness of the same layer 2/3 neurons in adult mouse barrel cortex over weeks, first with whiskers intact, then during continued trimming of all but one whisker. Across the baseline period, neurons displayed heterogeneous yet stable responsiveness. During sensory deprivation, responses to trimmed whisker stimulation globally decreased, whereas responses to spared whisker stimulation increased for the least active neurons and decreased for the most active neurons. These findings suggest that recruitment of inactive, 'silent' neurons is part of a convergent redistribution of population activity underlying sensory map plasticity. Sensory-driven responsiveness is a key property controlling experience-dependent activity changes in individual neurons.

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz due to repeated use in single aliquot readout: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study to examine sensitivity changes in single aliquot techniques using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) a series of experiments has been conducted with single aliquots of natural quartz, and the data compared with the results of computer simulations of the type of processes...... believed to be occurring. The computer model used includes both shallow and deep ('hard-to-bleach') traps, OSL ('easy-to-bleach') traps, and radiative and non-radiative recombination centres. The model has previously been used successfully to account for sensitivity changes in quartz due to thermal...... trap and deep trap effects....

  13. Repeated BCG treatment of mouse bladder selectively stimulates small GTPases and HLA antigens and inhibits single-spanning uroplakins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell Michael A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG remains poorly understood. It is particularly unclear whether BCG is capable of altering gene expression beyond its well-recognized pro-inflammatory effects and how this relates to its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes in the mouse bladder following repeated intravesical BCG therapy. Methods Mice were transurethrally instilled with BCG or pyrogen-free on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Seven days after the last instillation, urothelia along with the submucosa was removed and amplified ds-DNA was prepared from control- and BCG-treated bladder mucosa and used to generate suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. Plasmids from control- and BCG-specific differentially expressed clones and confirmed by Virtual Northern were then purified and the inserts were sequenced and annotated. Finally, chromatin immune precipitation combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (ChIP/Q-PCR was used to validate SSH-selected transcripts. Results Repeated intravesical BCG treatment induced an up regulation of genes associated with antigen presentation (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB2, HLA-E, HLA-G, IGHG, and IGH and representatives of two IFNγ-induced small GTPase families: the GBPs (GBP1, GBP2, and GBP5 and the p47GTPases (IIGTP1, IIGTP2, and TGTP. Genes expressed in saline-treated bladders but down-regulated by BCG included: the single-spanning uroplakins (UPK3a and UPK2, SPRR2G, GSTM5, and RSP 19. Conclusion Here we introduced a hypothesis-generator approach to determine key genes involved in the urothelium/sumbmucosa responses to BCG therapy. Urinary bladder responds to repeated BCG treatment by up-regulating not only antigen presentation-related genes, but also GBP and p47 small GTPases, both potentially

  14. Differences between a single session and repeated sessions of 1 Hz TMS by double-cone coil prefrontal stimulation for the improvement of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Tinnitus related distress is associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In a recent study, it was demonstrated that a single session of low frequency prefrontal TMS using a double-cone coil (DCC) modulating the ACC (AC/DC TMS, anterior cingulate cortex targeted modulation by Double-Cone coil) yields a transient improvement in subjects with chronic tinnitus. An increasing number of studies demonstrated that repeated sessions of low frequency TMS to the temporoparietal area can significantly improve tinnitus complaints. Our aim is to determine the extent to which repeated sessions of AC/DC TMS can modulate tinnitus in comparison to a single session. Seventy-three tinnitus patients received a single (N = 46) or repetitive (N = 27) session(s) of TMS using a DCC placed over the prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that both single sessions as well as multiple sessions (i.e. 8 sessions) of AC/DC TMS suppress both tinnitus distress (respectively 7.60% vs. 26.19%) and tinnitus intensity (respectively 7.12% vs. 19.60%) transiently. It was further shown that multiple sessions of AC/DC TMS generate a higher suppression effect in comparison to a single session of AC/DC TMS and that more patients responded to repeated sessions of 1 Hz stimulation in comparison to a single session. Our findings give further support to the fact that non-auditory areas are involved in tinnitus intensity and tinnitus distress and that more patients respond to repeated sessions with a higher suppression effect in comparison to patients who received a single session, suggesting that the approach of daily TMS sessions is relevant.

  15. Attentional load and sensory competition in human vision: modulation of fMRI responses by load at fixation during task-irrelevant stimulation in the peripheral visual field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Sophie; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hutton, Chloe; Maravita, Angelo; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Perceptual suppression of distractors may depend on both endogenous and exogenous factors, such as attentional load of the current task and sensory competition among simultaneous stimuli, respectively...

  16. Time course of the induction of homeostatic plasticity generated by repeated transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, K; Seeber, A A; Thirugnanasambandam, N; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A; Rothwell, J C

    2011-03-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed that control the amount of plasticity in neuronal circuits and guarantee dynamic stability of neuronal networks. Homeostatic plasticity suggests that the ease with which a synaptic connection is facilitated/suppressed depends on the previous amount of network activity. We describe how such homeostatic-like interactions depend on the time interval between two conditioning protocols and on the duration of the preconditioning protocol. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to produce short-lasting plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy humans. In the main experiment, we compared the aftereffect of a single 5-min session of anodal or cathodal tDCS with the effect of a 5-min tDCS session preceded by an identical 5-min conditioning session administered 30, 3, or 0 min beforehand. Five-minute anodal tDCS increases excitability for about 5 min. The same duration of cathodal tDCS reduces excitability. Increasing the duration of tDCS to 10 min prolongs the duration of the effects. If two 5-min periods of tDCS are applied with a 30-min break between them, the effect of the second period of tDCS is identical to that of 5-min stimulation alone. If the break is only 3 min, then the second session has the opposite effect to 5-min tDCS given alone. Control experiments show that these shifts in the direction of plasticity evolve during the 10 min after the first tDCS session and depend on the duration of the first tDCS but not on intracortical inhibition and facilitation. The results are compatible with a time-dependent "homeostatic-like" rule governing the response of the human motor cortex to plasticity probing protocols.

  17. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  18. Taurolidine and congeners activate hTRPA1 but not hTRPV1 channels and stimulate CGRP release from mouse tracheal sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichko, Tatjana I; Pfirrmann, Rolf W; Reeh, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Taurolidine has long been in clinical use as an antimicrobial irrigation that does not impede wound healing. It can even be administered intravenously (30 g/day) to treat sepsis or to exert newly recognized antineoplastic actions. Only one irritant effect is reported, that is, to temporarily induce burning pain of unknown origin when applied to body cavities or peripheral veins. The structure of the molecule suggested the chemoreceptor channel TRPA1 as a potential target, which was verified measuring stimulated CGRP release from sensory nerves of the isolated mouse trachea and calcium influx in hTRPA1-transfected HEK293 cells. With both methods, the concentration-response relationship of taurolidine exceeded the threshold value below 500 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L, respectively, and reached saturation at 1 mmol/L. The clinical 2% taurolidine solution did not evoke greater or longer lasting responses. The reversible tracheal response was abolished in TRPA1(-/-) but retained in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Consistently, hTRPV1-HEK showed no calcium influx as a response, likewise native HEK293 cells and hTRPA1-HEK deprived of extracellular calcium did not respond to taurolidine 1 mmol/L. The metabolite taurultam and its oxathiazine derivative, expected to cause less burning pain, showed weak tracheal irritancy only at 10 mmol/L, acting also through hTRPA1 but not hTRPV1. In conclusion, taurolidine, its metabolite, and a novel derivative showed no unspecific cellular effects but selectively, concentration-dependently and reversibly activated the irritant receptor TRPA1 in CGRP-expressing, thus nociceptive, neurons. The clinical solution of 2% taurolidine (~70 mmol/L) can, thus, rightly be expected to cause transient burning pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  19. Sensory habituation of auditory receptor neurons: implications for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givois, V; Pollack, G S

    2000-09-01

    Auditory receptor neurons exhibit sensory habituation; their responses decline with repeated stimulation. We studied the effects of sensory habituation on the neural encoding of sound localization cues using crickets as a model system. In crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, sound localization is based on binaural comparison of stimulus intensity. There are two potential codes at the receptor-neuron level for interaural intensity difference: interaural difference in response strength, i.e. spike rate and/or count, and interaural difference in response latency. These are affected differently by sensory habituation. When crickets are stimulated with cricket-song-like trains of sound pulses, response strength declines for successive pulses in the train, and the decrease becomes more pronounced as the stimulus intensity increases. Response decrement is thus greater for receptors serving the ear ipsilateral to the sound source, where intensity is higher, resulting in a decrease in the interaural difference in response strength. Sensory habituation also affects response latency, which increases for responses to successive sound pulses in the stimulus train. The change in latency is independent of intensity, and thus is similar for receptors serving both ears. As a result, interaural latency difference is unaffected by sensory habituation and may be a more reliable cue for sound localization.

  20. Greater sensitivity to novelty in rats is associated with increased motor impulsivity following repeated exposure to a stimulating environment: implications for the etiology of impulse control deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Jacqueline-Marie N; Zeeb, Fiona D; Yu, Katrina; Kaur, Sukhbir; Taves, Matthew D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Heightened motor impulsivity and increased novelty-seeking commonly co-occur in psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. One-time tests of novelty sensitivity commonly used in preclinical experiments, such as the open-field or novel-object test, fail to capture the fact that novelty-seekers repeatedly experience novel, stimulating situations. The present study therefore investigated whether repeated exposure to a novel, stimulating environment (SE) altered impulsive action. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) which measures motor impulsivity in the form of premature responding as well as attention and motivation. Animals were then exposed to a novel SE (1 h/day for 16 days) immediately prior to the 5CSRTT. Significant increases in premature responding were observed in a subgroup of reactive animals termed high responders (HR-SE). These rats were not more impulsive at baseline, and levels of impulsivity normalised once exposure to the SE was discontinued. No other aspect of 5CSRTT performance was affected by the SE challenge. We also determined that HR-SE rats were hyperactive in a novel environment. Biochemical analyses revealed changes in gene and protein expression within the dorsal hippocampus of HR-SE rats, including decreases in mRNA encoding the dopamine D1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These results indicate a novel mechanism by which impulsivity and novelty-reactivity interact that may enhance addiction vulnerability synergistically. Furthermore, studying such context-induced impulsivity may provide insight into the process by which environmental load precipitates psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders.

  1. Comparação do índice de desconforto sensorial durante a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular com correntes excitomotoras de baixa e média frequência em mulheres saudáveis Comparison of the sensory discomfort index during neuromuscular electrical stimulation with low and medium excitomotor frequencies in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eloin Liebano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular é uma estratégia clínica para aumento da performance muscular. Sabe-se que um dos principais fatores limitantes da estimulação elétrica para aumento de força é o desconforto causado pelas correntes utilizadas. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o nível de desconforto sensorial causado por correntes de baixa e média freqüência na estimulação elétrica neuromuscular do músculo quadríceps femoral. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 45 voluntárias saudáveis com idade entre 18 e 30 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas à estimulação elétrica com correntes de baixa e média freqüência. A análise do desconforto sensorial foi feita por meio de uma escala visual analógica (EVA. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram um valor médio de 6,1 para o desconforto sensorial na estimulação de baixa freqüência (BF e de 6,4 para a estimulação de média freqüência (MF, não havendo diferença estatisticamente significante entre elas (p = 0,61. Em relação às intensidades utilizadas, a média foi de 45,64mA para a estimulação de BF e 121,67mA na estimulação com a MF, sendo essa diferença estatisticamente significante (p INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is a clinical strategy for increasing of muscular performance. It is known that one of the main limiting factors of the electrical stimulation for strength increase is the discomfort caused by the currents used in the process. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the level of sensory discomfort caused by low and medium frequency currents in the neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the quadriceps femoris muscle. METHODS: Forty-five female healthy volunteers with age between 18 and 30 years participated in the study. All the volunteers were submitted to electrical stimulation with low and medium frequency. Sensory discomfort was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS

  2. Compound action potential of sensory tail nerves in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandri, Massimo; Saturno, Moreno; Cilli, Michele; Bisaglia, Michela; Lunardi, Gianluigi

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the conduction velocity of motor fibers of the rat tail nerves has been used by some authors in the past, but very little is known about the sensory fibers. In 10 adult rats, weighing between 320 and 380 g, responses from the nerves and muscles of the tail have been recorded after stimulation at its root and tip. It was found that stimulation of the tip involved mainly sensory fibers, of which two main groups could be identified. One faster group, conducting within the range of 38-27 m/s, and one slower group with range 14-7 m/s. The bipolar recording configuration was found to be optimal for sensory recording. Stimulation of the tail root evoked a motor response, which was preceded by a very small neurographic activity, due to the fastest sensory fibers conducting antidromically. The conduction velocity of motor fibers was calculated to be approximately 19 m/s. Distance traveled by the volley can be assessed with excellent precision on the tail nerves; hence the calculated conduction velocities are highly reliable and reproducible. We propose that the tail nerves may be a useful tool for evaluation of conduction velocity of Abeta and Adelta afferents. As the technique is just minimally invasive, the test can be repeated a number of times in animals under chronic experimental conditions.

  3. Influência da estimulação sensório-motora-oral em recém-nascidos pré-termo Influence of sensory-motor-oral stimulation on preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pereira Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a influência da estimulação sensório-motora-oral em recém-nascidos pré-termo. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de 28 recém-nascidos pré-termo internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um Hospital Universitário. Os sujeitos foram alocados em dois grupos, o estimulado e o controle. O grupo estimulado recebeu estimulação sensório-motora-oral duas vezes por dia. Realizaram-se duas avaliações, mensurando frequência respiratória e cardíaca, taxa de transferência, tempo de transição entre sonda e via oral plena, bem como incremento de peso. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do software STATA (10, comparando-se os grupos com o Teste T Student independente (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the influence of a sensory-motor-oral stimulation in preterm newborns. METHODS: twenty-eight preterm newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit of a University Hospital were randomly placed into stimulated and control groups. The stimulated group received a sensory-motor-oral stimulation twice a day. There were two ratings, measuring respiratory rate and heart rate, transfer tax, transition time between tube and oral feeding and weight increase. The results were analyzed through STATA 10 software, and the groups were compared through the Independent T Student Test (p<0,05. RESULTS: no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. CONCLUSION: there was no influence of sensory-motor-oral stimulation on the evaluated parameters.

  4. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p < 0.05); addition of vibration did not affect outcome measures. Aging affects healthy older adults' performance in dual-tasks, and peripheral sensitivity may be a contributor to the observed differences. A vibration intervention may only be useful when there are more severe impairments of the sensorimotor system. Hence, future research regarding the efficacy of sensorimotor interventions in the form of vibrotactile stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  5. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...... in a format similar to their cognitive representations. This article introduces multi-sensory sculpting (MSS) as a method that allows retrieving embodied brand knowledge via multi-sensory metaphors and proposes a multi-layered metaphor analysis procedure to interpret these multi-sensory data. The paper...

  6. Second time around:Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan J Pearce; Daniel T Corp; Charlotte B Davies; Brendan P Major; Jerome J Maller

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the degree of neurophysiological and cognitive performance changes resulting from repeat concussions sustained in a single season ofAustralianRules football. Methods:Three amateur football players were recruited after sustainingtwo concussions during a single season of playing.Each player was assessed at multiple time points by transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) and electromyography, as well as tested for fine motor and cognitive performance after each concussion.Results:In all three cases, concussions resulted in reduction in fine dexterity and visuomotor reaction time, cognitive attention performance and increase in intracortical inhibition fromTMS.No changes in performance orTMS outcomes were found as a result of the order of the concussions.However, changes observed were dependent on the severity of the concussion.Conclusions:This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further,TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  7. Comparison of the sensory threshold in healthy human volunteers with the sensory nerve response of the rat in vitro hindlimb skin and saphenous nerve preparation on cutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, R M; Urban, L A; Dray, A; Smith, P J

    1995-08-01

    We report a comparative study of stimulation thresholds of cutaneous fibres of the rat in vitro skin and saphenous nerve preparation with psychophysical measurements of sensibility to cutaneous electrical stimulation in human volunteers. The same clinical diagnostic stimulator and modified skin electrodes were used in both animal and human experiments. Axons were recruited by increasing the stimulus strength, and correlation was made between the stimulus intensity required for unit activation and their conduction velocities. The findings suggest that an initial "tingling" sensation is due to recruitment of A beta fibres and that later sharp "pricking" occurs with recruitment of A delta fibres.

  8. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  9. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  10. Insulin and IGF-II, but not IGF-I, stimulate the in vitro regeneration of adult frog sciatic sensory axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edbladh, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Ekström, P A

    1994-01-01

    We used the in vitro regenerating frog sciatic nerve to look for effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) on regeneration of sensory axons and on injury induced support cell proliferation in the outgrowth region. In nerves cultured for 11 days, a physiological...

  11. Insulin and IGF-II, but not IGF-I, stimulate the in vitro regeneration of adult frog sciatic sensory axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edbladh, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Ekström, P A

    1994-01-01

    We used the in vitro regenerating frog sciatic nerve to look for effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) on regeneration of sensory axons and on injury induced support cell proliferation in the outgrowth region. In nerves cultured for 11 days, a physiological...... dose (10 ng/ml, approximately 2 nM) of insulin or IGF-II increased ganglionic protein synthesis (by 20% and 50%, respectively) as well as the level of newly formed, radiolabelled axonal material distal to a crush injury (both by 80%), compared to untreated, paired controls. In addition, insulin...... increased the outgrowth distance of the furthest regenerating sensory axons by 10%. The preparation was particularly sensitive to insulin during the first 5 days of culturing. Furthermore, both insulin and IGF-II were found to inhibit proliferation of support cells in the outgrowth region in a manner...

  12. Report of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) from Scylla serrata: Ontogeny, molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis following ligand stimulation, and upon bacterial and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, R; Makesh, M; Purushothaman, C S; Chaudhari, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V

    2016-09-15

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are present in all living organisms, and their participation in signal transduction and defense mechanisms has been elucidated in humans and mosquitoes. LRRs possibly involve in protein-protein interactions also and show differential expression pattern upon challenge with pathogens. In the present study, a new LRR gene was identified in mud crab, Scylla serrata. LRR gene mRNA levels in different developmental stages and various tissues of S. serrata were analysed. Further, the response of the gene against different ligands, Gram-negative bacterium, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Full-length cDNA sequence of S. serrata LRR (SsLRR) was found to be 2290 nucleotide long with an open reading frame of 1893bp. SsLRR encodes for a protein containing 630 deduced amino acids with 17 conserved LRR domains and exhibits significant similarity with crustacean LRRs so that these could be clustered into a branch in the phylogenetic tree. SsLRR mRNA transcripts were detected in all the developmental stages (egg, Zoea1-5, megalopa and crab instar), haemocytes and various tissues such as, stomach, gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, hematopoietic organ, heart, epithelial layer and testis by reverse-transcriptase PCR. SsLRR transcripts in cultured haemocytes showed a 2-fold increase in expression at 1.5 and 12h upon Poly I:C induction. WSSV challenge resulted in significant early up-regulation at 3h in-vitro and late up-regulation at 72h in-vivo. Peptidoglycan (PGN)-induction resulted in marginal up-regulation of SsLRR at timepoints, 6, 12 and 24h (fold change below 1.5) and no significant change in the expression at early timepoints. LPS-stimulation, on the other hand, showed either down-regulation or normal level of expression at all timepoints. However, a delayed 5-fold up-regulation was observed in vivo against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection at 72hpi. The constitutive expression of the LRR gene in all the

  13. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...

  14. Helping Children with Sensory Processing Disorders: The Role of Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Normally functioning sensory systems develop through sensory experiences. Children are stimulated through their senses in many different ways. Even though a person's sensory system is intact, he or she may have a sensory processing disorder (SPD), also known as sensory integration dysfunction. This means the person's brain does not correctly…

  15. A Calcium- and Diacylglycerol-Stimulated Protein Kinase C (PKC), Caenorhabditis elegans PKC-2, Links Thermal Signals to Learned Behavior by Acting in Sensory Neurons and Intestinal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Marianne; Rubin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc ) and migrates along the Tc within a 17 to 25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals. Cell-specific manipulation of PKC-2 activity revealed that thermotaxis is controlled by cooperative PKC-2-mediated signaling in both AFD sensory neurons and intestinal cells. Cold-directed migration (cryophilic drive) precedes Tc tracking during thermotaxis. Analysis of temperature-directed behaviors elicited by persistent PKC-2 activation or inhibition in AFD (or intestine) disclosed that PKC-2 regulates initiation and duration of cryophilic drive. In AFD neurons, PKC-2 is a Ca(2+) sensor and signal amplifier that operates downstream from cyclic GMP-gated cation channels and distal guanylate cyclases. UNC-18, which regulates neurotransmitter and neuropeptide release from synaptic vesicles, is a critical PKC-2 effector in AFD. UNC-18 variants, created by mutating Ser(311) or Ser(322), disrupt thermotaxis and suppress PKC-2-dependent cryophilic migration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit

  17. Cervical vagus nerve stimulation augments spontaneous discharge in second- and higher-order sensory neurons in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Eric; Campbell, Regenia P; Andresen, Michael C; Scofield, Stephanie; Singh, Krishna; Libbus, Imad; KenKnight, Bruce H; Snyder, Logan; Cantrell, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) currently treats patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and heart failure. The mild intensities used in chronic VNS suggest that primary visceral afferents and central nervous system activation are involved. Here, we measured the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in anesthetized rats using clinically styled VNS. Our chief findings indicate that VNS at threshold bradycardic intensity activated NTS neuron discharge in one-third of NTS neurons. This VNS directly activated only myelinated vagal afferents projecting to second-order NTS neurons. Most VNS-induced activity in NTS, however, was unsynchronized to vagal stimuli. Thus, VNS activated unsynchronized activity in NTS neurons that were second order to vagal afferent C-fibers as well as higher-order NTS neurons only polysynaptically activated by the vagus. Overall, cardiovascular-sensitive and -insensitive NTS neurons were similarly activated by VNS: 3/4 neurons with monosynaptic vagal A-fiber afferents, 6/42 neurons with monosynaptic vagal C-fiber afferents, and 16/21 polysynaptic NTS neurons. Provocatively, vagal A-fibers indirectly activated C-fiber neurons during VNS. Elevated spontaneous spiking was quantitatively much higher than synchronized activity and extended well into the periods of nonstimulation. Surprisingly, many polysynaptic NTS neurons responded to half the bradycardic intensity used in clinical studies, indicating that a subset of myelinated vagal afferents is sufficient to evoke VNS indirect activation. Our study uncovered a myelinated vagal afferent drive that indirectly activates NTS neurons and thus central pathways beyond NTS and support reconsideration of brain contributions of vagal afferents underpinning of therapeutic impacts.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute vagus nerve stimulation elevated activity in neurons located in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract. Such stimuli directly activated only myelinated vagal afferents but

  18. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  19. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  20. The Expression of Fos, Jun and AP-1 DNA Binding Activity in Rat Supraoptic Nucleus Neurons Following Acute Versus Repeated Osmotic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-22

    stimulation. This pattern has been observed previously in the hippocampus after treatment with the seizure-inducing drug , metrazole (Sonnenberg et al... fosB , and fra-1 and -2. fra refers to ~OS­ ~elated ~ntigen. Western blot experiments and employment of less stringent nucleic acid hybridization...fos, fra-l and fosB , only form heterodimeric complexes with Jun-related proteins (Nakabeppu et al., 1988; Rauscher et al., 1988b) The AP-l site of many

  1. Progressive Seizure Aggravation in the Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Model Is Accompanied by Marked Increase in Hippocampal p-ERK1/2 Immunoreactivity in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmela; Costa, Anna M.; Lucchi, Chiara; Leo, Giuseppina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The 6-Hz corneal stimulation test is used to screen novel antiepileptic molecules to overcome the problem of drug refractoriness. Although recognized as a standard test, it has been evaluated only recently in the attempt to characterize the putative neuronal networks involved in seizures caused by corneal stimulation. In particular, by recording from the CA1 region we previously established that the hippocampus participates to propagation of seizure activity. However, these findings were not corroborated by using markers of neuronal activation such as FosB/ΔFosB antigens. In view of this discrepancy, we performed new experiments to characterize the changes in levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (p-ERK1/2), which are also used as markers of neuronal activation. To this aim, mice underwent corneal stimulation up to three different times, in three sessions separated by an interval of 3 days. To characterize a group in which seizures could be prevented by pharmacological treatment, we also considered pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist EP-80317 (330 μg/kg). Control mice were sham-treated. Video electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were obtained from mice belonging to each group of treatment. Animals were finally used to characterize the immunoreactivity for FosB/ΔFosB and p-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. As previously shown, FosB/ΔFosB levels were highly increased throughout the hippocampus by the first induced seizure but, in spite of the progressively increased seizure severity, they were restored to control levels after the third stimulation. At variance, corneal stimulation caused a progressive increase in p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity all over the hippocampus, especially in CA1, peaking in the third session. Predictably, EP-80317 administration reduced both duration and severity of seizures, prevented the increase in FosB/ΔFosB levels in the first session, and partially counteracted the increase in p-ERK1/2 levels in

  2. New Repeat Polymorphism in the AKT1 Gene Predicts Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability and Stimulant-Induced Dopamine Release in the Healthy Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumay, Elena; Wiers, Corinde E; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Kim, Sung Won; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Sun, Hui; Tomasi, Dardo; Wong, Christopher T; Weinberger, Daniel R; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Volkow, Nora D

    2017-05-10

    The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers. We used PET and [(11)C]raclopride to assess baseline DRD2 availability in 91 participants. In 54 of these participants, we also measured intravenous methylphenidate-induced dopamine release to measure dopamine release. Dopamine release was quantified as the difference in specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride (nondisplaceable binding potential) between baseline values and values following methylphenidate injection. There was an effect of AKT1 genotype on DRD2 availability at baseline for the caudate (F(2,90) = 8.2, p = 0.001) and putamen (F(2,90) = 6.6, p = 0.002), but not the ventral striatum (p = 0.3). For the caudate and putamen, LL showed higher DRD2 availability than HH; HL were in between. There was also a significant effect of AKT1 genotype on dopamine increases in the ventral striatum (F(2,53) = 5.3, p = 0.009), with increases being stronger in HH > HL > LL. However, no dopamine increases were observed in the caudate (p = 0.1) or putamen (p = 0.8) following methylphenidate injection. Our results provide evidence that the AKT1 gene modulates both striatal DRD2 availability and dopamine release in the human brain, which could account for its association with schizophrenia and psychosis. The clinical relevance of the newly characterized AKT1 VNTR merits investigation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The AKT1 gene has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. This association is likely to reflect modulation of dopamine signaling by Akt1 kinase

  3. Clinical Analysis of Motor Nerve and Sensory Nerve Block in Brachial Plexus Block Guided by Nerve Stimulator%神经刺激仪对臂丛神经运动与感觉阻滞的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 王玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcomes of motor nerve and sensory nerve separate block in interscalene brachial plexus block guided performed by nerve stimulator. Methods Eighty patients with upper extremity surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups with 40 cases each. The interscalene brachial plexus block was performed with the conventional technique in control group,and with a reformed method guided by the nerve stimulator in observation group. The sensory and motor block, VAS score and recovery of motor function were compared between the two groups at different time point after anesthesia. Results ①There were no significant differences in the outcomes of ulnar and medial nerve block. The success rate of musculo-cutaneous verve and radial nerve block was significantly higher in observation group than that in control group(P <0.05). ②The VAS score of observation group was higher than control group at 6h after anesthesia( P < 0.05). And the cases of myodynamia ≥ 2 in observation group were marked higher that in control group at 1h and 2h after giving drugs (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Brachial plexus block guided by the nerve stimulator is better than conventional technique with a higher block rate and lesser local anesthetic dosage and faster recovery.%目的 比较传统异感法与神经刺激仪辅助定位法在臂丛神经阻滞中对运动与感觉阻滞的临床效果.方法 选取行上肢手术的80例患者,随机分为对照组和观察组各40例,对照组采用传统异感法进行肌间沟臂丛阻滞,观察组在神经刺激仪引导下行肌间沟臂丛阻滞.比较两组患者麻醉后不同时间感觉和运动阻滞的情况.结果 ①观察组对于尺神经、桡神经、正中神经及肌皮神经组织效果均较好,两组患者在尺神经和正中神经阻滞效果上差异不明显,但观察组对桡神经和肌皮神经的阻滞效果明显优于对照组(P<0.05).②两组患者麻醉后0.5h、1h、2h、24h

  4. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L. A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S. P.; Bright, P

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants addit...

  5. Pairing tone trains with vagus nerve stimulation induces temporal plasticity in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    The selectivity of neurons in sensory cortex can be modified by pairing neuromodulator release with sensory stimulation. Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis, for example, induces input specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Pairing nucleus basalis stimulation (NBS) with a tone increases the number of A1 neurons that respond to the paired tone frequency. Pairing NBS with fast or slow tone trains can respectively increase or decrease the ability of A1 neurons to respond to rapidly presented tones. Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a single tone alters spectral tuning in the same way as NBS-tone pairing without the need for brain surgery. In this study, we tested whether pairing VNS with tone trains can change the temporal response properties of A1 neurons. In naïve rats, A1 neurons respond strongly to tones repeated at rates up to 10 pulses per second (pps). Repeatedly pairing VNS with 15 pps tone trains increased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons and repeatedly pairing VNS with 5 pps tone trains decreased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons. Pairing VNS with tone trains did not alter the frequency selectivity or tonotopic organization of auditory cortex neurons. Since VNS is well tolerated by patients, VNS-tone train pairing represents a viable method to direct temporal plasticity in a variety of human conditions associated with temporal processing deficits.

  6. Recombinant myxoma virus lacking all poxvirus ankyrin-repeat proteins stimulates multiple cellular anti-viral pathways and exhibits a severe decrease in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephanie A; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2014-09-01

    Although the production of single gene knockout viruses is a useful strategy to study viral gene functions, the redundancy of many host interactive genes within a complex viral genome can obscure their collective functions. In this study, a rabbit-specific poxvirus, myxoma virus (MYXV), was genetically altered to disrupt multiple members of the poxviral ankyrin-repeat (ANK-R) protein superfamily, M-T5, M148, M149 and M150. A particularly robust activation of the NF-κB pathway was observed in A549 cells following infection with the complete ANK-R knockout (vMyx-ANKsKO). Also, an increased release of IL-6 was only observed upon infection with vMyx-ANKsKO. In virus-infected rabbit studies, vMyx-ANKsKO was the most extensively attenuated and produced the smallest primary lesion of all ANK-R mutant constructs. This study provides the first insights into the shared functions of the poxviral ANK-R protein superfamily in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Desynchronizing Electrical and Sensory Coordinated Reset Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Popovych

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated reset (CR stimulation is a desynchronizing stimulation technique based on timely coordinated phase resets of sub-populations of a synchronized neuronal ensemble. It has initially been computationally developed for electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS,to enable an effective desynchronization and unlearning of pathological synchrony and connectivity (anti-kindling. Here we computationally show for ensembles of spiking and bursting model neurons interacting via excitatory and inhibitory adaptive synapses that a phase reset of neuronal populations as well as a desynchronization and an anti-kindling can robustly be achieved by direct electrical stimulation or indirect (synaptically-mediated excitatory and inhibitory stimulation.Our findings are relevant for DBS as well as for sensory stimulation in neurological disorders characterized by pathological neuronalsynchrony. Based on the obtained results, we may expect that the local effects in the vicinity of a depth electrode (realized by direct stimulation of the neurons' somata or stimulation of axon terminals and the non-local CR effects (realized by stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory efferent fibers of deep brain CR neuromodulation may be similar or even identical. Furthermore, ourresults indicate that an effective desynchronization and anti-kindlingcan even be achieved by non-invasive, sensory CR neuromodulation. We discuss the concept of sensory CR neuromodulation in the context of neurological disorders.

  8. The effect of repeated administrations of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for blood stem cells mobilization in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Gianni; Tesei, Silvana; Canesi, Margherita; Sacilotto, Giorgio; Vittorio, Montefusco; Mizuno, Yoshi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Antonini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) may boost physiological stem cell repair system in patients with cerebral lesions. Atypical parkinsonisms (PSP, CBD, MSA) are characterized by rapidly progressive course without significant benefit from current therapies. We treated 11 patients with atypical parkinsonism (MSA n=4, PSP n=5, CBD n=2) with GCSF (5mcg/kg s.c. daily for 6 days/month) for 3 months. We assessed CBC, CD34+ cells, routine biochemical and coagulation tests, UPDRS motor scores and safety. We did not observe significant adverse events during and following GCSF treatment. One patient withdrew informed consent. Three patients complained about bone pain that improved following steroid treatment. Four patients perceived a subjective benefit after treatment was completed. UPDRS motor score improved in three patients, remained stable in two and worsened in five. GCSF can be safely administered to patients with atypical parkinsonism and potentially meaningful clinical changes may be observed in some patients. These results are encouraging and warrant further studies. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The secondary structure of the R region of a murine leukemia virus is important for stimulation of long terminal repeat-driven gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupelli, L; Okenquist, S A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J

    1998-10-01

    In addition to their role in reverse transcription, the R-region sequences of some retroviruses affect viral transcription. The first 28 nucleotides of the R region within the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine type C retrovirus SL3 were predicted to form a stem-loop structure. We tested whether this structure affected the transcriptional activity of the viral LTR. Mutations that altered either side of the stem and thus disrupted base pairing were generated. These decreased the level of expression of a reporter gene under the control of viral LTR sequences about 5-fold in transient expression assays and 10-fold in cells stably transformed with the LTR-reporter plasmids. We also generated a compensatory mutant in which both the ascending and descending sides of the stem were mutated such that the nucleotide sequence was different but the predicted secondary structure was maintained. Most of the activity of the wild-type SL3 element was restored in this mutant. Thus, the stem-loop structure was important for the maximum activity of the SL3 LTR. Primer extension analysis indicated that the stem-loop structure affected the levels of cytoplasmic RNA. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that deletion of the R region had a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Thus, the main effect of the R-region element was on one or more steps that occurred after the template was transcribed by RNA polymerase. This finding implied that the main function of the R-region element involved RNA processing. R-region sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or mouse mammary tumor virus could not replace the SL3 element. R-region sequences from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus partially substituted for the SL3 sequences. R-region sequences from Moloney murine leukemia virus or feline leukemia virus did function in place of the SL3 element. Thus, the R region element appears to be a general feature of the mammalian type C genus of

  10. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Brock; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Oliver Wilder-Smith; Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and modality, as well as using validated methods for assessing sensory response have contributed to the understanding of pain mechanisms. Mechanical stimulation based on impedance planimetry allows direct recordings of luminal cross-sectional areas, and combined with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, the contribution of different gut layers can be estimated. Electrical stimulation depolarizes free nerve endings non-selectively. Consequently, the stimulation paradigm (single, train, tetanic) influences the involved sensory nerves. Visual controlled electrical stimulation combines the probes with an endoscopic approach, which allows the investigator to inspect and obtain small biopsies from the stimulation site. Thermal stimulation (cold or warm) activates selectively mucosal receptors, and chemical substances such as acid and capsaicin (either alone or in combination) are used to evoke pain and sensitization. The possibility of multimodal (e.g. mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical) stimulation in different gut segments has developed visceral pain research. The major advantage is involvement of distinctive receptors, various sensory nerves and different pain pathways mimicking clinical pain that favors investigation of central pain mechanisms involved in allodynia, hyperalgesia and referred pain. As impairment of descending control mechanisms partly underlies the pathogenesis in chronic pain, a cold pressor test that indirectly stimulates such control mechanisms can be added. Hence, the methods undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the future characterization and treatment of patients with various diseases of the gut, which provides knowledge to

  11. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the

  12. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the sec

  13. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  14. Sensory feedback in interlimb coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gervasio, Sabata; Voigt, Michael; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2017-01-01

    direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short......-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). The current study investigated whether contralateral afferent feedback contributes to the mechanism controlling the SLCR in human gastrocnemius muscle. Surface electromyogram, kinematic and kinetic data were recorded from subjects during normal walking and hybrid walking (with.......04). Moreover, estimated spindle secondary afferent and Golgi tendon organ activity were significantly different (P ≤ 0.01) when opposite responses have been observed, that is during normal (facilitation) and hybrid walking (inhibition) conditions. Contralateral sensory feedback, specifically spindle secondary...

  15. An Intelligent Approach to Sensory Evaluation:LVQ Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁香乾; 杨宁; 肖协忠

    2004-01-01

    Converting between "fuzzy concept" and "numerical value" in computer aided assessment is rather difficult in many applications. This paper presents a LVQ neural network paradigm for sensory evaluation. This intelligent approach utilizes predefined class information for supervised learning in order to solve the converting problem and keep the fuzziness and imprecision of the whole sensory information. The method is validated by the experiment on stimulation evaluation of cigarette sensory.

  16. Report sensory analyses veal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of a client of Animal Sciences Group, different varieties of veal were analyzed by both instrumental and sensory analyses. The sensory evaluation was performed with a sensory analytical panel in the period of 13th of May and 31st of May, 2005. The three varieties of veal were: young bull,

  17. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  18. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  19. Objective measurement of weekly physical activity and sensory modulation problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to objectively compare the daily physical activity (PA), as indicated by moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a week and metabolic equivalents (METs) per minute, between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children. Moreover, sensory modulation problems were examined using behavioral and physiological measures. Twenty boys with ADHD (mean age 8.64 ± 2.57 years), and 20 matched typically developing boys (mean age 9.10 ± 1.79 years) participated in our study. Each child wore a PA monitor for 14 h a day, seven days a week. All participants' parents were asked to fill out daily activity logs for their children. The problems of sensory modulation were detected using sensory profile (SP) questionnaires and Sensory Challenge Protocol that measured electrodermal response (EDR) to repeated sensory stimulation. Compared with the controls, the children with ADHD had a generally higher level of PA (1.48 ± 0.10 vs. 1.60 ± 0.12 METs/min; p=001), and tended to spend more time in MVPA on weekdays (35.71%) and the weekend (57.14%). However, when analyzing hourly recorded PA, the group differences were obvious only for certain hours. Our data suggested that children with ADHD were more hyperactive in structure-free than structured settings. The ADHD group showed their sensory modulation problems on the SP but not on the EDR. We found some correlations between sensory modulation problems and hyperactivity in children with ADHD.

  20. Stomatin and sensory neuron mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Benckendorff, Anne G; Chiang, Li-Yang; Wang, Rui; Milenkovic, Nevena; Wetzel, Christiane; Hu, Jing; Stucky, Cheryl L; Parra, Marilyn G; Mohandas, Narla; Lewin, Gary R

    2007-12-01

    Somatic sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are necessary for a large part of our mechanosensory experience. However, we only have a good knowledge of the molecules required for mechanotransduction in simple invertebrates such as the nematode Caenorhabiditis elegans. In C. elegans, a number of so-called mec genes have been isolated that are required for the transduction of body touch. One such gene, mec-2 codes for an integral membrane protein of the stomatin family, a large group of genes with a stomatin homology domain. Using stomatin null mutant mice, we have tested the hypothesis that the founding member of this family, stomatin might play a role in the transduction of mechanical stimuli by primary sensory neurons. We used the in vitro mouse skin nerve preparation to record from a large population of low- and high-threshold mechanoreceptors with myelinated A-fiber (n = 553) and unmyelinated C-fiber (n = 157) axons. One subtype of mechanoreceptor, the d-hair receptor, which is a rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor, had reduced sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the absence of stomatin. Other cutaneous mechanoreceptors, including nociceptive C-fibers were not affected by the absence of a functional stomatin protein. Patch-clamp analysis of presumptive D-hair receptor mechanoreceptive neurons, which were identified by a characteristic rosette morphology in culture, showed no change in membrane excitability in the absence of the stomatin protein. We conclude that stomatin is required for normal mechanotransduction in a subpopulation of vertebrate sensory neurons.

  1. Adaptation of postural recovery responses to a vestibular sensory illusion in individuals with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Cavanaugh, James T; Foreman, K Bo; Shaffer, Scott W; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Leland E

    2017-10-01

    The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance. Acutely, individuals with Parkinson disease demonstrated larger center of pressure coefficient of variation compared to controls. Unlike individuals with Parkinson disease and asymptomatic older adults, healthy young adults acutely demonstrated a reduction in Sample Entropy to the sensory illusion. Following a period of consolidation Sample Entropy increased in the healthy young group, which coincided with a decreased center of pressure coefficient of variation. Similar changes were not observed in the Parkinson disease or older adult groups. Taken together, these results suggest that young adults learn to adapt to vestibular illusion in a more robust manner than older adults or those with Parkinson disease. Further investigation into the nature of this adaptive difference is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Adaptation in human somatosensory cortex as a model of sensory memory construction: a study using high-density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Claire; Joyce, Niamh; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation in sensory cortices has been seen as a mechanism allowing the creation of transient memory representations. Here we tested the adapting properties of early responses in human somatosensory areas SI and SII by analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials over the very first repetitions of a stimulus. SI and SII generators were identified by well-defined scalp potentials and source localisation from high-density 128-channel EEG. Earliest responses (~20 ms) from area 3b in the depth of the post-central gyrus did not show significant adaptation to stimuli repeated at 300 ms intervals. In contrast, responses around 45 ms from the crown of the gyrus (areas 1 and 2) rapidly lessened to a plateau and abated at the 20th stimulation, and activities from SII in the parietal operculum at ~100 ms displayed strong adaptation with a steady amplitude decrease from the first repetition. Although responses in both SI (1-2) and SII areas showed adapting properties and hence sensory memory capacities, evidence of sensory mismatch detection has been demonstrated only for responses reflecting SII activation. This may index the passage from an early form of sensory storage in SI to more operational memory codes in SII, allowing the prediction of forthcoming input and the triggering of a specific signal when such input differs from the previous sequence. This is consistent with a model whereby the length of temporal receptive windows increases with progression in the cortical hierarchy, in parallel with the complexity and abstraction of neural representations.

  3. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities.

  4. Preliminary framework for Familiar Auditory Sensory Training (FAST) provided during coma recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Louise-Bender Pape, DrPH, MA, CCC-SLP/L; Joshua M. Rosenow, MD, FACS; Brett Harton, BS; Vijaya Patil, MD; Ann Guernon, MS; Todd Parrish, PhD; Kathleen Froehlich, OTR/L; Catherine Burress, DPT; Shane McNamee, MD; Amy A. Herrold, PhD; Bessie Weiss, RN, MS, CCNS, CCRN, CNRN; Xue Wang, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Since there remains a need to examine the nature of the neural effect and therapeutic efficacy/effectiveness of sensory stimulation provided to persons in states of seriously impaired consciousness, a passive sensory stimulation intervention, referred to as the Familiar Auditory Sensory Training (FAST) protocol, was developed for examination in an ongoing, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT). The FAST protocol is described in this article according to the preliminary framework, whic...

  5. Reliability of cutaneous electrical perceptual threshold in the assessment of sensory perception in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicolas K K; Savic, Gordana; Frankel, Hans; Jamous, Ali; Ellaway, Peter H

    2009-07-01

    The electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) test complements the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assessment of cutaneous sensory function by providing a quantitative assessment for each dermatome. The aim here was to establish the reliability of the EPT by examining inter- and intra-rater repeatability of test results in spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI; two stable at >20 months and 10 sub-acute at sensory key points. A pulse of 0.5 ms in duration was applied three times per second. Threshold was determined by the method of limits. The strength of stimulation was augmented (0.1 mA.s(-1)) until the recipient reported sensation, then reduced until sensation was lost. EPT was taken as the lowest strength at which the subject reported sensation. Threshold was determined by two raters to establish intra- and inter-rater reliability. There were no significant differences in mean intra- or inter-rater EPT values at, above, or below the level of lesion (ASIA sensory level) for iSCI subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.56-0.80 for intra-rater and 0.52-0.91 for inter-rater classes, depending on the level tested. There was a significant correlation (Pearson's r = 0.93) between EPTs for four different dermatomes of control subjects assessed using two different types of stimulator. EPT provides an objective and quantitative measure of threshold for cutaneous sensory function. The method has good inter- and intra-rater reliability, and can be assessed using different stimulators.

  6. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  7. Women's clitoris, vagina, and cervix mapped on the sensory cortex: fMRI evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Wise, Nan; Frangos, Eleni; Liu, Wen-Ching; Allen, Kachina; Brody, Stuart

    2011-10-01

    The projection of vagina, uterine cervix, and nipple to the sensory cortex in humans has not been reported. The aim of this study was to map the sensory cortical fields of the clitoris, vagina, cervix, and nipple, toward an elucidation of the neural systems underlying sexual response. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we mapped sensory cortical responses to clitoral, vaginal, cervical, and nipple self-stimulation. For points of reference on the homunculus, we also mapped responses to the thumb and great toe (hallux) stimulation. The main outcome measures used for this study were the fMRI of brain regions activated by the various sensory stimuli. Clitoral, vaginal, and cervical self-stimulation activated differentiable sensory cortical regions, all clustered in the medial cortex (medial paracentral lobule). Nipple self-stimulation activated the genital sensory cortex (as well as the thoracic) region of the homuncular map. The genital sensory cortex, identified in the classical Penfield homunculus based on electrical stimulation of the brain only in men, was confirmed for the first time in the literature by the present study in women applying clitoral, vaginal, and cervical self-stimulation, and observing their regional brain responses using fMRI. Vaginal, clitoral, and cervical regions of activation were differentiable, consistent with innervation by different afferent nerves and different behavioral correlates. Activation of the genital sensory cortex by nipple self-stimulation was unexpected, but suggests a neurological basis for women's reports of its erotogenic quality. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  9. Modeling diabetic sensory neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2004-01-01

    The procedures to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in rats using streptozotocin are described along with a number of insulin treatment regimes that can be used to maintain these animals at different degrees of glycemia for periods of weeks to months. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats develop tactile allodynia, hyperalgesia following paw formalin injection and abnormal responses to thermal stimulation and the detailed methods used to evaluate these behavioral indices of abnormal sensory function are provided.

  10. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  11. Wireless stimulation of antennal muscles in freely flying hawkmoths leads to flight path changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin J Hinterwirth

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are sensory organs involved in a variety of behaviors, sensing many different stimulus modalities. As mechanosensors, they are crucial for flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. One of their roles is to mediate compensatory reflexes of the abdomen in response to rotations of the body in the pitch axis. Abdominal motions, in turn, are a component of the steering mechanism for flying insects. Using a radio controlled, programmable, miniature stimulator, we show that ultra-low-current electrical stimulation of antennal muscles in freely-flying hawkmoths leads to repeatable, transient changes in the animals' pitch angle, as well as less predictable changes in flight speed and flight altitude. We postulate that by deflecting the antennae we indirectly stimulate mechanoreceptors at the base, which drive compensatory reflexes leading to changes in pitch attitude.

  12. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    and the sensory threshold was determined. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and inhibitory reflexes could be elicited from PCL in the quadriceps during active extension and in the hamstrings muscles during active flexion in all patients. Subsequently the ACL re......-constructions were stimulated. The sensory threshold was 3.4 times higher in the ACL than in the PCL. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and a typical inhibitory reflex could be elicited in 9 patients. The latency was the same as for the reflex from the PCL. The stimulus......Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...

  13. The common ground between sensory and consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, sensory science has focused on consumption and consumer science on decision-making when dealing with food. Recent developments in the way consumers perceive quality in food make it imperative; however, that both fields of inquiry integrate better. The product micro lifecycle...... is proposed as a framework that views the process from purchase via preparation to consumption of food as a continuous learning process informed by both sensory and informational stimulation....

  14. Sensory Neuron-Specific Deletion of TRPA1 Results in Mechanical Cutaneous Sensory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons. To accomplish this, we used Advillin-Cre mice, in which the promoter for Advillin is used to drive expression of Cre recombinase specifically within sensory neurons. These Advillin-Cre mice were crossed with Trpa1fl/fl mice to generate sensory neuron-specific Trpa1 knock-out mice. Here, we show that tissue-specific deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons produced strong deficits in behavioral sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, while sensitivity to cold and heat stimuli remained intact. The mechanical sensory deficit was incomplete compared to the mechanosensory impairment of TRPA1 global knock-out mice, in line with the incomplete (∼80%) elimination of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in the tissue-specific Advillin-Cre knock-out mice. Equivalent findings were observed in tissue-specific knock-out animals originating from two independently-generated Advillin-Cre lines. As such, our results show that sensory neuron TRPA1 is required for mechanical, but not cold, responsiveness in noninjured skin.

  15. Cortical network reorganization guided by sensory input features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Michael P; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Moucha, Raluca

    2002-12-01

    Sensory experience alters the functional organization of cortical networks. Previous studies using behavioral training motivated by aversive or rewarding stimuli have demonstrated that cortical plasticity is specific to salient inputs in the sensory environment. Sensory experience associated with electrical activation of the basal forebrain (BasF) generates similar input specific plasticity. By directly engaging plasticity mechanisms and avoiding extensive behavioral training, BasF stimulation makes it possible to efficiently explore how specific sensory features contribute to cortical plasticity. This review summarizes our observations that cortical networks employ a variety of strategies to improve the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectrotemporal plasticity were generated in primary auditory cortex neurons depending on the pitch, modulation rate, and order of sounds paired with BasF stimulation. Simple tones led to map expansion, while modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led to the development of combination-sensitive responses. This remodeling of cortical response characteristics may reflect changes in intrinsic cellular mechanisms, synaptic efficacy, and local neuronal connectivity. The intricate relationship between the pattern of sensory activation and cortical plasticity suggests that network-level rules alter the functional organization of the cortex to generate the most behaviorally useful representation of the sensory environment.

  16. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  17. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  18. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices.

  19. The effects of family-centered affective stimulation on brain-injured comatose patients' level of consciousness: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, F; Mohammadi, E; Rezvani, M; Kazemnezhad, A

    2017-06-04

    Despite the well-defined effects of sensory stimulation, the knowledge of the pure effects of affective stimulation is scarce. To evaluate the effects of family-centered affective stimulation on the level of consciousness among comatose patients with brain injuries. This study was designed as a three-group double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial. Ninety consecutive patients with traumatic brain injuries and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 5-8 were selected. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental, a placebo, and a control group using permuted block randomization. Affective stimulation intervention was provided to patients in the experimental group by their family members twice a day during the first seven days of their hospitalization. In the placebo group, a sensory stimulation program was implemented by a fixed trained person who was not familiar with the patients. Patients in the control group solely received sensory stimulation which was routinely provided to all patients. The level of consciousness among the patients using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised were measured both before and after a family visit. The SPSS software (version 17.0) was used to analyze the data through running the one-way and the repeated measure analyses of variance. Despite an insignificant difference among the groups regarding baseline level of consciousness, the results of the one-way analysis of variance revealed at the seventh day of this study, however, the level of consciousness in the experimental group was significantly higher (9.1±2.1) than the placebo (7.2±1.1), the control groups (6.6±1.7) (P<0.001), subsequently. Moreover, at the seventh day of the study, the Coma Recovery Scale score in the experimental group (11.9±3.7) was significantly greater than the placebo (9.0±2.0) and the control (6.6±1.6) groups (P<0.001). Recovery rate and effect size values also confirmed the greater effectiveness of affective stimulation compared with

  20. Human-Machine Interaction Control Based on Force Myograph and Electrical Stimulation Sensory Feedback for Multi-DOF Robotic Hand%基于肌力信号与电刺激感觉反馈的多自由度机械手人机交互控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 刘波; 霍宏; 叶玉璇; 姜力

    2015-01-01

    为使操作者能够灵活控制多自由度机械手并能感受到机械手的抓取力,提出了一种具有双向信息传输能力的可穿戴式人机交互系统及控制方法.该系统利用压力传感器(FSR)阵列采集与操作者手部动作对应的前臂肌力信号,基于SVM(支持向量机)多类分类器算法实现对手部动作的识别,通过发送动作模式码控制机械手动作.另外,基于经皮神经电刺激(TENS)原理,将机械手抓取力信号转变为电刺激信号刺激体表皮肤,实现机械手抓握力向人体的感觉反馈.实验表明,基于肌力信号和SVM分类器的动作模式识别方法可实现对10种手部动作的识别,成功率不低于95%;电刺激感觉反馈可向人体准确反馈抓取力感并实现盲抓取.%A wearable bi-directional human-machine interaction (HMI) system and its control methods are proposed to enable the user to control multi-DOF robotic hand freely and feel the gripping force from the robotic hand. A force sensory resistor (FSR) array is built to measure the forearm force myographic (FMG) signals corresponding to different hand motions of the user. A multiclass classifier is designed based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to recognize the hand motions and generate motion codes to control the robotic hand movements. Moreover, sensory feedback is achieved by transforming the gripping force signals of the robotic hand into electrical stimulation signals of skin based on the principle of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Experimental results show that the motion mode recognition method based on FMG and SVM can identify 10 typical hand motions with the accuracy of above 95%. The electrical stimulation method can feed back the perception of gripping force to the body accurately and help the user to grip objects without vision.

  1. Temporal structure in audiovisual sensory selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kösem

    Full Text Available In natural environments, sensory information is embedded in temporally contiguous streams of events. This is typically the case when seeing and listening to a speaker or when engaged in scene analysis. In such contexts, two mechanisms are needed to single out and build a reliable representation of an event (or object: the temporal parsing of information and the selection of relevant information in the stream. It has previously been shown that rhythmic events naturally build temporal expectations that improve sensory processing at predictable points in time. Here, we asked to which extent temporal regularities can improve the detection and identification of events across sensory modalities. To do so, we used a dynamic visual conjunction search task accompanied by auditory cues synchronized or not with the color change of the target (horizontal or vertical bar. Sounds synchronized with the visual target improved search efficiency for temporal rates below 1.4 Hz but did not affect efficiency above that stimulation rate. Desynchronized auditory cues consistently impaired visual search below 3.3 Hz. Our results are interpreted in the context of the Dynamic Attending Theory: specifically, we suggest that a cognitive operation structures events in time irrespective of the sensory modality of input. Our results further support and specify recent neurophysiological findings by showing strong temporal selectivity for audiovisual integration in the auditory-driven improvement of visual search efficiency.

  2. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  3. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  4. Subtle Sensory Abnormalities Detected by Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Herta; Rasche, Dirk; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Rolko, Claudia; Yilmaz, Pinar; Ruppolt, Marc; Capelle, H Holger; Tronnier, Volker; Krauss, Joachim K

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysmal pain attacks affecting the somatosensory distributions of the trigeminal nerve. It is thought to be associated with a neurovascular conflict most frequently, but pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In general, no sensory deficit is found in routine clinical examination. There is limited data available, however, showing subtle subclinical sensory deficits upon extensive testing. We used quantitative sensory testing (QST) to detect abnormalities in sensory processing in patients with TN by comparing the affected and non-affected nerve branches with their contralateral counterparts and by comparing the results of the patients with those of controls. Observational study. University Hospital, Departments of Neurosurgery, Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. QST was conducted on 48 patients with idiopathic TN and 27 controls matched for age and gender using the standardized protocol of the German Neuropathic Pain Network. Stimulations were performed bilaterally in the distribution of the trigeminal branches. The patients had no prior invasive treatment, and medications at the time of examination were noted. In patients with TN deficits in warm and cold sensory detection thresholds in the affected and also the non-affected nerve branches were found. Tactile sensation thresholds were elevated in the involved nerve branches compared to the contralateral side. More data are needed on the correlation of such findings with the length of history of TN and with changes of the morphology of the trigeminal nerve. QST shows subtle sensory abnormalities in patients with TN despite not being detected in routine clinical examination. Our data may provide a basis for further research on the development of TN and also on improvement after treatment. Quantitative sensory testing, trigeminal neuralgia, facial pain, neuropathic pain, microvascular decompression, cranial nerve.

  5. Sensory deprivation disrupts homeostatic regeneration of newly generated olfactory sensory neurons after injury in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagayama, Shin; Kanaya, Kaori; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-11

    Although it is well known that injury induces the generation of a substantial number of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE), it is not well understood whether olfactory sensory input influences the survival and maturation of these injury-induced OSNs in adults. Here, we investigated whether olfactory sensory deprivation affected the dynamic incorporation of newly generated OSNs 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after injury in adult mice. Mice were unilaterally deprived of olfactory sensory input by inserting a silicone tube into their nostrils. Methimazole, an olfactotoxic drug, was also injected intraperitoneally to bilaterally ablate OSNs. The OE was restored to its preinjury condition with new OSNs by day 28. No significant differences in the numbers of olfactory marker protein-positive mature OSNs or apoptotic OSNs were observed between the deprived and nondeprived sides 0-7 d after injury. However, between days 7 and 28, the sensory-deprived side showed markedly fewer OSNs and mature OSNs, but more apoptotic OSNs, than the nondeprived side. Intrinsic functional imaging of the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb at day 28 revealed that responses to odor stimulation were weaker in the deprived side compared with those in the nondeprived side. Furthermore, prevention of cell death in new neurons 7-14 d after injury promoted the recovery of the OE. These results indicate that, in the adult OE, sensory deprivation disrupts compensatory OSN regeneration after injury and that newly generated OSNs have a critical time window for sensory-input-dependent survival 7-14 d after injury.

  6. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  7. Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome and related disorders: an attempt at systematization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncini, Antonino; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2012-04-01

    The possibility that some patients diagnosed with an acute sensory neuropathy could actually have Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been repeatedly advanced in the literature, but the number of cases reported is small. The reports have shown different clinical presentations and electrophysiological findings and are variously named, thus generating terminological and nosological confusion. We operatively defined sensory GBS as an acute, monophasic, widespread neuropathy characterized clinically by exclusive sensory symptoms and signs that reach their nadir in a maximum of 6 weeks without related systemic disorders and other diseases or conditions. We reviewed the literature through searches of PubMed from 1980 to March 2011 and our own files. On the basis of the size of fibers involved and the possible site of primary damage, we propose tentatively classifying sensory GBS and related disorders into three subtypes: acute sensory demyelinating polyneuropathy; acute sensory large-fiber axonopathy-ganglionopathy; and acute sensory small-fiber neuropathy-ganglionopathy.

  8. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Relationships between the intensity and duration of Peltier heat stimulation and pain magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Charles J; Mauderli, Andre P; Riley, Joseph L

    2013-03-01

    Ramp-and-hold heat stimulation with a Peltier thermode is a standard procedure for quantitative sensory testing of human pain sensitivity. Because myelinated and unmyelinated nociceptive afferents respond preferentially to changing and steady temperatures, respectively, ramp-and-hold heat stimulation could assess processing of input from A-delta nociceptors early and C nociceptors late during prolonged thermal stimulation. In order to evaluate the progression from dynamic change to a steady temperature during prolonged Peltier stimulation, recordings of temperatures at the probe-skin interface were obtained. First, recordings of temperature during contact-and-hold stimulation (solenoid powered delivery of a preheated thermode to the skin) provided an evaluation of heat dissipation from the beginning of stimulation, uncontaminated by ramping. The heat-sink effect lasted up to 8 s and accounted in part for a slow increase in pain intensity for stimulus durations of 1-16 s and stimulus intensities of 43-59 °C. Recordings during longer periods of stimulation showed that feedback-controlled Peltier stimulation generated oscillations in temperature that were tracked for up to 75 s by subjects' continuous ratings of pain. During 120-s trials, sensitization of pain was observed over 45 s after the oscillations subsided. Thus, long-duration stimulation can be utilized to evaluate sensitization, presumably of C nociception, when not disrupted by oscillations in thermode temperature (e.g., those inherent to feedback control of Peltier stimulation). In contrast, sensitization was not observed during 130.5 s of stimulation with alternately increasing and decreasing temperatures that repeatedly activated A-delta nociceptors.

  10. Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popović, Mirjana B; Stefanović, Filip; Kojović, Jovana

    2007-01-01

    A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1].

  11. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  12. The manual orienting response habituation to repeated tactile stimuli in preterm neonates: Discrimination of stimulus locations and interstimulus intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Victoria; Bulla, Jan; Bessot, Nicolas; Gonidec, Julie; Zabalia, Marc; Guillois, Bernard; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège

    2017-07-01

    Preterm infants frequently develop atypical sensory profiles, the tactile modality being particularly affected. However, there is a lack of recent investigation of neonatal tactile perception in a passive context, especially in preterms who are particularly exposed to this tactile stimuli. Our aims were to provide evidence of orienting responses (behavioral modifications directing subject's attention towards stimuli) and habituation to passive tactile stimuli in preterm neonates, to explore their ability to perceive spatial and temporal aspects of the stimulus, and to evaluate the effect of clinical factors on these abilities. We included 61 preterm neonates, born between 32 and 34 weeks of gestational age. At 35 weeks of corrected gestational age, we measured orienting responses (forearm, hand, and fingers movements) during vibrotactile stimulation of their hand and forearm; during a habituation and dishabituation paradigm, the dishabituation being either a location change or a pause in the stimulation sequence. Preterm newborns displayed a manual orienting response to vibrotactile stimuli which significantly decreased when the stimulus was repeated, regardless of the stimulated location on the limb. Habituation was delayed in subjects born at a younger gestational age, smaller birth weight, and having experienced more painful care procedures. Preterm neonates perceived changes in stimulus location and interstimulus time interval. Our findings provide insights on several aspects of the perception of repeated tactile stimuli by preterm neonates, and the first evidence of the early development of temporal processing abilities in the tactile modality. Future work will investigate the links between this ability and neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Os efeitos da estimulação sensório motora oral na sucção nutritiva na mamadeira de recém-nascidos pré-termo The sensory-motor-oral stimulation effects on nutritive sucking of preterm infants during bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Coube de Carvalho Yamamoto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o desempenho da sucção nutritiva, na mamadeira, em recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos à estimulação sensório-motora-oral. MÉTODOS: pesquisa do tipo ensaio clínico controlado de intervenção. 20 recém-nascidos pré-termo foram distribuídos em grupo estimulado e grupo controle. Estes grupos foram submetidos à avaliação fonoaudiológica em dois diferentes momentos: na liberação da alimentação por via oral; e quando atingiam alimentação plena por via oral num período de 24 horas. As avaliações foram filmadas, e os resultados foram analisados pela pesquisadora. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o Teste exato de Fishe r e o Teste "T" de Studen t do software estatístico STATA 10.0. Considerou-se p PURPOSE: to check the nutritive sucking performance in preterm infants that underwent sensory-motororal stimulation. METHODS: a controlled clinical trial of intervention was performed in 20 preterm infants divided into experimental and control group. The infants received a speech therapist evaluation in two different times: at the beginning of the oral feeding (first speech therapist evaluation and when they reached full oral feeding (second evaluation. Statistical data analyses used STATA 10 package and they were analyzed for treatment group differences with Fisher's exact Test and Student's unpaired t-test (p<0.05. RESULTS: infants in the experimental group, in the second evaluation, differed statistically in the pressure of strong sucking (p=0.003, presence of the three adaptive reflexes (p=0.001, coordination among sucking, swallowing and breathing (p=0.003, the total time for sucking (p=0.01 and of number of sucking/time (p<0.01. The total number of sucks showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 among the evaluations of the control group. No differences were observed among the groups as for sucking rhythm, and prescribed and ingested milk volume. CONCLUSION: in this study, sensory

  14. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  15. Measurement of pharyngeal sensory cortical processing: technique and physiologic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein E Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication of different diseases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Pharyngeal sensory impairment is one of the main features of neurogenic dysphagia. Therefore an objective technique to examine the cortical processing of pharyngeal sensory input would be a helpful diagnostic tool in this context. We developed a simple paradigm to perform pneumatic stimulation to both sides of the pharyngeal wall. Whole-head MEG was employed to study changes in cortical activation during this pharyngeal stimulation in nine healthy subjects. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Our results revealed bilateral activation of the caudolateral primary somatosensory cortex following sensory pharyngeal stimulation with a slight lateralization to the side of stimulation. Conclusion The method introduced here is simple and easy to perform and might be applicable in the clinical setting. The results are in keeping with previous findings showing bihemispheric involvement in the complex task of sensory pharyngeal processing. They might also explain changes in deglutition after hemispheric strokes. The ipsilaterally lateralized processing is surprising and needs further investigation.

  16. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC ...

  17. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Hemi-Spatial Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n=52, mean age=66 years. To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25mins, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude=1mA. Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change=28%, SD=18 was still evident 1month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study.

  18. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  19. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  20. Haptic-assistive technologies for audition and vision sensory disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgini, Francesca; Caliò, Renato; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2017-10-10

    The aim of this review is to analyze haptic sensory substitution technologies for deaf, blind and deaf-blind individuals. The literature search has been performed in Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases using selected keywords, analyzing studies from 1960s to present. Search on databases for scientific publications has been accompanied by web search for commercial devices. Results have been classified by sensory disability and functionality, and analyzed by assistive technology. Complementary analyses have also been carried out on websites of public international agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), and of associations representing sensory disabled persons. The reviewed literature provides evidences that sensory substitution aids are able to mitigate in part the deficits in language learning, communication and navigation for deaf, blind and deaf-blind individuals, and that the tactile sense can be a means of communication to provide some kind of information to sensory disabled individuals. A lack of acceptance emerged from the discussion of capabilities and limitations of haptic assistive technologies. Future researches shall go towards miniaturized, custom-designed and low-cost haptic interfaces and integration with personal devices such as smartphones for a major diffusion of sensory aids among disabled. Implications for rehabilitation Systematic review of state of the art of haptic assistive technologies for vision and audition sensory disabilities. Sensory substitution systems for visual and hearing disabilities have a central role in the transmission of information for patients with sensory impairments, enabling users to interact with the not disabled community in daily activities. Visual and auditory inputs are converted in haptic feedback via different actuation technologies. The information is presented in the form of static or dynamic stimulation of the skin. Their effectiveness and ease of use make haptic sensory substitution

  1. [Aural Stimulation with Capsaicin Ointment Improved the Swallowing Function in Patients with Dysphagia: Evaluation by the SMRC Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Eiji; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Ohnishi, Hiroki; Kawata, Ikuji; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    Cough and swallowing reflexes are important airway-protective mechanisms against aspiration. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, one of the side effects of which is cough, have been reported to reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in hypertensive patients with stroke. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to improve the swallowing function in post-stroke patients. On the other hand, stimulation of the Arnold nerve, the auricular branch of the vagus, triggers the cough reflex (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Capsaicin, an agonist of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), has been shown to activate the peripheral sensory C-fibers. Stimulation of the sensory branches of the vagus in the laryngotracheal mucosa with capsaicin induces the cough reflex and has been reported to improve the swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. In our previous study, we showed that aural stimulation of the Arnold nerve with 0.025% capsaicin ointment improved the swallowing function, as evaluated by the endoscopic swallowing score, in 26 patients with dysphagia. In the present study, the video images of swallowing recorded in the previous study were re-evaluated using the SMRC scale by an independent otolaryngologist who was blinded to the information about the patients and the endoscopic swallowing score. The SMRC scale is used to evaluate four aspects of the swallowing function: 1) Sensory: the initiation of the swallowing reflex as assessed by the white-out timing; 2) Motion: the ability to hold blue-dyed water in the oral cavity and induce laryngeal elevation; 3) Reflex: glottal closure and the cough reflex induced by touching the epiglottis or arytenoid with the endoscope; 4) Clearance: pharyngeal clearance of the blue-dyed water after swallowing. Accordingly, we demonstrated that a single application of capsaicin ointment to the external auditory canal of patients with dysphagia significantly improved the R, but not the S, M or C scores, and this

  2. Effect of Remote Sensory Noise on Hand Function Post Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jin J Seo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hand motor impairment persists after stroke. Sensory inputs may facilitate recovery of motor function. This pilot study tested the effectiveness of tactile sensory noise in improving hand motor function in chronic stroke survivors with tactile sensory deficits, using a repeated measures design. Sensory noise in the form of subthreshold, white noise, mechanical vibration was applied to the wrist skin during motor tasks. Hand dexterity assessed by the Nine Hole Peg Test and the Box and Block Test and pinch strength significantly improved when the sensory noise was turned on compared with when it was turned off in chronic stroke survivors. The subthreshold sensory noise to the wrist appears to induce improvements in hand motor function possibly via neuronal connections in the sensoriomotor cortex. The approach of applying concomitant, unperceivable mechanical vibration to the wrist during hand motor tasks is easily adoptable for clinic use as well as unsupervised home use. This pilot study suggests a potential for a wristband-type assistive device to complement hand rehabilitation for stroke survivors with sensorimotor deficit.

  3. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  4. Tactile stimulation can suppress visual perception

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Ide; Souta Hidaka

    2013-01-01

    An input (e.g., airplane takeoff sound) to a sensory modality can suppress the percept of another input (e.g., talking voices of neighbors) of the same modality. This perceptual suppression effect is evidence that neural responses to different inputs closely interact with each other in the brain. While recent studies suggest that close interactions also occur across sensory modalities, crossmodal perceptual suppression effect has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that tactile stimul...

  5. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.

  6. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  7. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  8. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  9. Turning on the central contribution to contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J C; Yates, L M; Collins, D F

    2007-07-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can generate contractions through peripheral and central mechanisms. Direct activation of motor axons (peripheral mechanism) recruits motor units in an unnatural order, with fatigable muscle fibers often activated early in contractions. The activation of sensory axons can produce contractions through a central mechanism, providing excitatory synaptic input to spinal neurons that recruit motor units in the natural order. Presently, we quantified the effect of stimulation frequency (10-100 Hz), duration (0.25-2 s of high-frequency bursts, or 20 s of constant-frequency stimulation), and intensity [1-5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque generated by a brief 100-Hz train] on the torque generated centrally. Electrical stimulation (1-ms pulses) was delivered over the triceps surae in eight subjects, and plantar flexion torque was recorded. Stimulation frequency, duration, and intensity all influenced the magnitude of the central contribution to torque. Central torque did not develop at frequencies or = 80 Hz. Increasing the duration of high-frequency stimulation increased the central contribution to torque, as central torque developed over 11 s. Central torque was greatest at a relatively low contraction intensity. The largest amount of central torque was produced by a 20-s, 100-Hz train (10.7 +/- 5.5 %MVC) and by repeated 2-s bursts of 80- or 100-Hz stimulation (9.2 +/- 4.8 and 10.2 +/- 8.1% MVC, respectively). Therefore, central torque was maximized by applying high-frequency, long-duration stimulation while avoiding antidromic block by stimulating at a relatively low intensity. If, as hypothesized, the central mechanism primarily activates fatigue-resistant muscle fibers, generating muscle contractions through this pathway may improve rehabilitation applications.

  10. Integrating multiple sensory systems to modulate neural networks controlling posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, I; Gerasimenko, Y; Burdick, J; Zhong, H; Roy, R R; Edgerton, V R

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigated the ability of sensory input to produce tonic responses in hindlimb muscles to facilitate standing in adult spinal rats and tested two hypotheses: 1) whether the spinal neural networks below a complete spinal cord transection can produce tonic reactions by activating different sensory inputs and 2) whether facilitation of tonic and rhythmic responses via activation of afferents and with spinal cord stimulation could engage similar neuronal mechanisms. We used a dynamically controlled platform to generate vibration during weight bearing, epidural stimulation (at spinal cord level S1), and/or tail pinching to determine the postural control responses that can be generated by the lumbosacral spinal cord. We observed that a combination of platform displacement, epidural stimulation, and tail pinching produces a cumulative effect that progressively enhances tonic responses in the hindlimbs. Tonic responses produced by epidural stimulation alone during standing were represented mainly by monosynaptic responses, whereas the combination of epidural stimulation and tail pinching during standing or epidural stimulation during stepping on a treadmill facilitated bilaterally both monosynaptic and polysynaptic responses. The results demonstrate that tonic muscle activity after complete spinal cord injury can be facilitated by activation of specific combinations of afferent inputs associated with load-bearing proprioception and cutaneous input in the presence of epidural stimulation and indicate that whether activation of tonic or rhythmic responses is generated depends on the specific combinations of sources and types of afferents activated in the hindlimb muscles.

  11. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Birgitta Johansson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, or various kinds of music therapy. Several studies have shown positive effects been reported but to give general recommendation more studies are needed. Patient heterogeneity and the interactions of age, gender, genes and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation.

  12. TUTORIAL: Beyond sensory substitution—learning the sixth sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Saskia K.; Carl, Christine; Kringe, Tobias; Märtin, Robert; König, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by systematic change of afferent signals resulting from behaviour and knowledge thereof. Support for such skill-based theories of perception is provided by experiments on sensory substitution. Here, we pursue this line of thought and create new sensorimotor contingencies and, hence, a new quality of perception. Adult subjects received orientation information, obtained by a magnetic compass, via vibrotactile stimulation around the waist. After six weeks of training we evaluated integration of the new input by a battery of tests. The results indicate that the sensory information provided by the belt (1) is processed and boosts performance, (2) if inconsistent with other sensory signals leads to variable performance, (3) does interact with the vestibular nystagmus and (4) in half of the experimental subjects leads to qualitative changes of sensory experience. These data support the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be learned and integrated into behaviour and affect perceptual experience.

  13. Beyond sensory substitution--learning the sixth sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Saskia K; Carl, Christine; Kringe, Tobias; Märtin, Robert; König, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in neuroscience have sparked numerous efforts to study the neural correlate of consciousness. Prominent subjects include higher sensory area, distributed assemblies bound by synchronization of neuronal activity and neurons in specific cortical laminae. In contrast, it has been suggested that the quality of sensory awareness is determined by systematic change of afferent signals resulting from behaviour and knowledge thereof. Support for such skill-based theories of perception is provided by experiments on sensory substitution. Here, we pursue this line of thought and create new sensorimotor contingencies and, hence, a new quality of perception. Adult subjects received orientation information, obtained by a magnetic compass, via vibrotactile stimulation around the waist. After six weeks of training we evaluated integration of the new input by a battery of tests. The results indicate that the sensory information provided by the belt (1) is processed and boosts performance, (2) if inconsistent with other sensory signals leads to variable performance, (3) does interact with the vestibular nystagmus and (4) in half of the experimental subjects leads to qualitative changes of sensory experience. These data support the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be learned and integrated into behaviour and affect perceptual experience.

  14. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  15. Adaptation to Cortical Noise Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Occipital Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heslip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly used as a method to modify and study functional brain activity. However, results from various studies have produced conflicting theories on how TMS of cortical tissue influences ongoing visual processing. To investigate this issue, single pulse TMS was applied over left V1 in five healthy subjects during an orientation discrimination task (vertical vs. horizontal using a Gabor patch (2 c/deg, presented 6° in the right visual field. Stimulus contrast was set to each individual's threshold, measured in the absence of TMS. When TMS was applied over V1 performance decreased in all observers (by 1.2–8.7% compared to accuracy levels obtained during stimulation of a control site (Cz. Crucially, accuracy levels during V1 stimulation gradually improved across blocks of 200 trials in some subjects, whereas performance remained stable during control site stimulation. In contrast, this pattern of recovery was not found in an analogous backward masking paradigm, using a brief visual noise mask instead of a TMS pulse. These results show that that the magnitude of TMS disruption can dissipate with repeated stimulation. This suggests that future studies using this technique should minimise the length of TMS exposure within each session to maximise its effectiveness. Our results show that the visual system can adapt dynamically to increased internal noise levels, minimising the impact of TMS induced cortical activity on sensory judgments.

  16. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-01-01

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  17. Effect of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeman, Anouk D; Ottolini, Truus; Grootendorst, Diana C; Vogels, Oscar J M; Rijsman, Roselyne M

    2014-08-15

    A variety of sensory stimuli relieve restless legs syndrome symptoms. Because systematic evaluations of sensory stimulation in restless legs syndrome are largely lacking, we performed a randomized crossover study to evaluate the effect of external sensory stimulation on restless legs syndrome symptoms. Eighteen patients underwent 3 consecutive suggestive immobilization tests with the order of the following 3 conditions randomly assigned: no electrical stimulation (condition 1), tactile and proprioceptive sensory stimulation (condition 2), and tactile sensory stimulation only (condition 3). Restless legs syndrome symptoms were quantified by visual analog scales, and periodic leg movements during wake were measured. Baseline visual analogue scale score was 4.5 (range 0-60) in condition 1, 10.5 (range 0-96) in condition 2, and 8.5 in condition 3 (p = 0.21). There was a tendency towards a higher maximum visual analogue scale score and visual analogue scale score at the end of the suggested immobilization test in the conditions with tactile sensory stimulation, though not significant (p = 0.74 and p = 0.29, respectively). Fifteen patients suffered from periodic leg movements during wake. Median indices were 18 (range 0-145) in condition 1, 26 (range 0-190) in condition 2, and 49 (range 0-228) in condition 3 (p = 0.76). We found a tendency towards less leg discomfort in the conditions in which an external sensory input was applied. This potential benefit of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome severity merits further investigation as this could open new ways towards a better pathophysiological understanding and non-pharmacological treatments.

  18. Reduced modulation of thalamocortical connectivity during exposure to sensory stimuli in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Hernandez, Leanna; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration. This study aimed to examine the role of pulvinar connectivity in ASD during mildly aversive sensory input. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine connectivity with the pulvinar during exposure to mildly aversive auditory and tactile stimuli in 38 youth (age 9-17; 19 ASD, 19 IQ-matched typically developing (TD)). Parents rated children's SOR severity on two standard scales. Compared to TD, ASD participants displayed aberrant modulation of connectivity between pulvinar and cortex (including sensory-motor and prefrontal regions) during sensory stimulation. In ASD participants, pulvinar-amygdala connectivity was correlated with severity of SOR symptoms. Deficits in modulation of thalamocortical connectivity in youth with ASD may reflect reduced thalamo-cortical inhibition in response to sensory stimulation, which could lead to difficulty filtering out and/or integrating sensory information. An increase in amygdala connectivity with the pulvinar might be partially responsible for deficits in selective attention as the amygdala signals the brain to attend to distracting sensory stimuli. Autism Res 2017, 10: 801-809. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  1. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  2. The Evolution of Sensory Placodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Mazet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate cranial sensory placodes are ectodermal embryonic patches that give rise to sensory receptor cells of the peripheral paired sense organs and to neurons in the cranial sensory ganglia. Their differentiation and the genetic pathways that underlay their development are now well understood. Their evolutionary history, however, has remained obscure. Recent molecular work, performed on close relatives of the vertebrates, demonstrated that some sensory placodes (namely the adenohypophysis, the olfactory, and accoustico-lateralis placodes first evolved at the base of the chordate lineage, while others might be specific to vertebrates. Combined with morphological and cellular fate data, these results also suggest that the sensory placodes of the ancestor of all chordates differentiated into a wide range of structures, most likely to fit the lifestyle and environment of each species.

  3. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  4. Eliciting Naturalistic Cortical Responses with a Sensory Prosthesis via Optimized Microstimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-12

    by electrical stimulation along the sensory neural pathways. Such stimulation, when informed by electronic sensors , could provide naturalistic... naturally occurring stimuli into biomimetic percepts via multi-channel microstimulation are lacking. More specifically, generating spatiotemporal patterns... naturally occurring touch responses as closely as possible. Main results. Here we show that such optimization produces responses in the S1 cortex of the

  5. Effects of Oral and Gastric Stimulation on Appetite and Energy Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlens, G.M.; Erkner, A.; Alexander, E.A.; Mars, M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the

  6. "Congenital Sensory Neuropathy as a Differential Diagnosis for Phagocytic Immunodeficiency "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharagozlou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about congenital indifference to pain or Hereditary and Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy (HSAN. Several investigations for pathophysiology of this syndrome have been performed and different classifications about it. In this report we present a case of HSAN type II with general absence of pain and self amputations and leprosy–like damage of extremities which was suspected to be phagocytic immunodeficiency due to past history of repeated ulcer and abscess formation.

  7. 心理语言、穴位刺激和胃电起搏协同改善功能性消化不良的胃感觉功能%Coordinated treatment of psychological language, acupuncture point stimulation and gastric pacing on functional dyspepsia by improving gastric sensory function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 张洪领; 杨春敏; 颜伟; 杜斌; 唐合兰; 范勤; 韩全力; 李静; 贾敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究心理语言、穴位刺激、胃电起搏协同治疗方法(Coordinated Treatment of Psychological language,Acupuncture point stimulation and Gastric pacing,CTPAG)治疗难治性功能性消化不良的临床疗效及可能机制.方法 根据罗马Ⅲ标准选取80例难治性功能性消化不良患者,随机分为两组:口服药物组(n=38)和CTPAG组(n=42),比较两组受试者在症状评分、临床疗效、胃感觉功能中的差异.结果 与口服药物组比较,CTPAG组中临床症状评分明显下降,疗效显著率明显升高;胃的初次饱足阈值和最大耐受阈值均明显增加,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 心理语言、穴位刺激和胃电起搏协同治疗(CTPAG)可能通过增加胃的可耐受容积,降低内脏敏感性,达到改善早饱、腹胀、进食少等疗效;并且CTPAG组优于常规口服药物组,是难治性FD非药物治疗的一种新选择.%Objective To investigate a new method for treating intractable functional dyspepsia (FD) with Coordinated Treatment of Psychological language, Acupuncture point stimulation and Gastric pacing ( CTPAG). Methods Eighty intractable FD patients were selected according to the Rome III criteria. Two groups were separated randomly o o-ral application group ( n = 38 ) and CTPAG group ( n = 42). The scores of clinical symptom, therapeutic effect and gastric sensory function were all evaluated and analyzed. Results In the CTPAG group, the scores of clinical symptom were descended, the ratios of therapeutic effect were elevated, and the satiation threshold values were also elevated compared with the oral application group (P < 0.05). Conclusion CTPAG, a new choice for treating intractable functional dyspepsia is effective and reliable. The curative effect surpasses the traditionary method of oral application. CTPAG may increase gastric tolerant volume, decrease visceral sensitivity and achieve to improve the symptoms such as early full, abdominal distension

  8. Motor unit recruitment when neuromuscular electrical stimulation is applied over a nerve trunk compared with a muscle belly: triceps surae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. J. Bergquist; J. M. Clair; D. F. Collins

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be delivered over a nerve trunk or muscle belly and can generate contractions by activating motor (peripheral pathway) and sensory (central pathway) axons...

  9. Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that support charge injection by capacitive and faradaic mechanisms are available. These include titanium nitride, platinum, and iridium oxide, each with certain advantages and limitations. The use of charge-balanced waveforms and maximum electrochemical potential excursions as criteria for reversible charge injection with these electrode materials are described and critiqued. Techniques for characterizing electrochemical properties relevant to stimulation and recording are described with examples of differences in the in vitro and in vivo response of electrodes.

  10. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds...... (rho=-0.413, p=0.049), indicating a paradoxical association between level of mechanical pain threshold and magnitude of spontaneous pain. No other sensory modality was significantly correlated to pain intensity. New/increased pain during repetitive pinprick stimulation (wind-up) was seen in 3 patients......]) and assessments were correlated to patients' reports of intensity and frequency of spontaneous pain in the groin area. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were examined, whereof one was excluded since no hernia was found intraoperatively. Mechanical pain threshold was inversely correlated with spontaneous pain intensity...

  11. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  12. Multi-sensory stimulation in 24-hour dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis starts with a review of relevant literature with regard to the effects of psychosocial interventions, including snoezelen, on apathetic, depressed and aggressive behaviour of demented persons. Then, a study with a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design is described, comparing s

  13. Multi-sensory stimulation in 24-hour dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis starts with a review of relevant literature with regard to the effects of psychosocial interventions, including snoezelen, on apathetic, depressed and aggressive behaviour of demented persons. Then, a study with a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design is described, comparing s

  14. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  15. The critical events for motor-sensory temporal recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Determining if we, or another agent, were responsible for a sensory event can require an accurate sense of timing. Our sense of appropriate timing relationships must, however, be malleable as there is a variable delay between the physical timing of an event and when sensory signals concerning that event are encoded in the brain. One dramatic demonstration of such malleability involves having people repeatedly press a button thereby causing a beep. If a delay is inserted between button presses and beeps, when it is subsequently taken away beeps can seem to precede the button presses that caused them. For this to occur it is important that people feel they were responsible for instigating the beeps. In terms of their timing, as yet it is not clear what combination of events is important for motor-sensory temporal recalibration. Here, by introducing ballistic reaches of short or longer extent before a button press, we varied the delay between the intention to act and the sensory consequence of that action. This manipulation failed to modulate recalibration magnitude. By contrast, introducing a similarly lengthened delay between button presses and consequent beeps eliminated recalibration. Thus it would seem that the critical timing relationship for motor-sensory temporal recalibration is between tactile signals relating to the completion of an action and the subsequent auditory percept.

  16. Sensory cortex underpinnings of traumatic brain injury deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasuni S Alwis

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits including long-term altered sensory processing. The few animal models of sensory cortical processing effects of TBI have been limited to examination of effects immediately after TBI and only in some layers of cortex. We have now used the rat whisker tactile system and the cortex processing whisker-derived input to provide a highly detailed description of TBI-induced long-term changes in neuronal responses across the entire columnar network in primary sensory cortex. Brain injury (n=19 was induced using an impact acceleration method and sham controls received surgery only (n=15. Animals were tested in a range of sensorimotor behaviour tasks prior to and up to 6 weeks post-injury when there were still significant sensorimotor behaviour deficits. At 8-10 weeks post-trauma, in terminal experiments, extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex neurons in response to whisker motion, including motion that mimicked whisker motion observed in awake animals undertaking different tasks. In cortex, there were lamina-specific neuronal response alterations that appeared to reflect local circuit changes. Hyper-excitation was found only in supragranular layers involved in intra-areal processing and long-range integration, and only for stimulation with complex, naturalistic whisker motion patterns and not for stimulation with simple trapezoidal whisker motion. Thus TBI induces long-term directional changes in integrative sensory cortical layers that depend on the complexity of the incoming sensory information. The nature of these changes allow predictions as to what types of sensory processes may be affected in TBI and contribute to post-trauma sensorimotor deficits.

  17. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  18. Modulation of long-latency afferent inhibition by the amplitude of sensory afferent volley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Claudia V; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Chen, Robert; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-07-01

    Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibers relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms before a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex. Experiment 1 assessed the magnitude of LAI following stimulation of the contralateral MN or DN using nerve stimulus intensities relative to the maximum SNAP (SNAPmax) of that nerve and two TMS intensities (0.5- and 1-mV MEP). Results indicate that MN LAI is maximal at ~50% SNAPmax, when presumably all sensory afferents are recruited for TMS of 0.5-mV MEP. For DN, LAI appears at ~50% SNAPmax and does not increase with further recruitment of sensory afferents. Experiment 2 investigated the magnitude of LAI following ipsilateral nerve stimulation at intensities relative to SNAPmax Results show minimal LAI evoked by ipsilateral MN and no LAI following ipsilateral DN stimulation. Implications for future studies investigating LAI include adjusting nerve stimulation to 50% SNAPmax to obtain maximal LAI. Additionally, MN LAI can be used as a marker for neurological disease or injury by using a nerve stimulation intensity that can evoke a depth of LAI capable of increasing or decreasing.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first investigation of the relationship between long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) and the sensory afferent volley. Differences exist between median and digital nerve LAI. For the median nerve, LAI increases until all sensory fibers are presumably recruited. In contrast, digital nerve LAI does not increase with the recruitment of additional sensory fibers but rather is

  19. Amyloid Beta Peptide Slows Down Sensory-Induced Hippocampal Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peña-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD progresses with a deterioration of hippocampal function that is likely induced by amyloid beta (Aβ oligomers. Hippocampal function is strongly dependent on theta rhythm, and disruptions in this rhythm have been related to the reduction of cognitive performance in AD. Accordingly, both AD patients and AD-transgenic mice show an increase in theta rhythm at rest but a reduction in cognitive-induced theta rhythm. We have previously found that monomers of the short sequence of Aβ (peptide 25–35 reduce sensory-induced theta oscillations. However, considering on the one hand that different Aβ sequences differentially affect hippocampal oscillations and on the other hand that Aβ oligomers seem to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD, here we aimed to explore the effect of Aβ oligomers on sensory-induced theta rhythm. Our results show that intracisternal injection of Aβ1–42 oligomers, which has no significant effect on spontaneous hippocampal activity, disrupts the induction of theta rhythm upon sensory stimulation. Instead of increasing the power in the theta band, the hippocampus of Aβ-treated animals responds to sensory stimulation (tail pinch with an increase in lower frequencies. These findings demonstrate that Aβ alters induced theta rhythm, providing an in vivo model to test for therapeutic approaches to overcome Aβ-induced hippocampal and cognitive dysfunctions.

  20. Tactile sensory system: encoding from the periphery to the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynette A; Smith, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    Specialized mechanoreceptors in the skin respond to mechanical deformation and provide the primary input to the tactile sensory system. Although the morphology of these receptors has been documented, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the relation between cutaneous receptor morphology and the associated physiological responses to stimulation. Labelled-line models of somatosensory processes in which specific mechanoreceptors are associated with particular sensory qualities fail to account for the evidence showing that all types of tactile afferent units respond to a varying extent to most types of natural stimuli. Neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments have provided the framework for determining the relation between peripheral afferent or cortical activity and tactile perception. Neural codes derived from these afferent signals are evaluated in terms of their capacity to predict human perceptual performance. One particular challenge in developing models of the tactile sensory system is the dual use of sensory signals from the skin. In addition to their perceptual function they serve as inputs to the sensorimotor control system involved in manipulation. Perceptions generated through active touch differ from those resulting from passive stimulation of the skin because they are the product of self-generated exploratory processes. Recent research in this area has highlighted the importance of shear forces in these exploratory movements and has shown that fingertip skin is particularly sensitive to shear generated during both object manipulation and tactile exploration.

  1. Neuronal mechanisms during repetitive trigemino-nociceptive stimulation in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderjan, David; Stankewitz, Anne; May, Arne

    2010-10-01

    Habituation deficits in various sensory modalities have been observed in migraine patients in several experimental designs. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are, however, still unknown. Past studies have used electrophysiological measures and focussed on habituation behaviour during one single session. We were interested in how repeated painful stimulation over several days is processed, perceived and modulated in migraineurs. Fifteen migraine patients and 15 healthy controls were stimulated daily with a 20 min trigeminal pain paradigm for eight consecutive days, using functional MRI performed on days one and eight and one follow-up measurement three months later. The results demonstrate that migraine patients did not differ in behavioural pain ratings compared to the controls at any time. However, functional imaging data revealed a significant difference in several brain areas over time. The activity level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) increased in healthy control subjects from day one to day eight, whereas it decreased in migraine patients. These data suggest that several brain areas known to be involved in endogenous pain control show a completely opposite behaviour in migraine patients compared to healthy controls. These brain networks seem not to be disrupted per se in migraine patients but changed activity over time responding to repetitive nociceptive input. The alteration of pain inhibitory circuits may be the underlying mechanism responsible for the dys-functional neuronal filters of sensory input.

  2. ALTERED QUANTITATIVE SENSORY TESTING OUTCOME IN SUBJECTS WITH OPIOID THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies have suggested that opioid exposure may induce a paradoxical decrease in the nociceptive threshold, commonly referred as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While OIH may have implications in acute and chronic pain management, its clinical features remain unclear. Using an office-based quantitative sensory testing (QST) method, we compared pain threshold, pain tolerance, and the degree of temporal summation of the second pain in response to thermal stimulation among three g...

  3. Cellular nanoscale sensory wave computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baatar, Chagaan; Roska, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This fresh perspective of sensory computing successfully bridges the gap between nanoscale devices and CMOS integrated circuits. Practical and complex algorithms are also discussed, in addition to new developments like the nanoscale antenna.

  4. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin;

    2010-01-01

    =-8, pressure). Hyperalgesia for various modalities were found in 80% of patients, with pressure hyperalgesia in approximately 65%, and cutaneous (mechanical or thermal) hyperalgesia in approximately 35% of patients. The paradoxical combination of tactile hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia was seen...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...... in approximately 25% of patients. Increased pain from repetitive tactile and/or brush stimulation was found in 51%, suggesting a role of altered central nociceptive function in this subpopulation. A high incidence (26%) of pressure hyperalgesia was found in the contralateral groin, with a significant correlation...

  5. The sensory somatotopic map of the human hand demonstrated at 4 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, J A; Gottschalk, A; Patel, R S; Detre, J A; Alsop, D C

    1999-07-01

    Recent attempts at high-resolution sensory-stimulated fMRI performed at 1.5 T have had very limited success at demonstrating a somatotopic organization for individual digits. Our purpose was to determine if functional MRI at 4 T can demonstrate the sensory somatotopic map of the human hand. Sensory functional MRI was performed at 4 T in five normal volunteers using a low-frequency vibratory stimulus on the pad of each finger of the left hand. A simple motor control task was also performed. The data were normalized to a standard atlas, and individual and group statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were computed for each task. Volume of activation and distribution of cluster maxima were compared for each task. For three of the subjects, the SPMs demonstrated a somatotopic organization of the sensory cortex. The group SPMs demonstrated a clear somatotopic organization of the sensory cortex. The thumb to fifth finger were organized, in general, with a lateral to medial, inferior to superior, and anterior to posterior relationship. There was overlap in the individual SPMs between fingers. The sensory activation spanned a space of 12-18 mm (thumb to fifth finger) on the primary sensory cortex. The motor activation occurred consistently at the superior-most extent of the sensory activation within and across subjects. The sensory somatotopic map of the human hand can be identified at 4 T. High-resolution imaging at 4 T can be useful for detailed functional imaging studies. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  7. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  8. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  9. Sensory Topography of Oral Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Shethal; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Sensory function in the oral cavity and oropharynx is integral to effective deglutition and speech production. The main hurdle to evaluation of tactile consequences of upper aerodigestive tract diseases and treatments is access to a reliable clinical tool. We propose a rapid and reliable procedure to determine tactile thresholds using buckling monofilaments to advance care. To develop novel sensory testing monofilaments and map tactile thresholds of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures. A prospective cross-sectional study of 37 healthy adults (12 men, 25 women), specifically without a medical history of head and neck surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, was carried out in an academic tertiary medical center to capture normative data on tactile sensory function in oral structures. Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments were constructed by securing nylon monofilament sutures (2-0 through 9-0) in the lumen of 5-French ureteral catheters, exposing 20 mm for tapping action. Buckling force consistency was evaluated for 3 lots of each suture size. Sensory thresholds of 4 oral cavity and 2 oropharyngeal subsites in healthy participants (n = 37) were determined by classical signal detection methodology (d-prime ≥1). In 21 participants, test-retest reliability of sensory thresholds was evaluated. Separately in 16 participants, sensory thresholds determined by a modified staircase method were cross-validated with those obtained by classical signal detection. Buckling forces of successive suture sizes were distinct (P sensory threshold determination was high (Cronbach α, >0.7). The lower lip, anterior tongue, and buccal mucosa were more sensitive than the soft palate, posterior tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall (P Threshold determination by classical signal detection and modified staircase methods were highly correlated (r = 0.93, P sensory function assessment of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures.

  10. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  11. Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Omoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of synaptic contacts, cross-excitation of neurons in sensory ganglia during signal transmission is considered to be chemically mediated and appears increased in chronic pain states. In this study, we modulated neurotransmitter release in sensory neurons by direct application of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A to sensory ganglia in an animal model of neuropathic pain and evaluated the effect of this treatment on nocifensive. Unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE reduced the ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and reduced hindpaw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Direct application of BoNT/A to the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG was localized in the cell bodies of the DRG and reversed the SNE-induced decreases in withdrawal thresholds within 2 days of BoNT/A administration. Results from this study suggest that neurotransmitter release within sensory ganglia is involved in the regulation of pain-related signal transmission.

  12. A modular, computer-controlled system for olfactory stimulation in the MRI environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Patrice; Bonnans, Vincent; Meneses, Jaime; Millot, Jean-Louis; Moulin, Thierry; Gharbi, Tijani

    2014-03-01

    Although the cerebral networks involved in sensory perception are of general interest in neuroscience, registration of the effects of olfactory stimulation, especially in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment, presents particular problems and constraints. This article presents details of a reliable and portable system for olfactory stimulation that is modular in design and based on microcontroller technology. It has the following characteristics: (1) It is under software control; (2) the presentation of olfactory stimulation can be synchronized with respiration; (3) it can be manually controlled; and (4) it is fully compatible with an MRI environment. The principle underlying this system is to direct an odor to the subject's nostrils by switching airflow to different odor diffusers. The characteristics of this system were established using (1) ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, to measure its response time, and (2) gas chromatography, to measure the repeatability of odor presentation in terms of gas concentration. A response time of 200 ± 25 ms was obtained for the system, and the standard deviations of the gas concentration delivered during stimulation ranged from 1.5% to 22%, depending on the odor, the airflow, and the dilution of the odor used. Since it is portable, controlled by software, and reliable, on the basis of the results we obtained, this system will lend itself to a wide range of applications in olfactory neuroscience.

  13. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  14. An Introduction to Intelligent Sensory Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪奕; 丁永生

    2004-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is the evaluation of signals that a buman receives via its sensory organs. Nowadays sensory evaluation is widely used in quality inspection and quality control of products. and many other fields. Actually sensory evaluation always give. uncertain and inprecise results, therefore it derivates many problems. we reviews in detail these problem and give some cumputing methods to resolve them.

  15. Sensory-Driven Enhancement of Calcium Signals in Individual Purkinje Cell Dendrites of Awake Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Najafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climbing fibers (CFs are thought to contribute to cerebellar plasticity and learning by triggering a large influx of dendritic calcium in the postsynaptic Purkinje cell (PC to signal the occurrence of an unexpected sensory event. However, CFs fire about once per second whether or not an event occurs, raising the question of how sensory-driven signals might be distinguished from a background of ongoing spontaneous activity. Here, we report that in PC dendrites of awake mice, CF-triggered calcium signals are enhanced when the trigger is a sensory event. In addition, we show that a large fraction of the total enhancement in each PC dendrite can be accounted for by an additional boost of calcium provided by sensory activation of a non-CF input. We suggest that sensory stimulation may modulate dendritic voltage and calcium concentration in PCs to increase the strength of plasticity signals during cerebellar learning.

  16. Concerning the need for more sophisticated animal models in sensory behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbins, W C

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary but not sufficient to develop laboratory animal models in sensory behavioral toxicology for screening toxic substances and for the analysis of sensory impairment at threshold levels of stimulation. It is important to develop more thorough and quantitative tests of impairment which in their greater complexity more accurately reflect the conditions and environmental demands of day-to-day life. Such greater complexity in stimulus conditions and behavior may also aid in monitoring...

  17. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  18. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  19. Neural correlates of sensory prediction errors in monkeys: evidence for internal models of voluntary self-motion in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Brooks, Jessica X

    2015-02-01

    During self-motion, the vestibular system makes essential contributions to postural stability and self-motion perception. To ensure accurate perception and motor control, it is critical to distinguish between vestibular sensory inputs that are the result of externally applied motion (exafference) and that are the result of our own actions (reafference). Indeed, although the vestibular sensors encode vestibular afference and reafference with equal fidelity, neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing selectively encode vestibular exafference. The mechanism underlying this reafferent suppression compares the brain's motor-based expectation of sensory feedback with the actual sensory consequences of voluntary self-motion, effectively computing the sensory prediction error (i.e., exafference). It is generally thought that sensory prediction errors are computed in the cerebellum, yet it has been challenging to explicitly demonstrate this. We have recently addressed this question and found that deep cerebellar nuclei neurons explicitly encode sensory prediction errors during self-motion. Importantly, in everyday life, sensory prediction errors occur in response to changes in the effector or world (muscle strength, load, etc.), as well as in response to externally applied sensory stimulation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that altering the relationship between motor commands and the actual movement parameters will result in the updating in the cerebellum-based computation of exafference. If our hypothesis is correct, under these conditions, neuronal responses should initially be increased--consistent with a sudden increase in the sensory prediction error. Then, over time, as the internal model is updated, response modulation should decrease in parallel with a reduction in sensory prediction error, until vestibular reafference is again suppressed. The finding that the internal model predicting the sensory consequences of motor commands adapts for new

  20. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only eyesight. Multi-sensory learning can benefit all students by actively engaging them in learning through stimulation or an alternative way of experiencing a concept or ideas. Perception of events or concepts usually depends on the information from the different sensory systems combined. The use of multi-sensory learning can take advantage of all the senses to reinforce learning as each sense builds toward a more complete experience of scientific data. Research has shown that multi-sensory representations of scientific phenomena is a valuable tool for enhancing understanding of chemistry as well as displacing misconceptions through experience. Multi-sensory experiences have also been shown to enrich memory performance. There are few experiments published which utilize multiple senses in the teaching laboratory. The sensorial experiments chosen were conceptually similar to experiments currently performed in undergraduate laboratories; however students collect different types of data using multi-sensory observations. The experiments themselves were developed by using chemicals that would provide different sensory changes or capitalizing on sensory observations that were typically overlooked or ignored and obtain similar and precise results as in traditional experiments. Minimizing hazards and using safe practices are especially essential in these experiments as students utilize senses traditionally not allowed to be used in the laboratories. These sensorial experiments utilize typical equipment found in the teaching laboratories as well as inexpensive chemicals in order to aid implementation. All experiments are rigorously tested

  1. Sacral nerve stimulation increases activation of the primary somatosensory cortex by anal canal stimulation in an experimental model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, K M

    2011-08-01

    Sacral and posterior tibial nerve stimulation may be used to treat faecal incontinence; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether sensory activation of the cerebral cortex by anal canal stimulation was increased by peripheral neuromodulation.

  2. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  3. The effect of loco-regional anaesthesia on motor activity induced by direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, A P; Michou, J N

    2016-03-01

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, case-controlled clinical study was designed using client-owned dogs undergoing unilateral pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery, to determine the effect on induced motor activity by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of local anaesthetic administration. Dogs were administered 0.5% bupivacaine either extradurally or via a femoral and transgluteal sciatic electrolocation-guided nerve block prior to pelvic limb surgery. Motor response to electrical stimulation of branches of the sciatic nerve was tested and the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch was recorded prior to bupivacaine administration. Provided sensory blockade had been deemed successful intraoperatively, testing was repeated postoperatively, with each dog acting as its own control. Paired t-tests were performed to compare pre- and postoperative minimum currents. Eleven dogs administered extradural and 11 dogs administered femoral and sciatic perineural bupivacaine were eligible for post-operative testing. All dogs displayed normal motor response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at both sites tested before and after bupivacaine administration. There was no significant difference in the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch between pre- and post-operative testing (P = 0.31 sciatic site, P = 0.36 peroneal site), nor between the two groups using different loco-regional anaesthetic techniques (minimum P = 0.13). This study shows that stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of bupivacaine administration induces motor activity, despite adequate sensory blockade. This is relevant in surgical cases where mechanical stimulation of the sciatic nerve might be expected and needs to be recognised to avoid postoperative neurapraxia.

  4. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  5. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  6. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  7. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alfen, Nens; Huisman, Willem J; Overeem, S; van Engelen, B G M; Zwarts, M J

    2009-11-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, median sensory, and ulnar sensory nerves in 112 patients. Sensory nerve conduction studies showed abnormalities in nerves, even when the nerve was clinically affected. The lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were most often abnormal, in 15% and 17% of nerves. No correlation with the presence or localization of clinical deficits was found. Brachial plexus sensory nerve conduction studies seem to be of little diagnostic value in neuralgic amyotrophy. Our findings also indicate that some sensory lesions may be in the nerve roots instead of the plexus. An examination of normal sensory nerve conduction studies does not preclude neuralgic amyotrophy as a diagnosis.

  8. Atypical sensory sensitivity as a shared feature between synaesthesia and autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Hoadley, Claire; Hughes, James E. A.; Smith, Paula; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Simner, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that there is a link between synaesthesia and autism but the nature of that link remains poorly characterised. The present study considers whether atypical sensory sensitivity may be a common link between the conditions. Sensory hypersensitivity (aversion to certain sounds, touch, etc., or increased ability to make sensory discriminations) and/or hyposensitivity (desire to stimulate the senses , or a reduced response to sensory stimuli are a recently introduced diagnostic feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Synaesthesia is defined by unusual sensory experiences and has also been linked to a typical cortical hyper-excitability. The Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ) was administered to synaesthetes and people with ASC. Both groups reported increased sensory sensitivity relative to controls with a large effect size. Both groups also reported a similar pattern of both increased hyper- and hypo-sensitivities across multiple senses. The AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) scores were elevated in the synaesthetes, and one subscale of this measure (attention to detail) placed synaesthetes within the autistic range. A standard laboratory test of visual stress (the Pattern Glare Test), administered online, corroborated the findings of increased sensitivity to aversive visual stimuli in synaesthetes. We conclude that atypical sensory sensitivity is an important shared feature between autism and synaesthesia. PMID:28266503

  9. Sensorial evaluation genuineness of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Tomášek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative indicators of wine are also sensoric properties besides analytic properties. The specimens were evaluated immediately after their stabilization. Of course, by the time the sensoric properties are changing and can influence later evaluation, even customers in their desicion for repeating purchase. Specialists evaluated specimen of white wines such as: rhine Riesling, Sauvignon blanc and gruner Veltliner from three locations of Znojmo winery region. All specimen weren´t fermented to dry and they weren´t procesed the same technology, in spite of this, the speciments were evaluated objectively as possilble. The common parameters of vineyards were: exhibition, evaluation above sea-level and average annual temperatrature. The climatic factors had minimum differences in both monitoring vintages of growing season. A different parametr had soils, their geological origin, type of soil, structure and po­wer of topsoil. The acquired results were evaluated and graphically displayed.Gruner Veltliner – specimen No. 1 – this variety was covered in smell and taste by used technology. An outstanding location was a vineyard Weinperky with paleozoic sediments of neogene and higher pH and deeper arable level provides this location incommutable feature in contrast to from other recognizing vineyards of future wine. More likely geological-soil features have even specimens No. 3 and 4, which showed balance characteristic features in recognizing vintage. The specimens No. 2 and 1 had quantity untypical variety shades and they showed balance large differences both in evaluating committees and in recognizing vintages.Sauvignon blanc – the most suitable location was a vineyard Knížecí vrch – a specimen No. 6, which lies on lighter limy soils of Dyje massif together with higher pH created nice feature of variety. A spe­cimen No. 8 had more likely characteristics of location than a specimen No. 6. That express in evaluation. A specimen No. 7

  10. State-dependent changes in auditory sensory gating in different cortical areas in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renli Qi

    Full Text Available Sensory gating is a process in which the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus is attenuated; it is thought to contribute to information processing by enabling organisms to filter extraneous sensory inputs from the environment. To date, sensory gating has typically been used to determine whether brain function is impaired, such as in individuals with schizophrenia or addiction. In healthy subjects, sensory gating is sensitive to a subject's behavioral state, such as acute stress and attention. The cortical response to sensory stimulation significantly decreases during sleep; however, information processing continues throughout sleep, and an auditory evoked potential (AEP can be elicited by sound. It is not known whether sensory gating changes during sleep. Sleep is a non-uniform process in the whole brain with regional differences in neural activities. Thus, another question arises concerning whether sensory gating changes are uniform in different brain areas from waking to sleep. To address these questions, we used the sound stimuli of a Conditioning-testing paradigm to examine sensory gating during waking, rapid eye movement (REM sleep and Non-REM (NREM sleep in different cortical areas in rats. We demonstrated the following: 1. Auditory sensory gating was affected by vigilant states in the frontal and parietal areas but not in the occipital areas. 2. Auditory sensory gating decreased in NREM sleep but not REM sleep from waking in the frontal and parietal areas. 3. The decreased sensory gating in the frontal and parietal areas during NREM sleep was the result of a significant increase in the test sound amplitude.

  11. Differential changes in gingival somatosensory sensitivity after painful electrical tooth stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Lu, Shengyi; Kemppainen, Pentti; List, Thomas; Zhang, Zhenting; Svensson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of painful tooth stimulation on gingival somatosensory sensitivity of healthy volunteers in a randomized, controlled design. Thirteen healthy volunteers (six women, seven men; 28.4 ± 5.0 years) were included for two experimental sessions of electrical tooth stimulation: painful tooth stimulation and tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (control). Eight of the human subjects participated in a third session without tooth stimulation. In all sessions, the somatosensory sensitivity of the gingiva adjacent to the stimulated tooth was evaluated with a standardized battery of quantitative sensory tests (QST) before, immediately after and 30 min after tooth stimulation. Painful tooth stimulation evoked significant decreases in warmth and heat pain thresholds (P pain thresholds (increased sensitivity) (P = 0.024) and increases in mechanical detection thresholds (decreased sensitivity) (P tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (P > 0.086). No QST changes were detected in the session without tooth stimulation (P > 0.060). In conclusion, modest increased gingival sensitivity to warmth, painful heat and pressure stimuli as well as desensitization to non-painful mechanical stimulation were demonstrated after tooth stimulation. This suggests involvement of competing heterotopic facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, stimulation below the sensory threshold induced similar thermal sensitization suggesting the possibility of activation of axon-reflex-like mechanisms even at intensities below the perception threshold. These findings may have implications for interpretation of somatosensory results in patients with chronic intraoral pain.

  12. 大鼠肌紧张带重复低频电刺激后的生物力学及病理学改变%Biomechanical and pathological changes of taut bands in rats after repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永慧; 孟菲; 丁欣利; 范真真; 王超; 岳寿伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomechanical and pathological changes in vivo in the taut bands (TB) of biceps femoris in rats after repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation.Methods Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group,an electrical intensity-dependent fatigue group,which were subject to electric intensity-dependent fatigue test,and an electrical frequency-dependent fatigue group,which were subject to electrical frequency-dependent fatigue test.After fatigue tests,the taut band of the biceps femoris and the non-taut band of the contralateral biceps femoris were harvested for pathological observation.The maximum contraction force (MCF),electrical intensity-and frequency-dependent fatigue characteristics and any pathological changes in the TBs were assessed and compared to the non-taut band region of the other biceps femoris.Results The MCF at the 15th and 20th stimulation (1.42 ± 0.28 g and 0.93 ± 0.54 g respectively) were significantly lower than that at the 1 st and 5th stimulation of the TBs.High stimulation intensity (HSI) at the 15th and 20th stimulation (3.76 ± 0.71 V and 3.44 ± 0.97 V) were also significantly lower than at the 1st TB stimulation.At the 10th,15th and 20th stimulation of the TBs,MCF and HSI were both significantly lower than in the bands which were not tight.In the frequency-dependent fatigue stimulation tests,the frequency which generated the MCF of the TBs was significantly lower than in the bands which were not tight,while the MCF of the TBs was significantly higher than that of non-TBs.After either intensity or frequency fatigue testing,more severe edema,uneven cytoplasmic death and degeneration of muscle fibers were observed in sections from TBs than from the bands which were not tight.Conclusions Taut muscle bands are significantly less fatigue-resistant than normal muscle fibers.Taut bands may contribute to the fatigue of myofascial pain syndromes.%目的 研究大鼠肌紧张带(TB)重复低频电

  13. Sensory neurobiological analysis of neuropeptide modulation of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J; Azzara, Anthony V

    2004-08-01

    Gerry Smith's emphasis on the meal as the functional unit of ingestion spurred experiments designed to (1) identify oral and postoral stimuli that affect meal size, and (2) identify peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in the processing of sensory signals generated by these stimuli. His observations that gut-brain peptides can limit meal size were important in formulating the idea that neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake modulate the peripheral and central neural processing of meal-stimulated sensory signals. This focus on meal size continues to foster the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments that characterize the sites and modes of action of feeding modulatory neuropeptides. These investigations have focused attention on the gut-brain neuraxis as a critical sensory pathway in the control of ingestive behavior, and have revealed important integrative properties of peripheral and central neurons along this axis. The neuromodulatory function of peptides that alter food intake is supported by their ability to recruit the activation of neurons at multiple central nodes of the gut-brain axis and to affect the neural processing and behavioral potency of meal-related gastrointestinal signals important in the negative feedback control of meal size. This sensory neurobiological perspective may also be applied to determine whether feeding modulatory neuropeptides affect the neural and behavioral potency of oral positive feedback signals that promote ingestion.

  14. [Sensory processing could be temporally organized by ultradian brain rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, M; Velluti, R A

    Neuronal activity of sensory systems depends on input from the environment, the body and the brain itself. Various rhythms have been shown to affect sensory processing, such as the waking-sleep cycle and hippocampal theta waves, our aim in this revision. The hippocampus, known as a structure involved in learning and memory processing, has the theta rhythm (4-10 Hz), present in all behavioural states. This rhythm has been temporally related to automatic, reflex and voluntary movements, both during wakefulness and sleep, and in the autonomic control of the heart rate. On the other hand theta rhythm has been considered as a novelty detector expressing different level of attention, selecting the information and protecting from interference. Our research is based on the hypothesis that sensory processing needs a timer to be processed and stored, and hippocampal theta rhythm could contribute to the temporal organization of these events. We have demonstrated that auditory and visual unitary discharges in guinea pigs show phase-locking to the hippocampal theta rhythm. This temporal correlation appears during both spontaneous and specific sensory stimulation evoked discharges. Neuronal discharges fluctuate between phase-locked and uncorrelated firing modes relative to the theta rhythm. This changing state depends on known and unknown situations. We have provoked, changing the visual stimuli, a power theta rhythm increment and the phase-locking between this rhythm and the lateral geniculate neurone discharge during wakefulness. In slow wave sleep results were different demonstrating that the ways of the inputs processing have changed.

  15. A Pilot Study of Integrated Listening Systems for Children with Sensory Processing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Sarah A.; Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study explored the effects of Integrated Listening Systems (iLs) Focus Series on individualized parent goals for children with sensory processing impairments. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline, repeated measure across participants, single-case study design was employed (n = 7). The 40-session intervention was delivered at home and in…

  16. Dynamic aspects of liking: Post-prandial persistence of sensory specific satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The time dependence of the liking of foodstuffs was investigated in a study with 25 subjects, consisting of three parts: (1) on day one, a sensory specific satiety study, which was extended until 125 min after consumption; (2) on days two to seven, a repeated in home taste and evaluation study; (3)

  17. Dynamic aspects of liking: post-prandial persistence of sensory specific satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2005-01-01

    The time dependence of the liking of foodstuffs was investigated in a study with 25 subjects, consisting of three parts: (1) on day one, a sensory specific satiety study, which was extended until 125 min after consumption; (2) on days two to seven, a repeated in home taste and evaluation study; (3)

  18. Sensory deprivation during early development causes an increased exploratory behavior in a whisker-dependent decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Stylianos; Brigham, Leeann; Krieger, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of sensory pathways is important for the normal development of cortical sensory areas, and impairments in the normal development can have long-lasting effect on animal's behavior. In particular, disturbances that occur early in development can cause permanent changes in brain structure and function. The behavioral effect of early sensory deprivation was studied in the mouse whisker system using a protocol to induce a 1-week sensory deprivation immediately after birth. Only two rows of whiskers were spared (C and D rows), and the rest were deprived, to create a situation where an unbalanced sensory input, rather than a complete loss of input, causes a reorganization of the sensory map. Sensory deprivation increased the barrel size ratio of the spared CD rows compared with the deprived AB rows; thus, the map reorganization is likely due, at least in part, to a rewiring of thalamocortical projections. The behavioral effect of such a map reorganization was investigated in the gap-crossing task, where the animals used a whisker that was spared during the sensory deprivation. Animals that had been sensory deprived performed equally well with the control animals in the gap-crossing task, but were more active in exploring the gap area and consequently made more approaches to the gap - approaches that on average were of shorter duration. A restricted sensory deprivation of only some whiskers, although it does not seem to affect the overall performance of the animals, does have an effect on their behavioral strategy on executing the gap-crossing task.

  19. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  20. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  1. Sensory imagination and narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue that we can clarify and explain an important form of focalization or narrative perspective by the structure of perspective in sensory imagination. Understanding focalization in this way enables us to see why one particular form of focalization has to do with the representation of perceptu...

  2. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...

  3. Pyridoxine-Induced Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An 18-year-old man with seizures from birth was followed in the Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, and was found to have developed a sensory neuropathy by 2 years of age following treatment with pyridoxine in doses up to 2000 mg/day.

  4. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  5. Sensory retraining following orthognathic surgery: effect on threshold measures of sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essick, G K; Phillips, C; Kim, S H; Zuniga, J

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of sensory retraining on sensory function after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). A total of 186 subjects were enrolled in a multi-centre double-blind two parallel group stratified block randomized clinical trial. Subjects were randomized to group immediately after surgery. Threshold measures for contact detection, two-point discrimination and two-point perception were obtained on the chin before and 1, 3 and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after surgery. The ratio of each threshold measure (post-surgery value/pre-surgery value) was calculated to characterize subjects' impairment. A general linear mixed model was fit for the impairment to examine the effect of the sensory retraining before and after adjusting for demographic, surgical and psychological factors. On average, two-point perception was less impaired in subjects who were retrained than in those who were not retrained (P = 0.04). Significant recovery continued up to 6 months after surgery for contact detection and two-point perception and up to 24 months for two-point discrimination. Older subjects experienced more impairment in two-point discrimination than younger subjects (P = 0.009). Subjects who received maxillary surgery in addition to mandibular surgery experienced more impairment on the chin in both two-point discrimination (P = 0.0003) and perception (P = 0.0013) than subjects who received mandibular surgery only. Psychological factors did not explain additional variability in subjects' impairment post-surgery. These finding indicate that a simple non-invasive exercise programme initiated shortly after orthognathic surgery can alter the way patients experience or respond to tactile stimulation long after the exercise regimen has stopped.

  6. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  7. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

  8. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  9. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  10. Growth Stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Nyle J.

    1989-01-01

    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  11. Microscopic magnetic stimulation of neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Lee, Seung Woo; Freeman, Daniel K; Polasek, Miloslav; Fried, Shelley I; Gale, John T

    2012-06-26

    Electrical stimulation is currently used to treat a wide range of cardiovascular, sensory and neurological diseases. Despite its success, there are significant limitations to its application, including incompatibility with magnetic resonance imaging, limited control of electric fields and decreased performance associated with tissue inflammation. Magnetic stimulation overcomes these limitations but existing devices (that is, transcranial magnetic stimulation) are large, reducing their translation to chronic applications. In addition, existing devices are not effective for deeper, sub-cortical targets. Here we demonstrate that sub-millimeter coils can activate neuronal tissue. Interestingly, the results of both modelling and physiological experiments suggest that different spatial orientations of the coils relative to the neuronal tissue can be used to generate specific neural responses. These results raise the possibility that micro-magnetic stimulation coils, small enough to be implanted within the brain parenchyma, may prove to be an effective alternative to existing stimulation devices.

  12. Late sensory function after intraoperative capsaicin wound instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Hansen, J B; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intense capsaicin-induced C-fiber stimulation results in reversible lysis of the nerve soma, thereby making capsaicin wound instillation of potential interest for the treatment of post-operative pain. Clinical histological and short-term sensory studies suggest that the C-fiber function...... is partly re-established after skin injection of capsaicin. However, no study has evaluated the long-term effects of wound instillation of purified capsaicin on sensory functions. METHODS: Patients included in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of the analgesic effect of capsaicin after...... treatment. RESULTS: Twenty (100%) capsaicin and 16 (76%) placebo-treated patients were seen at the 2 1/2 year follow-up. Hyperalgesia was seen in five capsaicin- vs. one placebo-treated patient (P=0.2). The mechanical detection threshold was significantly increased on the operated side in the capsaicin vs...

  13. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  14. The gut-brain axis rewired: adding a functional vagal nicotinic "sensory synapse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Mao, Yu-Kang; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang A

    2014-07-01

    It is generally accepted that intestinal sensory vagal fibers are primary afferent, responding nonsynaptically to luminal stimuli. The gut also contains intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) that respond to luminal stimuli. A psychoactive Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) that affects brain function excites both vagal fibers and IPANs. We wondered whether, contrary to its primary afferent designation, the sensory vagus response to JB-1 might depend on IPAN to vagal fiber synaptic transmission. We recorded ex vivo single- and multiunit afferent action potentials from mesenteric nerves supplying mouse jejunal segments. Intramural synaptic blockade with Ca(2+) channel blockers reduced constitutive or JB-1-evoked vagal sensory discharge. Firing of 60% of spontaneously active units was reduced by synaptic blockade. Synaptic or nicotinic receptor blockade reduced firing in 60% of vagal sensory units that were stimulated by luminal JB-1. In control experiments, increasing or decreasing IPAN excitability, respectively increased or decreased nerve firing that was abolished by synaptic blockade or vagotomy. We conclude that >50% of vagal afferents function as interneurons for stimulation by JB-1, receiving input from an intramural functional "sensory synapse." This was supported by myenteric plexus nicotinic receptor immunohistochemistry. These data offer a novel therapeutic target to modify pathological gut-brain axis activity.-Perez-Burgos, A., Mao, Y.-K., Bienenstock, J., Kunze, W. A. The gut-brain axis rewired: adding a functional vagal nicotinic "sensory synapse."

  15. A sensory feedback system for prosthetic hand based on evoked tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Chai, G H; Qu, H E; Lan, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of reliable sensory feedback has been one of the barriers in prosthetic hand development. Restoring sensory function from prosthetic hand to amputee remains a great challenge to neural engineering. In this paper, we present the development of a sensory feedback system based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) at the stump skin of residual limb induced by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The system could map a dynamic pattern of stimuli to an electrode placed on the corresponding projected finger areas on the stump skin. A pressure transducer placed at the tip of prosthetic fingers was used to sense contact pressure, and a high performance DSP processor sampled pressure signals, and calculated the amplitude of feedback stimulation in real-time. Biphasic and charge-balanced current pulses with amplitude modulation generated by a multi-channel laboratory stimulator were delivered to activate sensory nerves beneath the skin. We tested this sensory feedback system in amputee subjects. Preliminary results showed that the subjects could perceive different levels of pressure at the tip of prosthetic finger through evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with distinct grades and modalities. We demonstrated the feasibility to restore the perceptual sensation from prosthetic fingers to amputee based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with TENS.

  16. Sensory nerve conduction studies in neuralgic amyotrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfen, N. van; Huisman, W.J.; Overeem, S.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy is a painful, episodic peripheral nerve disorder localized to the brachial plexus. Sensory symptoms occur in 80% of the patients. We assessed the frequency of abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction studies of the lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous, radial sensory, medi

  17. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  18. Sensory reweighting dynamics following removal and addition of visual and proprioceptive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Lorenz; Peterka, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Removing or adding sensory cues from one sensory system during standing balance causes a change in the contribution of the remaining sensory systems, a process referred to as sensory reweighting. While reweighting changes have been described in many studies under steady-state conditions, less is known about the temporal dynamics of reweighting following sudden transitions to different sensory conditions. The present study changed sensory conditions by periodically adding or removing visual (lights On/Off) or proprioceptive cues (surface sway referencing On/Off) in 12 young, healthy subjects. Evidence for changes in sensory contributions to balance was obtained by measuring the time course of medial-lateral sway responses to a constant-amplitude 0.56-Hz sinusoidal stimulus, applied as support surface tilt (proprioceptive contribution), as visual scene tilt (visual contribution), or as binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (vestibular contribution), and by analyzing the time course of sway variability. Sine responses and variability of body sway velocity showed significant changes following transitions and were highly correlated under steady-state conditions. A dependence of steady-state responses on upcoming transitions was observed, suggesting that knowledge of impending changes can influence sensory weighting. Dynamic changes in sway in the period immediately following sensory transitions were very inhomogeneous across sway measures and in different experimental tests. In contrast to steady-state results, sway response and variability measures were not correlated with one another in the dynamic transition period. Several factors influence sway responses following addition or removal of sensory cues, partly instigated by but also obscuring the effects of reweighting dynamics.

  19. Photostimulation of sensory neurons of the rat vagus nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Albert Y.; Li, Gong; Wells, Jonathon; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of infrared (IR) stimulation on rat sensory neurons. Primary sensory neurons were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of the inferior (or "nodose") ganglia from the vagus nerves of rats. The 1.85-μm output of a diode laser, delivered through a 200-μm silica fiber, was used for photostimulation. Nodose neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, which is a non-selective cation channel that opens in response to significant temperature jumps above 37 C. Opening TRPV1 channels allows entry of cations, including calcium (Ca 2+), into the cell to cause membrane depolarization. Therefore, to monitor TRPV1 activation consequent to photostimulation, we used fura-2, a fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator, to monitor the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+]i). Brief trains of 2-msec IR pulses activated TRPV1 rapidly and reversibly, as evidenced by transient rises in [Ca 2+]i (referred to as Ca 2+ transients). Consistent with the Ca 2+ transients arising from influx of Ca 2+, identical photostimulation failed to evoke Ca 2+ responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+. Furthermore, the photo-induced Ca 2+ signals were abolished by capsazepine, a specific blocker of TRPV1, indicating that the responses were indeed mediated by TRPV1. We discuss the feasibility of using focal IR stimulation to probe neuronal circuit properties in intact neural tissue, and compare IR stimulation with another photostimulation technique-focal photolytic release of "caged" molecules.

  20. Tactile stimulation can suppress visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Masakazu; Hidaka, Souta

    2013-12-13

    An input (e.g., airplane takeoff sound) to a sensory modality can suppress the percept of another input (e.g., talking voices of neighbors) of the same modality. This perceptual suppression effect is evidence that neural responses to different inputs closely interact with each other in the brain. While recent studies suggest that close interactions also occur across sensory modalities, crossmodal perceptual suppression effect has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that tactile stimulation can suppress the percept of visual stimuli: Visual orientation discrimination performance was degraded when a tactile vibration was applied to the observer's index finger of hands. We also demonstrated that this tactile suppression effect on visual perception occurred primarily when the tactile and visual information were spatially and temporally consistent. The current findings would indicate that neural signals could closely and directly interact with each other, sufficient to induce the perceptual suppression effect, even across sensory modalities.

  1. Associative conditioning analog selectively increases cAMP levels of tail sensory neurons in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocorr, K A; Walters, E T; Byrne, J H

    1985-04-01

    Bilateral clusters of sensory neurons in the pleural ganglia of Aplysia contain cells involved in a defensive tail withdrawal reflex. These cells exhibit heterosynaptic facilitation in response to noxious skin stimulation that can be mimicked by the application of serotonin. Recently it has been shown that this facilitation can be selectively amplified by the application of a classical conditioning procedure to individual sensory neurons. We now report that an analog of this classical conditioning paradigm produces a selective amplification of the cAMP content of isolated sensory neuron clusters. The enhancement is achieved within a single trial and appears to be localized to the sensory neurons. These results indicate that a pairing-specific enhancement of cAMP levels may be a biochemical mechanism for associative neuronal modifications and perhaps learning.

  2. Involvement of the mechanoreceptors in the sensory mechanisms of manual and electrical acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiromi; Kawada, Toru; Kamiya, Atsunori; Miyazaki, Shunichi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2011-02-24

    The modalities of acupuncture can be broadly classified into manual acupuncture (MA) and electroacupuncture (EA). Although MA has been reported to cause winding of tissue around the needle and subsequent activation of the sensory mechanoreceptors and nociceptors, the sensory mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation are not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that the involvement of the mechanoreceptors in the sensory mechanism is different in MA and EA, we examined the effects of a stretch-activated channel blocker gadolinium on the hemodynamic responses to hind limb MA and EA in anesthetized rats (n = 9). Gadolinium significantly attenuated the MA-induced bradycardic response (-22 ± 5 vs. -10 ± 3 bpm, Pmechanoreceptors are involved in the sensory mechanisms for both MA and EA.

  3. Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia: A window to early cross-modal sensory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Funke, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke

    2009-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms. PMID:22110319

  4. Coupled variability in primary sensory areas and the hippocampus during spontaneous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A. P.; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Rodrigues, Ana João; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is an anatomically divided and functionally specialized structure. It includes distinct areas, which work on different states over time. The structural features of spiking activity in sensory cortices have been characterized during spontaneous and evoked activity. However, the coordination among cortical and sub-cortical neurons during spontaneous activity across different states remains poorly characterized. We addressed this issue by studying the temporal coupling of spiking variability recorded from primary sensory cortices and hippocampus of anesthetized or freely behaving rats. During spontaneous activity, spiking variability was highly correlated across primary cortical sensory areas at both small and large spatial scales, whereas the cortico-hippocampal correlation was modest. This general pattern of spiking variability was observed under urethane anesthesia, as well as during waking, slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep, and was unchanged by novel stimulation. These results support the notion that primary sensory areas are strongly coupled during spontaneous activity. PMID:28393914

  5. Sensory abnormalities and pain in Parkinson disease and its modulation by treatment of motor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, R G; Galhardoni, R; Fonoff, E T; Perez Lloret, S; Dos Santos Ghilardi, M G; Barbosa, E R; Teixeira, M J; Ciampi de Andrade, D

    2016-02-01

    Pain and sensory abnormalities are present in a large proportion of Parkinson disease (PD) patients and have a significant negative impact in quality of life. It remains undetermined whether pain occurs secondary to motor impairment and to which extent it can be relieved by improvement of motor symptoms. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind sensory changes and pain in PD and to assess the modulatory effects of motor treatment on these sensory abnormalities. A comprehensive literature search was performed. We selected studies investigating sensory changes and pain in PD and the effects of levodopa administration and deep brain stimulation (DBS) on these symptoms. PD patients have altered sensory and pain thresholds in the off-medication state. Both levodopa and DBS improve motor symptoms (i.e.: bradykinesia, tremor) and change sensory abnormalities towards normal levels. However, there is no direct correlation between sensory/pain changes and motor improvement, suggesting that motor and non-motor symptoms do not necessarily share the same mechanisms. Whether dopamine and DBS have a real antinociceptive effect or simply a modulatory effect in pain perception remain uncertain. These data may provide useful insights into a mechanism-based approach to pain in PD, pointing out the role of the dopaminergic system in pain perception and the importance of the characterization of different pain syndromes related to PD before specific treatment can be instituted.

  6. CONGENITAL SENSORY NEUROPATHY (HSAN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Chalam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5 year old girl having hereditary sensory neuropathy, type II manifesting as congenital absence of pain sensation and trophic changes in the skin is reported. This child presented with presented with multiple ulcers over hands and feet since 2 years of age. The ulcers were non - healing type with serosanguineous discharge. There is abnormal gait and weakness in upper and lower limbs. On examination there are deep ulcers measuring 5x7x2cms over left feet. Fingers of both hands and feet were mutilated with loss of phalanges, sensations to fine touch, pain and temperature are decreased bilaterally below the mid arm and feet, vibration sensations were normal, proprioception could not be tested due to deformities. Sensory and motor nerve conduction studies showed evidence of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.

  7. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  8. Oral sensory dysfunction following radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Shethal; Wang, Steven J; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-10-01

    To assess differences in oral tactile sensation between subjects who have undergone radiation therapy (XRT) compared to healthy controls. Cross-sectional cohort comparison. Thirty-four subjects with a history of XRT were compared with 23 healthy controls. There was no difference in age (P = .23), but there were slightly more males in the XRT cohort (P = .03). The mean (standard deviation) time after XRT completion was 3.84 (4.84) years. Fifty-six percent of the XRT cohort received chemotherapy. Using our previously validated methodology to measure oral tactile sensory threshold quantitatively with Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments, sensory thresholds of four subsites (anterior tongue, buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, soft palate) were compared for the two cohorts. Site-by-site comparisons showed higher forces were required for stimulus detection at all four subsites among subjects in the XRT cohort compared to healthy controls. Mean force in grams for XRT versus control cohorts were: anterior tongue, 0.39 (1.0) versus 0.02 (0.01); buccal mucosa, 0.42 (0.95) versus 0.06 (0.05); posterior tongue, 0.76 (1.46) versus 0.10 (0.07); and soft palate, 0.86 (1.47) versus 0.08 (0.05) (P sensory dysfunction, manifested by increased tactile forces required for stimulus detection. The magnitude of sensory impairment is 18.7 dB. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2282-2286, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens. Biology Letters, 6, 406–409. Sane S.P.* and McHenry M.J. (2009) The biomechanics of sensory...organs. Integrative and Comparative Biology , 49(6):i8-i23. Zhao, L., Huang, Q., Deng, X. and Sane, S.P. (2010). Aerodynamic effects of flexibility...and behavioral insights into insect flight Invited Speaker, International Workshop on Nocturnal Pollination , March 24-27, 2009 Indian Institute of

  10. Sensory Coding with Dynamically Competitive Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, M I; Volkovskii, A R; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Laurent, G; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    1999-01-01

    Studies of insect olfactory processing indicate that odors are represented by rich spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity. These patterns are very difficult to predict a priori, yet they are stimulus specific and reliable upon repeated stimulation with the same input. We formulate here a theoretical framework in which we can interpret these experimental results. We propose a paradigm of ``dynamic competition'' in which inputs (odors) are represented by internally competing neural assemblies. Each pattern is the result of dynamical motion within the network and does not involve a ``winner'' among competing possibilities. The model produces spatio-temporal patterns with strong resemblance to those observed experimentally and possesses many of the general features one desires for pattern classifiers: large information capacity, reliability, specific responses to specific inputs, and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions or influence of noise. This form of neural processing may thus describe the organiza...

  11. Sensory stimulation—A way of creating mutual relations in dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Lykkeslet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this 2-year Norwegian action research study was to improve the interaction between care workers and patients with dementia in a nursing home by means of sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate how the staff experienced the interaction with patients suffering from behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia before, under, and after introduction of sensory stimulation methods in clinical practice. An intervention program consisting of lectures and practical guiding in sensory stimulation was implemented. The care workers participated in group meetings to reflect on the progress. Focus group interviews and participant observations were conducted initially to map exciting practice, and at the end to evaluate potential changes in attitude and skills. Observation notes and interview transcripts were analyzed by means of thematic analysis which revealed a gradual emergence of person-centered care. A phenomenological life-world perspective may serve as a theoretical basis to deepen the understanding of the use of sensory stimulation.

  12. A Study of the Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy on Neuro-Physiological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher; Reynolds, Kathleen Sheena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensory integration theory proposes that because there is plasticity within the central nervous system (the brain is moldable) and because the brain consists of systems that are hierarchically organised, it is possible to stimulate and improve neuro-physiological processing and integration and thereby increase learning capacity.…

  13. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  14. Clinical Values of Single or Repeated Triptorelin Stimulating Test in the Differential Diagnosis between Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Constitutional Delayed Puberty%单次或重复曲普瑞林兴奋试验对特发性低促性腺激素性性腺功能减退症和体质性青春发育延迟鉴别诊断的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅江峰; 伍学焱; 卢双玉; 聂敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the values of single or repeated luteinizing hormone ( LH) releasing hormone analogue (triptorelin) stimulating test in the differential diagnosis between idiopathic hypogo-nadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and constitutional delayed puberty (CDP). Methods Male patients (n -133 ) without puberty onset after the age of 14 were recruited for triptorelin stimulating test and were followed upfor 24 - 48 months until the diagnosis were confirmed: 86 were IHH and the other 47 were CDP. Repeated trip-torelin stimulating tests were conducted in 9 IHH patients and 13 CDP patients one year after the first stimulating tests with an attempt to evaluate the dynamic change of hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis function. The relationship between the final diagnosis and the peak LH value ( Lhmax) , and the changes of repeated Lhmax were investigated. Results In the single triptorelin stimulating test, Lhmax was (1.9 ±1.2) U/L in IHH group, which was significantly lower than that in CDP group [ (13.7+8.3) U/L] ( P < 0. 01) ; 75 IHH patients (87. 2% ) had a Lhmax lower than 4 U/L, while only 2 CDP patients (4. 3% ) had a Lhmax lower than 4 U/L. When Lhmax <4U/L was used as a criteria for the diagnosis of IHH, the single triptorelin stimulating test had a sensitivity of 87. 2% , a specificity of 95. 1% , and a positive predictive value of 97. 4%. The repeated triptorelin stimulating tests performed one year later showed that the Lhmax in the 9 IHH patients increased from (4. 7 ± 2. 5 ) U/L to (5. 1 ± 3. 3 ) U/L ( P = 0. 78) , while that in the 13 CDP patients increased from (10. 7 + 3. 3) U/L to (24. 5 ± 5. 7) U/L (P < 0. 05). Conclusions A single triptorelin stimulating test is highly effective in differentiating IHH from CDP. For some patients without definitive diagnosis, a repeated triptorelin stimulating test performed one year later may provide more valuable information on the dynamic change of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis function.%目的

  15. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves......; detecting changes of volatiles as a result of production errors in chocolate production, and monitoring aroma release provide useful information to food sensory quality control. For each application, both techniques were faced with challenges that need to be handled in different ways. Due to the complex...

  16. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  17. Interactive Therapeutic Multi-sensory Environment for Cerebral Palsy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Cesar; Solanas, Agusti; Granollers, Toni; Bagés, Joan; García, Mabel

    The Interactive Therapeutic Sensory Environment (ITSE) research project offers new opportunities on stimulation, interaction and interactive creation for people with moderate and severe mental and physical disabilities. Mainly based on computer vision techniques, the ITSE project allows the gathering of users’ gestures and their transformation into images, sounds and vibrations. Currently, in the APPC, we are working in a prototype that is capable of generating sounds based on the users’ motion and to process digitally the vocal sounds of the users. Tests with impaired users show that ITSE promotes participation, engagement and play. In this paper, we briefly describe the ITSE system, the experimental methodology, the preliminary results and some future goals.

  18. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... electrodes were inserted during arthroscopy into the normal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the reconstructed ACL in 11 patients who had a successful ACL re-construction 8 months to 12 years earlier. After the anesthesia had subsided, the PCL was stimulated electrically through the electrodes...

  19. Direct and crossed effects of somatosensory electrical stimulation on motor learning and neuronal plasticity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, M. P.; Zijdewind, I.; Solnik, S.; Maffiuletti, N. A.; Berghuis, K. M. M.; Javet, M.; Negyesi, J.; Hortobagyi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sensory input can modify voluntary motor function. We examined whether somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) added to motor practice (MP) could augment motor learning, interlimb transfer, and whether physiological changes in neuronal excitability underlie these changes. Methods Particip

  20. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  1. Sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders and Fragile X syndrome-From the clinic to animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, D; Oranje, B; Razak, K A

    2016-01-01

    Brains are constantly flooded with sensory information that needs to be filtered at the pre-attentional level and integrated into endogenous activity in order to allow for detection of salient information and an appropriate behavioral response. People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Fragile...... X Syndrome (FXS) are often over- or under-reactive to stimulation, leading to a wide range of behavioral symptoms. This altered sensitivity may be caused by disrupted sensory processing, signal integration and/or gating, and is often being neglected. Here, we review translational experimental...... outline robust evidence of disrupted sensory processing in individuals with ASD and FXS, and in respective animal models, focusing on the auditory sensory domain. Animal models provide an excellent opportunity to examine common mechanisms of sensory pathophysiology in order to develop therapeutics....

  2. Facilitation of tactile working memory by top-down suppression from prefrontal to primary somatosensory cortex during sensory interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Petri; Carlson, Synnöve; Boldt, Robert; Neuvonen, Tuomas; Hannula, Henri; Hiltunen, Jaana; Salonen, Oili; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Pertovaara, Antti

    2011-06-01

    Tactile working memory (WM) is improved by increasing top-down suppression of interfering sensory processing in S1 via a link from the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) to S1. Here we studied in healthy subjects whether the efficacy of top-down suppression varies with submodality of sensory interference. Navigated stimulation of the MFG-S1 link significantly improved tactile WM performance when accompanied by tactile but not visual interference of memory maintenance.

  3. Receptive field properties of trigeminothalamic neurons in the rostral trigeminal sensory nuclei of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    1994-01-01

    This study described topographic and receptive field representation in the region of the rostral trigeminal nuclei, and evaluated whether thalamic neurons from the principal sensory nucleus relay muscle afferent information to the thalamus. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from anesthetized cats. Units were tested for responses to natural stimuli (i.e., air bursts, brushing, light pressure, and pinch) applied to the face and oral cavity, electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, and ramp-and-hold movements of the jaw. The receptive fields and physiological properties for 110 units were studied; we were able to verify the recording site for 96 of these units. Most of the units had discrete receptive fields in the oral cavity, skin, hair, and masseter muscle. Only 2 units received convergent inputs. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus was performed to identify antidromically activated units. The results showed that the dorsal principal sensory nucleus received its input primarily from the oral cavity. Most of the units (85%) that were activated by antidromic stimulation from the ipsilateral thalamus were located in this nucleus. In contrast, 82% of the units that projected to the contralateral thalamus were located in the ventral principal sensory nucleus. A complete somatotopic representation of the ipsilateral face and oral cavity was observed in the ventral principal sensory nucleus. Although 24 units had muscle receptive fields, none were activated by stimulation of the ipsilateral thalamus, and only 1 responded to stimulation of the contralateral thalamus. Most of the units that were not antidromically driven were recorded outside of the cytoarchitectural boundaries of the principal sensory nucleus. Retrograde labeling of the rostral trigeminal nuclei indicated that most of the neurons in the dorsal principal sensory nucleus projected to the ipsilateral thalamus, whereas those in the

  4. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  5. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderer, Matthias; Liu, Wenrui; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Kügler, Sebastian; Helmchen, Fritjof; Margolis, David J

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal precision, and furthermore, can be measured repeatedly in separate imaging sessions over multiple weeks. This method opens new possibilities for the longitudinal study of stability and plasticity of cortical sensory representations.

  6. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  7. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  8. Resilience in migraine brains: decrease of coherence after photic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-de-Souza, Mayara; Monteiro, Ubirakitan M.; Bezerra, Amana S.; Silva-de-Oliveira, Ana P.; Ventura-da-Silva, Belvânia R.; Barbosa, Marcelo S.; de Souza, Josiane A.; Criado, Elisângela C.; Ferrarezi, Maria C. M.; Alencar, Giselly de A.; Lins, Otávio G.; Coriolano, Maria das G. W. S.; Costa, Belmira L. S. A.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During migraine attacks, patients generally have photophobia and phonophobia and seek for environments with less sensorial stimulation. Present work aimed to quantify cortical partial directed coherence (PDC) of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from migraine patients and controls in occipital, parietal, and frontal areas with or without photic stimulation. Our hypothesis is that migraine patients with visual aura might have neuronal networks with higher coherence than controls even in interictal periods due to a predisposition in sensory cortical processing. Methods: Eleven adult women with migraine with visual aura (at least 48 h without previous attacks) and seven healthy adult woman were submitted to EEG recording in basal state and during photic stimulation. Results: When compared to healthy volunteers, migraine patients show different coherence profiles. Migraine patients had greater coherence than controls during the basal period (without photic stimulation), showing predisposition for sensory processing in many frequency ranges. After photic stimulation, patients showed a decrease in cortical coherence while controls had an increase. Conclusions: When compared to healty subjects, migraineurs show increased cortical coherence before photic stimulation, but a decrease when stimulation starts. This may be the expression of a resilience mechanism that allows migraineurs the interictal period. The PDC analysis permits to address a patient coherence profile, or “coherence map,” that can be utilized for management of the headache disorder or following up treatments. PMID:22837743

  9. RESILIENCE IN MIGRAINE BRAINS: DECREASE OF COHERENCE AFTER PHOTIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara eMendoca-de-Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: During migraine attacks, patients generally have photophobia and phonophobia and seek for environments with less sensorial stimulation. Present work aimed to quantify cortical partial directed coherence (PDC of electroencephalographic (EEG recordings from migraine patients and controls in occipital, parietal and frontal areas with or without photic stimulation. Our hypothesis is that migraine patients with visual aura might have neuronal networks with higher coherence than controls even in interictal periods due to a predisposition in sensory cortical processing. Methods: Eleven adult women with migraine with visual aura (at least 48 hours without previous attacks and seven healthy adult woman were submitted to EEG recording in basal state and during photic stimulation. Results: When compared to healthy volunteers, migraine patients show different coherence profiles. Migraine patients had greater coherence than controls during the basal period (without photic stimulation, showing predisposition for sensory processing in many frequency ranges. After photic stimulation, patients showed a decrease in cortical coherence while controls had an increase. Conclusions: When compared to healty subjects, migraineurs show increased cortical coherence before photic stimulation, but a decrease when stimulation starts. This may be the expression of a resilience mechanism that allows migraineurs the interictal period. The PDC analysis permits to address a patient coherence profile, or coherence map, that can be utilized for management of the headache disorder or following up treatments.

  10. Role of sound stimulation in reprogramming brain connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sraboni Chaudhury; Tapas C Nag; Suman Jain; Shashi Wadhwa

    2013-09-01

    Sensory stimulation has a critical role to play in the development of an individual. Environmental factors tend to modify the inputs received by the sensory pathway. The developing brain is most vulnerable to these alterations and interacts with the environment to modify its neural circuitry. In addition to other sensory stimuli, auditory stimulation can also act as external stimuli to provide enrichment during the perinatal period. There is evidence that suggests that enriched environment in the form of auditory stimulation can play a substantial role in modulating plasticity during the prenatal period. This review focuses on the emerging role of prenatal auditory stimulation in the development of higher brain functions such as learning and memory in birds and mammals. The molecular mechanisms of various changes in the hippocampus following sound stimulation to effect neurogenesis, learning and memory are described. Sound stimulation can also modify neural connectivity in the early postnatal life to enhance higher cognitive function or even repair the secondary damages in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine in detail the possible ameliorating effects of prenatal sound stimulation in existing animal models of various psychiatric disorders, such as autism.

  11. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.

  12. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100).

  13. Análisis Sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Barris Vilor, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    En nuestro caso queremos desarrollar un programa que nos facilite la labor de preparar las pruebas de los alimentos y su recogida de datos para el Laboratorio de la Fundación Miquel Agustí. En el laboratorio actualmente el análisis sensorial de los datos se obtiene a partir de análisis realizados por catadores entrenados en una sala especialmente diseñada para este tipo de análisis. Actualmente la toma de datos se realiza a través de unas fichas de cata en formato papel. ...

  14. Análisis Sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Barris Vilor, Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    En nuestro caso queremos desarrollar un programa que nos facilite la labor de preparar las pruebas de los alimentos y su recogida de datos para el Laboratorio de la Fundación Miquel Agustí. En el laboratorio actualmente el análisis sensorial de los datos se obtiene a partir de análisis realizados por catadores entrenados en una sala especialmente diseñada para este tipo de análisis. Actualmente la toma de datos se realiza a través de unas fichas de cata en formato papel. ...

  15. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  16. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  17. Assessment of the sensory threshold in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Magdalena; Muszer, Katarzyna; Chabowski, Konrad; Reich, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic inflammatory skin diseases frequently accompanied by itching. The exact pathogenesis of dermatological pruritus remains unknown, but it is believed that altered skin innervation may play a role. The assessment of the sensory threshold in AD and psoriasis in relation to pruritus experienced by patients. A total of 18 subjects with AD, 20 with psoriasis and 49 healthy controls were exposed to alternating current generated by the current source. A selected preset of current frequencies (ranging from 5 Hz to 2000 Hz) allowed a selective stimulation of different nerve endings (Aβ, Aδ and C-type). Pruritus severity was measured with visual analogue scale (VAS) and an itch questionnaire developed in house. All results were analyzed statistically. Sensory thresholds within the uninvolved skin of AD or psoriasis patients were significantly higher than in healthy volunteers (p 0.05). Similarly, sensory thresholds within the diseased skin of AD or psoriasis were significantly higher than in the normal skin (p threshold than AD individuals (p sensory threshold inversely correlated with pruritus severity in AD and psoriasis and the highest correlation was found for 5 Hz frequency predominantly stimulating C fibers (VAS: R = -0.32, p sensory threshold may be a valuable tool for pruritus assessment, but further studies are still warranted.

  18. Respiration Gates Sensory Input Responses in the Mitral Cell Layer of the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Shaina M.; Morse, Thomas M.; McTavish, Thomas S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2016-01-01

    Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is followed by inhibition that quiets MTC activity in both the glomerular and granule cell layers. Odor processing is hypothesized to be modulated by and may even rely on respiration-mediated activity, yet exactly how respiration influences sensory processing by MTCs is still not well understood. By using optogenetics to stimulate discrete sensory inputs in vivo, it was possible to temporally vary the stimulus to occur at unique phases of each respiration. Single unit recordings obtained from the mitral cell layer were used to map spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular evoked responses that were unique to stimulations occurring during periods of inhalation or exhalation. Sensory evoked activity in MTCs was gated to periods outside phasic respiratory mediated firing, causing net shifts in MTC activity across the cycle. In contrast, odor evoked inhibitory responses appear to be permitted throughout the respiratory cycle. Computational models were used to further explore mechanisms of inhibition that can be activated by respiratory activity and influence MTC responses. In silico results indicate that both periglomerular and granule cell inhibition can be activated by respiration to internally gate sensory responses in the olfactory bulb. Both the respiration rate and strength of lateral connectivity influenced inhibitory mechanisms that gate sensory evoked responses. PMID:28005923

  19. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... or consumer panels. Sensory evaluation is a primary measurement for providing immediate information of human perception on the products. Instrumental methods give objective analysis of compounds that potentially contribute to food flavour. These two kinds of analysis, basically, give different types...... of information about food flavour but correlate to each other. The exploration of relationships between sensory and instrumental data is one important aspect for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of sensory perception. This thesis has investigated the importance and limitation of aroma analysis...

  20. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  1. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  2. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  3. Autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunction in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katalin Keresztes; Ildikó Istenes; Aniko Folhoffer; Peter L Lakatos; Andrea Horvath; Timea Csak; Peter Varga; Peter Kempler; Ferenc Szalay

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Cardiovascular autonomic and peripheral sensory neuropathy is a known complication of chronic alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for peripheral sensory nerve and autonomic dysfunction using sensitive methods in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).METHODS: Twenty-four AMA M2 positive female patients with clinical, biochemical and histological evidence of PBC and 20 age matched healthy female subjects were studied.Five standard cardiovascular reflex tests and 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) analysis were performed to define autonomic function. Peripheral sensory nerve function on median and peroneal nerves was characterized by current perception threshold (CPT), measured by a neuroselective diagnostic stimulator (Neurotron, Baltimore, MD).RESULTS: Fourteen of 24 patients (58%) had at least one abnormal cardiovascular reflex test and thirteen (54%)had peripheral sensory neuropathy. Lower heart rate response to deep breathing (P = 0.001), standing (P = 0.03)and Valsalva manoeuvre (P = 0.01), and more profound decrease of blood pressure after standing (P = 0.03) was found in PBC patients than in controls. As a novel finding we proved that both time domain and frequency domain parameters of 24-h HRV were significantly reduced in PBC patients compared to controls. Each patient had at least one abnormal parameter of HRV. Lower CPT values indicated hyperaesthesia as a characteristic feature at peroneal nerve testing at three frequencies (2000 Hz: P = 0.005;250 Hz: P = 0.002; 5 Hz: P = 0.004) in PBC compared to controls. Correlation of autonomic dysfunction with the severity and duration of the disease was observed. Lower total power of HRV correlated with lower CPT values at median nerve testing at 250 Hz (P = 0.0001) and at 5 Hz (P = 0.002), as well as with those at peroneal nerve testing at 2000 Hz (P = 0.01).CONCLUSION: Autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunctions are frequent in PBC. Twenty

  4. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  5. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  6. Lower limb pain in sympathetic-sensory coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjun Yang; Kairun Peng; Sanjue Hu; Li Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sympathetic nerves are related to certain types of pain, and this phenomenon is referred to as sympathetic-sensory coupling. Chronic pain resulting from nerve injury can be exacerbated by sympathetic stimulation or relieved by sympathetic inhibition. In the present study, the correlation between pain and sympathetic nerves was analyzed in patients with severe pain in lower limbs, as well as in a chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion (CCD) rat model (model of low back pain and sciatica). Patients with severe pain in the lower limbs underwent chemical lumbar sympathectomy (CLS), and the analgesic effects of CLS were compared with painkillers. Results demonstrated significantly relieved lower limb pain following CLS, and the analgesic effects of CLS were superior to those seen with painkillers. In the CCD rat model, dorsal root ganglion neuronal activity significantly increased as a result of electrical stimulation to the sympathetic nerves. These results suggest that sympathetic nerves are closely associated with pain and sympathetic-sensory coupling is likely in lower limb pain in both patients and rat models of CCD.

  7. Multimodal sensory testing of the rectum and rectosigmoid: development and reproducibility of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Nissen, T D; Gravesen, F H; Frøkjaer, J B; Omar, H; Gale, J; Gregersen, H; Svendsen, O; Drewes, A M

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation of rectal and rectosigmoid sensation is important in basic, clinical and pharmacological studies. New methods to evoke and assess multimodal (electrical, thermal and mechanical) experimental pain of the upper gut activate distinct pathways and mimics clinical pain. The aims of the current study were to characterize the sensory response and reproducibility to multimodal stimulation of rectum and the rectosigmoid. A multimodal rectal probe was developed. Mucosal electrostimulation was delivered at the recto-sigmoid junction. In Rectum, impedance planimetry was used for measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) during distension. Circulation of water within the bag at either 4 or 60 degrees C was applied for thermal stimulation. The method was tested in 12 healthy volunteers (six men mean age 32 years) on two subsequent days. Mechanical and sensory responses and referred pain areas were assessed. Stimulation with electrical, thermal and mechanical modalities resulted in different sensory perceptions. The relationship between stimulus intensity and sensory response was linear for all modalities. Sensory response to different modalities did not differ between investigation days (all P-values > 0.1). Approximately 75% of subjects felt referred pain in distinct skin locations. Between-days reproducibility was good for all modalities [intra-class correlation (ICC) > or = 0.6]. At sensory threshold, CSA showed best reproducibility (ICC > or = 0.9). At pain detection threshold stretch ratio, CSA and electrostimulation showed best reproducibility (ICC = 1.0; 0.9; 0.9). The present model was easily implemented, robust and showed good reproducibility. It can be used to study pathophysiology or pharmacological interventions in healthy controls and in patients with diseases involving the distal hindgut.

  8. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  9. Neurofibromatosis: The role of guanosine triphosphatase activating proteins in sensory neuron function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cynthia M. Hingtgen

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disease characterized by formation of multiple benign and malignant tumors. People with this disorder also experience chronic pain, which can be disabling. Neurofibromin, the protein product of the Nfl gene, is a gnanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for p21Ras (Ras). Loss of Nfl results in an increase in activity of the Ras transduction cascade. Because of the growing evidence suggesting involvement of downstream components of the Ras transduction cascade in the sensitization of nociceptive sensory neurons, we examined the stimulus-evoked release of the neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), from primary sensory neurons of mice with a mutation of the Nfl gene (NfI+1-). Measuring the levels of SP and CGRP by radioimmunoassay, we demonstrated that capsaicin-stimulated release of neuropep-tides is 3-5 folds higher in spinal cord slices from Nfl+1-mice than that from wildtype mouse tissue. In addition, the potassium- and capsaicin-stimulated release of CGRP from the culture of sensory neurons isolated from Nfl+1- mice was more than double that from the culture of wildtype neurons. Using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques, we also examined the excitability of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons. It was found that the number of action potentials generated by the neurons from Nfl+1- mice, responsing to a ramp of depolarizing current, was more than three times of that generated by wildtype neurons. Consistent with that observation, neurons from Nfl+1- mice had lower firing thresholds, lower rheobase currents and shorter firing latencies compared with wildtype neurons. These data clearly demonstrate that GAPs, such as neurofihromin, can alter the excitability of nociceptive sensory neurons. The augmented response of sensory neurons with altered Ras signaling may explain the abnormal pain sensations experienced by people with NFI and suggests an important

  10. Comparing intensities and modalities within the sensory attenuation paradigm: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Dalila; Battaglini, Alvise; Pia, Lorenzo; Falvo, Giusy; Palombella, Mattia; Salatino, Adriana

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that the intensity of a self-generated somatosensory stimulus is perceived to be attenuated in respect to an identical stimulus generated by others. At present, it is not clear whether such a phenomenon, known as somatosensory attenuation, is based not only on feedforward motor signals but also on re-afferences towards the body. To answer this question, in the present pilot investigation on twelve healthy subjects, three types of stimulations (sensory non-nociceptive electrical - ES, nociceptive electrical - NES, and vibrotactile - VTS) and intensities (1 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 2 mA, 2 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 3 mA, 3 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 4 mA for ES and NES; 1 = sensory threshold ∗ 2 Hz, 2 = sensory threshold ∗ 3 Hz, 3 = sensory threshold ∗ 4 Hz for VTS) have been directly compared in a somatosensory attenuation paradigm. The results show that the attenuation effect emerged only with electrical stimuli and that it increased with higher intensities. These pilot findings suggest that, depending on the type and the intensity of stimulation, re-afferences can have a role in somatosensory attenuation. Additionally, it is possible to speculate the effect is present only with electrical stimuli because those stimuli are prospectively judged as potentially dangerous. This, in turn, would optimize planning successful reactions to incoming threatening stimuli.

  11. Effects of sensory behavioral tasks on pain threshold and cortical excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Suarez-Contreras, Vanessa; Mendonca, Mariana E; Pinheiro, Fernando Santos; Merabet, Lotfi B; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been proven to modulate nervous system activity, leading to changes in pain perception, via the peripheral sensory system, in a bottom up approach. We tested whether different sensory behavioral tasks induce significant effects in pain processing and whether these changes correlate with cortical plasticity. This randomized parallel designed experiment included forty healthy right-handed males. Three different somatosensory tasks, including learning tasks with and without visual feedback and simple somatosensory input, were tested on pressure pain threshold and motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Sensory tasks induced hand-specific pain modulation effects. They increased pain thresholds of the left hand (which was the target to the sensory tasks) and decreased them in the right hand. TMS showed that somatosensory input decreased cortical excitability, as indexed by reduced MEP amplitudes and increased SICI. Although somatosensory tasks similarly altered pain thresholds and cortical excitability, there was no significant correlation between these variables and only the visual feedback task showed significant somatosensory learning. Lack of correlation between cortical excitability and pain thresholds and lack of differential effects across tasks, but significant changes in pain thresholds suggest that analgesic effects of somatosensory tasks are not primarily associated with motor cortical neural mechanisms, thus, suggesting that subcortical neural circuits and/or spinal cord are involved with the observed effects. Identifying the neural mechanisms of somatosensory stimulation on pain may open novel possibilities for combining different targeted therapies for pain control.

  12. Reactivation of the Same Synapses during Spontaneous Up States and Sensory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, calcium signals in dendritic spines are involved in many neuronal functions, particularly in the induction of synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have identified sensory stimulation-evoked spine calcium signals in cortical neurons in vivo. However, spine signaling during ongoing cortical activity in the absence of sensory input, which is essential for important functions like memory consolidation, is not well understood. Here, by using in vivo two-photon imaging of auditory cortical neurons, we demonstrate that subthreshold, NMDA-receptor-dependent spine calcium signals are abundant during up states, but almost absent during down states. In each neuron, about 500 nonclustered spines, which are widely dispersed throughout the dendritic field, are on average active during an up state. The same subset of spines is reliably active during both sensory stimulation and up states. Thus, spontaneously recurring up states evoke in these spines “patterned” calcium activity that may control consolidation of synaptic strength following epochs of sensory stimulation.

  13. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  14. [Acute Sensory Neuropathies and Acute Autonomic Neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Haruki

    2015-11-01

    From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies.

  15. Sensory neuropathies, from symptoms to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, Stephan A; Herrmann, David N

    2010-10-01

    The present review focuses on recent developments in diagnosis and treatment of sensory neuropathies. It does not seek to establish a comprehensive classification of sensory neuropathies, nor treatment guidelines per se. Diagnostic criteria and guidelines have been developed for distal symmetric polyneuropathies, small fiber sensory neuropathies and sensory neuronopathies. Novel diagnostic tools such as skin biopsies now allow diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathies. Genetic testing has defined new subtypes of mitochondrial neuropathies and inherited neuropathies with sensory involvement. Intravenous immunoglobulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors show promise for some dysimmune sensory neuropathies or neuronopathies. Additional options for management of neuropathic pain are emerging. Diagnostic methods for both acquired and hereditary sensory neuropathies have progressed in recent years, leading to earlier and more specific diagnoses and a better understanding of disease mechanisms. Much progress remains to be made regarding symptomatic and disease-modifying therapy for a range of sensory neuropathies, including those due to diabetes, HIV infection and from dysimmune or hereditary causes.

  16. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  17. Quantitative and fiber-selective evaluation of pain and sensory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Si-Jiao; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Ling; Guo, Sha-Sha; Yang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Pain and sensory disturbances affect many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to evaluate the pain and sensory sensitivity of each class of afferent fibers in PD patients and determine the effects of dopaminergic therapy on pain and sensory sensitivity. Current perception threshold (CPT) and pain tolerance thresholds (PTT) at three frequencies, 2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz, to stimulate Aβ fibers, Aδ fibers, and small C-polymodal fibers, respectively, were measured in 72 PD patients and 35 healthy controls. CPT was higher at all three frequencies and PTT was lower at 2000 Hz and 250 Hz in PD patients with pain versus healthy controls (P  0.05). Abnormal Aδ fiber- and Aβ fiber-dependent sensory inputs may exist in PD. Abnormal sensory inputs via C fibers and Aδ fibers might be associated with the presence of pain in PD. Because dopaminergic therapy failed to mitigate these sensory and pain dysfunctions, mechanisms not involving the dopaminergic pathway are likely to be implicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The cortical and sub-cortical network of sensory evoked response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects during electrical stimulation of right median nerve at wrist. The multitaper method was used to estimate the power and coherence spectrum followed by the source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the highest coherent source for the basic frequency 3 Hz and the complete cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects. The highest coherent source for the basic frequency was in the posterior parietal cortex for all the subjects. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (SI), secondary sensory motor cortex (SII), frontal cortex and medial pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus. The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence was found successfully with a 64-channel EEG system. The sensory evoked coherence is involved with a thalamo-cortical network in healthy subjects.

  19. Hereditary motor-sensory, motor, and sensory neuropathies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission, age of occurrence, and, in selected cases, pathological findings. The combination of these parameters frequently orients towards specific genetic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first pediatric concern. Primary, motor-sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating AD forms (CMT1). Others are demyelinating AR forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Pure motor HN represent40 genes with various biological functions have been found responsible for HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait: for the pediatric neurologist, phenotype/genotype correlations constitute a permanent bidirectional exercise.

  20. Glutamate-induced production of nitric oxide in guinea pig vestibular sensory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, M; Anniko, M

    2000-06-01

    Glutamate-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) in the vestibular organ of the guinea pig was investigated using the new fluorescence indicator, DAF-2DA, for direct detection of NO. Utricular maculae and isolated vestibular sensory cells were examined to locate NO production sites. The fluorescence intensity of the sensory cells was augmented by stimulation with glutamate, NMDA and AMPA. This is the first direct evidence of NO production in the vestibular end organs. NO may play an important role in the glutamate-induced ototoxicity and also be involved in disease of the inner ear.

  1. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  2. Sensory regulation of neuroligins and neurexin I in the honeybee brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Biswas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurexins and neuroligins, which have recently been associated with neurological disorders such as autism in humans, are highly conserved adhesive proteins found on synaptic membranes of neurons. These binding partners produce a trans-synaptic bridge that facilitates maturation and specification of synapses. It is believed that there exists an optimal spatio-temporal code of neurexin and neuroligin interactions that guide synapse formation in the postnatal developing brain. Therefore, we investigated whether neuroligins and neurexin are differentially regulated by sensory input using a behavioural model system with an advanced capacity for sensory processing, learning and memory, the honeybee. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole brain expression levels of neuroligin 1-5 (NLG1-5 and neurexin I (NrxI were estimated by qRT-PCR analysis in three different behavioural paradigms: sensory deprivation, associative scent learning, and lateralised sensory input. Sensory deprived bees had a lower level of NLG1 expression, but a generally increased level of NLG2-5 and NrxI expression compared to hive bees. Bees that had undergone associative scent training had significantly increased levels of NrxI, NLG1 and NLG3 expression compared to untrained control bees. Bees that had lateralised sensory input after antennal amputation showed a specific increase in NLG1 expression compared to control bees, which only happened over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that (1 there is a lack of synaptic pruning during sensory deprivation; (2 NLG1 expression increases with sensory stimulation; (3 concomitant changes in gene expression suggests NrxI interacts with all neuroligins; (4 there is evidence for synaptic compensation after lateralised injury.

  3. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Seong Jin; Kang, Suk-Yun; Ahn, Seong Hun

    2016-01-01

    To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body.

  4. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS, nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS and no stimulation (NS, changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG. A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP, relative high beta power (RHBP, absolute gamma power (AGP, and relative gamma power (RGP tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body.

  5. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, O Sang; Cho, Seong Jin; Lee, Sanghun; Kang, Suk-Yun; Ahn, Seong Hun; Ryu, Yeonhee

    2016-01-01

    To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body.

  6. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntrup Sonja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery.

  7. Anodic or cathodic motor cortex stimulation for pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.; Manola, L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. In motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for central and trigeminal pain Resume leads are placed epidurally over the motor and sensory cortex. Several bipolar combinations are used to identify the cortical target corresponding to the painful body segment. The cathode giving the largest motor r

  8. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    that individuals can improve sensory and sociosensory resolution through deliberate sensory reintegration practices. We conclude that we humans are the victims of our own success, our hands so skilled they fill the world with captivating things, our eyes so innocent they follow eagerly.

  9. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  10. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and mo

  11. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  12. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  13. WHAT IS LACKING, STATEMENT ON SENSORY DEPRIVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    REGAN, J.

    THIS PAPER, WHICH ANNOUNCES THE THEME OF A SEMINAR ON THEORIES OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, QUESTIONS THE VIEW THAT A CHILD'S POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE DERIVES FROM AN IMPOVERISHED SENSORY EXPERIENCE. A DEPRIVED TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEPICTED TO CAST DOUBTS ON THIS THEORY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY DEPRIVATION IS INCLUDED. THIS…

  14. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  15. Learning to balance on one leg: motor strategy and sensory weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dieën, Jaap H; van Leeuwen, Marloes; Faber, Gert S

    2015-11-01

    We investigated motor and sensory changes underlying learning of a balance task. Fourteen participants practiced balancing on one leg on a board that could freely rotate in the frontal plane. They performed six, 16-s trials standing on one leg on a stable surface (2 trials without manipulation, 2 with vestibular, and 2 with visual stimulation) and six trials on the balance board before and after a 30-min training. Center of mass (COM) movement, segment, and total angular momenta and board angles were determined. Trials on stable surface were compared with trials after training to assess effects of surface conditions. Trials pretraining and posttraining were compared to assess rapid (between trials pretraining) and slower (before and after training) learning, and sensory manipulation trials were compared with unperturbed trials to assess sensory weighting. COM excursions were larger on the unstable surface but decreased with practice, with the largest improvement over the pretraining trials. Changes in angular momentum contributed more to COM acceleration on the balance board, but with practice this decreased. Visual stimulation increased sway similarly in both surface conditions, while vestibular stimulation increased sway less on the balance board. With practice, the effects of visual and vestibular stimulation increased rapidly. Initially, oscillations of the balance board occurred at 3.5 Hz, which decreased with practice. The initial decrease in sway with practice was associated with upweighting of visual information, while later changes were associated with suppression of oscillations that we suggest are due to too high proprioceptive feedback gains.

  16. The use of sensory action potential to evaluate inferior alveolar nerve damage after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Francesca; Sellek, Lucy; Gugole, Fabio; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Trevisol, Lorenzo; Bertolasi, Laura; D'Agostino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    To assess and monitor the common event of neurosensory disturbance to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, we used clinical sensory tests and neurophysiologic test sensory action potentials. The diagnostic value of these tests was evaluated by comparing them with the degree of nerve damage reported by patients. Fourteen patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were analyzed preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Patients were evaluated bilaterally for positive and negative symptoms: light touch sensation, paraesthesia, hyperesthesia, and dysaesthesia; a "sensation score" was then calculated for each patient. Patients were also asked if they would be willing to repeat the procedure knowing the sensation loss they had now. Next, the right and left IAN were evaluated using sensory action potential and correlated with the other results. Before surgery, the medium latency difference between left and right was lower compared with postsurgery, with all patients having some deficit. The reduction in medium amplitude of 67% after the intervention was statistically significant. The frequency of abnormal findings in the electrophysiologic tests indicating IAN injury correlated with subjective sensory alteration. All patients said that they would repeat the surgery. Electrophysiologic testing is recommended for the evaluation of nerve dysfunction and seems a sensitive method for accurately assessing postsurgical nerve conduction.

  17. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  18. Relation between size of compound sensory or muscle action potentials, and length of nerve segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, J; Machida, M; Ishida, T; Yamada, T; Rodnitzky, R L; Kudo, Y; Suzuki, S

    1986-05-01

    In 24 median nerves from 12 healthy subjects, antidromic digital sensory potentials progressively diminished in size, averaging 40.4, 37.0, 30.7, and 23.9 microV X msec with stimulation at the palm, wrist, elbow, and axilla, respectively. In contrast, compound muscle action potentials changed minimally, measuring 19.4, 19.8, 19.0, and 18.2 mV X msec, respectively. Similar studies of the ulnar and radial nerves showed identical trends. Physiologic temporal dispersion can mimic conduction block of sensory nerves by summating the peaks of opposite polarity generated by fast- and slow-conducting axons. This type of cancellation affects muscle responses much less because motor unit potentials of longer duration superimpose nearly in phase, given the same latency shift as the sensory potentials.

  19. Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raspopovic, Stanisa; Capogrosso, Marco; Petrini, Francesco Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hand loss is a highly disabling event that markedly affects the quality of life. To achieve a close to natural replacement for the lost hand, the user should be provided with the rich sensations that we naturally perceive when grasping or manipulating an object. Ideal bidirectional hand prostheses...... should involve both a reliable decoding of the user’s intentions and the delivery of nearly “natural” sensory feedback through remnant afferent pathways, simultaneously and in real time. However, current hand prostheses fail to achieve these requirements, particularly because they lack any sensory...... feedback. We show that by stimulating the median and ulnar nerve fascicles using transversal multichannel intrafascicular electrodes, according to the information provided by the artificial sensors from a hand prosthesis, physiologically appropriate (near-natural) sensory information can be provided...

  20. Dendritic channelopathies contribute to neocortical and sensory hyperexcitability in Fmr1(-/y) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Bonnan, Audrey; Bony, Guillaume; Ferezou, Isabelle; Pietropaolo, Susanna; Ginger, Melanie; Sans, Nathalie; Rossier, Jean; Oostra, Ben; LeMasson, Gwen; Frick, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Hypersensitivity in response to sensory stimuli and neocortical hyperexcitability are prominent features of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders, but little is known about the dendritic mechanisms underlying these phenomena. We found that the primary somatosensory neocortex (S1) was hyperexcited in response to tactile sensory stimulation in Fmr1(-/y) mice. This correlated with neuronal and dendritic hyperexcitability of S1 pyramidal neurons, which affect all major aspects of neuronal computation, from the integration of synaptic input to the generation of action potential output. Using dendritic electrophysiological recordings, calcium imaging, pharmacology, biochemistry and a computer model, we found that this defect was, at least in part, attributable to the reduction and dysfunction of dendritic h- and BKCa channels. We pharmacologically rescued several core hyperexcitability phenomena by targeting BKCa channels. Our results provide strong evidence pointing to the utility of BKCa channel openers for the treatment of the sensory hypersensitivity aspects of FXS.

  1. Sensory fusion in Physarum polycephalum and implementing multi-sensory functional computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Surface electrical potential and observational growth recordings were made of a protoplasmic tube of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum in response to a multitude of stimuli with regards to sensory fusion or multisensory integration. Each stimulus was tested alone and in combination in order to evaluate for the first time the effect that multiple stimuli have on the frequency of streaming oscillation. White light caused a decrease in frequency whilst increasing the temperature and applying a food source in the form of oat flakes both increased the frequency. Simultaneously stimulating P. polycephalum with light and oat flake produced no net change in frequency, while combined light and heat stimuli showed an increase in frequency smaller than that observed for heat alone. When the two positive stimuli, oat flakes and heat, were combined, there was a net increase in frequency similar to the cumulative increases caused by the individual stimuli. Boolean logic gates were derived from the measured frequency change. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daemyung Oh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFacial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer.MethodsSixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT until the results were normalized.ResultsAmong the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports.ConclusionsNeurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  3. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  4. The whisker nuisance task identifies a late-onset, persistent sensory sensitivity in diffuse brain-injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Katelyn C S; Lisembee, Amanda M; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Post-traumatic morbidity reduces the quality of life for traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors by altering neuropsychological function. After midline fluid percussion injury (FPI), diffuse pathology in the ventral posterior thalamus suggests that somatosensory whisker function may be impaired post-injury. The goals of the present study were to design and validate a task to detect injury-induced somatosensory morbidity (Experiment 1), and to evaluate preliminary applications of the task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate FPI (approximately 1.9 atm) or sham injury. Over an 8-week time course, the whiskers on both mystacial pads were stimulated manually with an applicator stick in an open field for three 5-min periods. Behavioral responses in this whisker nuisance task were recorded using objective criteria (max score = 16). Sham animals were ambivalent or soothed by whisker stimulation (4.0 +/- 0.8), whereas brain-injured rats showed aggravated responses at 1 week (6.7 +/- 0.9), which became significant at 4 weeks (9.5 +/- 0.5) and 8 weeks (8.4 +/- 1.1) compared to sham injury, indicating chronic injury-induced sensory sensitivity. Total free serum corticosterone levels indicated a significant stress response in brain-injured (125.0 +/- 17.7 ng/mL), but not uninjured animals (74.2 +/- 12.2 ng/mL) in response to whisker stimulation. In Experiment 2, to evaluate applications of the whisker nuisance task, four additional uninjured and brain-injured groups were subjected to mild brain injury only, shaved whiskers after moderate brain injury, repeated whisker nuisance task stimulation after moderate brain injury, or regular opportunities for tactile exploration of an enriched environment after moderate brain injury over 4 weeks post-injury. The whisker nuisance task has the sensitivity to detect mild brain injury (7.7 +/- 1.0), but morbidity was not mitigated by any of the neurorehabilitative interventions. Following

  5. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory neuroanatomy of stick insects highlights the evolutionary diversity of the orthopteroid subgenual organ complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    The subgenual organ is a scolopidial sense organ located in the tibia of many insects. In this study the neuroanatomy of the subgenual organ complex of stick insects is clarified for two species, Carausius morosus and Siyploidea sipylus. Neuronal tracing shows a subgenual organ complex that consists of a subgenual organ and a distal organ. There are no differences in neuroanatomy between the three thoracic leg pairs, and the sensory structures are highly similar in both species. A comparison of the neuroanatomy with other orthopteroid insects highlights two features unique in Phasmatodea. The subgenual organ contains a set of densely arranged sensory neurons in the anterior-ventral part of the organ, and a distal organ with 16-17 scolopidial sensilla in C. morosus and 20-22 scolopidial sensilla in S. sipylus. The somata of sensory neurons in the distal organ are organized in a linear array extending distally into the tibia, with only a few exceptions of closely associated neurons. The stick insect sense organs show a case of an elaborate scolopidial sense organ that evolved in addition to the subgenual organ. The neuroanatomy of stick insects is compared to that studied in other orthopteroid taxa (cockroaches, locusts, crickets, tettigoniids). The comparison of sensory structures indicates that elaborate scolopidial organs have evolved repeatedly among orthopteroids. The distal organ in stick insects has the highest number of sensory neurons known for distal organs so far. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ulnar nerve stimulation at the palm in diagnosing distal ulnar nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, A S

    2005-01-01

    Distal entrapment of the ulnar nerve at the wrist and hand (Guyon's syndrome) is a relatively uncommon condition. It may present with a confusing permutation of sensory and motor symptoms, depending on which branches of the ulnar nerve are involved Electrodiagnostic test procedures are often helpful in sorting out this quandary. Electrophysiologic studies that include electrical stimulation of the nerve at the palm, in addition to stimulation of the ulnar nerve at other locations, are useful in demonstrating the focal nerve conduction abnormality that is involved in the entrapment. Sensory and motor recordings from palmar stimulation of the ulnar nerve are not technically difficult procedures, and can be performed routinely.

  8. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  9. Mechanical resonance enhances the sensitivity of the vibrissa sensory system to near-threshold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, M L; Moore, C I

    2008-10-15

    The representation of high-frequency sensory information is a crucial problem faced by the nervous system. Rodent facial vibrissae constitute a high-resolution sensory system, capable of discriminating and detecting subtle changes in tactual input. During active sensing, the mechanical properties of vibrissae may play a key role in filtering sensory information and translating it into neural activity. Previous studies have shown that rat vibrissae resonate, conferring frequency specificity to trigeminal ganglion (NV) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI) neurons during suprathreshold sensory stimulation. In addition to frequency specificity, a further potential impact of vibrissa resonance is enhancement of sensitivity to near-threshold stimuli through signal amplification. To examine the effect of resonance on peri-threshold inputs (threshold for evoked neural activity, in many cases by an order of magnitude compared to stimuli presented at off-resonance frequencies. When stimulated at the fundamental resonance frequency, motions as small as 8 microm at the vibrissa tip, corresponding to angular deflections of less than 0.2 degrees, drove neural firing in the periphery and cortex. Second, a closer match between vibrissal and neural frequency tuning was found for lower amplitude motions. Third, simultaneous paired recordings demonstrated that the minimal amplitude of resonant vibrissa stimulation required to evoke responses in SI increased significantly for recordings outside the primary vibrissa barrel column, providing additional evidence for somatotopically localized frequency columns. These data demonstrate that resonant amplification can increase the sensitivity of the vibrissa sensory system to an ecologically relevant range of low-amplitude, high-frequency stimuli.

  10. Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    One of the great challenges of systems neuroscience is to understand how the neocortex transforms neuronal representations of the physical characteristics of sensory stimuli into the percepts which can guide the animal's decisions. Here we present progress made in understanding behavioral and neurophysiological aspects of a highly efficient sensory apparatus, the rat whisker system. Beginning with the 1970s discovery of "barrels" in the rat and mouse brain, one line of research has focused on unraveling the circuits that transmit information from the whiskers to the sensory cortex, together with the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensory responses. A second, more recent line of research has focused on tactile psychophysics, that is, quantification of the behavioral capacities supported by whisker sensation. The opportunity to join these two lines of investigation makes whisker-mediated sensation an exciting platform for the study of the neuronal bases of perception and decision-making. Even more appealing is the beginning-to-end prospective offered by this system: the inquiry can start at the level of the sensory receptor and conclude with the animal's choice. We argue that rats can switch between two modes of operation of the whisker sensory system: (1) generative mode and (2) receptive mode. In the generative mode, the rat moves its whiskers forward and backward to actively seek contact with objects and to palpate the object after initial contact. In the receptive mode, the rat immobilizes its whiskers to optimize the collection of signals from an object that is moving by its own power. We describe behavioral tasks that rats perform in these different modes. Next, we explore which neuronal codes in sensory cortex account for the rats' discrimination capacities. Finally, we present hypotheses for mechanisms through which "downstream" brain regions may read out the activity of sensory cortex in order to extract the significance of sensory stimuli and, ultimately

  11. Making decisions with unknown sensory reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.

  12. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  13. Test-retest reliability of transcarpal sensory NCV method for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS is the most frequent entrapment neuropathy affecting the upper extremity. There are a variety of electrodiagnostic methods available for documenting median neuropathy in CTS. In some studies, determining the sensory NCV across the palm-wrist segment has been introduced as the most sensitive diagnostic procedure for CTS. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of transcarpal median sensory NCV method for the diagnosis of CTS. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with clinical symptoms of CTS were tested two times by two different practitioners in one session and again by the first practitioner after one week. Stimulation of the median nerve was performed in the wrist and palm, with a conduction distance maximum of 7 cm, reliabilities of median nerves sensory nerve action potential latencies with stimulation at wrist and palm (W-SNAP, P-SNAP and its transcarpal NCV were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: Comparison of the obtained values, which were done by two practitioners in one session showed ICC of W-SNAP latency, P-SNAP latency and transcarpal NCV of 0.93, 0.88 and 0.87, respectively and values that were done by one practitioner in two sessions with one-week interval showed ICC of 0.60, 0.50 and 0.47, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest excellent interpractitioner test-retest reliability of transcarpal median sensory NCV method for diagnosing CTS.

  14. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... significantly lower pain thresholds (shorter latency to response) than large pigs to thermal and mechanical stimulations. Stimulations at the two anatomical locations elicited very distinct sets of behavioural responses, with different levels of sensitivity between the flank and the hind legs. Furthermore...

  15. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  16. Sensory Marketing:Designing Pleasurable Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lageat Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Luxury products, household appliances, cosmetics and products for the general public all use the techniques of sensory marketing in the very first phases of conception to specify or give a distinct character to the way they are perceived. Creating the visio-tactile qualities of a mobile phone or dashboard, designing the acoustics used in a lipstick tube closure: these considerations offer industry a way of managing and mastering the sensorial identity which will set their products apart from those of their competitors. Sensory marketing is based upon the objective definition, the analysis and the mastering of the qualitative characteristics of the object to be conceived.

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  18. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  19. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults.

  20. Sensory processing patterns predict the integration of information held in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Kristin E; Ouslis, Natasha E; Barense, Morgan D; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Given the limited resources of visual working memory, multiple items may be remembered as an averaged group or ensemble. As a result, local information may be ill-defined, but these ensemble representations provide accurate diagnostics of the natural world by combining gist information with item-level information held in visual working memory. Some neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by sensory processing profiles that predispose individuals to avoid or seek-out sensory stimulation, fundamentally altering their perceptual experience. Here, we report such processing styles will affect the computation of ensemble statistics in the general population. We identified stable adult sensory processing patterns to demonstrate that individuals with low sensory thresholds who show a greater proclivity to engage in active response strategies to prevent sensory overstimulation are less likely to integrate mean size information across a set of similar items and are therefore more likely to be biased away from the mean size representation of an ensemble display. We therefore propose the study of ensemble processing should extend beyond the statistics of the display, and should also consider the statistics of the observer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Neurotrophin-3 administration attenuates deficits of pyridoxine-induced large-fiber sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgren, M E; Cliffer, K D; Torrento, K; Cavnor, C; Curtis, R; DiStefano, P S; Wiegand, S J; Lindsay, R M

    1997-01-01

    Chronic treatment of adult rats for 2-3 weeks with high doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) produced a profound proprioceptive loss, similar to that found in humans overdosed with this vitamin or treated with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Pyridoxine toxicity was manifest as deficits in simple and precise locomotion and sensory nerve function and as degeneration of large-diameter/large-fiber spinal sensory neurons. As assessed quantitatively in a beam-walking task and by EMG recording of H waves evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation, coadministration of the neurotrophic factor neurotrophin-3 (NT-3; 5-20 mg . kg-1 . d-1, s.c.) during chronic pyridoxine treatment largely attenuated the behavioral and electrophysiological sequelae associated with pyridoxine toxicity. Furthermore, NT-3 administration prevented degeneration of sensory fibers in the dorsal column of the spinal cord. These data are consistent with the evidence that NT-3 is a target-derived neurotrophic factor for muscle sensory afferents and suggest that pharmacological doses of NT-3 may be beneficial in the treatment of large-fiber sensory neuropathies.

  2. Nerve Growth Factor Decreases in Sympathetic and Sensory Nerves of Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a critical role in the maintenance and survival of both sympathetic and sensory nerves. Also, NGF can regulate receptor expression and neuronal activity in the sympathetic and sensory neurons. Abnormalities in NGF regulation are observed in patients and animals with heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the effects of chronic HF on the levels of NGF within the sympathetic and sensory nerves are not known. Thus, the ELISA method was used to assess the levels of NGF in the stellate ganglion (SG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control rats and rats with chronic HF induced by myocardial infarction. Our data show for the first time that the levels of NGF were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the SG and DRG neurons 6–20 weeks after ligation of the coronary artery. In addition, a close relation was observed between the NGF levels and the left ventricular function. In conclusion, chronic HF impairs the expression of NGF in the sympathetic and sensory nerves. Given that sensory afferent nerves are engaged in the sympathetic nervous responses to somatic stimulation (i.e. muscle activity during exercise) via a reflex mechanism, our data indicate that NGF is likely responsible for the development of muscle reflex-mediated abnormal sympathetic responsiveness observed in chronic HF. PMID:24913185

  3. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  4. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual ne...

  5. Repeated Lexical Comprehension in Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑾

    2009-01-01

    in the understanding of word meaning, two current semantic theories are popular: one is the referential approach, the other is the representational approach. Logogcn model is one of the models used to comprehend lexicon both by sensory input and by contextual information. Under certain context, four types of lexical repe-tition exist: simple lexical repetition, complex lexical repetition, simple paraphrase, complex paraphrase. How these different repetition patterns are comprehended is our main concern. According to our analysis, they go under different process in the course of comprehension.

  6. Bimodal concentration-response of nicotine involves the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channels in mouse trachea and sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichko, Tatjana I; Lennerz, Jochen; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Babes, Ramona M; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kobal, Gerd; Reeh, Peter W

    2013-11-01

    High concentrations of nicotine, as in the saliva of oral tobacco consumers or in smoking cessation aids, have been shown to sensitize/activate recombinant transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (rTRPV1) and mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) channels. By measuring stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the isolated mouse trachea, we established a bimodal concentration-response relationship with a threshold below 10 µM (-)-nicotine, a maximum at 100 µM, an apparent nadir between 0.5 and 10 mM, and a renewed increase at 20 mM. The first peak was unchanged in TRPV1/A1 double-null mutants as compared with wild-types and was abolished by specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitors and by camphor, discovered to act as nicotinic antagonist. The nicotine response at 20 mM was strongly pHe-dependent, - five times greater at pH 9.0 than 7.4, indicating that intracellular permeation of the (uncharged) alkaloid was required to reach the TRPV1/A1 binding sites. The response was strongly reduced in both null mutants, and more so in double-null mutants. Upon measuring calcium transients in nodose/jugular and dorsal root ganglion neurons in response to 100 µM nicotine, 48% of the vagal (but only 14% of the somatic) sensory neurons were activated, the latter very weakly. However, nicotine 20 mM at pH 9.0 repeatedly activated almost every single cultured neuron, partly by releasing intracellular calcium and independent of TRPV1/A1 and nAChRs. In conclusion, in mouse tracheal sensory nerves nAChRs are 200-fold more sensitive to nicotine than TRPV1/A1; they are widely coexpressed with the capsaicin receptor among vagal sensory neurons and twice as abundant as TRPA1. Nicotine is the major stimulant in tobacco, and its sensory impact through nAChRs should not be disregarded.

  7. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  8. Positive Effect of Noises on Sensory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Guang Li

    2004-01-01

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon in the biological sensory systems has been studied through the signal detection theories and the psychophysical experiments. In this paper, sensory systems are considered as a threshold detector including the receiver part and the classifier part. Compared with conventional models regarding the receiver part of sensory system as a linear or single non-linear system, a summing network was constructed by MacCulloch-Pitts neurons to simulate the receiver part. The simulation results show that the relevant index of the detectability of signal exhibit the stochastic resonance behaviours. The psychophysical experiments were carried out through the 2IFC (two interval two alternative forced choice) method. The experimental results qualitatively verify the conclusion in accordance with the theoretical model.These works give a proof that stochastic resonance is not only epiphenonmenon in sensory systems.

  9. [Sensory illusions in hang-gliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, F; Bizeau, A; Resche-Rigon, P; Taillemite, J P; De Rotalier

    1997-01-01

    Sensory illusions in hang-gliding and para-gliding. Hang-gliding and para-gliding are at the moment booming sports. Sensory illusions are physiological phenomena sharing the wrong perception of the pilote's real position in space. These phenomena are very familiar to aeroplane pilotes, they can also be noticed on certain conditions with hang-gliding pilotes. There are many and various sensory illusions, but only illusions of vestibular origin will be dealt with in this article. Vestibular physiology is reminded with the working principle of a semicircular canal. Physiology and laws of physics explain several sensory illusions, especially when the pilote loses his visual landmarks: flying through a cloud, coriolis effect. Also some specific stages of hang-gliding foster those phenomena: spiraling downwards, self-rotation, following an asymetric closing of the parachute, spin on oneself. Therefore a previous briefing for the pilotes seems necessary.

  10. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  11. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on sensory function in persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) have only identified pressure pain threshold to be significantly different from pain-free patients despite several patients reporting cutaneous pain and wind-up phenomena. However the limited number of patients studied...... hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z...

  12. Sensory incongruence leading to hand disownership modulates somatosensory cortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuru, Naofumi; Hashizume, Akira; Nakamura, Daichi; Endo, Yuuki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Yuge, Louis

    2014-09-01

    The sense of body ownership is based on integration of multimodal sensory information, including tactile sensation, proprioception, and vision. Distorted body ownership contributes to the development of chronic pain syndromes and possibly symptoms of psychiatric disease. However, the effects of disownership on cortical processing of somatosensory information are unknown. In the present study, we created a "disownership" condition in healthy individuals by manipulating the visual information indicating the location of the subject's own left hand using a mirror box and examined the influence of this disownership on cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the left index finger using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The event-related magnetic field in the right primary somatosensory cortex at approximately 50 msec (M50) after stimulus was enhanced under the disownership condition. The present results suggest that M50 reflects a cortical incongruence detection mechanism involving integration of sensory inputs from visual and proprioceptive systems. This signal may be valuable for future studies of the mechanisms underlying sense of body ownership and the role that disrupted sense of ownership has in neurological disease.

  13. P50 sensory gating in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-12-26

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

  14. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy with iatrogenic sensory neuronopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Brown, W F

    1995-02-01

    An 18-year-old man was treated from birth with chronic high dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) up to 2000 mg per day for pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Within two years of onset of treatment, he developed a sensory neuropathy which did not progress over the following 16 years. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with a pure sensory neuronopathy expressed as centripetal degeneration of processes of the dorsal root ganglion cells.

  15. Does chronic idiopathic dizziness reflect an impairment of sensory predictions of self-motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern K Pomper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from chronic idiopathic dizziness do not present signs of vestibular dysfunction or organic failures of other kinds. Hence, this kind of dizziness is commonly seen as psychogenic in nature, sharing commonalities with specific phobias, panic disorder and generalized anxiety. A more specific concept put forward by Brandt and Dieterich (1986 states that these patients suffer from dizziness because of an inadequate compensation of self-induced sensory stimulation. According to this hypothesis self-motion-induced reafferent visual stimulation is interpreted as motion in the world since a predictive signal reflecting the consequences of self-motion, needed to compensate the reafferent stimulus, is inadequate. While conceptually intriguing, experimental evidence supporting the idea of an inadequate prediction of the sensory consequences of own movements has as yet been lacking. Here we tested this hypothesis by applying it to the perception of background motion induced by smooth-pursuit eye movements. As a matter of fact, we found the same mildly undercompensating prediction, responsible for the perception of slight illusory world motion („Filehne illusion in the 15 patients tested and their age-matched controls. Likewise, the ability to adapt this prediction to the needs of the visual context was not deteriorated in patients. Finally, we could not find any correlation between measures of the individual severity of dizziness and the ability to predict. In sum, our results do not support the concept of a deviant prediction of self-induced sensory stimulation as cause of chronic idiopathic dizziness.

  16. Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. K. Wong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.

  17. Cross-modal sensory integration of visual-tactile motion information: instrument design and human psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M K

    2013-05-31

    Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.

  18. Efficient FES triggering applying Kalman filter during sensory supported treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikajlo, I; Matjacić, Z; Bajd, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for a functional electrical stimulation (FES) gait re-education system for incomplete spinal cord injured persons, providing efficient stimulation triggering, is presented. During neurological impaired gait FES was provided as motor augmentation support. Simultaneously the gait kinematics were recorded using the proposed sensory system, which is equipped with a dual-axial accelerometer and a gyroscope. The sensory device was placed at the shank of the paretic leg. The data assessed were input into a mathematical algorithm applied for shank angle estimation. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter, estimating the angle error and correcting the actual measurement. Furthermore the information was combined with other kinematic data for the purpose of efficient and reliable stimulation triggering. The algorithm was tested with preliminary measurements on several neurologically intact persons during even terrain and treadmill walking. Trial measurements were verified with a contactless optical measurement system, with FES only simulated on controller output. Later on a treadmill training in combination with FES triggering was carried out. The outcome of the measurements shows that the use of sensory integration may successfully solve the problem of data assessment in dynamic movement where an inclinometer does not provide sufficient information for efficient control of FES.

  19. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  20. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  1. Sensory correlates of pain in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Wing Tin, Sophie; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Goujon, Colette; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Créange, Alain; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2014-05-01

    To characterize sensory threshold alterations in peripheral neuropathies and the relationship between these alterations and the presence of pain. Seventy-four patients with length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy were enrolled, including 38 patients with painful neuropathy (complaining of chronic, spontaneous neuropathic pain in the feet) and 36 patients with painless neuropathy. They were compared to 28 age-matched normal controls. A standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol was performed in all individuals to assess large and small fiber function at the foot. Large fibers were assessed by measuring mechanical (pressure and vibration) detection thresholds and small fibers by measuring pain and thermal detection thresholds. Between patients with neuropathy and controls, significant differences were found for mechanical and thermal detection thresholds but not for pain thresholds. Patients with painful neuropathy and those with painless neuropathy did not differ regarding mechanical or thermal thresholds, but only by a higher incidence of thermal or dynamic mechanical allodynia in case of painful neuropathy. Pain intensity correlated with the alteration of thermal detection and mechanical pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing can support the diagnosis of sensory neuropathy when considering detection threshold measurement. Thermal threshold deterioration was not associated with the occurrence of pain but with its intensity. There is a complex relationship between the loss or functional deficit of large and especially small sensory nerve fibers and the development of pain in peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  3. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  4. The multi-sensory approach as a geoeducational strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Geoscience knowledge has a strong impact in modern society as it relates to natural hazards, sustainability and environmental issues. The general public has a demanding attitude towards the understanding of crucial geo-scientific topics that is only partly satisfied by science communication strategies and/or by outreach or school programs. A proper knowledge of the phenomena might help trigger crucial inquiries when approaching mitigation of geo-hazards and geo-resources, while providing the right tool for the understanding of news and ideas floating from the web or other media, and, in other words, help communication to be more efficient. Nonetheless available educational resources seem to be inadequate in meeting the goal, while research institutions are facing the challenge to experience new communication strategies and non-conventional way of learning capable to allow the understanding of crucial scientific contents. We suggest the use of multi-sensory approach as a successful non-conventional way of learning for children and as a different perspective of learning for older students and adults. Sense organs stimulation are perceived and processed to build the knowledge of the surrounding, including all sorts of hazards. Powerfully relying in the sense of sight, Humans have somehow lost most of their ability for a deep perception of the environment enriched by all the other senses. Since hazards involve emotions we argue that new ways to approach the learning might go exactly through emotions that one might stress with a tactile experience, a hearing or smell stimulation. To test and support our idea we are building a package of learning activities and exhibits based on a multi-sensory experience where the sight is not allowed.

  5. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  6. Unimodal primary sensory cortices are directly connected by long-range horizontal projections in the rat sensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eStehberg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research based on functional imaging and neuronal recordings in the barrel cortex subdivision of primary somatosensory cortex (SI of the adult rat has revealed novel aspects of structure-function relationships in this cortex. Specifically, it has demonstrated that single whisker stimulation evokes subthreshold neuronal activity that spreads symmetrically within gray matter from the appropriate barrel area, crosses cytoarchitectural borders of SI and reaches deeply into other unimodal primary cortices such as primary auditory (AI and primary visual (VI. It was further demonstrated that this spread is supported by a spatially matching underlying diffuse network of border-crossing, long-range projections that could also reach deeply into AI and VI. Here we seek to determine whether such a network of border-crossing, long-range projections is unique to barrel cortex or characterizes also other primary, unimodal sensory cortices and therefore could directly connect them. Using anterograde (BDA and retrograde (CTb tract-tracing techniques, we demonstrate that such diffuse horizontal networks directly and mutually connect VI, AI and SI. These findings suggest that diffuse, border-crossing axonal projections connecting directly primary cortices are an important organizational motif common to all major primary sensory cortices in the rat. Potential implications of these findings for topics including cortical structure-function relationships, multisensory integration, functional imaging and cortical parcellation are discussed.

  7. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  8. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  9. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented.

  10. Cortical excitability changes following grasping exercise augmented with electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsi, Gergely Istvan; Popovic, Dejan B.; Tarkka, Ina M.

    2008-01-01

    excitability was evaluated by analysing the input-output relationship between transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the flexor muscles of the fingers. The study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers who underwent 20-min simulated therapy sessions of: (1......Rehabilitation with augmented electrical stimulation can enhance functional recovery after stroke, and cortical plasticity may play a role in this process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three training paradigms on cortical excitability in healthy subjects. Cortical......) functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the finger flexors and extensors, (2) voluntary movement (VOL) with sensory stimulation, and (3) therapeutic FES (TFES) where the electrical stimulation augmented voluntary activation. TFES training produced a significant increase in MEP magnitude throughout...

  11. The cutaneous rabbit illusion affects human primary sensory cortex somatotopically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Blankenburg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study neural correlates of a robust somatosensory illusion that can dissociate tactile perception from physical stimulation. Repeated rapid stimulation at the wrist, then near the elbow, can create the illusion of touches at intervening locations along the arm, as if a rabbit hopped along it. We examined brain activity in humans using fMRI, with improved spatial resolution, during this version of the classic cutaneous rabbit illusion. As compared with control stimulation at the same skin sites (but in a different order that did not induce the illusion, illusory sequences activated contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, at a somatotopic location corresponding to the filled-in illusory perception on the forearm. Moreover, the amplitude of this somatosensory activation was comparable to that for veridical stimulation including the intervening position on the arm. The illusion additionally activated areas of premotor and prefrontal cortex. These results provide direct evidence that illusory somatosensory percepts can affect primary somatosensory cortex in a manner that corresponds somatotopically to the illusory percept.

  12. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  13. Evaluation of various somatosensory stimulations for functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kazushi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Mizoi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimizu, Hiroaki

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to test detectability of activated area using various somatosensory stimulations. The following stimulations were performed in normal volunteers: regular or irregular electrical median nerve stimulation (n=5, each), tactile stimulation to the palm and fingers (n=8), pain stimulation to the index finger (n=5) or to the palm and fingers (n=5). fMRI was acquired with a spoiled gradient echo sequence at 1.5 T. Detectability of activated area was the highest when the pain stimulation was applied to the palm and fingers (80%). A successful rate for the tactile stimulation was 25%, and the other stimulations failed to demonstrate any activation. When successful, the highest signal activation on fMRI was seen on a sulcus, which presumably arose from a vein. The sulcus was defined as the central sulcus by somatosensory evoked field using a median nerve stimulation. Our study indicates that the pain stimulation to the palm and fingers may be a choice for the sensory fMRI. (author)

  14. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p stimulation (25 ± 23%, p nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  15. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  16. Dopaminergic stimulation enhances confidence and accuracy in seeing rapidly presented words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    2011-01-01

    Liberal acceptance, overconfidence, and increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been proposed to account for abnormal sensory experiences, for instance, hallucinations in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, increased sensory experience in Yoga Nidra meditation is linked to striatal...... dopamine release. We therefore hypothesize that the neurotransmitter dopamine may function as a regulator of subjective confidence of visual perception in the normal brain. Although much is known about the effect of stimulation by neurotransmitters on cognitive functions, their effect on subjective...

  17. Differences in early sensory-perceptual processing in synesthesia: a visual evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kylie J; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie; Kelly, Simon P; Shalgi, Shani; Mitchell, Kevin J; Newell, Fiona N

    2008-11-15

    Synesthesia is a condition where stimulation of a single sensory modality or processing stream elicits an idiosyncratic, yet reliable perception in one or more other modalities or streams. Various models have been proposed to explain synesthesia, which have in common aberrant cross-activation of one cortical area by another. This has been observed directly in cases of linguistic-color synesthesia as cross-activation of the 'color area', V4, by stimulation of the grapheme area. The underlying neural substrates that mediate cross-activations in synesthesia are not well understood, however. In addition, the overall integrity of the visual system has never been assessed and it is not known whether wider differences in sensory-perceptual processing are associated with the condition. To assess whether fundamental differences in perceptual processing exist in synesthesia, we utilised high-density 128-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to measure sensory-perceptual processing using stimuli that differentially bias activation of the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways of the visual system. High and low spatial frequency gratings and luminance-contrast squares were presented to 15 synesthetes and 15 controls. We report, for the first time, early sensory-perceptual differences in synesthetes relative to non-synesthete controls in response to simple stimuli that do not elicit synesthetic color experiences. The differences are manifested in the early sensory components of the visual evoked potential (VEP) to stimuli that bias both magnocellular and parvocellular responses, but are opposite in direction, suggesting a differential effect on these two pathways. We discuss our results with reference to widespread connectivity differences as a broader phenotype of synesthesia.

  18. Peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyeth, Russell C; Croll, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    The peripheral nervous system in gastropods plays a key role in the neural control of behaviors, but is poorly studied in comparison with the central nervous system. Peripheral sensory neurons, although known to be widespread, have been studied in a patchwork fashion across several species, with no comprehensive treatment in any one species. We attempted to remedy this limitation by cataloging peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis employing backfills, vital stains, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. By using at least two independent methods to corroborate observations, we mapped four different cell types. We have found two different populations of bipolar sensory cells that appear to contain catecholamines(s) and histamine, respectively. Each cell had a peripheral soma, an epithelial process bearing cilia, and a second process projecting to the central nervous system. We also found evidence for two populations of nitric oxide-producing sensory cells, one bipolar, probably projecting centrally, and the second unipolar, with only a single epithelial process and no axon. The various cell types are presumably either mechanosensory or chemosensory, but the complexity of their distributions does not allow formation of hypotheses regarding modality. In addition, our observations indicate that yet more peripheral sensory cell types are present in the cephalic sensory organs of L. stagnalis. These results are an important step toward linking sensory cell morphology to modality. Moreover, our observations emphasize the size of the peripheral nervous system in gastropods, and we suggest that greater emphasis be placed on understanding its role in gastropod neuroethology.

  19. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  20. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  1. Functional coupling between motor and sensory nerves through contraction of sphincters in the pudendal area of the female cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes-Córdoba, Roberto; Hernández, Pablo Rogelio; Raya, José Guadalupe; Muñoz-Martínez, E J

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether skin receptors might help in the perception of muscle contraction and body movement has not been settled. The present study gives direct evidence of skin receptor firing in close coincidence with the contraction of the vaginal and anal sphincters. The distal stump of the sectioned motor pudendal nerve was stimulated. Single shocks induced a wavelike increase in the lumen pressure of the distal vagina and the anal canal, as well as constriction of the vaginal introitus and the anus. The constriction pulls on and moves the surrounding skin, which was initially detected visually. In the present experiments, a thin strain gauge that pressed on the skin surface detected its displacement. Single shocks to the motor nerve induced a wave of skin movement with maximal amplitude at 5 mm from the anus and propagated with decrement beyond 35 mm. The peripheral terminals of the sensory pudendal nerve and the posterior femoral nerve supply the skin that moves. Sensory axons from both nerves fired in response to both tactile stimulation and the skin movement produced by the constriction of the orifices (motor-sensory coupling). In cats with all nerves intact, a single shock to the sensory nerves induced reflex waves of skin movement and lumen pressure (sensory-motor coupling). Both couplings provide evidence for a feedforward action that might help to maintain the female posture during mating and to the perception of muscle contraction.

  2. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  3. Role of sensory nerves in gastroprotective effect of anandamide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Z; Dembinski, A; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Cieszkowski, J; Kownacki, P; Konturek, P C

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor protects the gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesion. Aim of the present study was to examine the influence of anandamide on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in gastric mucosa and the role of sensory nerves in gastroprotective effects of cannabinoids. Studies were performed on rats with intact or ablated sensory nerves (by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin). Gastric lesions were induced by water immersion and restrain stress (WRS). Anandamide was administered at the dose of 0.3, 1.5 or 3.0 μmol/kg, 30 min before exposure to WRS. CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (4.0 μmol/kg) was administered 40 min before WRS. WRS induced gastric lesions associated with the decrease in gastric blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Serum level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and mucosal level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were increased. Administration of anandamide reduced the ulcers area, generation of MDA+4-HNE and serum level of IL-1β, and this effect was associated with the reduction in the WRS-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, mucosal DNA synthesis and SOD activity. Ablation of sensory nerves increased the area of ulcers, serum level of IL-1β and mucosal content of MDA+4-HNE, whereas mucosal DNA synthesis, SOD activity and blood flow were additionally decreased. In rats with ablation of sensory nerves, administration of anandamide at the high doses (1.5 and 3.0 μmol/kg) partly reduced deleterious effect of WRS on gastric mucosa, but this effect was weaker than in animals with intact sensory nerves. Low dose of anandamide (0.3 μmol/kg) was ineffective in the protection of gastric mucosa against the WRS-induced lesions in rats with ablation of sensory nerves. In rats with intact sensory nerves and exposed to WRS, administration of AM251 exhibited deleterious effect. In rats with ablation of sensory

  4. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  5. Sensory Coding in Oscillatory Peripheral Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmical activity have been observed in several types of peripheral sensory receptors, e.g. in senses of hearing, balance and electroreception. We use two examples of spontaneously oscillating peripheral sensory receptors: bullfrog saccular hair cells and electroreceptors of paddlefish, to discuss how oscillations emerge, how these sensors may utilize oscillations to optimize their sensitivity and information processing. In the hair cell system oscillations occur on two very different levels: first, the mechano-sensory hair bundle itself can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations and second, self-sustained voltage oscillations across the membrane of the hair cell have been documented. Modelling show that interaction of these two compartment results in enhanced sensitivity to periodic mechanical stimuli. The second example, a single peripheral electroreceptor, is a complex system comprised of several thousands of sensory epithelial cells innervated by a few primary sensory neurons. It embeds two distinct oscillators: one residing in a population of epithelial cells, synaptically coupled to another oscillator residing in a branched myelinated afferent axon. We show how neuronal oscillations emerge in a complex network of excitable nodes. We further demonstrate that epithelial oscillations results in extended serial correlations of neruonal discharges enhancing coding of external stimuli.

  6. An implantable, designed-for-human-use peripheral nerve stimulation and recording system for advanced prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, John R; Bjune, Caroline K; Kindle, Alexander L; Czarnecki, Andrew; Burns, John R; Grainger, Julianne E; Segura, Carlos A; Nugent, Brian D; Sriram, Tirunelveli S; Parks, Philip D; Keefer, Edward; Cheng, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Complex suture prostheses that deliver sensory and position feedback require a more sophisticated integration with the human user. Here a micro-size active implantable system that provides many-degree-of-freedom neural feedback in both sensory stimulation and motor control is shown, as one potential human-use solution in DARPA's HAPTIX program. Various electrical and mechanical challenge and solutions in meeting both sensory /motor performance as well as ISO 14708 FDA-acceptable human use in an aspirin-size active implementation are discussed.

  7. Bilateral sensory abnormalities in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain; a quantitative sensory testing (QST study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Konopka

    Full Text Available In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold. Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%.

  8. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414